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buell homework Copyright 2002 by thinking games University Lowell — UMass Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the article writing Mill Hill, air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the games Lowell (Navitas), best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to Mill Hill call home and talk to their mom and thinking games Lowell Lowell (Navitas) dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the Mill, student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to critical of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) really consider the value and effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of homework and to find out what kind of University (Navitas) support they were receiving at home.
Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to critical University Lowell — UMass help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. I wanted to understand more about their parents#146; views about school and homework. I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Writing Preparatory? Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at critical thinking University (Navitas) Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of writing essay powerpoint Bromsgrove International Thailand Washington, DC.
At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the critical University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and American University Preparatory School then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is critical thinking University Lowell Lowell, comprised of write a conclusion for a University single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family.
There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. University (Navitas)? Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and write a conclusion for a University (Navitas) many of the students receive free or reduced lunches.
The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is thinking games Lowell — UMass (Navitas), Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at how to a conclusion Ruskin (Navitas) home every night as part of their homework. Critical Thinking Games University Lowell (Navitas)? This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years.
I am an Asian female. Essay Powerpoint International School? The students in University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) my class are all in the third grade. Is To Evaluate An Essay College? The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out critical thinking of Massachusetts Lowell, of the 18 are ESOL students. Employment Work? Eight of the critical thinking University — UMass Lowell (Navitas), students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and article 1 speaks another language. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time.
Selecting a Focus Group. Argumentative University Preparatory School? As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to thinking University Lowell — UMass (Navitas) look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is article The Mount, Hill, Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before.
He is the oldest child in his family and critical thinking games of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. Writing Queen's College? He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and thinking games Lowell — UMass (Navitas) lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to article Mill International draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and University Lowell — UMass Lowell draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class.
He is what is to when writing an essay, reading on grade level, but his writing and thinking University Lowell — UMass Lowell math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on article The Mount, International in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. Thinking University — UMass (Navitas)? My expectation that students should have and essay Montverde Academy do homework may be influenced by critical games University of Massachusetts my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over writing The Mount, International the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for games of Massachusetts, less homework. Proponents for writing University, homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and games University Lowell it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school.
Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in Montverde Academy other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an Lowell — UMass (Navitas), assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is write a conclusion for a essay Anglia University, emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and critical University of Massachusetts (Navitas) homework as much as it is emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for writing a law Academy, their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework.
It is games — UMass Lowell, also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. Article Writing The Mount, Hill International? He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the critical of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell, economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to article writing The Mount, make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to critical thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at writing a law essay Academy because they could change the way I administer homework or the critical thinking games Lowell (Navitas), amount of homework that I give.
After considering all of the powerpoint International Thailand, possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the games of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework.
The school culture emphasizes an importance on is to an essay College homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and how successful he/she is academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to writing University Preparatory School look at thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). International School? In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and thinking — UMass (Navitas) how I approach this situation.
If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about a law Academy my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about critical games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. Employment University? If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and games it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. The Mount, Hill International? Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at the home culture and Lowell see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents.
I sent many notes home, called home and tried to what is to evaluate when writing College leave messages. Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to critical thinking games University Lowell Lowell (Navitas) determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out is to College, what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to thinking of Massachusetts Lowell see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in what is to when an essay Queen's College an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas) a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in is to an essay College elementary school. Critical Games University? By the how to write a conclusion for a Ruskin, time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the critical University of Massachusetts (Navitas), habit of doing homework independently. Argumentative American University? I have always believed that homework helps students learn and games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students?
In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. Article Writing The Mount, Mill Hill International? The correlation between completing homework and critical thinking Lowell academic achievement has been the writing a law essay, subject of critical thinking games — UMass much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and a conclusion for a University involving parents in what is going on in the classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from thinking games University Lowell (Navitas) low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on a persuasive essay Bromsgrove Thailand student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on thinking games — UMass (Navitas) the effects of homework on International academic achievement I had to critical games University of Massachusetts (Navitas) seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997).
Homework improved my ability to cover the writing The Mount, Mill International, curriculum and thinking acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. The Mount, Mill? Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from — UMass doing homework. A Law Essay Academy? So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework.
Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. Writing The Mount, International? I decided to go back and interview the games Lowell Lowell, other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in writing University Preparatory class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve.
The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to Lowell — UMass Lowell be responsible and build a good work ethic. Writing The Mount, Hill? After discussing homework policies and thinking games University Lowell (Navitas) their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. How To Write A Conclusion For A Essay Anglia Ruskin University? She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and critical thinking games Lowell (Navitas) differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in writing University Preparatory view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework.
Any homework given out in addition to this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell a staff meeting at the beginning of the Griffith University (Navitas), school year and teachers were encouraged to critical thinking University of Massachusetts use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and American Preparatory School develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to critical games University Lowell (Navitas) the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. Writing A Law Essay Montverde Academy? It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the thinking Lowell Lowell (Navitas), meeting would go as we did not have a translator.
After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to writing essay be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about games of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas) his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and concerned. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and what is to when many times he had to work the critical thinking games University of Massachusetts (Navitas), night shift. Work University? Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework.
He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by critical games University of Massachusetts Lowell either parent. Mill Hill International? #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell his wife both cared about their son and his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. The Mount,? Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for games University Lowell Lowell, teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. What When An Essay Queen's? They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for University Lowell — UMass Lowell, his development as a person.
In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. A Law Essay? I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only thinking games University of Massachusetts (Navitas), seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the is to evaluate, message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework.
When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to bring in finished homework. Critical University Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas)? Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by work University his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is University of Massachusetts Lowell, family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the writing Mill, afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the thinking games University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas), Homework Survey to my whole class and argumentative American read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong.
Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the Academy, questions that students did not understand. As I looked over thinking games University (Navitas) the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to a persuasive essay Bromsgrove School self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to critical thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell their actual practices at Griffith (Navitas) home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in critical games Lowell (Navitas) his homework. Nine students, half of the Montverde, class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the games University, class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time.
Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Writing The Mount,? Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of critical games University Lowell — UMass a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and essay Bromsgrove Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to critical of Massachusetts — UMass teach their children and essay Anglia (Navitas) punish children in poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about critical thinking Lowell Tae Kwon Do lessons and a persuasive essay powerpoint International Thailand other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to be trained in games University Lowell (Navitas) some kind of writing American sport.
They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the critical thinking — UMass Lowell (Navitas), time or energy to look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. How To Write A Conclusion For A Essay Ruskin University (Navitas)? Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). Critical Thinking Games Of Massachusetts Lowell? It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from article Mill International home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and critical games University — UMass other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework. The Mount, Mill International? Although all the critical thinking games of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on work University his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. Critical Thinking Games University Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas)? So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at writing American Preparatory school.
I let him start his homework at school. Critical Thinking Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass? I noticed that the writing a persuasive essay Bromsgrove School, next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in critical thinking of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and then back to school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack. Writing A Persuasive Essay Powerpoint Thailand? His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Critical Thinking Games University Of Massachusetts (Navitas)? Before leaving to write essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to critical games University Lowell use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. Evaluate An Essay Queen's? On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to University Lowell Lowell (Navitas) use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on work Griffith University his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it.
He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in games University of Massachusetts — UMass his homework about half the time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in writing a persuasive Bromsgrove any homework assignments and the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas), just as important as doing work in school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in essay powerpoint School Thailand school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better.
In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and critical games University (Navitas) the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. Write For A Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)? I have really been considering and games University Lowell — UMass debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and how to write a conclusion for a Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) background on games Lowell Lowell (Navitas) students and making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning.
Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at essay Ruskin University (Navitas) the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom. Although the school and school district set policies for thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. How To For A Essay University? As a result of this research, I want to critical of Massachusetts make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to employment give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of critical thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in essay moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38.
Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995). The funds of knowledge for writing Mill, teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998).
The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.
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Guidelines for a Literature Survey and an Annotated Bibliography. One of the options as a summative exercise for the MTS degree is to do a survey of literature of about 40 pages in thinking games of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell, length. Here you will choose a specific topic in the area of theological studies and identify, discuss, evaluate, and relate significant books, articles, and other resources. A survey evaluates what scholars and researchers have written on a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such as your research objective, thesis, or the problem/issue you have identified. Writing A Persuasive Essay Powerpoint School. You may need to include studies contrary to thinking of Massachusetts (Navitas), your own perspective. The final result should be that your literature review be relevant, appropriate, and useful. An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources, each of which is followed by a brief note or annotation. These annotations describe the content and focus of the article Mill Hill, book or article; suggest the source's usefulness to your research; evaluate its method, conclusions, or reliability; and critical thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) record your assessments of the article The Mount, Mill, sources. This guide provides you with guidelines on how to critical thinking games University, evaluate the resources you are using, whether the The Mount, Mill International, result is included in the body of your survey of literature, or as an appendix in the form of an annotated bibliography, or both. Either way the University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell, purpose is evaluative: i.e. to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a select or comprehensive array of works (in book, article, essay, or electronic format) on a given topic. This guide provides you with guidelines on article writing Mill International, what areas to address and games University Lowell questions to writing a persuasive powerpoint Bromsgrove International Thailand, ask, the answers to which will provide you with the material from which your survey of literature can be composed; and, as a derivative, how to construct annotations.
Key questions are listed, sample annotations (print and electronic) are appended, and guidelines on style provided. The most important part of your literature survey is the Introduction. In it you will set the scene for thinking University Lowell Lowell, the rest of your work in the compilation of materials. It should be written before you choose literature to include in your survey. Refer back to your Introduction as you choose materials and write evaluations or annotations. The Mount, Mill. The Introduction is best written after you have done some general reading on the topic. The Introduction should define your topic and should include the following: One sentence summarizing the topic Statement of how the topic fits into the larger context of the subject area Definitions of any terms used Statement as to how selective or comprehensive your survey and accompanying bibliography is.
Do you want to include everything published on your topic or do you want to impose certain limitations? If you choose to critical games of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell, be selective, you must outline the criteria by which you include materials while excluding others. Limitations may consist of: Years of publication: e.g. deal with literature published between 1960 and 2000. Geographical: e.g. research done in North America only Language(s) of materials, e.g. only works in English Aspects of a topic: e.g. historical; particular schools or traditions of scholarship etc Type(s) of materials, e.g. Essay Montverde Academy. books, articles, essays, theses, online resources. Make a statement in critical thinking University — UMass (Navitas), the Introduction as to what limitations you are placing on the literature you are surveying. What is the scope of the literature review? What types of publications are you using? See further below under VIII Structure . The objectives in doing a review of literature and its accompanying annotated bibliography include the following:
To choose and evaluate current literature, print and electronic, relevant to your topic. Employment Work Griffith. To synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept you have determined. To demonstrate the quality of your own research. To provide additional information or background material for your reader. To explore the critical thinking University Lowell (Navitas), topic as the basis for further reading or preparation for research.
To give your research historical perspective or context. To place your project into the context of established work in article Hill, the field. The purpose of the review of literature is games of Massachusetts Lowell not merely to argumentative School, know what literature exists, but to provide an informed evaluation of that literature. To achieve both purposes, two methodological skills are required: Information Literacy : the ability to locate relevant literature (books, articles, essays, theses, or electronic resources) using efficient information seeking skills. How good are your information seeking skills? Has your search been wide enough to ensure you have found all the relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material? Is the number of University sources you have used appropriate for the length of your summative exercise?
Is there a specific relationship between the literature you have chosen to review and the topic you have chosen? If you need assistance in this area make an appointment to talk to a reference librarian (Tom Power or Elsie Del Bianco) at the Graham Library (416-978-2653). Critical Evaluation : the ability to apply evaluative criteria in order to identify those works which are central to your topic. The rest of this guide addresses this area. IV Evaluation of Books/Articles/Essays. A number of key questions need to be asked the answers to employment University, which will provide you with the material upon which your survey and/or annotations can be constructed. Checkpoints indicate the potential answers to thinking Lowell — UMass (Navitas), the questions.
Why was the book/article written? To: inform? For example: sequence of historical events, results of lengthy study persuade? For example: to writing American School, change or refute an established point of view give an overview? For example: textbooks, encyclopaedias. The purpose is usually presented in the introduction. Who published the book? A university press? (University theses and University of Massachusetts (Navitas) dissertations are considered published by the university that granted the degree to the student who wrote it.) Commercial publisher? Professional Association, Institution, or Research Centre? What can you tell about the a law essay Academy, book from the critical thinking University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), publisher?
What theological tradition is the publisher in? Catholic, liberal, evangelical, reformed, or broad academic? Some journals have an inherent bias that will impact articles printed in writing International, them. Is the journal: liberal or conservative, centrist, feminist in stance? Can you determine what its orientation is?
Examine the table of contents and/or headings to determine if the critical thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, book is organized in a logical and American University School understandable manner. Do the contents indicate that the book contains the information you need? How thoroughly does the material cover the topic? Is there added material such as appendices? Is the critical games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, material organized, focused, and clearly presented? Is the write a conclusion for a Ruskin University (Navitas), argument or presentation understandable? Is this original research, a review of previous research, or an informative piece? Table of contents Index Introduction/Preface Book reviews Reviews of the critical games University Lowell Lowell (Navitas), literature. Some topics require current information, while other subjects, value older material as well as current. Writing American University. If the — UMass Lowell, topic is controversial and/or rapidly changing, it is argumentative writing University Preparatory School important to thinking of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), choose recent materials.
Older materials may be used for is to Queen's, topics explored from a historical perspective. Examine the currency of the book/article; is it: up-to-date, out-of-date, or timeless? Is the author an expert in this field? Is the author reliable? Where is the author employed? What else has he/she written? Preface of book Biographical sources in library (e.g. P. W. Carey J.T. Lienhard, Biographical dictionary of critical thinking games of Massachusetts — UMass Christian theologians , 2000).
Type of publisher. Sources of Information/Perspective/Bias. Where is the author getting information? What types of research methods are used? What are the author's assumptions? From what perspective or school of thought is the author writing?
How does the book/article fit into the big picture? In what context is the employment Griffith (Navitas), book/article written? In what time period? Are there outside influences that are reflected in the book/article such as a particular theoretical framework or model (e.g. Games Lowell Lowell. a feminist interpretation, post-liberal, denominational)? Has the writing American Preparatory, author clearly and unambiguously formulated a problem/issue and games of Massachusetts Lowell established its significance? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the way the Bromsgrove School Thailand, author has done so? Could the problem have been approached from another perspective?
Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to the topic? Does the author include literature taking positions s/he does not agree with? Is the analysis accurate and thinking University — UMass (Navitas) relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the evidence and analysis? Is the author objective, or is s/he merely 'proving' what s/he already believes? Have similar materials been published? How do they compare? How important is this publication for the subject? Scholarly works always contain a bibliography of the evaluate when writing Queen's College, resources that were consulted. Bibliographical references should be in sufficient quantity and be appropriate for the content.
Determine: if a bibliography exists if the critical thinking games University — UMass, bibliography is short or long if the how to a conclusion for a Ruskin (Navitas), bibliography is selective or comprehensive, if the references are primary sources (e.g. Games — UMass (Navitas). journal articles) or only secondary sources (e.g. encyclopedias) if the employment University, references are contemporary to the book or much older, and if the citation style is University of Massachusetts Lowell clear and Hill International consistent. A well researched, well-written book/article is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at hand. Is the book/article relevant to the current research project? Ask, is this book/article useful to me? If it is useful, does it: support an thinking Lowell Lowell (Navitas), argument refute an writing essay Montverde, argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an overview? How does the author structure his or her argument? Can you 'deconstruct' the flow of the critical thinking University Lowell — UMass Lowell, argument to analyze if/where it breaks down? Is this a book/article that contributes to our understanding of the problem under study, and in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? How does this book/article fit into the thesis or question you are developing?
For what type of reader is the author writing? Is the level of the book/article appropriate for your needs? Is the book/article intended for a scholarly or general audience? Introduction Level of language used Type of publication/publisher the material is found in. Are charts, graphs, maps, photographs, etc. used to illustrate concepts?
Are the illustrations relevant? Are they clear and writing The Mount, Mill Hill International professional looking? Do they enhance the text? To evaluate a web page (and determine if you want to use it for your research) look for: Why was the page created? Is the critical — UMass (Navitas), page organized and focused? Is it well designed? Is the text well written? Are the links relevant and appropriate? Are the links evaluated? Is the scope or purpose of the web page clearly stated?
Is the argumentative University Preparatory, document written for an academic audience? Are the sources for any factual information clearly listed? Is a bibliography or list of works cited provided? Can you verify citations from your own academic resources? Is the thinking of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas), information free of spelling and grammatical errors? Distinguish between fact and opinion. Since web resources are rarely reviewed, the information provided should not be accepted at face value. Some web pages have an inherent bias that will impact everything that appears on them. Write A Conclusion Essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas). What is the critical thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas), theological orientation of the author or sponsor? Is there objective analysis as opposed to mere expression of article Hill International opinion? Is the information presented with a minimum of bias?
Is there use of bibliographical references to University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas), other credible sources? The value of writing a law essay Academy a web page is closely related to currency and timeliness. When was it last revised? Are the links still viable? Is the date of creation of the page provided? Are the links in the document current (i.e. Critical Thinking Games — UMass (Navitas). have not expired or moved)? Is the web page relevant to a persuasive powerpoint Bromsgrove School, the current research project? A well-researched, well-written, page is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at hand.
Ask, is this useful to me? If it is useful, does it: support an argument refute an argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with productively What is the relative value of the website compared to the range of information resource (print and non-print) available on the topic? What is the provenance of the website? Does the page have an identifiable, respectable author? If not, the critical games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell, page must be used with caution.
What is the institutional affiliation of the author? Does this imply a particular theological perspective? Who is responsible for the page? Is the author an expert in writing powerpoint Bromsgrove International, this field? What else has he/she written or produced? How accurate is the provided information? Is the author of the document clearly stated? Are the credentials of the author(s) provided (i.e. position, education, occupation)?
Is contact information (email address, phone number and mailing address) for the author provided? Do you believe this person is thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) qualified to write on the given topic? (look at writing American credentials, other publications he/she has written) Is there an editorial board or someone who verifies or checks the information? Often a web page is not signed or a specific author is not attributed to the document. If this is the case you should try to determine the critical thinking games Lowell Lowell (Navitas), credibility of the host or sponsoring organization of the web document. If you can, answer the following: Is the sponsoring organization reputable? To what type of reader is the evaluate when writing an essay, web page directed? Is the level appropriate for your needs? Is the page for: general readers, students, specialists or professionals, researchers or scholars? Does the page cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an critical thinking of Massachusetts, overview?
Are the links relevant and appropriate for this site? What do the links offer that is not easily available in other sources? Are the links evaluated in any way? Are annotations included? Are the how to essay Ruskin University (Navitas), graphics clear in thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas), intent, relevant and professional looking? Do the graphics add to or enhance the content?
Use the Chicago A style for your annotations. Be careful with the order of elements within a citation: punctuation, spacing, indenting (each line except the first within citations, etc). Use the format outlined in K.L. Turabian, A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations 7th ed. Griffith University (Navitas). (Chicago, 2007). Annotations can vary in length depending on what you have to say but they should be concise (see examples below, X Examples of Annotations ). Just like print sources, information derived from the web as part of your survey must be acknowledged.
Although different style manuals may require different citation formats, most will include the following: Author's last name, first name Title of document Title of complete work (if different from title of document) Document date (if known and if different from date accessed) Protocol and critical thinking games Lowell Lowell full address Date of writing a law Montverde access. The Chicago A style for electronic resources is as follows: using the Chicago Manual of Style to include Internet sources produces the following model: author's name (in normal order), document title, date of Internet publication, or other retrieval information (date of critical thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) access), text division (if applicable). To document a file available for how to a conclusion for a (Navitas), viewing and downloading, provide the thinking games University Lowell — UMass (Navitas), following information: author's name (if known); title of document (in quotation marks); title of complete work (if applicable), in italics or underlined; date of publication or last revision (if known; otherwise use n.d.); URL in angle brackets; date of write for a essay Anglia University (Navitas) access (in parentheses). Example: Leslie R. Shade, Gender Issues in Computer Networking, 1993, http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/sorokin/women/lrs.html(28 May 1996). Provide the following information: author's name (if known); author's email address (in angle brackets); subject line from posting (in quotation marks); date of publication; for emails: type of communication (personal, distribution list), or for listserv, address of the listserv (in angle brackets); date of access (in parentheses).
To document a file that can be retrieved from a list serve or web address, provide the following information after the thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), publication date: address of listserv (in angle brackets); address or URL for list's archive (preceded by via and enclosed ion angle brackets); date of access (in parentheses). Example (Email): Danny Robinette, firstname.lastname@example.orgEpiphany Project, 30 April 2000, personal email (29 May 2000). Example (Listserv): Victor Parette, email@example.com On Expectations of Class Participation, 27 May 2000 (29 May, 2000). Example (Listserv Archive): Nick Carbone, firstname.lastname@example.orgNN 960126: Follow-up to Don's Comments about Citing URLs, 26 January 1996, email@example.com http://www.ttu.edu/lists/acw-l(17 February 1996). Bibliography entries differ from footnote/endnote references in the following ways: authors' names are inverted; elements of writing a law essay Academy entries are separated by critical thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell periods; the how to write for a Anglia Ruskin University, first line of each entry is aligned with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces. If your paper is double-spaced, double-space the bibliography as well. Example: Hoemann, George H. Electronic Style-Elements of Citation.
Electronic Style Page. 3 November 1995. http://funnelweb.utcc.utk.edu/ hoemann/style.html (29 May 1996). You will already have established a preliminary structure resulting from your introductory considerations (see above I Introduction ). When composing and writing your literature review and annotated bibliographies certain structural considerations are worth noting: Your review should be organized into practical sections that present themes or identify trends. Your review must be a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of thinking games University Lowell (Navitas) your search. A Conclusion Essay Anglia University (Navitas). It must organize information and relate it to the thesis or research question you are developing synthesize results into a summary of what is and isn't known identify controversy when it appears in games of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas), the literature develop questions for further research. IX Examples of Surveys of Literature. Waldman, Nahum M. The recent study of Hebrew: a survey of the writing essay powerpoint School Thailand, literature with selected bibliography . Cincinnati: Eisenbrauns, 1989. Oesterley, W. University Lowell Lowell. O. Employment. E. A short survey of the critical University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas), literature of rabbinical and article writing Mill Hill International mediæval Judaism . London : Society for critical games — UMass Lowell (Navitas), Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920. Hahn, Herbert Ferdinand.
The Old Testament in modern research. With a survey of recent literature . Philadelphia: Fortress Press . Survey of current literature on the Christian mission and Christianity in the non-Western world [microform].No. 1 (1982)- Aberdeen: Scottish Institute of Missionary Studies, 1982-. Runia, David T. Philo in early Christian literature : a survey . Minneapolis: Fortress Press,1993. The content of the what an essay Queen's, annotations can be varied from summative to evaluative or a mixture of both, however, at thinking games Lowell Lowell this level they will normally be evaluative.
An annotation that is purely a summary is merely a summary of the what is to evaluate writing an essay Queen's, source. A descriptive annotation defines the critical games University — UMass, scope of the source, lists the significant topics included, and writing a law Academy tells what the source is about. In the evaluative annotation you assess the source's strengths and weaknesses. You assess why the source is interesting or helpful, or why it is not. In doing this you should list what kind of and how much information is given; in short, evaluate the source's usefulness, critically stating its place in the field in relation the topic you have chosen. Most annotations are a combination of these approaches with one or two sentences summarizing or describing content and one or two sentences providing an evaluation. In terms of games of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas) writing style used in the annotations the work (Navitas), key factor is brevity, whether you are writing in phrases, paragraphs, or complete sentences. Omit anything that is apparent in critical games of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, the title, background materials and references to University, previous work by the same author. You are recommended to use full sentences in your annotations. Although the length of sentences may vary, avoid long and complex sentences.
Paragraph length is expected, and they should be full and coherent. Sample annotations on the topic of New Testament theology follow below: Goppelt, L. A Theology of the New Testament . 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981, 1982. The first volume includes a great deal of material on critical thinking University — UMass Lowell, the history of and methods of the discipline of work University biblical theology. Critical Thinking Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas). Goppelt is especially insightful when he treats salvation history. Not as conservative as Ladd or Guthrie, Goppelt nevertheless is a thoughtful and writing Montverde Academy careful student of Scripture, and his work deserves wide circulation, even if many will find his approach to critical thinking games Lowell, history unduly cautious and is to evaluate writing an essay Queen's skeptical. Guthrie, D. New Testament Theology . Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1981.
More than twice as long as its closest rival (Ladd, above), this major study is distinctive for of Massachusetts — UMass, another reason: it is the only recent NT theology to evaluate writing an essay Queen's College, organize its material in this way. Guthrie selects a wide variety of themes and topics and examines how each is treated in each corpus of the NT, and critical thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell then concludes with summary syntheses. Kummel, W. Essay Montverde. G. The Theology of the New Testament according to its Major Witnesses: Jesus-Paul-John . Nashville: Abingdon, 1973. This book hews its own line and interacts very little with secondary literature. Kummel is far more conservative than the two volume standard by Rudolf Bultmann, and very suggestive. The material is organized as in Ladd. Ladd, G. E. A Theology of the New Testament . Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974. This theology is organized by presenting the major themes of each Biblical author/work. There is no attempt to synthesize the material for critical thinking Lowell Lowell (Navitas), the NT as a whole, and no comparison of themes from corpus to corpus.
Nevertheless, although some coverage is patchy (e.g. on the theology of the cross), some is outstanding, especially Ladd's treatment kingdom and of salvation history. XI Examples of what is to writing Queen's Published Annotated Bibliographies. You may find it useful to consult some published annotated bibliographies of which the University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell, following are a sample: Joseph A. Fitzmyer, An Introductory Bibliography for writing essay powerpoint Bromsgrove International School, the Study of Scripture , 3rd ed. (Rome, 1990). Douglas Moo (ed.), An Annotated Bibliography on the Bible and games — UMass the Church (Deerfield, Ill., 1986). Mark A Powell, The Bible and Modern Literary Criticism: a Critical Assessment and Annotated Bibliography (New York, 1992). Mark Minor, Literary-Critical Approaches to the Bible: an Annotated Bibliography (West Cornwall, CT, 1992).
Robert J. Kepple John R. Muether, Reference Works for Theological Research: an Annotated Selective Guide for Bibliographical Research (Lanham, MD, 1992). Henry O. Thompson, The Book of writing American Preparatory School Amos: an Annotated Bibliography (Lanham, MD, 1997). Frank E. Sugeno, Episcopal and games University of Massachusetts Lowell Anglican History: 1973-1975, an annotated bibliography. Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 46 (Mar., 1977), 115-148. XII Examples of a persuasive powerpoint Bromsgrove School Online Annotated Bibliographies.
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Planning and conducting a dissertation research project. This guide addresses the games of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell task of planning and employment Griffith (Navitas), conducting a small research project, such as for an undergraduate or masters’ level dissertation. It aims to help you develop a clear sense of direction early on in the project, and to support you in organising, planning, and monitoring your project. The companion guide Writing a dissertation focuses on thinking games Lowell (Navitas) the preparation of the written report or thesis. A dissertation is a particular kind of academic task. You will usually be asked to generate a topic for yourself; to plan and execute a project investigating that topic; and to write-up what you did and what your findings were.
Important stages in article Mill Hill the dissertation process include: choosing a topic; developing a research question; effective planning of the University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell research; being organised and methodical while conducting your research; and American University, reporting the research. While some students come to their research project with a clear research question to address, many others arrive at thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) this point with several ideas, but with no specific research question. Writing A Persuasive Essay Powerpoint International Thailand! In view of the pressure to get started fairly quickly, this can cause anxiety and even panic. It is, however, a common situation to be in. There are several ways forward: Remember that a research study can: This list is not exhaustive, and you need to thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) check whether your department has a preference for employment particular kinds of research study.
Discuss your proposed topic with a member of academic staff who you think might be appropriate to University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) supervise the project. Provided they feel that they know enough about the subject to supervise it, and a law Academy, provided that it can be interpreted as falling within the broad fields of your degree subject, academic staff are generally open to suggestions. You should think realistically about the practical implications of your choice, in terms of: For example, a project on critical thinking of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) coal mining in the North East of England may require you to visit Newcastle’s Record Office, or to interview coal miners from the region. Is this something that you are prepared and writing a persuasive powerpoint Thailand, able to do? If the practical considerations associated with your research ideas are unrealistic, you need to thinking of Massachusetts Lowell consider whether you are willing to modify or reconsider your project. Once your topic has been accepted by your department, you need to begin the Griffith University process of refining the topic and turning it into something that is focused enough to guide your project. Try describing it as a research problem that sets out:
It is important that you establish a research problem at, or close to the start of, your project. It is one of the key tools you have, to ensure that your project keeps going in the right direction. Critical Thinking Games University Lowell (Navitas)! Every task you undertake should begin with you checking your research problem and asking “will this help me address this problem?”. You should be willing to revise your research problem as you find out more about your topic. You may, for writing a law essay Academy example, discover that the data you were hoping to analyse is not available, or you may encounter a new piece of information or a new concept while undertaking a literature search, that makes you rethink the basis of your research problem. You should always talk to your supervisor before you make any substantial revision to thinking of Massachusetts (Navitas) your plans, and Hill, explain why you think you need to make the change. Effective planning of the research. A research proposal is a more detailed description of the thinking games University Lowell Lowell project you are going to undertake. Some departments require you to submit a research proposal as part of the assessment of your dissertation, but it is worth preparing one even if it is writing, not a formal requirement of your course. It should build on the thinking that you have done in defining your research problem; on the discussions that you have had with your supervisor; and on early reading that you have done on the topic. A comprehensive research proposal will make you think through exactly what it is that you are going to do, and thinking University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), will help you when you start to write up the project.
You could try outlining your project under the following headings (Booth, Williams, Colomb, 2003. Employment Work Griffith University (Navitas)! The craft of research. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.): You may find that some of these headings are difficult to fill in right at the start of your project. However, you can use the gaps to help identify where you need to begin work.
If, for example, you are unsure about the limitations of your methodology you should talk to your supervisor and read a bit more about that methodology before you start. A dissertation is an extended project that asks you to manage your time and undertake a variety of tasks. Some courses schedule the dissertation at the end, while others have it running along concurrently with other modules. Whichever way your course is organised, it is essential that you create a plan that helps you allocate enough time to critical thinking of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) each task you have to complete. It is useful to work out how many weeks you have until you need to writing a persuasive powerpoint Thailand submit your completed dissertation, and draw a chart showing these weeks. Block out the critical thinking games Lowell Lowell weeks when you know you will be unable to work, and what is to evaluate when Queen's, mark in other main commitments you have that will take time during this period. Then allocate research tasks to the remaining time. It is very important to be realistic about how long each task is likely to take.
Some focused thought at the beginning, then at the planning stage of thinking games of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas) each phase, could save hours later on. Write down the resources needed for each stage. It could be time in argumentative writing School the library; the resource of your working hours; or the use of equipment or room space that needs to be booked in thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) advance. Some people find that they procrastinate more than they would like. This is a common problem, so it is probably best to be well-prepared to identify it and writing essay, deal with it if it does start to games University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) happen. People procrastinate for various reasons for example: poor time management dauted by how to Ruskin, the scale of the task negative beliefs loss of motivation perfectionism difficulty concentrating need to feel under pressure personal problems.
Early identification of the signs of procrastination will give you the best chance of minimising any negative effects. Once you suspect that you are procrastinating, it can be helpful to review what you are expecting of yourself, and check that those expectations are realistic. Critical Thinking Games Of Massachusetts! This is where planning is Hill, vital. To improve the prospect of University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell completing on time, and avoiding procrastination, you need to: Your research plan should also include information about what equipment you will need to is to evaluate an essay College complete your project, and any travel costs or other expenses that you are likely to critical games University Lowell Lowell (Navitas) incur through the pursuit of your research. You should also think about whether you are dependent on any one else to complete your project, and think about what you are going to do if they are unable to help you.
Once you have created your plan it is argumentative writing American School, a good idea to critical thinking — UMass (Navitas) show it to someone else. Ideally you will be able to show it to a member of academic staff or bring it to the Learning Development, but talking it over with a friend may also help you to spot anything that you have forgotten or anywhere that you have been unrealistic in your planning. Being organised and methodical while conducting your research. Although a dissertation is an writing a persuasive essay powerpoint Bromsgrove International, opportunity for thinking of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) you to work independently, you will usually be allocated a member of academic staff as a supervisor. Supervisors are there to help you shape your ideas and give you advice on how to conduct the research for your dissertation. They are not there to teach you the topic you have chosen to investigate: this is your project. They are, however, one of the resources that you can call on during your research. Academics are busy people, so to what is to an essay Queen's get the critical thinking of Massachusetts Lowell most out of International your supervisor you will need to be organised and to take responsibility for the relationship.
It is thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), not your supervisor’s job to chase you into completing your dissertation, or to employment work (Navitas) tell you how to manage the different stages of the project. To ensure that you get the most out of your supervisor you need to: If you are not happy with the way you are being supervised, explain why to your supervisor or discuss the issue with your personal tutor. Regardless of whether you have been given a dissertation topic or you have developed your own ideas, you will need to be able to demonstrate the rationale for critical games of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas) your research, and to describe how it fits within the wider research context in your area. To support you in doing this you will need to undertake a literature review, which is a review of material that has already been published, either in hard copy or electronically, that may be relevant for your research project.
Key tools that are available to help you, include: It is a good idea to make an evaluate when writing an essay Queen's College, appointment to see the librarian specialising in your subject. An information librarian should be able to critical of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) give you advice on your literature search, and on how to manage the writing a persuasive essay Bromsgrove International School information that you generate. You will probably generate more references than you can read. Use the thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell titles and abstracts to decide whether the reference is article Hill International, worth reading in critical games of Massachusetts detail. Be selective by concentrating on references that: Once you start reading, ensure that you think about what you are trying to writing The Mount, Hill get out of each article or book that you read.
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Spend time reflecting on the implications that your pilot study might have for thinking University Lowell (Navitas) your research project, and make the necessary adjustment to Montverde Academy your plan. Even if you do not have the time or opportunity to run a formal pilot study, you should try and reflect on your methods after you have started to generate some data. Once you start to generate data you may find that the research project is not developing as you had hoped. Critical Thinking! Do not be upset that you have encountered a problem. Research is, by how to write for a essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), its nature, unpredictable. Analyse the critical games University Lowell Lowell situation. Think about what the problem is and how it arose. Is it possible that going back a few steps may resolve it? Or is article The Mount, Mill, it something more fundamental? If so, estimate how significant the critical thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell problem is to answering your research question, and try to calculate what it will take to resolve the situation.
Changing the title is employment work Griffith University (Navitas), not normally the answer, although modification of some kind may be useful. If a problem is intractable you should arrange to meet your supervisor as soon as possible. Give him or her a detailed analysis of the University — UMass Lowell (Navitas) problem, and employment (Navitas), always value their recommendations. The chances are they have been through a similar experience and thinking games University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), can give you valuable advice. Never try to ignore a problem, or hope that it will go away.
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A section where you discuss ‘Further Work’ at argumentative writing University Preparatory School the end of your dissertation will show that you are thinking about the implications your work has for the academic community. The companion study guide Writing a Dissertation focuses on critical thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass the process of writing up the research from your research project. Share this page: You can make an appointment to come and see us about any study-related queries you have. (if you are a University of writing essay Leicester student please use your university e-mail address)
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analyze theme essay You’ve been staring at Lowell — UMass (Navitas) your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. Writing American University! But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. Thinking Games University Of Massachusetts Lowell! By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. University School! Helpful, right? Um, not so much.
First, it might be more useful to explain what an games University of Massachusetts (Navitas) analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is writing essay, . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary.
Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of games — UMass Lowell, metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of argumentative American University Preparatory School, a prompt—and the critical thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) example I’m going to use for write a conclusion Anglia the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of critical thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas), sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on write a conclusion essay Ruskin (Navitas), reading the books has done so already—or at games University Lowell Lowell (Navitas) least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the for a Anglia Ruskin components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the thinking games Lowell Lowell (Navitas) introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to what evaluate when writing an essay those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at employment University least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and thinking of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. Is To Writing! You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in.
This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by critical games University Lowell, asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the is to evaluate College publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. Games (Navitas)! But it’s got a little bit of controversy and a law Montverde, relates to what the games University of Massachusetts Lowell rest of the essay will discuss.
2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to essay powerpoint Bromsgrove International the point. This is thinking games University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell, where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and a law essay Montverde Academy, is embodied as sacrifice for critical thinking University — UMass Lowell (Navitas) the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in article writing Hill International, exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs.
Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to — UMass (Navitas) get really creative and play around with formatting. In the employment work flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. Critical Thinking Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass! But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence.
Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into employment Griffith University, it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Critical Games University Lowell (Navitas)! Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of argumentative Preparatory School, your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the critical games University of Massachusetts — UMass overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. What Is To Writing College! 3. Provide evidence from the text to critical University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) back your claim. Queen's College! You can’t just go around making claims without any support.
You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the thinking games — UMass Lowell text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of argumentative writing School, prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. Thinking Games University! If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the Montverde Academy prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of thinking games University Lowell — UMass Lowell, this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that.
They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to writing Mill International back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy.
For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to critical thinking University Lowell — UMass Lowell keep a promise to writing a persuasive powerpoint International Thailand a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of critical games of Massachusetts — UMass, course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the a law Montverde author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. Thinking Games Lowell Lowell! When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get.
Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. Employment Griffith! #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much!
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Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on writing The Mount, Hill International, the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Critical Thinking Games University — UMass Lowell! Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to how to write essay (Navitas) support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is critical games of Massachusetts Lowell, that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the for a essay Ruskin University (Navitas) finally got this one. Sweet!
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I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the critical University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for The Mount, International the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy?
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As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to University (Navitas) write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck.
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I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for is to evaluate College everything. )
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essay number counter A counter-argument is an argument opposed to your thesis, or part of thinking University Lowell (Navitas), your thesis. It expresses the view of International, a person who disagrees with your position. Why would you include a counter-argument in games University of Massachusetts, your essay? Doesn#146;t that weaken your argument? Actually, no. Done well, it makes the argument stronger. This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your reader#146;s objections before they have finished reading. A Persuasive Powerpoint Bromsgrove School Thailand. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the critical thinking debate. Article Writing The Mount, International. Both of these make an essay more persuasive.
How should a counter-argument be presented? A counter-argument should be expressed thoroughly, fairly and objectively. Do not just write a quick sentence and then immediately rebut it. Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view. A few sentences or even a whole paragraph is not an unreasonable amount of space to give to critical thinking of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) the counter-argument. Again, the what is to evaluate when writing an essay College point is to show your reader that you have considered all sides of the critical thinking games University of Massachusetts question, and to make it easier to argumentative writing American School answer the counter-argument. Critical Thinking Games University Of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas). It#146;s easier to School respond to a point you have already spelled out#151;and it#146;s easier for your reader to follow you. Make sure you express the counter-argument fairly and objectively. Ask yourself if the person who actually holds this position would accept your way of stating it.
Put yourself in their shoes and give them the benefit of the doubt. Don#146;t use biased language or stack the deck when presenting their position. Readers see through that sort of thinking University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), thing pretty quickly. Obviously, if you really believe the position expressed in what is to evaluate writing Queen's, your thesis, you will not be able to be completely objective in how you express the counter-argument#151;but you should try. One of the most common purposes of counter-argument is to address positions that many people hold but that you think are mistaken. Therefore you want to games of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) be respectful and give them the benefit of the doubt even if you think their views are incorrect. They#146;ll be much more likely to be persuaded then. (The other approach, to American Preparatory use sarcasm and satire to expose mistaken ideas, is very powerful, but should be used with care, especially before you#146;ve mastered the art of rhetoric.) How can a counter-argument be rebutted? One of the most effective ways to rebut a counter-argument is to show that it is based on faulty assumptions. Either the facts are wrong, the analysis is incorrect, or the values it is based on thinking games Lowell are not acceptable.
Examples of each are given below. Furthermore, some counter-arguments are simply irrelevant, usually because they are actually responding to a different argument. Write For A Essay Anglia Ruskin. And some counter-arguments actually make your argument stronger, once you analyze their logic. All of these examples use a claim from James Loewen#146;s book, Lies My Teacher Told Me. In that book Loewen makes the claim that #147;To function adequately in civic life #133; students must learn what causes racism#148; (143). The examples below are ideas that you might use as a counter-argument to this claim, in a paper agreeing with Loewen. Then you would rebut, or answer, the counter-argument as a way to strengthen your own position.
Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don#146;t need to bother with it. The factual assumption in games University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, this example is that racism is a thing of the past. One response would be to muster facts to show that racism continues to be a problem. (There#146;s a second assumption, which is that students don#146;t need to bother with what#146;s in the past. Another response would be to American School show that students must understand the past as well as the present #147;to function adequately in civic life.#148;) Learning about racism might make students more racist. The analytical assumption is that learning about racism can make you racist. Thinking Games University Lowell — UMass. The response would be that understanding the causes of writing essay Academy, a problem is not the same as causing or creating the problem. Thinking University Of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell. (Another assumption in American, this argument is that it#146;s not good to make students racist.
Loewen#146;s argument shares this assumption, so you wouldn#146;t rebut it.) Who cares if students are racist? This counter-argument is based on an assumed value that your readers probably do not share#151;namely, the idea that it#146;s ok for students to be racist. The response would be to critical thinking games Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) point out this value, state why you don#146;t share it and employment work University (Navitas) state why you don#146;t think your readers do either. Thinking Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas). Of course, values are both deeply personal and extremely varied, so you#146;re always going to have some readers who do not share yours. The key is to base your arguments on values that most readers are likely to share. Students are already familiar with racism; they don#146;t need to study it in writing essay Academy, school.
Many students are, in fact, already familiar with racism. But Loewen is not saying they need to learn about thinking games Lowell Lowell, racism, he#146;s saying they need to employment work Griffith University learn what causes it. You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it. This is a very common form of critical thinking games University Lowell, counter-argument, one that actually rebuts a different argument. Writing A Law Essay Montverde. (Note that here, too, there#146;s a faulty assumption: being familiar with something is not the same as knowing what causes it.) Previous generations didn#146;t study the causes of thinking Lowell (Navitas), racism, so why should we start now? The response here would be to show that previous generations did not #147;function adequately in writing an essay Queen's College, civic life,#148; because they had a lot of problems with racism (segregation and more hidden forms of discrimination). Therefore, the fact that they didn#146;t learn about the causes of racism, together with this other information, actually supports the claim that students do need to learn what causes racism. (Here again there#146;s a faulty assumption, implied but not stated: Previous generations supposedly did function adequately in civic life. Games University Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas). The response shows that that assumption is how to write for a essay University, incorrect.) When should a counter-argument be conceded?
Sometimes you come up with a counter-argument that you think is true and that you think responds to your actual argument, not some other point. Then you are faced with a choice: Do you abandon your thesis and adopt the counter-argument as your position? Often it turns out you don#146;t need to abandon your thesis, but you might need to modify or refine it. Let#146;s take a modified version of the of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) second example given above (learning about racism might make students more racist). The new version might look like this: Students get turned off by what they are forced to a conclusion for a essay Anglia (Navitas) learn, especially when it#146;s about critical thinking games University Lowell (Navitas), forcing them to The Mount, Mill Hill International be #147;good.#148; Then they turn against what they#146;ve been taught and deliberately go in the other direction.
So, studying racism might just make them want to be racist out of thinking games Lowell (Navitas), sheer contrariness. This might help explain the backlash against #147;political correctness.#148; One way to respond to a counter-argument like this is to acknowledge that, if it#146;s done incorrectly, education about racism might just end up turning kids off and making them hostile. Then, you refine your original thesis to say something like this: Students should learn what causes racism, but should not be constantly lectured that #147;racism is bad.#148; Instead, they should be taught the causes and history in article writing Hill, a way that they find interesting and that lets them decide their own values. By refining your thesis in this way you are able to retain your original point, while strengthening it by incorporating part of the opposition#146;s views. This also takes away some of the critical of Massachusetts Lowell reasons a reader might have to disagree with you.
What makes a good counter-argument? Some counter-arguments are better than others. You want to what is to Queen's use ones that are actually somewhat persuasive. There#146;s nothing to critical thinking games University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) be gained by rebutting a counter-argument that nobody believes. Two things to look for article writing The Mount, International, are reasonableness and thinking of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) popularity. If you yourself are somewhat unsure of the position you#146;ve chosen as your thesis, it will be easier for you to identify good counter-arguments.
You already recognize that there are reasonable arguments on the other side#151;that#146;s why you#146;re a little unsure. Look for those arguments that make sense to you or that seem reasonable, even if you don#146;t agree with them. On the essay Anglia Ruskin University other hand, you may be quite sure of critical thinking games of Massachusetts — UMass, your position, which makes it harder to see other views as reasonable. They all look flawed to you because you can point out how to for a essay Anglia Ruskin, their errors and show why your view is games University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), better. In that case, look for ones that are popular, even if they are flawed. Remember, you#146;re trying to writing persuade your readers to agree with you. So you want to speak their language. Critical University Of Massachusetts (Navitas). That means answering their objections even if you don#146;t think the objections are reasonable.
If you look at what is to evaluate an essay Queen's the examples above, you#146;ll probably find some more convincing than others. Most people will probably not find the #147;Who cares if students are racist#148; argument very convincing. On the other hand, you might find the #147;students already understand#148; argument pretty persuasive. Pick the arguments that you, or a lot of other people, feel are reasonable. The more you can answer those objections, the University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) stronger you#146;ll make your case. Where does the counter-argument go? The short answer is a counter-argument can go anywhere except the conclusion.
This is because there has to be a rebuttal paragraph after the counter-argument, so if the counter-argument is in the conclusion, something has been left out. In practice (there are exceptions), the rebuttal is usually not the concluding paragraph, which means that generally the work Griffith (Navitas) counter-argument is anywhere but the last two paragraphs. Counter-arguments can be very effective in introductions, especially if you are arguing against University of Massachusetts — UMass a popularly held view. However, it#146;s also very common to place them after the presentation of the case for the thesis. In other words, they would go after all of the main points that support the thesis, but before the conclusion#151;in the third-to-last paragraph, with the write for a essay Anglia (Navitas) rebuttal in thinking Lowell — UMass Lowell, the second-to-last.
This is work University (Navitas), probably the most common position. Generally, unless there is some compelling reason specific to the particular argument being made, it does not make sense to put the counter-argument in critical University — UMass Lowell, the middle of the writing a persuasive case for the thesis. In other words, you would not typically present two points in critical thinking University Lowell — UMass, support of the thesis, then the counter-argument and writing powerpoint School rebuttal, and then more points in support of the thesis. Here are two outlines showing the most common placement of the counter-argument. The first is probably the most common.
Introduction Supporting point #1 Supporting point #2 Supporting point #3 Supporting point #4 [there can be any number of supporting points] Counter-argument Rebuttal Conclusion Counter-argument, which also serves as introduction Rebuttal, which would usually include the thesis statement Supporting point #1 Supporting point #2 Supporting point #3 Supporting point #4 [there can be any number of supporting points] Conclusion. How should the counter-argument be introduced? It#146;s important to University of Massachusetts Lowell use clear signals to alert the reader that the argumentative writing American Preparatory School paper is of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas), about to express a view different from (typically, the opposite of) the employment (Navitas) thesis. Since the purpose of the whole paper, including the thinking University of Massachusetts counter-argument, is to support the thesis, these signals are crucial. Article International. Without them the paper appears incoherent and contradictory. Generally, the — UMass Lowell (Navitas) counter-argument will begin with a word, phrase or sentence to indicate that what follows is article Hill International, not the author#146;s view. Critical Thinking Games Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass. These can range from the very simple#151;sometimes the single word #147;But#148; or #147;However#148; is sufficient#151;to quite complex whole sentences: In his majisterial work on representation in western literature, a foundational text in the discipline, Auerbach argues that the mixture of styles is an essential ingredient of all modern realism, a view that has found wide acceptance in the half-century since its publication.
Notice, however, that even this sentence is careful to attribute these views to other people, and to call them #147;views#148;#151;in other words, to subtly hint that they are not facts or truths. In general, the strategy is to make it clear quickly that this is someone else’s view. Typical introductory strategies include the evaluate when following: Many people [believe/argue/feel/think/suppose/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here] It is often [thought/imagined/supposed/etc.] that [state the critical thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell counter-argument here] [It would be easy to/One could easily] [think/believe/imagine/suppose/etc.] that [state the employment work University counter-argument here] It might [seem/appear/look/etc.] as if [state the counter-argument here] Another common approach is to critical of Massachusetts (Navitas) use a question: But isn#146;t it true that [state the counter-argument here]? [Doesn#146;t/Wouldn#146;t/Isn#146;t] [state the counter-argument here]? You can also cite specific writers or thinkers who have expressed a view opposite to your own: On the other hand, Fund argues that. However, Ngugi has written, . Dangarembga takes the position that. How should the rebuttal be introduced?
If the counter-argument requires careful signaling, so does the rebuttal. The essay has just done a 180° turn away from article The Mount, Hill International, its thesis, and critical thinking games University (Navitas) now it is about to do another 180° turn to complete the circle. The reader needs warnings and guidance or they will fall off or get whiplash#151;you#146;ll lose them, in other words, because the argumentative writing University Preparatory School essay will seem incoherent or contradictory. The common strategies for critical thinking games of Massachusetts Lowell, introducing the how to write a conclusion for a essay Anglia rebuttal are the mirror image of those for introducing the counter-argument, and they all boil down to the same basic concept: #147;Yes, but. Critical Games Lowell — UMass Lowell. #148; They can be as simple as that, or as complex as this example sentence: While Auerbach#146;s claim seems initially plausible, and is backed by the copious evidence provided by his astonishing erudition, it is marred by an inconsistency that derives from an evaluate when an essay unsupportable and ultimately incoherent definition.
In all cases, the University Lowell — UMass Lowell job of this transitional language is to show the reader that the opposing view is now being answered. The essay has returned to arguing its own thesis, strengthened by having taken the opposition into powerpoint Bromsgrove International School Thailand, account. Here are some typical strategies. These are generic examples; they work best when tailored to critical games University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) suit the specifics of the individual topic. What this argument [overlooks/fails to consider/does not take into writing a persuasive essay powerpoint Bromsgrove Thailand, account] is critical games of Massachusetts Lowell, . This view [seems/looks/sounds/etc.] [convincing/plausible/persuasive/etc.] at first, but . While this position is popular, it is [not supported by a conclusion essay Anglia Ruskin University the facts/not logical/impractical/etc.] Although the critical games University of Massachusetts core of this claim is valid, it suffers from Griffith University, a flaw in its [reasoning/application/etc.] For more on this topic, see the #147;Counterargument#146; section of the critical games University #147;Argument#148; web page at the University of North Carolina Writing Center. Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong.
New York: Touchstone, 1996.