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Business Plan: Marketing And Sales. The marketing and sales plan explains what your business’s strategy is for convincing prospective customers to how to essay University, buy your product or service. Critical College! It addresses concerns such as how you will convey your service or product's features, benefits and uniqueness; who your potential customers are and how to write effect Trent University how you will attract them; how you will deal with competitors; and why is writing important of London how you will develop customer loyalty that will generate repeat business and write effect essay Trent University referrals. Braemar! Describe your target market: What geographic area does your business serve? What are the demographics of the customers you intend to how to Trent University, reach? What are the psychographics of your target customers? (Psychographic characteristics include purchasing motivations, lifestyles and values.) As in so many other sections of your business plan, you must be very specific. A potential lender or investor will not take you seriously if you define the target market for your grocery store as All people, because everyone needs to eat. Critical College! While it's true that everyone needs to eat, you'll need a more in-depth answer to this question, one that reflects your business's unique features and benefits. A better description of your target market would be, “Men and women ages 22 to 45 who make food purchasing decisions with a strong social and a cause Trent University environmental conscience. They have a household income of at least $60,000 per year and how to write the conclusion eschew traditional grocery stores that they perceive as offering low-quality food. They seek healthy, organic, locally grown food and how to a cause are willing to pay a significant premium to feel good about their purchase and obtain higher quality items.” Another way to be specific is to break down the total grocery market (total available market).
How many consumers are in this market? Then, what percentage of that market will you attempt to gain as customers – how large is your segmented available market? Finally, what share of write Moyles School, that market will you realistically reach? Demonstrate a thorough understanding of how to effect Trent, your target market as gained from both primary and of a-g courses Academy secondary sources. How To Write A Cause! Primary sources include any market research your business conducts, such as interviews, surveys, focus groups and market testing. If your business already has a history, you’ll have real-life information on your target market. Secondary sources include data and publications produced by of a-g courses New York Film, trade and write Trent industry groups, government agencies, chambers of how to write a informative essay Court, commerce, merchants associations and a cause effect Trent so on. Like the industry analysis, the marketing and sales plan is research-intensive. (To understand the qualities that make for a great company, investors must dig deep into soft metrics. How To Essay! See Qualitative Analysis: What Makes A Company Great? for more.) What is your business's ultimate goal? Investors will be curious about your long-term plans.
Do you just want to have just one very successful store, or do you hope to expand – and if so, how broadly and how quickly, and under what circumstances? What is your business's mission statement? If you look at the corporate websites of Fortune 500 companies, you'll notice that they tend to write, have mission statements or something similar. Writing City, University Of London! For example, Coca-Cola's mission statement in its 2020 Vision is: To refresh the world . Inspire moments of optimism and happiness . How To! Create value and how to write Berlin Brandenburg School make a difference. Coca-Cola then elaborates on this simple mission statement by explaining its vision, goals, priorities and metrics.
Your business plan should do the same. In fact, the how to write a cause essay Trent about us and company profile sections of corporate websites can be great sources of inspiration when writing your business plan. How To Write An Persuasive Berlin Brandenburg International! What slogan will you use to convey the primary benefits of your product or service? Walmart encapsulates the advantages its customers gain with a simple phrase: Save Money. Live Better. Competitor Target's slogan is Expect More. How To Trent! Pay Less. How To Essay Brandenburg School! A slogan like the how to write a cause effect essay Trent one McDonald's uses – I'm Lovin' It – doesn't describe the business in any way, and might not be the best choice for your new company. McDonald’s has had the budget to popularize this catchphrase through extensive advertising. How To Essay Court! Your slogan should be concise, memorable, positive and differentiate your brand. “Just Do It” (Nike) or “Think Different” (Apple) or “The Ultimate Driving Machine” (BMW) are all good examples. Besides your slogan, how else will you brand your company?
Think about how to a cause essay, what kind of write a informative essay Moyles Court School, image you want to how to a cause essay Trent, project and of a-g courses New York Academy how this image will help you connect with your target audience. Are you a luxury brand or a value brand? How do you fit into the community? How do you decide which products to source? What are your quality standards?
Whole Foods, for a cause essay Trent University, example, brands itself in part with its eight core values, which include selling the highest quality natural and organic products available, supporting team member excellence and Braemar College happiness, and practicing and advancing environmental stewardship. Include a picture of your company's logo and any other visuals that convey your company's image. These include your business's website, interior and exterior shots of your store (if you have a physical presence), photos of write a cause essay Trent University, your products and the way they are packaged, the reusable bags you will give or sell to mind College, shoppers, the uniforms your employees will wear and anything else you will use to convey your business's brand. Branding also encompasses how your company will communicate with its customers – will you be casual or formal? Friendly or strictly business? Your branding will help differentiate you from your competitors, tell customers whether they want to how to write a cause effect essay, do business with you and an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International remind customers who they’re buying from. (For related reading, see 10 Breakout Ideas For Small Businesses .) What methods of marketing will you use to reach your target customers? For example, how and where will you advertise? What promotions or giveaways will you offer?
What makes these marketing methods the how to University best ones for conveying the unique features and benefits of your product or service and for reaching your target market? How much will it cost? Break down your marketing budget and how to Moyles School be specific. You might write, for example, We anticipate spending $150,000 on marketing over the first year. $30,000 will be spent on training employees to be extremely knowledgeable about our products to increase customer confidence in our brand and drive sales. $40,000 will be spent on professional public relations services. $30,000 will be spent mailing two-page color flyers every week to customers who live within a five-mile radius of the store. A Cause Essay Trent! Another $20,000 will go toward building, designing and hosting our website and hiring professional writers and critical mind Braemar editors for our content marketing strategy.
Finally, we will spend $30,000 on social media campaigns on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.” Then, describe the methods you will use to determine the effectiveness of your marketing strategies. How To Write A Cause Trent! For example, The color flyers will contain a coupon for $5 off a purchase of essay writing University, $50. The number of a cause essay Trent, customers that bring in the coupon will show us how many people read the flier and acted on how to write the conclusion essay School the special offer. Or, for your Facebook campaign, you could evaluate how many people follow and like your page, how often people post to it and write a cause effect essay Trent University the click-through rate on your ads. A Informative Essay School! You will also need to write effect essay, project what return on investment your marketing plan might realistically produce. (If you have a promising business that needs a boost, you may be able to put your faith in these wealthy investors.
See When Your Business Needs Money: Angel Investors .) Where do your potential customers currently obtain the product or service you are selling? What strengths and weaknesses do those businesses exhibit? How will you offer a superior product or service? Don't commit the essay writing City, University common mistake of claiming that your product or service is write effect essay Trent so unique that it has no competition. Critical & Creative Chelsea! Let's say that currently, your potential customers are only able to essay Trent University, obtain local foods by shopping at the farmers market – which is important University only open for four hours, once a week – or through a community-sponsored agriculture (CSA) program, which makes people commit to buying a certain amount of produce each month, doesn't let them choose what they'll be eating and is only available six months of the year. As another alternative, some people drive 20 miles to the nearest big chain organic grocery store.
Many people like shopping at the farmers market because they get to how to write effect, meet the people who produce their food and write the conclusion of an essay School interact with members of their community. Others like the CSA program because they no longer have to think about shopping for produce. And the big chain store offers a great selection. However, your local foods grocery store will make local foods available every day of the week for 12 hours a day, from 9am to 9pm. People who cannot shop during farmers market hours represent an untapped market.
You can also steal market share from the write a cause effect essay Trent University people who make the long drive to the big chain organic grocery store by offering a much more convenient location. Furthermore, you will offer a wider variety than is available through either the farmers market or the CSA program, and unlike the essay important City, University of London CSA program, your store will not require customers to how to Trent, commit to spending a certain amount of money each month and critical & creative Chelsea College will give them greater choice in the produce they eat. It will be available year-round, too. You will also host community events and meet the farmer days to write a cause effect University, foster the thinking Chelsea College same sense of community provided by farmers' markets and how to a cause effect Trent University CSAs. (Check out Which Is Better: Dominance Or Innovation? ) You’ll also need to identify where your competitors have an advantage over you. The large chain organic grocery store, while far away, is why is important City, of London twice as large as your store will be, has an established base of how to write effect Trent University, loyal customers and has a marketing budget that you can’t touch. A grocery store does not foster the same sense of write Court School, community that a farmers market does and may not be able to a cause essay Trent University, offer produce that has been picked the same day or eggs that were laid that morning. Your store will also have significant overhead costs that the farmers market and CSA do not. Another big point to hit is how you will price your product or service. What will make this price appealing to consumers and profitable to your business? How does it compare to how to write, your competitors' pricing strategy? What profit margin do you anticipate on your major products?
Include charts and graphs: you might depict monthly sales for the first year by major product type or category using a bar graph, and yearly sales by major product or category for the next three years using a table. (For more tips, check out effect essay Keeping A Small Business Afloat and how to write the conclusion of an 9 Tips For Growing A Successful Business .) What sales strategies will you use to make your marketing plan pay off? The best marketing plan in the world is a cause Trent worthless if you can't generate sales. If you send out flyers that get people to come to your store, what customers find when they arrive is what will ultimately make or break your company. How products are displayed, how your store is essay Moyles School organized, how your employees behave, how much they know about the products and numerous other factors – all within your control – will comprise your sales strategy and should be discussed in your plan. Essentially, your marketing and sales plan describes how you will convey to your customers what's in how to write essay Trent University, it for them and then get them to actually purchase your product or service. While your marketing plan is a key document for potential lenders and investors, it’s also a key tool in your business's money-making strategy.
Even if you weren't looking for an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg International, financing, you would need a marketing plan. Next, we’ll explain how to how to write effect University, write your organizational and operating plan.
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School Reunion Essays and Research Papers. Exemplification Essay Every year my dad's side of the family gathers for how to write a cause Trent University a family reunion at my god-mother's house. My god-mothers house . located far out in the warm, dry, deserted neighborhood in dusty Lemon Grove, where my family anticipates the grand event about to be rekindled once again, but I wasn't looking forward towards the event. Critical Mind Braemar College? With my family and friends about to write a cause Trent University be reunited with each other, each family member is trying not to mind Braemar notice how long the last kilometer will take. The trees along. 2000 albums , Baking , Door 872 Words | 3 Pages.
Jessie Westfall It has been a long time since the thought of writing a paper has even crossed my mind. I think the last paper I wrote was for my . Advanced Placement English course when I was a junior in high school . Wait a minute, it is coming back to me; ah, yes, and the paper was on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In this paper, I will attempt to give you a brief glance into my life and show you some of the life steps that I have navigated through that have made me who I am today and I. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development , Family , Girl Scouts of the USA 2271 Words | 5 Pages. childhood was very pleasant. He has a few great memories of playing in the fields with his brother and sisters. He witnessed his all his other brothers . dropping out of school to work and to help support thr famly, but Jerry wanted something differet for himself. Jerry became the first person in his family to complete and graduate from high school , which encouraged his younger sibilings to do the same. When he was 24, he met a young girl by the name of how to write effect, Brenda Pearson and she was only 15. They met a popular.
A Little Bit , Childhood , Cousin 713 Words | 3 Pages. Case Study on Mauritius Shipping Corporation. and Mauritius MSCL has a container fleet of over 1000 TEUs and write School offers fixed day sailings with competitive freight rates and effect essay University passenger fares on the Port . Louis / Reunion / Tamatave routes. DESTINATIONS Under the brand name CORALINE, with Port Louis being the pivotal port, the Company ensures a regular liner service to Reunion Island,Rodrigues and Madagascar (Tamatave). Agalega is how to write a informative essay serviced at least twice a year at the request of the Outer Island Development Corporation.
The company also organises. Cruise , Indian Ocean , Madagascar 1696 Words | 7 Pages. Organizing family reunions doesn’t seem too hard does it? It’s basically planning a full-size party for family members only. Write A Cause Effect Essay University? The most basic . Of An Badminton? thing to how to write a cause effect essay Trent University do is to make a list of everything that needs to be done and to critical & creative Chelsea College get some other family members to help you out with the entire reunion . Once you have done that, the first step to a cause effect Trent actually organizing a reunion is to pick a date. Planning several months before the reunion would be best so that the family members organizing the reunion can have time to. 2006 albums , A Great Way to Care , Catering 649 Words | 2 Pages. speech is how to write the conclusion of an essay generally a custom tradition at family reunions . It helps to break the ice and get things going. It is also an opportunity to make a . lasting impression on distant family members that have not been around for awhile.To begin a welcome speech for a family reunion make it fun and upbeat. How To A Cause Effect Essay? Start out by thanking everyone for attending, and if there is anyone that deserves a special mention it is critical & creative thinking always a good idea to write a cause essay Trent acknowledge them.
Prior to the reunion it might help to contact several family members. A Big Family , An American Family , Family 10538 Words | 27 Pages. English: 1841 I come from a very diverse ethnic background, with many . Court School? variations of what maybe considered cultural foods. I have many fond memories of family reunions and all the how to a cause interesting dishes my relatives would prepare. Food in my family holds so much meaning; it’s the glue that has held us together for of an School many years even before I was born. Food in my family isn’t just a substance we consume in order to how to write a cause essay Trent keep.
Cooking , Flavor , Food 922 Words | 3 Pages. endeavors to list of a-g Film cover Mauritian news in an independent and impartial manner. How To Write A Cause Effect Trent? The Sunday version of write essay International, L’express is called L’Express Dimanche. How To Write A Cause Effect Essay University? Their newspapers are . not only sold nationally but if you are in countries like in Rodrigues, Madagascar and La Reunion you can easily buy these newspapers. Critical College? La sentinelle owns a lot of varieties of Magazines and Newspapers and has always try to be near people satisfying everyone’s needs in term of information and entertainment, for example, for those fanatic of a cause essay, Football. Advertising , Journalism , Mass media 928 Words | 4 Pages. “A Class Reunion ” Joenel M. Damestoir ENGL 106-1301A 2/17/2013 Reunion is the reuniting of essay important City, of London, a group. These gatherings could . A Cause Effect University? be for school , family or etc. There are different types of reunions . High school , family, or clubs are some types of different reunions . Write Essay School? A lot of stories and secrets can be revealed while attending this event.
You will discover who and how they became successful. The ones who didn’t change, or change their whole way of life. Reunions can be many things fun, tragic. Armed forces , Class reunion , English-language films 522 Words | 2 Pages. related, But school would probably be a distant cousin, Because if education is the key, School is the lock, Because it . rarely ever develops your mind to the point where it can perceive red as green and continue to a cause essay Trent University go when someone else said stop. Because as long as you follow the rules and pass exams your cool, But are you aware that examiners have a checklist, And if your answer is something outside the box then the automatic response is critical Braemar a cross, And then they claim that school expands your. Alternative education , David Beckham , Education 908 Words | 4 Pages. ?????????????? WILKS-WILLIS FAMILY REUNION Cruise . July? 2012 Nassau Half Moon Cay Tawana Newton Montgomery , AL WILKS-WILLIS FAMILY REUNION Cruise July? 2012 Nassau Half Moon Cay Markessius Hill.
Reunion 2113 Words | 22 Pages. ?GENERAL: American Pastoral is a Philip Roth novel published in 1997 concerning Seymour Swede Levov, a successful Jewish American businessman and former . high school star athlete from how to a cause effect essay Trent University, Newark, New Jersey. Levov's happy and conventional upper middle class life is ruined by the domestic social and political turmoil of the & creative thinking Independent 1960s during the presidency of Lyndon B. Write Effect University? Johnson, which in the novel is described as a manifestation of the indigenous American berserk. The novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1998. Class reunion , Marriage , Narrative 1604 Words | 3 Pages. 1001 The year was 1995, a year I will never forget, the year I first heard nature speak to me. Every August we had our annual family reunion . at a park in how to a informative, Milwaukee. Our reunions were always lots of effect University, fun, there would be games, swimming, and tons of food to eat.
We would always celebrate the August birthdays at why is important University of London those reunions in Greenfield Park, too. How To Effect Trent? The reunion was just one day long, but what a day it was! This year though Grandpa was too sick to travel from the how to a informative Moyles Court cancer that was ravaging his body. Family , Fire , Marshmallow 820 Words | 2 Pages. 5-1-2011 Against School -Engaging The Text 1. How To Write A Cause Effect Essay University? Question: Why does Gatto think that school is boring and Film childish? How does . Gatto’s depiction of school compare with your own elementary and secondary school experience? Answer: Gatto thinks school is write essay University boring because the teachers and students are bored with material. The students say they already know the material.
I can compare my school experience to Gatto’s depiction of school . My experience in elementary was a breeze and easy. Then I entered. Certified teacher , Education , High school 974 Words | 3 Pages. cultures. Mind College? I am going to inform you about Comenius Project and its benefits on the participants by using examples based on my experiences and write a cause effect Trent University I am going to . start with description of Comenius Project. Comenius programme is a European Union project for school -level education. It is named after the 17th-century Czech educator John Amos Comenius. How To Of An Badminton School? The aim of the write essay project is to help young people understand the why is City, University of London European cultures, languages and write University their value as well as developing their knowledge and list courses Film Academy language skills. Culture , Czech Republic , English language 741 Words | 2 Pages.
The American School System Education is what keeps a society thriving; it's what enables a society to thrive and how to write a cause effect essay Trent create . Essay? productive individuals who can keep the educational process on-going. Write Effect Essay University? The whole purpose of thinking Chelsea Independent, education is to how to write a cause Trent enlighten us with truths, and create knowledgeable people. Chelsea Independent College? We must ask ourselves, what is the a cause Trent point of creating knowledgeable people? We answer this with a question in return; where would we be without knowledgeable people? In The Republic, Plato extensively.
Conspiracy theory , Education , Gymnasium 870 Words | 3 Pages. Schoolhouse or Home School ? What do George Washington and the Hanson brothers have in common? Do you give up? Well, the answer is that . both of them were educated in why is essay writing important City, University, their homes. How To Write University? Queen Elizabeth, Thomas Edison, and Theodore Roosevelt were also educated at home. According to the Home Education Research Institute, 1.5 million students are staying home for class today. This number is five times more than ten years ago (Kantrow and Wingert 66).
This trend leads to many questions. Does home school education. Alternative education , Compulsory education , Education 1325 Words | 4 Pages. Indies and in French Guinea, was seldom respected by the owners. In 1723, the Mascarene Islands adopted the famous black code and writing important University of London the letters of a cause Trent, patent of . Louis XIV in the form of an edict.
They were recorded in the town of Saint-Paul in Ile Bourbon ( Reunion Island) on the 18th September 1724, by the supreme adviser. As of & creative thinking Independent, 1725, this led to write effect Trent the arrival of thousands of slaves, mainly from Madagascar and East Africa, to cultivate the coffee and spice plantations. This labour seemed necessary in order to. British Empire , Caribbean , Colonialism 628 Words | 2 Pages. What I did for my project was a pedigree chart, archive of why is writing important, old photos, personal PowerPoint, digital scrapbook, family history timeline.
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Alternative education , Education , History of education 893 Words | 3 Pages. ?Increasing segregation in American schools today. List Academy? As I walk through our schools and communit people living and . socializing where they feel it is most affordable and comfortable. Individuals in society live to their own standards, producing their own living conditions. I was interested in writing about how the racial segregation came about in America at first. How To A Cause Essay Trent University? However, I noticed that the topic is too broad and after reading several articles regarding racial segregation in America. Education , Race , Racial segregation 1126 Words | 3 Pages. 7 November 2012 School Lunches When students buy their lunch in a typical cafeteria, they expect decent, put together meals. Students . How To The Conclusion Of An? usually see long lunch lines, hear loud talking, and eat fatty and disgusting food.
In the lunch rooms I see unhealthy nasty food that everyone eats every single day. I have seen chili that smells like dog poop, nacho cheese that looks like barbeque sauce that got mixed in. Also the burritos tastes like vomit which was as hard as a rock. School cafeterias need to. Allergy , Cafeteria , Eating 848 Words | 3 Pages. Article 3 “Joy in School ” EDU 211: The Child and His/ Her World Daveen Herley For the a cause effect Trent past years, teachers all across America have been . pressured to teach their students to why is important University of London perform well in test and a cause state exams. How To Write Essay? With all this pressure put on students and teachers, they have lost the joy in school . In the article, “Joy in School ,” by Steven Wolk, points out how joy has been lost and how to write effect University explains techniques teachers can use to bring it back in why is essay writing important of London, school . How To A Cause Effect Essay Trent? Within my paper I am going to critical thinking Independent summarize, point.
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Unit accreditation number: Schools as organisations 5 TDA 2.5 2 3 20 28/02/2015 T/601/3325 Unit purpose and aim This unit aims to . prepare the learner for working in a school . It covers knowledge and understanding of the a cause effect school context. Courses? Learning Outcomes Assessment Criteria Exemplification The learner will: 1. Know the different types of schools in the education sector The learner can: 1.1 Identify the effect essay Trent University main types of state and independent schools 1.2 Describe the characteristics. Education , Educational psychology , Learning 654 Words | 4 Pages. are endowed by important City, University of London, their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and a cause effect essay University the pursuit of Happiness (United States Congress).” This . document is the foundation of our country and in order to completely remove religion from & creative, schools then accurately teaching the history of our country would have to be taken out as well. Christianity is the how to essay Trent only religion taken into consideration in this example, countless other religions would have to be removed too.
Science, social studies, and. Christianity , Declaration of independence , Education 1042 Words | 3 Pages. This a question many have asked and some have even doubted. What does breakfast really do, if the school provides my child with a sugar . Critical? filled cereal rather than oatmeal and fruit will it really make a diffrence. Is lunch really that important to a child, pizza rather than a healthy meal, milk rather than a sugar filled soda? Should it really matter what type of food your child eats at school or whatever they eat is ok because they ate? There have been debates for how to a cause essay Trent years on how to of an Badminton School, this topic, from. Dinner , Food , Health 712 Words | 4 Pages. what schools are forced to how to write Trent University do on how to write a informative essay Moyles Court, a daily basis in write essay Trent University, order to feed thousands of children. Schools have to thinking Chelsea Independent College be able to create a lunch . for how to write a cause effect essay Trent University children that will satisfy their hunger, using only almost $3 per child.
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Educator Licensure. Retrieved from: http://www.isbe.net/certification/default.htm Illinois State Board of Education ( 2001). No Child Left Behind / Adequate Yearly Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.isbe.net/ayp/ Illinois State Board of how to a cause, Education ( 1997). The New Illinois Learning Standards Incorporating. Education , Federal government of the United States , Illinois 942 Words | 3 Pages. technology in relevant and real-world ways in the classroom. All of the materials are provided for free to teachers and of an School teacher leaders to use within . their professional development practices within the schools and districts. Any of the content can be customized for how to write effect Trent University use within your schools and districts. How To Write Berlin School? There is content to support four workshops designed for K-12 teachers in the four folders provided. Each workshop is designed to how to essay Trent University run about 3 hours.
Each folder contains all of the digital. Education , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 863 Words | 3 Pages. David Denby explains the typical high school movies in detail in his article called High- School Confidential: Notes in Teen . Of An Essay Badminton? Movies. According to Denby, there are three character archetypes in high school movies; the popular girl, the jock, and the outsider. For some reason these movies usually take place around the time of prom, where miss popular expects to be crowned for her popularity.
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Education , Higher education in Canada , School 1189 Words | 3 Pages. Proposal for how to write effect essay University School Management School. interaction among students, teachers, parents and the school staff. Currently the government is now putting more emphasizes on the educational . sector by training and upgrading teachers, building more schools facilities, sponsoring brilliant student to further their education and more action which have been undertaken in both primary and secondary schools . In order to facilitate and simplify these actions one of the basic tool is to why is essay writing important University of London have an automated school management system. Automation is the utilization. Education , High school , Information systems 1175 Words | 4 Pages. Home School Vs Public School Have you ever wondered what the difference is between home schooling your children and sending . them to a public school ? How are there learning environments different and similar? How do they teach the state standards compared to teaching them yourself? What are the disadvantages and advantages of home schooling and public school ? Doing the research yourself can be a waste of time sometimes or if you don’t have the time. How To A Cause University? The learning environment of how to of an essay Badminton School, public school.
Alternative education , Education , High school 969 Words | 3 Pages. Variations Between Home School and Public School. Communication 1 170 Crystal Hicks [ 1 ] [ 1 ] Final Essay There are many variations between home school students and . How To Write A Cause Essay Trent University? public school students. According to The National Assessment of critical Braemar College, Education more than one million students are currently, as of write a cause essay University, November 2012, attending a home school environment. Mind College? By parents switching their children from public school to home school it has caused a 75% increase since 1999. By comparing and a cause effect essay University contrasting the difference and similarities between the workload. Alternative education , Compulsory education , Education 1069 Words | 3 Pages. introduction my dream is to see all schools become green literate across the world.all the students and teachers are green concious and . environment lovers.and spread the slogan go greenand practically initiate the green mission for safety of mankind and sustenance of the environment for the future generation 29 Apr, 2009 a green literate school my dream school 29 Apr, 2009 why should all shcools be green literate?
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Definition: Religion in how to write a cause effect Trent, school is the practice of any personal religious beliefs in how to write the conclusion of an essay School, a place of education. Introduction: In recent years . teaching or the individual practice of religion in school has become a very controversial topic. There are many different views on this matter and even more opinions on how it should be handled. There are people on essay Trent, both sides of the spectrum, there are those who believe that it should be taught and allowed in school , and there are those who believe it should. Freedom of religion , Laicite , Morality 1122 Words | 4 Pages.
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100+ List Of Persuasive Essay Topics. Should abortion be legal? Who has the write, right to life? Should euthanasia be made legal? The ethics of why is writing City, of London, who chooses care The ethics of health insurance Private versus public health care Do we have an how to a cause effect essay Trent University obligation to provide care to criminals? How should we approach the how to a informative essay Court School, problem of mental health? Should we create a doctor service similar to the taxi-services which have proliferated now that the digital world has grown so much? When is it okay for medical professionals to break confidentiality? Eugenics Everybody should learn CPR How will the legalization of marijuana affect healthcare?
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Persuasive essay topics are often assigned beforehand – particularly if the essay is being written in how to the conclusion essay Badminton, school, but often the writer has the how to write Trent, freedom to make his or her own choice on the matter. While this might seem to mind Braemar be a good thing – having the how to write University, choice means that we can pick our own subject, after all – choosing a good persuasive essay topic is more difficult than it sounds. Courses Academy? The topic needs to be obscure enough to be original, but not so obscure that there is no research on a cause effect University, it. Brainstorm topics as a group – this will give you a wider range of topics to choose from. Critical Mind College? Choose a topic which gets an emotional response from you – you will feel more involved in the process.
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essay nam viet war American Studies Resources Centre at LJMU. Vietnam: a watershed in war writing. by Richard Hills. The experience of Vietnam changed forever the nature of writing about war in American culture. Literature on the two World Wars tapped into a sense of cultural identity, masculinity and individual heroism to describe the American response as heroic and victorious and promote an idea of how to a cause essay Trent a ‘good war’ in which national interests are ultimately restored. By contrast, the Vietnam War was fought against a background of a culturally fragmented society. By examining the work of writers such as Norman Mailer, Tim O’Brien and Michael Herr, and the photographs of how to write Court Tim Page, it explores the way in which war was portrayed in a far more realistic, if often ugly light. This article is adapted from the write essay Trent winning entry in this year’s essay competition, Richard Hills, a final year student at Liverpool John Moores University. Posted 13 February 2003.
Honesty in writing. The Historical versus the critical mind Braemar personal in war writing. The war in Vietnam continues to evoke images and representations of an enduring and traumatic nature and remains a dominant political, social and moral benchmark in the contemporary American cultural consciousness. The textual diversity in a cause essay Trent University literature, art, journalism and music of Vietnam is extensive, and chronicles the histories and legacies of the struggle to a informative essay Court School reflect a range of social and cultural anxieties that were borne out of the experience. Historically therefore, war texts have operated as genres which have had their origins in expressing and revealing the experience of conflict and working as mediums by which a society can make sense of a particular national and cultural situation. Contemporary preconceptions of Vietnam are perhaps due largely to the imagery prevalent in this multiplicity of textual information. The diverse accounts of the histories and experiences of the conflict in literature can be seen as fairly interdisciplinary in their approaches, since the styles and aims of war reporting are both quite broad and ultimately similar in their aims. The variety in terms of methodology is also widespread, ranging from the fictional novels of DelVecchio for example, to how to write a cause essay University personal memoirs in a first person narrative, oral histories and also factual journalistic reportage.
Due to the contrasting styles and how to write of an School graphic content of how to war writing, the literature of Vietnam can perhaps be seen as displaying ideologies of combat much more prominently than any other type of why is essay City, University of London genre – both in how to write a cause effect University terms of of a-g Academy form and also in outlook. Consequently, war writing has therefore functioned as traditionally dominant generic form. As a result, there is a sense in which a linguistic authority has developed in these texts in order to how to a cause essay University reflect war as action, war as institution, war as nation, and war as an individual autobiographical experience. It is clear therefore that war writing is rich in form and aims to highlight a collection of contrasting perspectives and ideologies in order to externalise the various emotional experiences of war. As a result, it can be interpreted that a primary narrative intention is concerned not only with an attempt to categorise experience of battle in how to an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg School historical and personal terms, but also an write Trent University, attempt to how to an persuasive essay Brandenburg International embody the tension between the historical and the personal in the text. David Wyatt, in his collection Out of the Sixties , recognises the importance of war writing as culturally and historically important and asserts his view that ‘the thread that ties these various genres together is the importance of how to write effect essay Trent a common response and the need to represent these culturally insidious images.’ This essay will consider a variety of cultural responses to the war in Vietnam and will firstly examine the writing of Michael Herr and Tim O’Brien in order to address the distinctive styles and objectives of war literature.
The essay will also examine the impact of photographic narratives as dominant cultural and historical accounts. Through an how to write essay Moyles Court, analysis of these texts in terms of their style and form, the essay will then ask what these narratives are ultimately trying to how to write essay Trent achieve in their portrayals and representations and will consider whether they work in establishing a sense of the why is writing important University of London futility and horror of Vietnam. The prominence of a more innovative and modern approach in the literature of Vietnam can be seen as widely removed from the style of war writing of World Wars One and Two. By tapping into and referring to a sense of cultural identity, masculinity and individual heroism, this previous war literature had its origins in providing enduring cultural narratives and ideologies of the American national and of victory. Consequently, it had been difficult to produce an anti-war novel due to the ways in how to a cause effect essay which such texts functioned as dossiers indicative of conservative American ideals and which were complimentary to a patriotic consciousness. By suggesting and describing the American response as heroic and victorious, there is how to a informative Moyles a sense in how to write a cause effect essay University which these texts promote an idea of a ‘good war’ in which national interests are ultimately restored and delivered in ways an American public would appreciate. These novels are therefore seen as reflexive of the current social and historical conditions in their outlook. As a result, there is a sense in which they can perhaps also work as propaganda literature in their assessments of the how to an persuasive International enemy and in the endorsement of national welfare. In contrast, Norman Mailer was aware of the social and cultural implications during which the earlier war genre was produced and attempted to construct reactionary images in his literature so as to counteract the write effect essay University political implications this writing brought about. By simultaneously attempting to de-humanise the how to write concept of war and highlight war literature as a device that could criticise domestic policies, Mailer was immediately able to render the military effort futile and critique the write conflict through bold emotional imagery and a more negative military representation.
The Naked and the Dead. In his novel The Naked and the Dead , Mailer is somewhat radical in his appraisals of the war effort and attempts to reflect the more unsavoury nature of combat in critical & creative a couple of a cause effect University ways. Firstly, by essay important of London, discarding the accepted American idea of a ‘good war’ and secondly by replacing the traditional stereotyped representation of the heroic and crusading American soldier with a less dramatic portrayal. Through his presentation of the soldiers as sex driven, brutal, racist alcoholics, and by commenting on the graphic description of the war effort, Mailer is able to highlight the futility of modern combat and present Sergeant Croft as a pseudo fascist madman. In doing this, Mailer’s character representation subverts the earlier image of the American soldier and asks questions about the validity of the common stereotype of the American soldiers as gallant and laudable heroes. Mailer’s characters are revealed as extremely un-amiable in their treatment of themselves and the enemy.
In Nicolas Tomalin’s extract from The New Journalism entitled The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong , the American soldiers indicate their reluctance to recognise the Vietcong as human in a refusal of individuality. “ ‘There’s no better way to fight than goin out to shoot VCs. Write Effect. An’ there’s nothing I love better than killin’ ‘Cong. No sir.’ “ In contrast, Mailers characters acknowledge the enemy as human whilst remaining committed to the massacre of the enemy to provide a comment on the futility of the conflict. How To Moyles Court School. The fact that Sergeant Croft’s more liberal superior ultimately dies, suggests a metaphor to American society and offers a social critique on how war represents a nightmare scenario and will ultimately condemn and how to effect divide a functional society – as if a comment on how to write essay Berlin Brandenburg International, the disruptive, conservative and bureaucratic nature of war. Mailer’s writing can be seen as a satirical attack on attitudes to war through his condemnation of the war effort and the traditional assertion of how to write a cause essay Trent war as ‘good’. His style consequently contradicts and differs from the position of earlier war writing due to Mailer’s insistence that war is essentially socially unjust. In this sense, The Naked and College the Dead can be seen as a re-negotiation of generic values to ultimately express a nihilistic vision of the effects of war on the individual and society. Mailer successfully brings to light the disparity between certain representations of war as ‘good’ and what is seen as a more accurate reality of unprecedented horror and moral betrayal.
The Things They Carried. Tim O’Brien explores similar themes in his account of Vietnam in The Things They Carried. The form of the text can be regarded in a cause University contrasting ways, in terms of & creative thinking Independent College a fictional novel or as a collection of personal memoirs. According to David Wyatt, Vietnam found itself, in the writing of it, “caught in a style match between what could be called innocent and informed accounts.” In thinking of the book as an how to write a cause, informed account of Vietnam and therefore as chronicled non-fictional accounts, The Things They Carried can be seen as typical of returning to the old tradition of war writing. This is recognisable in terms of the narrative emphasis O’Brien places on essay University, group camaraderie, individual heroism, and the way in which he and the other soldiers refer to the Vietcong as ‘Charlie’, - to reflect the ideology of American patriotism and the idea of the noble soldier fighting for justice. However, it is much clearer that the majority of the write a cause essay Trent narrative is concerned with emotional turmoil and the distressing burden of the war effort, in this sense revealing the trauma and threat and working as an innocent narrative despite O’Brien’s own Vietnam memories. In the critical & creative thinking Independent College chapter The Man I Killed O’Brien’s language encapsulates his horror, guilt and fear after having killed a young Vietcong soldier; “His jaw was in his throat, his upper lip and teeth were gone, his one eye was shut, his other eye was a star shaped hole, his eyebrows were thin and shaped like a woman’s, his nose was undamaged, . his clean black hair was swept upward into a cowlick at the rear of his skull, … there was a butterfly on his chin, his neck was open to write Trent the spinal cord and the blood there was thick and shiny and it was this wound that had killed him.” The way in which O’Brien describes the dead man provides an how to the conclusion of an, indication of the brutality and terror of war and is in keeping with Mailer’s adoption of the innocent war writing technique in The Naked and the Dead . The sense of unique grievance that O’Brien exudes through his language in his chapter highlights the fact that ‘war hurts’ and also reveals the reality of ‘Killing’.
It is interesting that O’Brien makes use of a somewhat poetic style of language to describe a dead body in what might appear to be an attempt to disguise the horrific injuries and write a cause the suffering of war. More realistically however, is the idea that this descriptive style is intended to provide a more informed vision of the conflict and in doing so, makes the reader aware of the a informative essay extent of the suffering. The poetic references in language parody the brutality and masculinity of war in the description of his feminine features. The ‘star shaped hole’ is perhaps symbolic of the American flag and a reminder of the expectations of a nation for its soldiers to kill and destroy. At the how to write a cause essay University same time however, the graphic nature of the language is equally indicative of both the graphic nature of bloodshed, and also the consequent emotionally draining aspect of the war. “We had ways of making the dead seem not so dead…. By slighting death … we pretended it was not the terrible thing it was.”
The fact that O’Brien finds it hard to come to terms with something that was readily expected of him as a soldier shows how Vietnam has forced him to internally struggle with his conscience. Furthermore, he is as a result unable to adhere to the stereotype of being the ‘killer’ society expects of him. This highlights O’Brien’s sentiments of vulnerability and insecurity in elation to why is important University of London the enemy. O’Brien’s character seems to embrace wholeheartedly the role of storyteller and social critic in the text. He is convincing in his argument that the text is a work of fiction rather than an informed account based on personal experience. He discards the relevance of any informed authority in his accounts of war when he states: “Can the foot soldier teach anything important about the war, merely for having been there? I think not. He can tell war stories.”
In the how to a cause essay Trent quantity and write a informative essay Moyles quality of his work, O’Brien argues for well-told stories, as the least the war deserves. This is a cause essay Trent University inherent in his assertion that if war fiction were produced exclusively by a informative essay Court, accurate accounts of events in Vietnam, then the destructive nature of combat would be more difficult to achieve in writing. This is due to the fact that the soldiers failed to recognise and appreciate the occurrence of singular events in relation to a sense of an ultimate developing drama. O’Brien admits that in war stories, “absolute occurrence is irrelevant”. He makes the case that by retaining the how to write effect essay University importance of a degree of how to an persuasive essay Berlin fiction in war novels; Vietnam can be given a shape that conveys its disparaging and negative forces in a broader context. David Wyatt emphasises that ‘the reflexivity of all war … becomes in The Things They Carried a masterful self-reflexivity, a continual re-figuring of earlier work in order to tell us “How to a cause effect Tell a True War Story”.’ Ultimately, O’Brien suggests that war stories insist upon and perhaps largely consist of their desperate attempt to obtain or reflect the truth; conforming to the rhetoric of re-telling.
This use of repetition functions as a way of making sense of the war’s impact of devastation in both physical and personal terms. Michael Herr’s landmark invention of a new journalistic voice in Dispatches is similar to The Things They Carried in terms of it also attempting to represent the confused reality of Vietnam. The narrative is distinctive in terms of of a-g New York being a collection of factual journalism and reportage, and delivers innovative methods of relaying events through impressionistic and image-laden accounts of the struggle. In this sense, the write effect essay text offers fresh and exciting ways of codifying the Vietnam experience. In contrast to the standard conventions and established language of orthodox war reporting, Herr’s journal is a composite of reports and articles to extend beyond an autobiographical account and ultimately offer a wider historical and of a-g Film cultural awareness of the conflict of University Vietnam. Although Dispatches is generically different in the way is critical mind it not presented as a work of a cause effect University fiction, it is comparable with Tim O’Brien in the sense of being a text primarily concerned with providing stories about the American experience in Vietnam. His achievements in the text arise from the implementation of a disjointed narrative that immediately reflects the popular consumer culture amongst the American soldiers to ultimately portray a fragmented imagery of the conflict.
Consequently, Herr’s narrative comprises of a multiplicity of language; he creatively fuses the vocabulary of American youth and drug cultures by utilising hippie vernacular, pop lyrics, military jargon, black slang and technical press terms in what can be interpreted as a very post-modern appraisal of the Vietnam struggle. “He had the name Marlene tattooed on his upper arm, … On the back of his flak jacket he had once written, “Yea, though I walk through the Valley of the shadow of Death I shall fear no evil, because I’m the critical mind Braemar College meanest Muthafucker in write a cause effect Trent the Valley,” but he had tried later, without much success, to scrub it off because, he explained, every damned dude in list New York Academy the DMZ had that written on their flak jackets. And he’d smile.” Herr’s accounts of the war are presented in how to write Trent a language that buys into the consciousness of the generation and which therefore inherently condemns the Vietnam conflict. This discourse of language is rich in the idea of humanity that transcends earlier war literature and consistently opposes the more horrific side of Vietnam. Dispatches makes much of the comradeship of the soldiers and emphasises the role of charity in how to write a informative essay Moyles the face of adversity.
This alternative narrative in terms of style and language embodies Herr’s reportage as a critique of how to write a cause effect conventional war journalism. His narrative and use of critical Chelsea Independent College techniques such as montage are in contrast to the approach of a cause effect Trent standard media correspondents, and reveal the how to write of an essay Badminton difficulties involved in writing traditional ‘stories’ about Vietnam. The often-fragmented nature of Herr’s narrative helps the how to write University reader to obtain a position in which to fully appreciate the experience of Vietnam, rather than relying upon a traditional linear discourse of narration. However, the subject matter of the text is perhaps less reliant on highlighting the actual experience of Vietnam, and would prefer to discuss a fuller exploration of how to write the conclusion of an that experience. Rather than attempt to write a cause Trent recreate the war in a literary documentation, Herr’s objectives can be interpreted as wanting to examine and investigate his memories of how to write Berlin Vietnam.
His approach is based on the assumption that in order to obtain a more meaningful insight into the struggle; it is how to write effect essay Trent University necessary to leave behind the actual events of the war and attempt to writing important City, University of London locate the experience of it in a much broader context. This approach is similar in form to the suggestions of Tim O’Brien in his work. Herr’s experience in Vietnam highlighted a problem in terms of condemning the popular representation of war in popular imagination and attempting to replace these images with what was considered to be a truthful reflection of American experience in Vietnam. Herr maintains that the flexible nature of how to write a cause effect Trent University war literature in promoting the idea of a ‘good war’ and the image of the heroic soldier hindered the how to essay reader from arriving at a truer and more meaningful understanding of the how to a cause essay hostility of war. Dispatches offers an alternative insight into critical mind Braemar the role and experience of the essay Trent soldier. Due to his fragmented narrative and critical mind Braemar College plethora of how to essay Trent University linguistic jargon, Herr seems to suggest that Vietnam was futile from the point of view of all those who experienced it and stresses the impossibility of arriving at fixed meanings and rational thinking. Herr’s text is therefore symptomatic of a text rich in the discourse of the conclusion truth and brutal reality. Rather than trying to explain or rationalise the war in any length, the stories of Herr and other correspondents such as Tim Page, were primarily concerned with attempting to capture the horror and beauty of the place – and thereby offer a more realistic and representative account of life in Vietnam.
It is therefore clear that the work of Trent writers such as Mailer, O’Brien and Herr have had their origins in an attempt to re-emphasise the write essay School narcissistic nature of combat, whilst managing to retain and highlight the importance and beauty of life in an appraisal of humanity. These texts both discard the notions of war as something symbolically rewarding, as was the case in previous war writing, and replace these sentiments with ideas about reality and civilisation. By highlighting the devastation of the war effort through both brutal and write a cause essay University compassionate language and imagery, the critical mind College reader is in a cause effect Trent a position to why is essay writing important City, of London attain a more realistic account of the nihilistic characteristics of write effect essay Trent a war, and the effects this has in relation to individual experience. The war photography of Tim Page. With the publication of Dispatches in 1977 came to how to write an persuasive essay Berlin Brandenburg prominence the work of Vietnam War photographer Tim Page.
Page’s photographic evidence of Vietnam is complimentary to Herr’s written accounts in the sense that they both share a common quest to highlight the war’s experience both in terms of write Trent University grief and suffering, but also in terms of recording the drug and rock aspects of GI culture. Herr quotes Page’s reaction to a request from a British publisher for a book which would “finally take the glamour out of the courses New York Film Academy war.” “Take the glamour out of the war?! I mean, how the bloody hell can you do that ? Go and take the glamour out of a Huey, go take the effect essay Trent University glamour out of a Sheridan … Can you take the glamour out of a Cobra or getting stoned on China Beach? … Oh war is good for you, you can’t take the glamour out of that. It’s like trying to take the glamour out of sex, trying to take the glamour out of The Rolling Stones … I mean, you know that, it just can’t be done.” Dispatches led to a revival of interest in Page’s work. In an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London in 1980, Page made an issue of the ‘glamour’ of & creative thinking Chelsea Independent College Vietnam and recalled how ‘groovy’ it had been playing with helicopters, tanks and piloting Skyraiders. How To Write. The point Page was trying to make through his photography was that war always was, and always will be, heavily invested in glamour, with glory and in machoism such is the write an persuasive School representation of conflict in popular imagination.
The popular fascination with the glamour of war was therefore perhaps a result of the how to a cause effect University ways in which war had been previously reported, with much emphasis having been placed on the heroic and gallant actions of ‘good’ soldiers. However, Page delivers an alternative view on the glamour of war. Rather than choosing to portray Vietnam in terms of heroic action, Page captures much more outrageously the feelings and sentiments of a large demographic of women, children, soldiers and correspondents through pictures of great melancholy beauty. By dramatising the rock and roll aspect of GI culture, Page can be seen as subverting traditional representations of war and suggesting alternative ways to characterise what he believed were the realities of conflict. Consequently, perhaps Page’s most striking pictures are those in which he records the sixties-psychedelic side of the essay City, GI culture, and documents the terrorised black and white American soldiers in “the inanity of their predicament and the refuge they took in dope and rock.” This particular quality of the war was perhaps unique to Vietnam and is what Page refers to when he discusses the ‘glamour’ of how to effect war. This is not to say however that Page fails to recognise the more mundane aspects common to how to write the conclusion essay Badminton School all wars such as the destruction of society and the indignity of suffering.
It is simply that Page attempted to capture the enduring sense of a cause effect essay Trent reality in all areas to highlight a sense of perceived glamour in terms of suffering. In this sense, Page’s photography centres on the ultimate reality that there is no glamour at an persuasive essay all. Page recognises and highlights through his work that the earlier representations are capable of glamorising the how to indignity of war. Consequently, Page can therefore be regarded as being conscious of the realities of war, whilst still retaining his own private sense of glamour. Tim Page is typical of how to a informative Moyles a collection of Vietnam artists who realised that their texts needed renegotiations of what had gone before them in terms of form and style, and in doing so, offer new interpretations and conclusions in their work. Such was the supremacy and dominance of the how to a cause effect essay University war image in popular culture that the reality and lived experiences were sometimes only partially discovered. Critical Mind Braemar College. As a consequence, a distinction between what was considered fact and fiction was exposed to how to write effect essay University suggest that many experiences were interpreted as fictional stories.
The actual events of write Brandenburg combat had given way to images of how to effect Trent how the war was fought and what it was fought for, thanks to various military and political discourses. List New York Film Academy. The narratives discussed in how to write effect essay Trent this essay however, focus on the cultural expressions of the actual nature of war and the more contemporary disciplines that were implemented in order to highlight an how to write essay Court, ultimate attack on the socially, culturally and politically destructive qualities of conflict. In an analysis of the how to write effect University literary realism of conventional war writing, the American soldier is often deemed as inherently proper and constructed in a typically righteous light. It can be argued that this discourse is limited in vision due to the way in which these novels tend to evade the more difficult and unwelcome issues of war, preferring to essay City, ‘make sense’ of the experience. Write Effect Trent. As a consequence, these narratives could realistically apply to any example of conflict such are the conventional methods in terms of style and why is University form, and the way in how to write a cause effect Trent which they fail to write essay Brandenburg School capture the ambiguous realities of war.
The reliance on factual material in how to effect Trent University an informed account of war also seems inappropriate in that this technique neglects to address fundamental experiences and lived realities of soldiers. The work of Herr, O’Brien and Page in particular, evoke much more vividly the exhilarating honesty of the Vietnam experience in terms of externalising the rock and roll aspect of Vietnam and highlighting diverse elements of hope, power and loss. At the same time, the a informative Moyles Court texts attempt to highlight in powerful terms the development and demise of the individual through the experience of combat, and refuse to lose sight of the very real suffering the conflict caused on a wider level. Even though Herr and O’Brien realise and admit that sometimes the how to write a cause University distinction between fact and essay writing important City, University of London fiction is occasionally blurred, their success in write a cause effect capturing the contemporary emotion of Vietnam transcends the idea that informed realism in war writing matters. Ultimately therefore, the the conclusion of an essay School writing succeeds as documents which re-evaluate popular ideas by commenting on write a cause Trent University, the more futile and ineffectual nature of battle and the broad consequences of it. The New Journalism , with an anthology edited by Tom Wolfe and E.W. Johnson. Harper Row Publishers, New York 1973. The Things They Carried , Tim O’Brien. Flamingo Press 1990. Tim Page’s Nam , Introduction by William Shawcross.
Thames and Hudson 1983. American War Literature 1914 to Vietnam , Jeffrey Walsh. Macmillan Press 1982. Vietnam Images, War and Representation , Edited by Jeffrey Walsh and James Aulich. Macmillan Press 1989. Celluloid Wars, A Guide to Film and the American Experience of War , Frank J. How To Moyles School. Wetta and Stephen J. Curley.
Greenwood Press 1992. Vietnam in how to write effect essay Trent American Literature , Philip H. Melling. Twayne Publishers Boston 1990. There are two other articles on a similar theme in ASToday Online which you might also be interested in. How did Participation in America's Wars affect Black Americans? The treatment of Black soldiers in the American forces reflected the discrimination they suffered at home, but their experience led to increased political awareness and helped the development of the Civil Rights movement. This theme is how to essay Berlin Brandenburg explored by this year’s essay competition winner, Jill Woodland, a final year student at write Trent University Liverpool John Moores University.
American Studies Resources Centre, Aldham Robarts Library, Liverpool John Moores University, Maryland Street, Liverpool L1 9DE, United Kingdom. Tel 0151-231 3241. © City of Liverpool College, Liverpool John Moores University and the Contributors, 2003. Articles and reviews in this journal may be freely reproduced for use in subscribing institutions only, provided that the source is acknowledged.
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essay marketing mix Guide on How to write Trent University Write University Essays, Courseworks, Assignments and Dissertations. In the sequence of strategic analysis and decisions, marketing mix analysis falls after various external and & creative Chelsea internal environmental analyses such as PESTEL analysis , Porter's Five Forces analysis , SWOT Analysis and even formulation of competitive strategies ( Porter's Generic Strategies ). Marketing mix is an imperative concept in modern marketing and academically it is referred to how to a cause effect as the set of controllable tools that the how to firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market, so it consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for how to a cause effect Trent, its product (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004). It is important to realise that marketing mix strategy of any company can have one major function, that is, strategic communication of the organisation with its customers (Proctor, 2000). Write! It was further argued that marketing mix provides multiple paths as such communication can be achieved either in spoken form and written communications (advertising, selling, etc.) or in how to more symbolic forms of communication (the image conveyed in the quality of the product, its price and the type of distribution outlet chosen). However, the key element is that the main aspects of marketing mix that will be discussed below should not be seen as individual entities, but as a set of critical Braemar College interrelated entities which have to be set in conjunction with one another (Proctor, 2000: 212). The easiest way to how to a cause essay Trent University understand the how to write Berlin International main aspects of marketing is through its more famous synonym of 4Ps of Marketing. The classification of how to four Ps of marketing was first introduced and suggested by McCarthy (1960), and critical & creative thinking Chelsea College includes marketing strategies of product, price, placement and how to write a cause promotion. How To A Informative Moyles Court! The following diagram is helpful in how to write a cause effect Trent University determining the critical & creative College main ingredients of the four Ps in a marketing mix. In simpler terms, product includes all features and combination of goods and related services that a company offers to its customers.
So the Airbus product includes its body parts such as the engine, nut bolts, seats, etc along with its after-sales services and all are included in the product development strategy of the how to write essay University Airbus . However, a serious criticism can be raised here in terms of how marketing mix analysis will cater for companies such as ABN Amro Bank , Natwest Bank , British Airways and Fedex Corporation as they don't possess tangible products. It was argued that is it feasible to omit service-oriented companies with the logic that the term services does not start with a P, however, it was asserted that these companies can use the terminology of service products under marketing mix strategy making (Kotler Armstrong, 2004). Lazer (1971) argued that product is the most important aspect of how to a informative essay Moyles School marketing mix for two main reasons. First, for manufacturers, products are the market expression of the company's productive capabilities and determine its ability to link with consumers. So product policy and strategy are of prime importance to an enterprise, and product decisions dictate the a cause effect essay University scope and direction of company activity. Moreover, the & creative thinking College market indicators such as profits, sales, image, market share, reputation and write effect Trent University stature are also dependent on them. Secondly, it is imperative to realise that the product of critical & creative Chelsea any organisation is both a component and a determinant of the marketing mix as it has a great influence on the other elements of the mix: advertising, personal selling, channels of distribution, physical distribution and pricing. How To A Cause Essay Trent! So without proper product policy, a company can not pursue for how to write a informative School, further elements of marketing mix. Pricing is basically setting a specific price for a product or service offered.
In a simplistic way, Kotler and Armstrong (2004) refer to the concept of a cause effect essay Trent price as the amount of money that customers have to pay to obtain the Braemar product. Setting a price is not something simple. Normally it has been taken as a general law that a low price will attract more customers. It is not a valid argument as customers do not respond to price alone; they respond to value so a lower price does not necessarily mean expanded sales if the effect University product is not fulfilling the expectation of the how to the conclusion essay Badminton School customers (Lazer, 1971). Generally pricing strategy under marketing mix analysis is divided into two parts: price determination and price administration (ibid). Price determination is referred to as the processes and activities employed to arrive at a cause essay Trent University a price for a product including consideration of relative prices of how to a informative Moyles products within the write effect essay Trent same line, and differences in price for & creative thinking Independent College, similar products of essay University differing grades and how to of an qualities. Price administration is referred to as the activities involved in fitting basic prices to particular sales situations such as geographic locale, functions performed by customers, position of distribution channel members, or special sales situations. An example of this is special discounted prices at, for instance, GAP , NEXT etc or Coca Cola and how to write effect essay University Pepsi wheredifferent prices are set in different geographical areas considering the difference in patterns of usage as well as varying advertisement costs. Placement under marketing mix involves all company activities that make the list product available to the targeted customer (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004). Based on how to write a cause effect essay Trent various factors such as sales, communications and contractual considerations, various ways of making products available to customers can be used (Lazer, 1971).
Companies such as Ford , Ferrari , Toyota , and Nissan use specific dealers to how to write a informative School make their products available, whereas companies such as Nestle involve a whole chain of wholesaler retailers to reach its customers. On a general note, while planning placement strategy under marketing mix analysis, companies consider six different channel decisions including choosing between direct access to customers or involving middlemen, choosing single or multiple channels of distributions, the how to write a cause effect length of the distribution channel, the how to write the conclusion of an essay School types of how to write intermediaries, the numbers of distributors, and which intermediary to use based on & creative thinking Independent College the quality and reputation (Proctor, 2000) Promotional strategies include all means through which a company communicates the write Trent University benefits and values of its products and persuades targeted customers to buy them (Kotler and Armstrong, 2004). The best way to understand promotion is through the concept of the marketing communication process. Writing City, University Of London! Promotion is the company strategy to cater for the marketing communication process that requires interaction between two or more people or groups, encompassing senders, messages, media and receivers (Lazer, 1971). Taking the example of Nokia , the sender of the communication in this case is Nokia , the essay Trent advertising agency, or both; the media used in the process can be salesmen, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, television and the like.
The actual message is the advertisement or sales presentation and the destination is the potential consumer or customer, in this case mobile phone users. Limitation of Marketing Mix Analysis (4Ps of Marketing) Despite the fact that marketing mix analysis is used as a synonym for the 4Ps of Marketing, it is criticised (Kotler Armstrong, 2004) on the point that it caters seller's view of market analysis not customers view. To tackle this criticism, Lauterborn (1990) attempted to match 4 Ps of & creative thinking Chelsea College marketing with 4 Cs of marketing to address consumer views: Product – Customer Solution. Price – Customer Cost. How to Write a Good Marketing Mix Analysis.
To follow a simple and best approach for marketing mix analysis, it is imperative to understand the purpose of this analysis. So the write a cause basic key is to how to a informative Court School analyse the company's overall marketing strategy primarily through the strategies it follows under the 4Ps of marketing. So the Trent approach should be to keep equal balance in analysing all four elements of marketing mix. The following points should be considered while carrying out thinking College analysis: While analysing a company's product, a common fallacy can be focusing on the final outlook of the how to a cause University product and that gives rise to a nave approach. Analysts should consider and analyse all major product decisions that the company may have carried out including quality, features, options, style, brand name, packaging, sizes, after-sales services, warranties, returns, etc. Moreover, the company's position, as well as marketing strategy in the market, can be judged on the basis of write the conclusion of an its product mix including width, length, depth and consistency (Proctor, 200). Write A Cause Effect! Width is the critical & creative Chelsea Independent number of lines the firm carries, for example Sony has various lines including TV, video, cameras and laptops. Length is the number of items in how to write a cause effect Trent the product mix, for how to Moyles, example Toshiba has different types of TVs and laptops. Write Effect Essay Trent University! Depth is the number of variants of each product offered in the line such as clock radios, car radios and pocket radios.
Finally, consistency is how closely related the various product lines are in terms of the use to writing University of London which they are put, more commonly including electrical and entertainment products. So, using these bases for product strategy classification will lead to how to a cause essay Trent University easy and effective analysis. Finally, one should attempt to identify what the company is Braemar College, actually aiming at through its product. There can be three possible product strategies in a company's action (Proctor, 2000). Either it aims the product at the market such as Erickson with new mobile phones to cater for write a cause effect essay, the business class; it can be given a face lift such as Marks Spencer's attempt with more customer-specific products; and it can be withdrawn, discontinued or eliminated such as Marks Spencer closing down its unprofitable units across the globe.
To write a valuable pricing analysis of why is essay writing City, a company, the key is to correlate its pricing strategy with its product position in the market. The company may use various pricing strategies such as penetration, skimming, competition-based pricing, psychological pricing, price wars, etc (Proctor, 2000). A company uses penetration prices if its product is entirely new to the market so it may charge low prices to increase market share. It may be observed that Porsche and Ferrari use skimming pricing where they may charge a higher price as they know their specific customers will buy their product at any price. How To Write Essay Trent University! Sometimes companies have more fluctuating prices so an analyst should consider that their might be competition going on & creative Chelsea College or a price war has broken through between rivals. For instance, Pepsi and Coke often indulge in write a cause effect essay Trent such price wars. Sometimes psychological dimensions can be considered as well. Customers easily find products in Tesco , Asda or Sainsbury's with price tags of £2.99 or £4.99 rather than £3 or £5 as customers may perceive them as £2 or £4. So the & creative thinking Chelsea writer must analyse which of these strategies a company is how to write a cause effect Trent, following and for list courses New York Film, what reason. Similarly, placement analysis requires the knowledge of a company's distribution channels, for instance analysis of the fact that a company is involving any middleman or not.
If analysis of a consumer-good producer such as Nestle , Cadbury , and how to write a cause effect essay Colgate Palmolive is carried out, there are high chances that a middleman will be involved considering the size of the market in critical Braemar target. However, industrial producers such as Airbus may opt for direct distribution considering the limited number of customers. Similarly, it should be noted that a company may be using a specific intermediary if the how to write a cause Trent ease, reliability, image of the particular outlet, the way in which it performs and the deals which can be struck with the distributor are satisfactory. So, a company may choose CA rather than Marks and how to write a informative Moyles Spencer , or Tesco rather than any other retail outlet (Proctor, 2000). On a general note, a very good analysis can be made if the placement related the Trent six questions highlighted in why is essay important City, of London previous sections are tackled. Finally, the basic step in promotion analysis is to identify the write effect Trent communication objective that the company is why is City,, aiming at. There can be multiple communication objectives that can be identified. One should analyse how the promotion strategy is how to write a cause effect Trent, aimed at creating awareness of the product or service, provision of product information, brand recognition, gaining access to a target audience that is inaccessible to a salesman, evoking desire for Moyles School, a product or service, merely making the selling task easier, overcoming prejudices, creating a reminder or to allay cognitive dissonance (Proctor, 2000). Once the communication objective is identified, then it is imperative to analyse the essay Trent message and the promotional mix that is how to write an persuasive Brandenburg International, used by how to write essay the company including advertisement, sales promotion, publicity and personnel selling.
For Instance Nike very rarely uses personal selling due to its established brand awareness, however, it continually uses advertisements with communication objective of creating a product reminder. Contrary to that, Unilever may use personal selling, advertisements as well as offering discounts (sales promotion) if it launches a new consumer good such as toothpaste or soap to Brandenburg School cater for the communication objective of creating new product awareness. Information for Marketing Mix Analysis. Students may seek information regarding market mix analysis (4 Ps) from two basic sources: market and academic. For market sources, information is easily available from a company's website, business reports, newspapers/published data on marketing, independent market survey reports and, in how to a cause essay some cases, students may visit a retail outlet to analyse a product, its pricing and promotional strategies. However, to get more specific details, marketing and advertising academic journals and secondary data in critical thinking the form of a cause essay Trent University case studies can be the ideal source. Marketing mix analysis is a fundamental step towards effective strategy. Critical! Where other analysis are more related to environment and feasibility analysis, the 4 Ps of marketing including the product itself, pricing, placement and promotion are the four wheels of the vehicle on which the path of an organisation's marketing success is actually dependent.
Kotler, P Armstrong, G (2004), 'Principles of Marketing', Tenth Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc Lauterborn, R (1990), 'New Marketing Litany: 4P's Passe; C-Words Take Over', Advertising Age, Oct 1, 1990:26 Lazer, W (1971), 'Marketing Management: A Systems Perspective' New York: John Wiley Sons McCarthy, E J (1960), 'Basic Marketing - A Managerial Approach', Illinois: Irwin Proctor, T (2000), 'Strategic Marketing: An Introduction', London: Routledge. Copyright 2002-2007 Papers4You.Com All Rights Reserved. The following papers contain Marketing Mix Analysis.