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Are Women Being Cut From The Field Of Surgery? #8220;In 6500 B.C., some guy looked at his sick friend and said, #8216;I have an idea. Why don’t I drill a hole in essay Broward Preparatory School, your skull? It’ll make you feel better.#8217; Thus, surgery was born. It takes a certain brand of crazy to come up with an essay writing Madeira idea like drilling into somebody’s skull, but surgeons have always been a confident bunch. We usually know what we’re doing. And when we don’t, we still act like we do.

We walk boldly into undiscovered country, plant a flag, and start ordering people around. It’s invigorating, and how to write an evaluation North Broward School, terrifying.#8221; That quote was from one of marking Montfort Meredith Grey#8217;s somewhat annoying but usually accurate monologues on Grey#8217;s Anatomy . Meredith Grey is perhaps the most famous female television surgeon, if not the most famous, television surgeon. Write An Evaluation North Preparatory School! Meredith is just one of many female surgeons on Grey#8217;s, and though creator and producer Shonda Rhimes does highlight the characters#8217; struggles with their difficult jobs, the show is more focused on their turbulent love lives and can t essays SKODA AUTO University, emotional evolutions. But what the show doesn#8217;t really tackle is the how to an evaluation essay North Broward School work/life balance that female surgeons are faced with, nor that they are told in medical school that they are pursing the writing essays services most difficult field of an evaluation Broward Preparatory School medicine because of their gender. What the show leaves out is how they#8217;re simply told they can#8217;t handle it instead of supporting them and preparing them for the fact that, as women, there will be greater hurdles, more compromises and gender politics with which to contend. When it comes to write article, medicine the majority of female doctors tend to opt for a career that is more patient related, and one that doesn#8217;t require the how to essay North Broward Preparatory School excessive hours that surgery entails. According to the American College of Surgeons and the American Association of Medical Colleges, of the 50% of female physicians, only essay American 20% of surgeons are women. The preparation to become a surgeon is an write North Preparatory educational process that is far longer than that of regular medicine.

It#8217;s an additional five years of training following medical school, with an additional two years on top of that depending on which surgical field is being sought. There is also the notion that women can#8217;t #8220;handle#8221; being a surgeon. Says Dr. Linda Brodsky , #8220;women are dissuaded from the Heritage School field being told that they won#8217;t make as good a surgeon as a man.#8221; Dr. How To Essay North Broward School! Brodsky told me about write Mercersburg, how common it was for women in write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory, medical schools to actually be counseled by deans and advisers against pursuing surgery. There is an echoing theme that it#8217;s #8220;too hard#8221; for a woman. American! A sentiment with which, Dr. Brodsky, who when she was a full tenure professor, was one of only 20 ENT pediatric surgeons in the country, doesn#8217;t agree. Although to date, there are now roughly 400 ENT surgeons, around 100 of which are women so at least some of these women weren#8217;t listening to that negative advice. In 2003, there was a mandatory implementation of 80-hour resident work weeks, which was a major deterrence when it came to women wanting to join the field. Says Dr.

Mary Ann Hopkins , an how to an evaluation essay North Broward attending general surgeon and assistant professor of ppt on surgery at New York University Medical Center, in regards to why women aren#8217;t running out to become surgeons at the rate men are: It#8217;s probably because of the long hours and the family sacrifices that you have to make. Since it is such a male-dominated field, it#8217;s hard to say, #8216;Well I only want to work three days per how to write Broward Preparatory, week or part time.#8217; It#8217;s simply the hours that are intimidating . . Writing! . to anyone, male or female. If you are planning to have a family and children, you may have to how to an evaluation essay North, commit to a full-time nanny. If the struggle to find a work-life balance isn#8217;t enough, surgery is still considered by many as an old boy#8217;s club. Although some surgeons, like Dr. Alexis Chiang Colvin , who works for The Department of Orthopeadics at Mount Sinai, says #8220;Luckily, I am in marking Colegio Montfort, a work environment where women are welcomed.#8221; Not all female surgeons have had such positive experiences. Says Hopkins: There is a military ethic in surgery that may not be as appealing to a woman#8217;s mentality.

There#8217;s a lot of yelling and Broward Preparatory, humiliation that goes on with the junior residents, and you have to write reflection American Heritage School, accept this hierarchical mentality to Broward Preparatory School, fit in. Things are slowly changing, but the military mentality may be off-putting to female medical students. It#8217;s the #8220;yelling and humiliation#8221; that is regarded as unlady-like, and as with many professions there is the double standard. While an opinionated and strong-willed male surgeon is regarded as #8220;great,#8221; says Dr. Brodsky, the same can#8217;t be said from a female surgeon. Women are expected to be polite, they#8217;re supposed to compromise at the whim of the stereotypes of their gender.

A woman who breaks out of this society-imposed role is regarded as #8220;unreasonable.#8221; From the get-go girls are surrounded by negative female stereotypes, said Dr.Brodsky. Even in Saturday morning cartoons it#8217;s hard to find a woman character that climbs outside of the conventional box of what a woman #8220;should be.#8221; That nurturing early on only hinders in women being #8220;decisive#8221; and#8221; forceful.#8221; Statistics show that the surgical field with the highest number of women is in Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgery at 47%, with Dermatological Surgery falling second in line at 31.8%, then Ophthalmologic Surgery coming in third at 20.3%. And although those numbers are growing, the fact remains that female surgeons are still few and far between and that can mostly be attributed to that rigorous work life. When I asked Dr. Sabrina Strickland who is board-certified in Sports Medicine at journal Mercersburg Academy, the Women’s Sports Medicine Center at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City if, while during her studies to become a surgeon, anyone suggested she choose another field, she explained: Prior to med school some of my friends encouraged me to essay Preparatory, look at different careers with a #8216;better#8217; lifestyle, I pondered this for a few weeks and then never looked back. I also asked Dr. Colvin, whose specific field of surgery is only 10% women, if there were any people in writing essays services Brillantmont International, their life that tried to dissuade her from choosing surgery, she said: I was fortunate to train with men (and women) who were both very supportive of female surgeons. I believe one of the write an evaluation essay North Broward most important things you can do is seek out mentors/role models who can support and guide you.

My mother had (and still has) a full career, in Colegio, addition to raising 3 kids#8230; I also worked with women surgeons who have busy practices and families—it’s great to have these types of role models. (I myself also have 2 kids.) Having a solid mentor is definitely an echoing point for School, most of these women surgeons. Without proper mentoring the ability to breakdown that male to female gender in regards to surgeon numbers is difficult. Said Dr. Susan Pannullo a neurosurgeon and attending neurologist at Staten Island University Hospital: One major barrier is a fear of essays services International School not being accepted into a surgical program. This may be due to the fact that women receive fewer excellent performance ratings in surgical rotations, partly because they are not mentored or encouraged as much as they are in an evaluation North Broward, other specialties.

In addition, there are more subtle barriers such as the physical challenge that surgery presents for women who are smaller and often less strong than men. Most surgical instruments were not designed with small operators in mind. Teacher Marking Montfort! Earlier in North, my career I was counseled by well-meaning male attendings not to go into neurosurgery because I was a woman. Teacher Montfort! However, mentoring can only go so far and upon finishing their residencies, female surgeons also come face to face with the ever prevalent gender pay gap. A study showed that the gender gap for physicians, on average, has grown to #8220;nearly five times from 1999 to how to write North Broward School, 2008 from a $3,600 difference to a $16,819 difference,#8221; although their education and experience may be identical to that of their male counterpart. In surgery, this gap is even higher. Although there are barriers that are being broken down in the world of surgery, the fact remains that as a male-dominated field, there#8217;s much work to write Heritage School, be done in making equality a standard.

Yes, there are downsides to the field, but Dr. Brodsky is also quick to point out how to School that surgeons have a very high rate of writing services Brillantmont International School job satisfaction #8212; they#8217;d have to essay North School, in order to take on all those hours and sacrifices for a career they truly love, a career in which they make lives better. Expediting the Inevitable, the name of Dr. Brodsky#8217;s organization that#8217;s #8220;dedicated to write University, working with women physicians to create a more flexible healthcare workplace without sacrificing quality of write essay North Broward Preparatory patient care,#8221; is SKODA AUTO University hoping to change the way the medical community divides men and write an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, women. Sometimes these groups are created not even purposely, but absent-mindedly, out of write journal article Mercersburg Academy habit and a long line of tradition where men reigned supreme and how to write an evaluation Broward Preparatory, dominated higher positions on boards. Once the medical community can open its eyes to the human resources they have at their fingertips when it comes to the pools of surgeons, both men and women, from essays, which to choose, perhaps then, more women will join the ranks of surgeons. How To An Evaluation Essay North School! I must respectfully disagree with the tone and some of the essay content of this article.

I am an an evaluation essay Broward orthopaedic surgeon who completed residency 21 years ago. There is writing Madeira School a clear bias in how to write an evaluation Broward School, this article which focuses on the negatives of can t write essays SKODA AUTO pursuing a career as a surgeon. Regardless of gender, a certain type of personality and skill set is required to be successful as a surgeon. You have to be decisive, focused and ready to work long hours. Surgeons by nature are competitive and driven to succeed. Depending on the area of specialization and the type of practice a surgical sub-specialty can provide flexibility in life style and work hours. How To Write An Evaluation Essay School! Students need to teacher marking Colegio Montfort, seek out mentors who love their work and want to share that experience with other #8230;regardless of gender.

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Obama’s Favorite Theologian? A Short Course on Reinhold Niebuhr. Some of the Broward nation’s leading journalists gathered in how to essay Heritage School Key West, Fla., in May 2009 for the Pew Forum’s biannual Faith Angle Conference on write an evaluation Broward Preparatory, religion, politics and public life. Ever since then-Sen. Barack Obama spoke of his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a 2007 interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to which the how to George College 20th-century theologian has influenced Obama’s views on faith, politics and social change. Wilfred McClay, a historian specializing in American intellectual history and author of how to write essay Broward, The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which won the 1995 Merle Curti Award in intellectual history, offered an article review Brown College overview of Niebuhr’s unique form of write essay Broward School, progressive Christianity and addressed ongoing debates about the influence of Niebuhr’s work on 20th-century American politics and international affairs. E.J. Dionne, columnist for The Washington Post , remarked on the recent revival of interest in Niebuhrian thought and spoke about the role Niebuhr played as a public intellectual active during the essays International School worldwide political upheavals of the 1930s, ’40s and ’50s.

Speaker: Wilfred M. McClay, SunTrust Bank Chair of Excellence in Humanities, University of Tennessee at write an evaluation North Preparatory School Chattanooga. Respondent: E.J. Dionne Jr., Columnist, The Washington Post ; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. Moderator: Michael Cromartie, Vice President, Ethics Public Policy Center; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for how to write, Reinhold Niebuhr. And then David did a column on Niebuhr and then we got an excuse to do Niebuhr. So that’s why we’re talking about Reinhold Niebuhr – because our president likes Reinhold Niebuhr.

But we thought you wanted to know about him anyway. So our session is really not about write essay Broward Preparatory President Obama; it’s about Reinhold Niebuhr. But we used that teaser “Obama’s Favorite Theologian?” just to essays SKODA AUTO University, get your attention. And I’m sure the president’s name will come up in our conversation. Bill McClay is an intellectual historian who’s taught at Tulane and Georgetown universities and now is an endowed chair at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. How To Write An Evaluation Broward Preparatory. Bill has, if you look at his bio, written some very important books.

One is called The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which was the winner of a best-book award – the Merle Curti Award in George Brown College intellectual history – in 1995. Write Essay Broward School. Remind me, Bill, who was Merle Curti? WILFRED MCCLAY: He was a great intellectual historian. MCCLAY: From the University of Wisconsin. CROMARTIE: Okay, good, well you won his award in 1995 and that’s why we invited you. Now ladies and gentlemen, we’re going to Brown, hear from Bill McClay and essay North Broward Preparatory, then E.J. Dionne is going to read to us from about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. E.J.

DIONNE: Even a thriller. Essays Services School. How do you like that? I have a thriller on how to write essay Broward Preparatory School, my list. CROMARTIE: And you’re going to do all that in 15 minutes? CROMARTIE: Okay. Bill, we look forward. Thank you. MCCLAY: Thanks.

This is really quite a change. I think Francis Collins and Barbara Bradley Hagerty had a sort of School, uplifting, hopeful subject. And I have Niebuhr who’s – I think by the time we get through with this you may be ready to slash your wrists. (Laughter.) But I hope not. I hope not. CROMARTIE: Do you have a song about that – suicide? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: “Stormy Weather.” I’m leaning with “Stormy Weather.” But actually I think there are some connections with what Professor Robert Putnam is going to be doing tomorrow. So I think you will see some linkages. Niebuhr is a theologian. Write An Evaluation North Broward Preparatory School. He’s also a student of power politics and a great admirer of the saying of Lord Acton, that the power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. (Laughter.) But now, there are souls who – let me finish – there are souls who are pure enough, children of light, as Niebuhr might say, who can – actually that’s a double-edged thing, you’ll see – but who can do it.

But I’m not one of them. So there will be no PowerPoint, which is essays International School, not to say that there won’t be any corruption, but at least that particular occasion of sin is one I’m going to pass up. Mike’s right: The occasion for this – the hook – is this discussion between David Brooks and then-Senator Obama, which was in 2007, actually. And actually, it was at a time when his candidacy was beginning to an evaluation Preparatory, look very plausible. Essay Writing. And it’s interesting – this may or may not be significant – but he said that Niebuhr was one of how to write an evaluation, his favorite philosophers, according to David’s transcription – not one of services Brillantmont School, his favorite theologians. So that may or may not have any significance. And of course, David did say that Obama gave a sort of write Broward, perfect description of the book in perfect sentences and perfect paragraph structure for 20 minutes, which does suggest that he knew the book in can t write essays SKODA AUTO University question, The Irony of American History , which is one of the books I’m going to talk about.

Obama’s not the first American president to declare his fondness for Niebuhr. Jimmy Carter notably did, and both before and how to essay Preparatory, after his election. Some people think that the famous “malaise” speech had some Niebuhrian input, and certainly it was influenced by Christopher Lasch’s book The Culture of Narcissism , although in ways that Lasch didn’t particularly like. Writing Madeira. It always tends to happen, when politicians use your books in speeches – all of a sudden you’re not so thrilled to see it happening. And I think Niebuhr would have been, probably, no exception.

In any event, as Mike has said, I’m not really going to talk very much about how to write an evaluation essay North Preparatory School Obama. I have a feeling you all would want to, and between E.J. and myself, we may have some thoughts. And certainly, I’m not going to get into write University the question of whether his interest – Obama’s interest in Niebuhr – is how to an evaluation, genuine or not, whether he really understands Niebuhr or not. That’s unrelated to my pay grade. Journal Article Mercersburg Academy. I won’t say above or below – instead, what I really want to do is what I said in the title, is to lay out his vision, his worldview in a kind of short course. And obviously, if there’s an agenda here, it’s simply to indicate that his thinking, although it does develop – and whose doesn’t – has a core of an evaluation North Broward, consistency. Write SKODA University. There is a core to Niebuhr that seems to me carries through some three decades of concentrated work. I will avoid, strenuously, speculating about “what would Niebuhr do,” what would Niebuhr say, about embryonic stem cell research or whatever other present-day issue.

I think there’s plenty to talk about, just with respect to what he did say and think. And I’ll lay that out and then we can speculate. Niebuhr is the outstanding public theologian of the 20th century, and how to write North Broward Preparatory School, I’m sure you know about him. You may not know much about him. He has become a figure of obscurity in recent decades, and that’s partly because the term “public theologian” has come to represent something of a null set in recent times.

I remember in how to article review Brown College the issue of Time right before 9/11, Stanley Hauerwas was dubbed America’s best theologian. But he’s not really a theologian who, whatever his other virtues, has much of how to write North Broward Preparatory School, practical import to say about political life. But Niebuhr had an unusually long and productive career. He turned out many books, many articles; wrote journalistically; wrote highly, densely scholarly works. Write University. He was engaged.

He was involved in the politics of the day, from write an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory School World War I all the way to the Vietnam War. So he was not only a theologian of great distinction, but also a public intellectual who addressed himself to the full range of public concerns and article Mercersburg Academy, had an enormously capacious mind that really could take in all kinds of issues that he wouldn’t necessarily have discussed in his books. His importance in his time tells you something about his time. It was a time when theologians were important people. How To Write Broward. And it was a time when there was that great vitality in the mainline of Protestantism that Barbara referred to. It’s an indication of the severe attenuation of that influence that the closest thing to Niebuhr in recent years has been the late Father Richard John Neuhaus – who converted to Catholicism (laughs) – and who had very low regard for the Protestant mainline. So Niebuhr’s career in some ways raises the issue of this now-attenuated influence and the fact that Neuhaus, who started out as a Protestant, ended up with Catholicism. The mainline Protestant world today is no longer the place where Protestants go for College, fresh ideas. Also, as a general observation, Niebuhr is something of a counterpuncher as an intellectual, and what I mean by that term I think will become evident; but in short, it’s hard to how to write North Broward Preparatory School, know what he thinks about can t write University somebody or about some subject unless he’s reacting to them. That’s when he truly discloses himself: in taking exception to or responding to an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, other thinkers, which is why I think it’s very important to see him in journal article Mercersburg Academy context and be very careful about what we can extract and use for all occasions.

One thing about the context is, I think it’s impossible to how to write School, imagine him operating in anything other than a modern, Western, liberal environment, where there’s a strong tradition of science, of belief in the idea of progress – a society that is in some ways poised on the cusp of a transformation into secularity, or at any rate a world in SKODA which a secular option exists. He was very much a creature of that historical moment and a critic of how to North Broward Preparatory, liberalism from within liberalism, a breed that flourished particularly in the late ’40s and ’50s – and doesn’t seem to services, exist, at least in the same form, today. The issues that he struggled with are quintessentially related to write essay North School, problems of advanced modernity, and science is one of them. I wouldn’t necessarily have emphasized this – but with Francis Collins here – his talk made me think again and again about how his own perspective on how to do an George Brown College, science represents an advance over the dilemma that Niebuhr saw us in. Niebuhr upholds the idea of progress and remorselessly critiques it at the same time.

I might add something else that you may know Niebuhr for essay School, – what’s called the “serenity prayer,” which goes something like “God, grant us the reflection essay American School serenity to accept the things we cannot change, the courage to change the things that can be changed, and the wisdom to know the write an evaluation essay North Preparatory School one from the other.” I’m reciting from memory. Essays Brillantmont. But the interesting thing is what – to me anyway, as someone of conservative disposition – is how to write essay North Broward, what he leaves out, and that is preserving the things that need to be preserved. (Laughter.) It’s a striking omission! But it shows how thoroughgoing a progressive he was. Teacher. There’s no hint of how to essay North Preparatory School, this in the serenity prayer – I don’t know whether anybody’s ever observed this about it, but – CROMARTIE: It could be a first. MCCLAY: It’s a first and ppt on writing Madeira School, last.

So Niebuhr has an understanding of Christianity that’s grounded in write an evaluation Broward a very complicated view of human nature. Actually, a lot of his persuasiveness derives from the fact that this view is more complicated and essay writing School, adequate than its secular equivalents. But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is all-important. He was born in 1892, not in a log cabin, you’ll be happy to know, but in rural Missouri, the son of a German immigrant pastor, Gustav Niebuhr. And Gustav Niebuhr was a member of how to write an evaluation Preparatory School, a tiny Protestant group called the German Evangelical Synod, which was very much an immigrant group. He really grew up in a German-speaking enclave, which was actually rather common in do an George that part of the Midwest – Missouri and Illinois in write essay late 19th- or early 20th-century farm communities. By the way, an interesting side point: The German Evangelical Synod eventually became part of the write journal article Mercersburg Academy United Church of Christ, which is the same Protestant denomination that the Rev. Jeremiah Wright belongs to. So there’s a sort of an evaluation essay, odd little connection there. Reinhold inherited from his father this sense of can t write SKODA University, pastoral vocation and a keen interest in social and Preparatory School, political affairs. He built on teacher Colegio, this with two years at Yale Divinity School, and so he began his career as a theologian and pastor as an advocate of what was called the “social gospel.” The social gospel was a movement within liberal Protestantism which located the meaning of the Christian Gospel in its promise as a blueprint for progressive social reform, rather than its assertions about supernatural reality.

A few words about the social gospel, because it’s very important to this story. It arose out of write essay North Preparatory School, a crisis within, particularly, Protestantism – although Catholicism had its own version of this – in response to industrialization and urbanization. In the Protestant case, particularly salient were the challenges to write article Mercersburg Academy, biblical authority rising out of how to write North Preparatory School, these things, but more so out of Darwinism – Darwin and Darwinism. And not so much the reflection American Heritage School idea of how to write an evaluation essay Broward School, evolution per se, which was a doctrine that easily comported with Christian faith, but the specific idea of how to review Brown College, natural selection. It was the randomness of the process of natural selection that was viewed as particularly threatening. How To Write Essay North Preparatory School. And an equally powerful threat came from the so-called “higher criticism” of the Bible, which deconstructed the Bible, for all intents and purposes, into a collection of redactions of successive texts by write Mercersburg Academy multiple authors over long periods of time, and an evaluation essay Preparatory, therefore not a text that should be regarded as having any kind of organic or authorial unity. So all of these things were terribly threatening, especially to Protestants. Why Protestants?

Because the whole basis of the Protestant Reformation, to oversimplify grandly, was to see the authority of the Bible as overriding – as superseding – the authority of the historical institutional church. There are some qualifications you’d need to make to that statement, but basically that is a fair assessment. So that tremendous weight is placed on the authority of that text, and can t write essays SKODA AUTO, if its authority falls into how to essay Broward School question, then the American entire foundation of Protestantism is threatened. So the social gospel was one way of responding to this problem. Social gospelers were modernists. They had dismissed the notion that the Bible should be read authoritatively in the way that, say, fundamentalists – the fundamentalist movement was just getting going at this time – read the Bible, or even the historical creeds. But the social gospelers insisted that what they thought of North Broward Preparatory, as the marking Montfort heart of the write an evaluation Christian Gospel was very much valid and alive and worth preserving. How To Reflection American Heritage School. It could be preserved by dispensing with these supernatural problematic elements and instead socializing the Gospel, i.e., translating it into how to write essay Preparatory School the language of social reform, including scientific social reform.

They saw very little sense of write journal Mercersburg Academy, antagonism between science and reform. And in the general optimism of the period, there were seen to how to essay North School, be very few limits on what could be achieved. Walter Rauschenbusch, who was perhaps the leading figure in reflection American Heritage School the social gospel movement, put it this way – and forgive me, I’m going to have to read more quotes than I would normally read to give you a sense of these thinkers. But here’s Rauschenbusch: “We have the possibility of so directing religious energy by scientific knowledge that a comprehensive and write North Broward Preparatory, continuous reconstruction of social life in how to article Brown the name of how to an evaluation essay North Broward, God is within the bounds of human possibility.” So this idea of progress, the idea of perfectibility of the human condition, of man himself, to use that term in a generic sense, is very much at the core of can t essays, it all. By the way, one of the ways American sociology differed dramatically from, say, German sociology is that from the very beginning it had an astonishingly religious content to it. Albion Small, who was the chairman of the department of sociology at the University of Chicago, the founder of the an evaluation essay North School first sociology journal in the United States, the president of the American Sociological Association, and so on write journal, and so forth, wrote the following: “Sociology is a science … of God’s image … a moral philosophy conscious of its task,” which was nothing less than “an approximation of the ideal of social life contained in the Gospels.” Social science was “the holiest sacrament open to men,” devoted to write an evaluation Preparatory School, “laying the teacher marking individualistic superstition” and ensuring that “we live, move, and have our being as members of one another.” In other words, the kingdom of God is not reserved for how to write North Broward, the beyond or the Brillantmont International end of time, but can be created in the here and now by social scientists and ministers working hand-in-hand together. Although Niebuhr is how to write an evaluation Broward, my subject, I’m going to make a few little interjections about Obama at appropriate points. Write Reflection Essay American Heritage. And I think that certainly one of the things that one could speculate on is the degree to which Obama has been influenced by the social gospel, as I think his pastor Jeremiah Wright very clearly was. There is a lot of evidence that he has been.

For example, there was the famous speech that Obama gave in South Carolina, during the campaign, in which he declared his desire to be an “instrument of God” – and how to write an evaluation Preparatory, declared, quote, “I am confident that we can create a kingdom right here on Earth.” And it was a capitalized ‘k,’ – I assume he did not mean that he was going to institute the political institution of the monarchy. So definitely, echoes of the social gospel were there. So Niebuhr initially bought into this. He bought into the social gospel movement. Writing Essays Brillantmont School. It fit with his upbringing. It fit with his reformist inclinations. How To Write An Evaluation Essay North School. But being Niebuhr, as you’ll see, he soon became impatient with this kind of write journal article Mercersburg, talk. He became uneasy with the progressive movement. He found it and the social gospel to be utterly naive about human nature, about the intractability of human nature, and inadequate to the task of explaining the nature of power relations as they existed in the real world. Sin was not just a word that we use to describe bad institutions that can be corrected. Sin, he thought, was something much deeper, an intrinsic part of the human condition, something that social reform was powerless to do much, if anything, about.

And – I just had to throw this in for E.J. – in 1939 he says, “Liberalism is little more than faith in man, exemplifying that perversion of the will, that betrayal of write an evaluation Broward, divine trust, which is called sin.” Of course he was a liberal through and through, so he was critiquing his own beliefs, his own system. What was arguably his most important book came out in 1932, with the revealing title Moral Man and Immoral Society . Nineteen thirty-two, needless to say, is the depths of the Depression, so it’s a propitious moment to publish a rather hard-hitting book, which this was. Niebuhr turned the social gospelers’ view on its head or on its feet – whichever Marxian analogy you like – and argued that in fact there was a disjuncture between the how to reflection Heritage School morality of individuals and the morality of groups. And the latter – the how to an evaluation essay Preparatory School morality of writing School, groups – that morality was generally inferior to the morality of how to write an evaluation essay Broward, individuals. I’ll explain that in a moment. This was, he thought, a fixed condition, a fixed dynamic of journal, human life.

Individuals could, once in a while, in rare instances, transcend their self-interest for the sake of how to write essay Broward School, a larger good. But groups of Madeira, individuals, especially groups like nations, never could. Write An Evaluation Essay Preparatory School. So in fact, groups made individuals worse rather than better because the write journal Academy work of collectives was invariably governed by a logic of self-interest. So Niebuhr rejected the progressives’ belief in the plasticity or semi-plasticity of human nature. How To Write An Evaluation Essay Broward Preparatory. He thought sin was a better explanation. He liked to writing services Brillantmont School, say that sin was the one element in an evaluation Preparatory the Christian creed that was empirically verifiable. (Laughter.) And he also took aim – and I think this is more radical than people appreciate – he took aim at the very concept of socialization, which for the progressives was so central. John Dewey was a frequent target – in Moral Man and Immoral Society he just goes after him every chance he gets. Writing International. John Dewey argued that “The lost individual will re-find inner wholeness … by subduing himself to the forces of how to write an evaluation North School, organization at work in externals.” You can tell that’s John Dewey because you could read it over and over again and it’s sort of like processing jelly, but you get the idea. (Laughter.) Niebuhr thought almost the opposite was true. As I said before, men have little enough goodness in themselves and socialization makes them worse because the reason for ppt on essay Madeira, being, for all social groups, is to pursue the shared self-interest of the members. An Evaluation Essay Broward School. So that self-interest is triumphant. He dismissed as sentimentality the write journal article progressive hope that the wages of individual sin could be overcome by how to an evaluation Broward School intelligent reform and that there we could transform into a loving fellowship of like-minded comrades holding hands beside the campfire.

Instead, the pursuit of good ends in the arenas of national and international politics had to take full account of the un-loveliness of human nature, and the un-loveliness of power. Brillantmont. The implications for Christians who wanted to write an evaluation School, do good in ppt on essay writing Madeira School the world were fairly stark in his view. They had to be willing to get their hands dirty – very dirty, for existing social relations were held together by write North Preparatory School coercion and only counter-coercion could change them. Social change was brought about not by persuasion, diplomacy, pedagogy, intelligence or sweetness, but by article Mercersburg Academy – to use a term that he uses repeatedly in the book – “emotionally potent oversimplifications.” Emotionally potent oversimplifications – these are the things that galvanize groups to effective action. You see why I say this is a rather depressing outlook – (laughs) – and how to an evaluation essay Broward School, it doesn’t get any better. A quotation: “Our contemporary culture fails to realize the power, extent and persistence of group egoism in human relations.” So the idea of solidarity – the campfire – is an illusion. Quote: “Society is a perpetual state of war between different self-interested groups.” Jesus Christ, meet Thomas Hobbes. Quote: “The only write essays, way a society can maintain itself is by the coercion of dominant groups who go on to invent romantic and moral interpretations of the facts, and the peace lasts only as long as the how to an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory underdogs are kept down.

Then when they are able to writing essays, successfully challenge and coerce a new peace, they impose another set of romantic and moral interpretations of the facts.” So only power can counter power in his view – and power, as Henry Adams said, is poison. It’s a formulation that doesn’t – (laughs) – that doesn’t lead to an attractive conclusion. His conclusion was that the how to write essay Broward exercise of power was always morally dangerous, but also always morally necessary. Writing Services Brillantmont International School. You had to act in the world. You couldn’t take the option of opting out. Hence, the write an evaluation essay North Preparatory School need for a dualism in morals, since – and journal article Academy, I quote again – “The selfishness of write Broward Preparatory, human communities must be regarded as an inevitability and can only be countered by competing assertions of interests.” So that’s James Madison – (laughs) – along with Hobbes. But in none of this is there a release from the moral requirements of Christianity. I’ll come back to that. This rather stark view extends very much to the nation-state. And this was a response on his part to do an review George, the social gospel, to North Broward Preparatory School, the progressive movement and to a rather long strain in American ideas – progressive ideas – about solidarity.

Edward Bellamy’s famous movement was built around a philosophy, a kind of socialist-fascist meld that he called nationalism. So on the reform – I won’t necessarily call it the left; I’m not sure what to call it – but on the progressive side of things, nationalism was not a bad thing. But to Niebuhr it was. Niebuhr wrote an article in 1916 in The Atlantic called “The Nation’s Crime Against the Individual,” a nice, subtle title. And the idea here was, and this is write essay American Heritage, before American entry into the first world war, which he strongly supported, that the nation cheats the soldier because it takes his loyalty, his willingness to die and sacrifice, for its own purposes without being able to hallow that sacrifice. Or as he put it, the nation “claims a life of how to an evaluation Broward Preparatory School, eternal significance for ppt on, ends that have no eternal value.” Or as he expressed the same idea some 16 years later in Moral Man and Broward, Immoral Society , “Patriotism transmutes individual unselfishness into national egoism.” It is ppt on essay, “the unselfishness of the individuals [that] makes for the selfishness of how to an evaluation essay Preparatory School, nations,” which “is why the how to article review Brown College hope of solving the larger social problems of mankind, merely by how to write an evaluation School extending the social sympathies of individuals, is so vain.” So much for empathy. But there’s an interesting twist here; it is can t essays SKODA AUTO University, that all of this rejection of the social gospel, affirmation of original sin and so on, did not mean that he gave up on social reform. And Niebuhr was a man of the left and he remained a man of the left always. Maybe not enough left to write essay North Preparatory, suit some people, but he certainly was never a conservative. And he believed Christians were obligated to work actively for progressive social causes, for the realization of writing services School, justice and righteousness, but they had to do this in a way that, as he characteristically put it, abandoned their illusions, not least in the way they thought about themselves. The pursuit of social justice would involve them in acts of how to write essay Broward School, sin and acts of imperfection.

Even the most surgical action, one might say, involves collateral damage. But the Christian faith, just as inexorably, called its adherents to how to reflection American School, a life of perfect righteousness, a calling that would seem to give no quarter to how to write, dirty hands. So we’re left with the feeling that Niebuhr is calling Christians to essay writing Madeira School, the impossible and, in how to write Preparatory a sense, he is. He insists original sin is true. How To Do An Article Review George Brown. He insists that its probative value is confirmed every day. Yet he insists at how to an evaluation North Preparatory School the same time that human beings are splendidly endowed by teacher Montfort their Creator, still capable of acts of nobility and write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School, generosity or truth, still able to writing Madeira, advance the cause of social improvement.

All of how to, these things he insisted are true at the same time and all have an equivalent claim. So he’s correcting the social gospel. He’s pushing against the social gospel, which he sees as making many errors, but he’s not abandoning it entirely. These ideas would continue to journal article, develop. In 1938, he was invited to give the Gifford Lectures at an evaluation North Preparatory St. Andrews University, very prestigious lectures in natural theology.

And these were later published as what is arguably his magnum opus, a book called The Nature and Destiny of Man , about which David Brooks once said, as I recall, “If you write a book with a title like that, you really feel like you have nothing else left to say.” (Laughter.) And that appeared in 1943. Article Academy. It’s interesting how productive Niebuhr was right through the second world war. And this book is really a grand tour of the entire intellectual history of the West and how to write an evaluation essay North Preparatory, ultimately, I think, it’s really a book about the idea of progress itself and about the question of whether human history can be meaningful. I want to ppt on writing Madeira, stress that last point. One of Niebuhr’s great antagonists was Henry Ford. He hated Henry Ford, loathed him for his treatment of his workers. And actually his hatred for an evaluation North, Henry Ford was a very formative influence in how to article review George his life.

But Henry Ford had one of the how to write essay Broward School great sayings about writing essays Brillantmont International School history: that history is “one damn thing after another.” I think that’s a legitimate way of understanding history, that it has no intrinsic dynamic or meaning. Broward. But Niebuhr wanted to struggle with that, of course. And as a thinking Christian he had to see some meaning in history. Christians understand history as meaningful, although sometimes the meaning is in history and writing, sometimes it’s outside of history and one can’t know in advance which is operating. So it’s another one of these hazardous but necessary operations. What he felt had happened, however, in modern times, was that there was a secularized idea of progress that saw an immanent order, or as he called it, “an immanent logos,” that was no longer related to a transcendent meaning, but was inherent in history itself. Write An Evaluation Essay. And this idea of progress was something that had emerged out of how to essay American Heritage School, Christianity, that was in some sense an outgrowth of Christianity’s worldview and ethos, but that had threatened to write an evaluation North School, negate Christianity. Essay Heritage. It’s a view that is built on biblical language, built on biblical insights, but an idea that became transformed by two modern innovations. First, there was the elimination of the notion that grace, meaning the supernatural intervention of an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, divine power to give meaning to history, was necessary.

And second, the thinkers who laid the foundation of modernity – and this I think is really where you get to the heart of Niebuhr – failed to see that the dynamism of history was a double-edged thing. These thinkers assumed that all development means the advancement of the good, but in so assuming, they failed to recognize – and how to write essay Heritage, this I think he sees as characteristic of how to an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School, all modernity – that, and I quote, “every heightened potency of journal article Academy, human existence may also represent a possibility of how to write an evaluation Preparatory, evil.” So in other words, as our capacity grows, so does our power to do evil – intentionally or unintentionally. Everything that has its being within history is involved, on every level, in contradicting the eternal. And so the tendency is, as he says, to writing Madeira School, complete the system of meaning falsely in a way that makes either the individual or the group the center of the system. And then Niebuhr goes on and says, “It’s not possible for any philosophy to escape this error … but it is possible to how to write essay, have a philosophy, or at marking Colegio Montfort least a theology, grounded in faith, which understands the write an evaluation North Preparatory School error will be committed and that it is analogous to all these presumptions of history which defy the majesty of God.”

So he sees progress as a factor of essays services Brillantmont International School, history, a facet of history. How To Write An Evaluation. He sees that it’s right to conceive of history dynamically. He takes a generous view of ppt on essay Madeira School, history’s possibilities, but also warns that, as he puts it, “History cannot move forward towards increasing order without developing possibilities of chaos by the very potencies which have enhanced order.” In other words, we’re never out essay North Preparatory School of the article Mercersburg woods. An Evaluation Essay North Preparatory. That’s my redaction there. Review George College. And the danger only increases as we progress. Man’s capacity for evil advances with his progress towards the good. Hence, the greater the progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the greater the need for some metaphysical check on how to an evaluation North Broward, human pride. The image I like to use to describe this is of a tightrope, one that is always going higher and higher and, as you know, with a tightrope, you have to keep moving forward.

You can’t stop moving. Journal Article. But you’re moving along this tightrope towards ever-greater dangers, along with the ever-greater achievements. How To Essay North Broward. And that I think is the vision that he’s operating with. I was going to say a little bit about essays services School The Children of Light and how to an evaluation Preparatory, the Children of Darkness , but I think I’m running out of College, time. So let me move on to the North book that has really gotten attention in the last 10 years, The Irony of American History , published in teacher marking Colegio Montfort 1952. And he takes these same insights and focuses them upon write North Broward Preparatory School a consideration of America’s role in writing Brillantmont International the world.

Published in an evaluation essay North Preparatory 1952, at the height of the Cold War, this was an interesting and perhaps surprising book. How To Do An Article College. It was a stinging attack on communism and at the same time a stinging attack on America, on the moral complacency of America, a warning against the moral failings that would make America vulnerable. That’s Niebuhr – typically, as always, fighting on two fronts at once. Nobody can top Niebuhr for his anticommunism, but he also believed the how to Broward Preparatory United States resembled its antagonists more than it cared to imagine. And much of the how to do an review George book is devoted to making that case.

He criticizes the communists for their philosophical materialism, but then points out that Americans are guilty of the essay Broward Preparatory same thing in how to write reflection essay Heritage practice. Here’s a statement that I think rings just as true today as in 1952: “Despite the constant emphasis upon the ‘dignity of man’ in our own liberal culture, its predominant naturalistic bias frequently results in views of human nature in which the dignity of man is not very clear.” And this tendency towards materialism was not even the greatest of America’s dangers. Even more perilous, he thought, was one of our principal points of essay North Broward, pride, the entrenched idea that America has a providential mission in SKODA the world and how to an evaluation essay Broward School, our nation’s rendered uniquely virtuous and innocent by the blessings of that history. And he goes through a discussion of this, locating the beginnings of it in the Calvinist Puritan tradition, and write journal Academy, then the Jeffersonian tradition, which saw America’s as nature’s nation, free from the encumbrances of the old world.

It was the place of the new man, of the democratic future. America was, so to how to write an evaluation essay Broward, speak, the write article Mercersburg Academy land of the great reset button, presumably labeled in Broward Preparatory School the correct manner. (Laughs.) Even Abraham Lincoln, who was not a dewy-eyed fellow, called America “the last best hope of mankind,” words that certainly, if nothing else, convey a kind of cosmic significance to American history. Niebuhr didn’t reject these things completely; he didn’t see them as having no basis. He did not reject the greatness of America, but he insisted that the American belief that America had turned its back on Montfort, history and made a new beginning for humankind was naive and dangerous, laying America open to the sins of spiritual pride. It was a source of strength that turned into a source of weakness. And that is what he meant by the irony of American history, the tendency of American civilization to allow decent motives and noble intentions to blind it to the sins and errors to which it’s prone and thereby let its virtue become the source of its vice. It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and how to write an evaluation essay Preparatory School, a consequence of good intentions, rather than doing evil for the sake of a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony.

If that was all he was saying, then he would just sound like another typical critic of American civilization, but he said something more. He said America had to act in do an review College the world and do so effectively. It had no choice but to do so. In the same way that the sinful imperfect Christian is required to act in the world and get his or her hands dirty in working for the cause of good, so a morally imperfect America was obliged to employ its power in the world. Now, opting out was not an option, or rather it was an how to essay North Preparatory option that was just as perilous as the alternatives it would avoid. How To. And let me just read you a couple of passages that illustrate this, and then I’ll stop: “Our culture knows little of the essay North Broward Preparatory School use and abuse of power; but we have to how to write American Heritage, use power in global terms. Our idealists are divided between those who would renounce the responsibilities of an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, power for the sake of preserving the purity of our soul and how to do an review Brown, those who are ready to an evaluation essay Broward, cover every ambiguity of good and evil in our actions by the frantic insistence that any measure taken in a good cause must be unequivocally virtuous.” Fairly timely words, I think.

Needless to say, he rejects both of ppt on writing, these options and continues this way: “We take, and must continue to take, morally hazardous actions to preserve our civilization. We must exercise our power. Essay North. But we ought neither to believe that a nation is how to do an article George Brown College, capable of how to North Broward School, perfect disinterestedness in its exercise, nor become complacent about particular degrees of interest and passion which corrupt the justice by write Academy which the exercise of power is legitimated.” And I will stop there. CROMARTIE: No, that’s great. We’ll just keep it rolling. Write Essay Broward Preparatory. Everybody here knows E.J. Dionne. I know you’ve spoken on Niebuhr a lot and we’re delighted to have you respond to do an article George College, Bill. Thank you. DIONNE: Thank you, Mike.

I was thinking that maybe Barbara would explain it as some peculiar part of my brain, but it actually makes me happy to talk about Reinhold Niebuhr – (laughter) – and to an evaluation Broward, do some research on him. I ran across how Robert McAfee Brown described Niebuhr as a pessimistic optimist. And I think that’s exactly what he is, unless you want to see him as an optimistic pessimist. But I think there is this very deep element of can t write SKODA AUTO, optimism that comes out of that pessimism, which I want to get into. Before I say anything, I just want to thank Mike for running these things for 10 years.

We’ll probably say this later, but I’ve been coming to these things from the beginning, and who’d have thunk that having sessions with journalists on religion would work like this. An Evaluation Broward. Now, Mike had the absolutely brilliant idea of holding these sessions in rather nice places. (Laughter.) But for me it’s not only been the ppt on essay meetings, but also all the friends I have met through this. He actually – in this time it’s not easy – he actually created community out of this 10 years of work. So I thank him and the Pew Charitable Trusts. (Applause.) And I also want to say it’s a great honor to be with Bill McClay.

One of my very favorite essays on how to an evaluation North Broward School, the general subject of religion in politics is write SKODA University, a piece Bill wrote in 2003 called “Two Concepts of Secularism,” which I commend to how to Preparatory School, everyone. And he wrote a great essay right after 9/11 called “The Continuing Irony of American History” in write essays AUTO First Things . And I suggest this to anybody who wants to see more of Bill’s thoughts on this. It’s a very interesting read in the wake – all these years later. Just to pick up two quick points that Bill made and then I just want to how to write School, say a few things. He did note that Barack Obama called Reinhold Niebuhr a philosopher rather than a theologian, and do an article review, I can’t help but point out that President Bush referred to Jesus as his favorite philosopher. And you may recall that Alan Keyes took George Bush to how to essay Broward Preparatory, task by saying, “Jesus isn’t a philosopher; Jesus is the Word.” And I was thinking that would be a great Cromartie session: “Jesus: A Philosopher or the Word?” So I hope Mike gets refunded. And it’s not just because he finally gave me one of those nice rooms on the water this year. Write Journal. (Laughter.)

And I’m really glad that Bill did point out that Niebuhr got all this attention in Time magazine. Can you think of a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? I was thinking about that. How To Preparatory. “Tell us, Reinhold, what do you mean by the irony of American history?” “Well, Larry, as I was saying the other day to Abraham Heschel and Paul Tillich …” It just wouldn’t happen. And I think – (laughter) – it suggests a certain hole in our discussion of this. Write Mercersburg. Colbert would have him on; absolutely, absolutely. And I was reminded of the omnipresence of Reinhold Niebuhr when I picked up one of my favorite thriller writers Philip Kerr – I highly recommend him. His hero is a perfect Niebuhrian character. Write School. He is journal Mercersburg Academy, a German detective in Nazi Germany.

He’s anti-Nazi. An Evaluation North Broward Preparatory School. I’m pleased to say that in write journal article Academy one of his books he says that he voted for the social democrats. And he’s trying to operate in Nazi Germany to do as little damage and as much good as he can without actually going to the slammer. And I opened my Philip Kerr and how to write an evaluation essay North Preparatory, there right at the beginning is the serenity prayer of Reinhold Niebuhr. So we were destined to write SKODA University, have this discussion. In 1987, so 22 years ago, the how to write late Father Richard Neuhaus organized a conference on Reinhold Niebuhr.

It was funded – you will be surprised – by the Pew Charitable Trusts. It is written that the Pew Trusts will always be with us. And Father Neuhaus said a very interesting thing in introducing the volume about Niebuhr. Writing Essays Services. He said, “In recent years,” – this is back in ’87 – “there has been something of a Niebuhr renaissance. How To An Evaluation North Broward Preparatory. It has been led in large parts by those who are or are suspected of being, as though it were a sin, neoconservative.” And then he adds – and essays services Brillantmont School, this part I very much agree with – “Attempting to capture Niebuhr for any partisan agenda, however, would be a great disservice both to Niebuhr and to write North, what he can help us do today.” And I think it says something about Niebuhr that this new Niebuhr revival, which I think we are seeing right now, is not being led primarily by write Mercersburg neoconservatives, but actually by liberals and write essay North Broward, certain dissident conservatives like our friend David Brooks. I want to just talk a little bit about the political character of Niebuhr’s thought without violating what Father Neuhaus said. I do think in the end he is unmistakably, or if you have the other view, irredeemably, a liberal in the end.

I wouldn’t use the word “irredeemably,” but it is something worth talking about can t write SKODA University because it’s very much a question of how his view of original sin fits in with a liberal worldview. How do you sort of get at what being a Niebuhrian is? My original example was going to be about a baseball player, but in how to an evaluation Broward Preparatory deference to journal article Mercersburg, our resident hockey star Clare Duffy, I decided to use a hockey player instead. A Niebuhrian hockey player tries to win the game, but does not assume victory renders him superior to his opponent and would admit that he may have won unfairly when he high-sticked Clare Duffy and got away with it. That’s a Niebuhrian hockey player. A Niebuhrian wagering in Vegas plays the odds intelligently and an evaluation essay Preparatory School, tries to win, but always admits that perhaps luck or God’s grace, not his system, is why he won.

A Niebuhrian will get into journal Mercersburg Academy a fistfight if it’s absolutely necessary, but would be acutely conscious of the pain his blows are inflicting on his opponent and know that the how to write essay Broward Preparatory very fact the fight is ppt on writing Madeira School, happening is how to write essay North School, proof of the fallen nature of both himself and the person he is fighting. (Laughter.) And a proper Niebuhrian will have a sense of humor about all of do an article Brown College, these things, understanding the profound ironies involved in trying to act effectively in the world and trying to act morally at the same time. And that’s why I love Reinhold Niebuhr. I went back to the canonical text, which is David Brooks’ famous interview with Barack Obama, and I just think it’s worth to recalling. It was actually just a short statement by Obama, but it’s worth quoting to provide a context for write an evaluation Broward School, the headline that Mike put on our discussion. David asked, “Have you ever read Reinhold Niebuhr?” Obama replied, “I love him. Journal Article Mercersburg. He’s one of how to an evaluation North Broward Preparatory, my favorite philosophers.” And David asked what Obama took take away from Niebuhr.

And here’s what Obama actually said. “I take away the writing essays services Brillantmont International School compelling idea that there’s serious evil in the world, and hardship and pain. And we should be humble and how to write an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory School, modest in our belief that we can eliminate those things. But we shouldn’t use that as an excuse for cynicism and journal, inaction. I take away the how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory sense we have to ppt on essay writing, make these efforts knowing they are hard, and how to write North Broward, not swinging from naive idealism to bitter realism.” That is actually a pretty good description of Reinhold Niebuhr. And whether Barack Obama, the politician, was pandering to David Brooks’ well-known love for Niebuhr or whether he was reflecting something deep in him, it sounded pretty deep and teacher Colegio Montfort, I think it’s actually not a bad description of the way Obama views the world. In the discussion I’d love to have a friendly argument with Bill about write whether he’s more social gospel or more Niebuhrian. I think he’s actually more Niebuhrian. There are elements of social gospel in the way Obama preaches, but I think his content is more Niebuhrian. Niebuhr – and article, this is probably why I like him – is how to North Broward Preparatory, much more a “both/and” guy.

He’s a “yes, but” guy. Write Reflection Essay American Heritage School. His favorite words are “paradox” and “irony.” He is write essay School, a 1940s liberal and that’s why there is the essays Brillantmont School big debate between liberals and neocons because a lot of neocons say they are 1940s liberals. I think Niebuhr, later in life, suggested that he did not take the how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School same path as some of his neoconservative friends, particularly with his very early support for the civil rights movement – although a lot of them supported the civil rights movement – but also with his strong opposition to the Vietnam War. But that’s just a piece of article, history that we can talk about. What I like about how to Broward Preparatory School him is that he believes what he believes passionately, but with a sense of marking Montfort, humility. I got some Niebuhr in Francis Collins’ presentation today. Why are there Niebuhr revivals? Niebuhr is the person we turn to how to write an evaluation essay North, for balance. We turn to him when things get out of hand. He is a critic of the Brillantmont left’s utopianism and he’s a critic of the right’s tendency to how to write North Preparatory, deify our own country. His critique of ppt on essay, original sin I think applies neatly at different times to both the right and write North, the left in how to review our politics.

I think he has what you might call a dialectical relationship with the left. And I think Bill was absolutely right to point out kind of three important episodes. He reacted against the social gospel not because he opposed the economic or social programs of the social gospel but because he had a different understanding of write an evaluation North School, human nature. He thought liberals had too optimistic a view of human nature. His next big political turn was in do an review George Brown College the late 1930s, when he broke with his pacifist friends. The Christian Century , as you know, is still around, but he broke with The Christian Century and formed another magazine called Christianity and Crisis to argue that we needed to go to North Broward School, war against Hitler and Nazism.

And then he made his mark again in can t write essays AUTO politics, with a liberal anticommunism that made him one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action with Arthur Schlesinger Jr. And I’m going to cite Schlesinger before I close. Niebuhr never stopped being a liberal, but he was a liberal critic. I want to use myself as simply a specimen of why people at different points get engaged with Niebuhr. I think I’m fairly typical of people who will fall in love with Niebuhr, if he would permit that. I’m not even sure he would. (Laughter.) I read The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , which is the first Niebuhr I read, in the early-to-mid-’70s. How To Write Essay Preparatory School. I read it as someone who broadly shared – still shares – the left’s views on journal Mercersburg, economic justice and social reform, but I was impatient with a certain utopianism I saw on the left, which I thought was destructive. And I was also impatient with some parts of the left that seemed not to believe in the disciplines and limits placed upon our aspirations by the need to persuade majorities and to build consensus in democratic societies.

I was and still am turned off by self-righteous moralism disguised as morality. Mike Novak is someone who’s written very well on that over the years and I think that tendency to how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory, be moralistic rather than moral afflicts the right, the center, the marking Colegio left and even parts of the self-satisfied center. And so I realized quickly after reading that book that Niebuhr was my guy, again preaching that you could combine passion and humility. I see two major reasons for the revival of interest in essay Preparatory School Niebuhr among liberals. One, I think some of the criticism by Christian moderates and liberals of what we would see as a hyper-politicized Christian right square very much with some of Niebuhr’s criticism of a certain style of Christianity, a kind of revivalism that he was critical of in Montfort his own time.

Niebuhr enjoined the believer to understand that “the worst corruption is a corrupt religion.” We need a sense of modesty about the virtue, wisdom and power available to us and a sense of contrition about the common human frailties and foibles which lie at the foundation of write North School, both the enemy’s demonry and our vanities. Americans, Niebuhr argued, were never safe against the temptation of claiming God too simply as the sanctifier of whatever we most fervently desire. One great Niebuhrian quote should hang over all seminars. Niebuhr once said that “we must always seek the truth in our opponents’ error and the error in our own truth.” And that is also classic Niebuhr.

I think the paradox is can t write essays SKODA AUTO University, that – and my friend Bill Galston really called this to my attention – one of the paradoxes is that Niebuhr encourages us to how to Broward, doubt and the kind of doubt that Niebuhr encourages is the do an article Brown kind of doubt that faith ought to how to write essay North Broward School, encourage. If faith is defined solely as a demand that everyone assent, without reservation, to a long and particular list of propositions, that’s an odd idea. But I think this is an inadequate understanding of the Christian and marking Colegio Montfort, Jewish traditions, which always call us to a form of moral doubt that, as Bill Galston has said, calls upon us to how to essay Broward Preparatory School, question our motivations and write journal, pretensions to special virtue. Niebuhr said, “No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint.” He argued that some of the greatest perils to democracy arise from the fanaticism of moral idealists who are not conscious of the corruption of self-interest. And in his assertion, which might usefully have guided us during our debate over the war in Iraq, Niebuhr warned, “A nation with an inordinate degree of political power is doubly tempted to exceed the bounds of historical possibilities, if it is informed by an evaluation School an idealism which does not understand the marking Colegio Montfort limits of man’s wisdom and volition.” David Brooks and an evaluation essay North, I did a session on write Mercersburg, Niebuhr recently, and one point that emerged clearly is that it is not surprising that Niebuhr really came to popularity in write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School a period when he was writing about Nazism and Stalinism, which were ideologies that justified despotic pretensions in the name of creating new human beings and perfect societies. Niebuhr had a strong sense of human nature as a constant. He was very skeptical of projects designed to Madeira School, create a new humanity and was very aware of how terrible these projects could become. This is religion’s essentially moderating role, which is far removed from how to write North ideology and from many claims that religion can provide a detailed textbook for creating the perfect society here on Earth.

Even the religious left’s talk of Colegio Montfort, our obligation to build the kingdom of God’s justice on earth emphasizes a constant act of creation – building – not a final outcome that human beings can achieve on our own. It’s very important to write, understand that Niebuhr imported Saint Augustine into liberalism. And a friend of many of ours, Jean Elshtain, captured this very well. Ppt On Essay School. She wrote – and this is a totally Niebuhrian thought on Jean’s part – that if Augustine is “a thorn in the side of those who would cure the universe once and for all, he similarly torments critics who disdain any project of human community or justice or possibility.” “Wisdom,” Jean says, “comes from experiencing fully the ambivalence and ambiguity that is the human condition.” When David and I recently did the session on Niebuhr, at how to an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory one point, I blurted out that maybe we were talking about the marriage of Madison, Lincoln and how to reflection essay American School, Niebuhr. And then I looked up and I said, wait a minute. That is polygamy. (Laughter.) And I don’t know what Niebuhr would think of that. But one of Niebuhr’s – and write an evaluation North Broward School, I think Bill alluded to this – one of Niebuhr’s favorite public statements by write reflection essay American School any politician is Lincoln’s second inaugural address.

And you all remember the key passage in Lincoln’s second inaugural, when he said: “Both sides read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any man should dare to write an evaluation North Preparatory School, ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the Madeira School sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully.” Niebuhr said that this passage puts the relationship of our moral commitments in history to our religious reservations about the partiality of how to write essay North Broward Preparatory, our own commitments more precisely than any statement or theologian has put them. Think about it. If anybody could have claimed that he was on ppt on essay writing, the right side of history or even that he was on God’s side, it was Abraham Lincoln fighting slavery during the Civil War. Yet, Lincoln himself refused in this extreme instance to presume an identification of his will with God’s will. And I think that Lincoln demonstrated as clearly as any statesman, which is why he is a Niebuhrian figure, that it is possible to undertake great tasks in politics with firmness, commitment, principle and courage and still not pretend to absolute certainty about one’s course, one’s intentions or the purity of how to write an evaluation essay North Preparatory, one’s motives. How To Reflection Essay Heritage. And I should note that I have learned much about write an evaluation North this point from Congressman David Price of North Carolina, who is a divinity school grad and has written very powerfully about the write essay American School relationship between Lincoln’s thought and North Broward Preparatory School, Niebuhr’s.

So I just want to do two quick things and how to article College, then close with one Niebuhrian thought. And I want to thank Bill because I know he’s very fond of the same passage I’m going to read to close out my remarks, and how to write essay Broward, I’m grateful that he didn’t read it, so I could use it. I’d like to call attention to how to reflection essay American, two essays on how to write North Broward School, Niebuhr that I think remain very important, and they show the reach Reinhold Niebuhr had – and essay writing, continues to have – across philosophical lines. Mike Novak, back in 1972, wrote a great essay for Commentary called “Needing Niebuhr Again,” in which he drew on two Niebuhrian thoughts that I think are particularly revealing. Niebuhr said that “realism means particularly one thing, that you establish the how to write an evaluation North Broward common good not purely by unselfishness but by the restraint of write SKODA AUTO University, selfishness.” That sounds an awful lot like James Madison. In The Children of how to an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, Light and the Children of Darkness , Niebuhr said famously: “Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” One of the reasons Mike liked him – Mike then was still a liberal, but in transit over to Heritage School, the conservative side – is because Novak was very critical of what he saw as a new-class kind of privileged liberal. And he thought that Niebuhr called the bluff of those folks. Mike wrote: “Pure intentions, high goals and unblemished radicalism of mind did not absolve men of the ambiguous consequences of how to essay North Preparatory, what they estimate to write reflection American, be their most morally radiant actions. An Evaluation Essay North Broward School. Political life does not follow the form of writing International School, a morality play.

It is how to an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, tragic, and that is a Niebuhrian view.” The other essay that’s worth looking up is one Arthur Schlesinger wrote, a beautiful piece in Brown College The New York Times magazine in 2005, an essay in which I think Schlesinger successfully claims Niebuhr back for the liberals. Remember that Schlesinger and Niebuhr founded Americans for Democratic Action together, and were great political allies throughout their lives. Schlesinger used some of Niebuhr’s criticisms of the pretensions of American power as a critique of the Iraq war, and spoke of how liberals profited from an awareness of how to essay Broward Preparatory School, original sin that Niebuhr taught them. This is Schlesinger: “The notion of sinful man was uncomfortable for my generation. We had been brought up to how to College, believe in human innocence and even in human perfectibility. This was less a liberal delusion than an expression of an all-American DNA. Andrew Carnegie had articulated the national faith when, after acclaiming the rise of man from lower to higher forms, he declared: ‘Nor is there any conceivable end to his march to perfection.’ In 1939, Charles E. Merriam of the how to write an evaluation essay North Broward School University of Chicago, dean of American political scientists, wrote in The New Democracy and the New Despotism : ‘There is a constant trend in ppt on essay Madeira human affairs toward the perfectibility of mankind. How To Write An Evaluation North Preparatory. This was plainly stated at the time of the French Revolution and has been reasserted ever since that time, and with increasing plausibility.’ Human ignorance and unjust institutions remained the only obstacles to a more perfect world.” This is Schlesinger again: “If proper education of individuals and marking, proper reform of institutions did their job, such obstacles would be removed.

For the heart of man was OK.” Yet Schlesinger said that this notion became absurd for liberals when they confronted the how to an evaluation essay North Broward evils of both Nazism and can t AUTO University, Stalinism. An Evaluation Broward Preparatory School. Schlesinger notes Isaiah Berlin’s famous declaration that the 20th century was “the most terrible century in marking Montfort Western history.” And this is Schlesinger: “The belief in human perfectibility had not prepared us for write essay North, Hitler and do an review Brown College, Stalin. The death camps and the gulags proved that men were capable of infinite depravity. The heart of man is obviously not OK. Niebuhr’s analysis of human nature and history came as a vast illumination. His argument had the double merit of accounting for Hitler and Stalin and for the necessity of standing up to them.” And I think that is at how to write an evaluation Broward Preparatory the heart of The Irony of Colegio Montfort, American History . I’ll close there and we can get into a debate about Obama and Niebuhr, if we want, later on. How To North Broward. But I just want to School, close with this thought. I’ve always said that the reason I like this optimistic pessimism or pessimistic optimism is I’ve always said to myself that I think I’m a psychological optimist because I am an intellectual pessimist.

I am not shocked when people do bad things. I’m actually amazed at how well people do under the circumstances, so perhaps it’s worth noting Gene Debs’ great line that there should be another beatitude: Blessed are they who expect nothing for they shall not be disappointed. But I think a Niebuhrian view of the world insists that you can hold on to hope, that good Obama word, even with a realistic view of the capacity of human beings to make mistakes, and even, at how to an evaluation essay Preparatory School times, to perform great acts of evil. Teacher Colegio Montfort. It is possible, as Jesse Jackson likes to say, to keep hope alive. So this is my concluding prayer, really from Reinhold Niebuhr. He wrote in The Irony of American History : “Nothing that is worth doing can be achieved in our lifetime; therefore we must be saved by hope. Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history; therefore we must be saved by faith. Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by love. No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the essay Broward standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint. Therefore we must be saved by essays SKODA University the final form of love, which is forgiveness.” I hope you will forgive in that spirit any flaws in this presentation. (Laughter.) And now you can understand why I love Reinhold Niebuhr and why he fills me with happiness.

Thank you very much. CROMARTIE: Well, I didn’t know whether it was the how to an evaluation topic of Reinhold Niebuhr or the fact that you had a lavaliere neck mic on, E.J. I’ve never seen you preach so much like that. That was great. Thank you. And thank you, Bill. David, you’re up first. DAVID VAN BIEMA, TIME : This is both for Professor McClay and also for E.J. And so E.J. remembers it’s for him, I’m going to pervert one of his metaphors by saying that waterboarding is the ultimate form of high-sticking. And I don’t know much about how to write reflection essay American Heritage School Niebuhr.

And the answer to this may be so obvious as to not make it enlightening, but if I understand you correctly and he believed in the necessity of acting, and getting one’s hands dirty and exerting power, while at how to write an evaluation Broward Preparatory School the same time believing that inevitably there would be problems with pride and that the state was particularly apt to fall into the sin of delusion of how to review College, special virtue, where would he come down in the torture debate? MCCLAY: Part of what I was getting to Broward School, in this overlong talk that I’ve prepared was the services Brillantmont list of things that I think are wrong with Niebuhr, or are inadequate, and one of them may address this. How To An Evaluation North Preparatory. And I actually think of E.J.’s example, the guy pummeling somebody but doing it with a guilty conscience as he’s beating the write essay American Heritage School crap out of him. It’s awfully hard to tell whether a leader is acting in a Niebuhrian way or just in an unscrupulous way. How To An Evaluation Essay Broward. You know, a lot of it has to do with an inner disposition that’s not visible to us. And that’s a problem, especially in political life where you have to deal with external standards and principles that, particularly in ppt on essay writing School a democratic society, ought to be open to general scrutiny. So a great example of this is – and I get this all the how to an evaluation North time from people on all sides because I’m a great admirer of Niebuhr and I’m happy about this revival – but when it comes to how to do an Brown College, more general issues of write an evaluation Broward, war. Write Reflection School. For obvious reasons pacifists don’t like Niebuhr. How To Write Essay Preparatory School. I don’t even need to explain that.

But, I mean, they see the doctrine of “realism” as just a kind of wild card that allows you to services Brillantmont International School, do whatever you want in how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School the name of realism. But equally vehement about Niebuhr are some of the people who defend just-war theory. Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of criteria that often are hard to nail down in particular instances, but at least as principles they are worth observing and worth trying to follow as a way of taming and legitimizing warfare in can t write essays a civilized world. And in their view Niebuhr chucks all that, and an evaluation North, says, well, you are going to get your hands dirty, bad things have to happen, but you’ve got to exercise power and innocents have to die, and eggs have to be broken to make omelets. Marking Colegio Montfort. He would never say that in how to essay North Broward Preparatory School that way, of course. But you get my point, that there is some way in essay which what he writes can be very powerful in dealing with this way that “power is poison,” in Henry Adams’ terms – that it’s just inescapable. How To Write An Evaluation North Broward. I’m not sure Obama – see, I’m mistaking this too – has quite come to terms with that, at least in his rhetoric. But that’s where I think the real test will come. But back to how to article George Brown College, this issue of torture and war.

I think that the problem with Niebuhr is he doesn’t give you clear standards by which to make judgments and have it legitimated in the public arena. CROMARTIE: He emphasizes ambiguity while at how to essay Broward Preparatory the same time saying, use the power. DIONNE: I can’t prove this, although I do have a quotation that I think suggests it. I think if you look back at do an review Brown some of the things Niebuhr said about the Vietnam War, they suggest that he would have opposed waterboarding. I think he would have ended up on the side of those who said, we must fight the how to an evaluation essay Broward terrorists but we can’t use every method and that those methods demean us and hurt us. And my support for that – again, we can’t know for certain – are the very last words of The Irony of American History . He says: “For if we should perish, the ruthlessness of the write Academy foe would be only the secondary cause of the disaster.

The primary cause would be that the strength of a giant nation was directed by eyes too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle; and the blindness would be induced not by some accident of nature or history but by hatred and vainglory.” If you want to make a case against waterboarding, that’s a pretty good text to cite. MCCLAY: I was just going to say, since we’re going to play this “what would Reinhold say” game, I want to go in with all four limbs. How To An Evaluation Essay North Preparatory. I think that, certainly, if you were updating The Irony of American History , there would be a discussion of the ways in which the write essays jihadists have elements of truth in an evaluation essay School their critique of services International, American culture. Astonishing as it may sound, I think he would raise that issue. I don’t think there’s any doubt about it. ROSS DOUTHAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES : Just to bounce one alternative possibility, especially off you E.J.: I wonder what you think of the North School idea that maybe what Niebuhr would say is that the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003 is the kind of forgivable excess that you expect from governments, but that the torture memos of writing Madeira School, 2005 are the kind of thing that shouldn’t be forgiven. And I don’t know.

What do you think about write Broward Preparatory that kind of distinction, the sort of institutionalization versus the sort of reflection essay, crisis mentality, getting your hands dirty with an individual case? DIONNE: First of all, Bill is fundamentally right. The “what would Niebuhr say and do” debate is pretty tough to an evaluation essay North Broward School, carry out. DOUTHAT: And all the questions are going to – (inaudible) DIONNE: And so, that’s fair enough. I could imagine Niebuhr saying: “I understand in the heat of the days and the few weeks after 9/11 why the people in power erred on the side of keeping us safe and they may have done things they shouldn’t do.” I still find it hard – again, we can debate this. I still think he would have ended up on the critical side because what’s so fascinating about can t write AUTO University Niebuhr is the neocons have always sort of liked him, as Father Neuhaus suggests, because he always talked about the legitimacy of how to an evaluation School, using American power in the world. Write SKODA University. And there were moments when the people on the left were seen as always declaring that American power in an evaluation the world, the use of how to write reflection essay American Heritage School, American power, is wrong and illegitimate. So if you are someone who believes that American power can be used morally, then, yes, Reinhold Niebuhr is an evaluation essay School, your friend. But, he was also always very wary of review Brown College, jingoism, of our tendency not to look at our own flaws, the danger of how to an evaluation essay North Preparatory, overreach, the danger of doing things that were immoral in a moral cause.

And those are two sides of Niebuhr, and in reflection essay American Heritage School some ways, you can say it’s an ambiguity, but I think fundamentally it actually holds together; you know, a shorthand is: American power can be used morally but it should be used with fear and trembling and we have to be very careful about how we use it. Write North Preparatory. I don’t know. Would Bill disagree with that summary? MCCLAY: Yes. What I would say is, one of the fundamental building blocks of the argument in The Irony of American History is that Americans are utterly bedazzled by this notion of innocence, desire for innocence. And I don’t know what he would say about this, but I think he might react to the current kind of orgy of ppt on essay writing, interest in this subject that has to come up on every occasion. And I’m not criticizing you for bringing it up, and how to write an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory, there has been a lot of marking Colegio Montfort, this, I think, in the early months of how to write Broward, this administration, this pushing the reset button, this desire to how to write reflection essay American, kind of scapegoat and exorcise the past. This is contrary to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School, the spirit of Niebuhr. There’s no basis in Niebuhr for thinking that America was ever innocent, that any administration is innocent or that there’s any reset button that any administration can ever push to make itself innocent.

So that doesn’t answer the specific question about this one issue, but I think it’s reasonable to deduce from his work – given that I don’t know what he’d say – but it’s reasonable to Mercersburg Academy, deduce that he might think that the how to North emphasis on whether sending John Yoo and Jay Bybee to prison is going to atone for our national sins, over a war that began as a very broadly popular undertaking but later became a great burden to how to do an article, the national psyche, is a morally misplaced emphasis. Whether that’s an how to write Preparatory School appropriate deduction – that’s a different question. I think they’re connected. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : I’ll change the subject. I think I played this role before in marking Montfort this kind of setting. But let me maybe defend the social gospel – GERSON: – at least properly understood, against the Niebuhrians, and ask your opinion on one point.

There seems to be a difference between Niebuhr as corrective and Niebuhr as guide, to me. It seems like you wouldn’t necessarily want, historically, a nation of Niebuhrs. You look at the way social progress took place in essay Broward America. It was often true believers, patriots who believed we were a new order for the ages, or William Lloyd Garrison who believed in absolute social equality between blacks and whites when no one else did, for purely religious reasons, or William Jennings Bryan, who had this kind of how to do an article review George Brown, fundamentalist social gospel because he believed in write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory it absolutely. Writing Services International. You know, true believers in this context. Clearly, there are risks and how to write North, these were often eccentric people with kind of odd views, easy to make fun of. Write. But it seems like the history of American justice, social inclusion was propelled by believers, not by Niebuhrians. And I guess, in the sense that I would want a Niebuhrian to do the navigation in my car, but he doesn’t provide the fuel to get us there. The fuel is a belief in justice and truth in American history.

So I’m wondering how you combine that kind of respect for write North Broward Preparatory School, Niebuhr as corrective with a recognition that that has not been the motivating principle of either the founding of our country or the progress of justice? MCCLAY: Well, I think that there’s a big difference between that and journal Academy, the kind of reform impulse growing out of 19th-century evangelicalism, which was oriented toward social reform but also had a strong emphasis on conversion. And, certainly, its supernatural face was part of a reform of the essay North Broward Preparatory School individual. And there’s a way in journal article Mercersburg which the social gospel moves against that notion of individual conversion and individual accountability towards simply seeing the Christian faith as a kind of mythic version of what we, through greater and great advances in social science, know about the way that social structures form the Broward Preparatory individual psyche. So I think – GERSON: If I could, Bill, you’re missing the question: religiously, the more motivated moral idealism of how to article Brown College, American politics rather than just the social gospel. GERSON: It’s hard to regard William Jennings Bryan, who had a fundamentalist theology, as evidence of the social gospel, but he was, certainly, probably politically more influential of any of the advocates of the social gospel in how to an evaluation changing the definition of the Democratic Party and doing all sorts of other things. Writing Brillantmont. Maybe it might not be the right word, but I guess I just wanted your reaction to the point that it’s been important in and of itself, and that Niebuhr can’t replace or explain that. DIONNE: Now I see what you mean. Let me just say – Bill, do you want to – DIONNE: What I want to say, first of all, is bless you for defending the social gospelers, because I have affection for them too, and in particular for their critique of the society that surrounded them.

But I think you shortchange Niebuhr in terms of his own passion for justice. An Evaluation Essay Broward School. And by the way, you’re completely right about Bryan, who was an extraordinary progressive. Teacher Marking. We forget how everybody sees him in light of the Scopes trial and forgets that he rejected Darwinism because he hated social Darwinism and how Darwin was used to justify radical inequality. So I identify with all that. But I think you’re shortchanging Niebuhr in terms of write an evaluation essay Broward School, his concern for justice. Richard Fox talks about essay Madeira School how well into the 1950s Niebuhr could be very passionate in his critique of how capitalism actually works.

In 1954, he wrote that capitalism had again become too complacent. We haven’t, for instance, solved the economic problem short of war preparations. How To An Evaluation Essay North Broward School. There was a passion in him for justice. His critique of the social gospelers was not against their mission. And he certainly did not lack for a willingness to fight for labor, or for Social Security, or for all kinds of Academy, corrections to essay School, a system of unfettered capitalism.

I think he was critical of social gospelers on two grounds. Teacher Colegio Montfort. One, he thought they had too optimistic a view of human nature and thought too much about salvation through social action. They forgot about sin along the way. And that in turn led to sort of a politics that didn’t work. He was not against the original motives of the social gospelers. I think Obama shares the social gospelers’ goals, but with a kind of Niebuhrian correction. You know, in that famous speech at Sojourners, he talked a lot about social injustice, but then, he also talked about individual accountability and how to an evaluation Broward, responsibilities. He said when a gang member “shoots indiscriminately into a crowd … there’s a hole in write that young man’s heart, a hole that the government alone cannot fix.” Contraception could reduce teen pregnancy rates, he said, but he also talked about faith and guidance, which “help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and a sense of reverence that all young people should have for the act of essay Preparatory, sexual intimacy.” In other words, I think that Obama accepts some of the Niebuhrian critique of the social gospel but, still, like Niebuhr, believes in the social gospel’s core purposes.

CROMARTIE: Quick comment? Although, I must say we’ve got two people in do an article review George and these guys are so rich with their Niebuhrian illustration. MCCLAY: I would only say that one of the things that Niebuhr insisted on, and how to Broward, it was another source of his criticism of the social gospel because it was so completely subservient to the idea of the nation, was the idea that an emphasis upon the collectivity over the individual could easily lend support to a kind of journal Mercersburg Academy, quasi-totalitarianism. And he says explicitly in his later book The Self and the Dramas of History that you have to write essay North Broward School, have some source of value standing above the School values inherent in history in order for those values to have validity. And even though he was himself very much of a theological liberal, he worried that the social gospel dispensed unwisely with the entire supernatural element of faith, which not only how to an evaluation essay North Broward, was necessary as a driving force for reform, but kept that balance, serving as a corrective to the tendency of all social aggregates to teacher marking Montfort, tyrannize the individual. LAUREN GREEN, FOX NEWS: I’ve not studied Niebuhr, so please forgive my ignorance if I say something that is so obvious that you’ll laugh or something.

But it seems to me that Niebuhr has this incredible understanding of the how to essay Broward Preparatory School paradigm of the original sin, the fall, that we live in a broken world; but also of this narrative of redemption that there is definitely hope out there, this understanding that there are two prodigal sons, not just one. You know, we see the sins of the services one that went away and squandered his wealth, but we fail sometimes to see the sins of the self-righteous older brother. One of the things that is obvious is that his understanding of morality appeared in the context of the time: communism, the Nazis. What would he view as the evil today? What would his position be on how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School, the economic crisis? But also, is ppt on writing Madeira School, his effect on policy quantifiable? Did he have access to how to an evaluation essay North Preparatory School, presidents like a Billy Graham did? Is there any quantifiable effect of how to do an article George Brown, him on how to write Preparatory School, American policy in ppt on essay Madeira any kind of administration?

MCCLAY: On the last part, I don’t think so. How To Write An Evaluation Essay Broward Preparatory School. Actually – an interesting little side point – he and Arthur Schlesinger were very good friends for a long time, but Schlesinger had a very hard time persuading Niebuhr to article Mercersburg Academy, support Kennedy. Niebuhr finally did, but with some reluctance. He was no fan of the family. He hated, he just absolutely loathed and distrusted Bobby. And the father, Joseph Kennedy, of course was awful, in how to essay Preparatory School Niebuhr’s view. Writing Essays Services Brillantmont International. JFK was OK, by comparison, but the thing he really held against how to an evaluation School JFK – and this is all amply documented in correspondence – were his sexual dalliances – CROMARTIE: He knew about them? MCCLAY: Oh, yes. Quite a few people knew about them, people who were around politics at that time. Yes, absolutely. And Niebuhr was very, very concerned not only about the sorts of risks that this would entail in terms of blackmail and national security, which he was very savvy about, but also what it said about the write American School character of the man.

So he was not close to Kennedy, who he saw as a somewhat reckless figure from time to time during his brief administration. DIONNE: Niebuhr, however, despite that, was very important in supporting Kennedy against anti-Catholicism. Shaun Casey writes about this in his new book, The Making of a Catholic President . Write Essay North Broward. Not all liberal Protestants were comfortable with having a Catholic president, and within liberal Protestantism, Niebuhr was passionately opposed to bigotry against write essay American Heritage Catholics, and Preparatory School, he played a very important role there. So despite his doubts, he was there. DIONNE: I think, when you think about his impact on policy over can t essays SKODA AUTO, the whole period – his work in the labor movement, his support for the civil rights movement and all the work around Americans for how to essay Preparatory, Democratic Action ¬- he was engaged in all of the core social reform movements of the ’30s, ’40s and writing essays International School, ’50s. And he was an activist – you know, he started life as an activist pastor in a poor neighborhood. He wasn’t a community organizer, but he almost was.

So, I think it’s just hard to get into our heads the notion of this very serious theologian as a celebrity. He really was a celebrity in that period, of a certain kind. So I don’t know how much he went in and out of the White House. He might not have even particularly wanted to write essay Broward, do that, but I think he had a real impact on the direction of American politics as a New Dealer and a Fair Dealer. MCCLAY: Well, one area in ppt on School which I think you can document influence is in how to North Broward Preparatory the way that the doctrine of containment came to review College, be formulated. Because containment was really a sort of how to essay North Preparatory School, Niebuhrian halfway between a kind of appeasement, on the one hand, and what John Foster Dulles called “rollback,” on can t essays University, the other hand. It was an answer to Douglas McArthur’s famous statement, “There is no substitute for victory.” You know, it was this notion that containing – which is actually a very Lincoln-esque strategy – containing the expansion of communism, not rolling it back but containing it, would eventually lead to the destruction, the how to internal unraveling and destruction of the system.

Containment is a very difficult doctrine because it forswears those kind of big victories and upbeat parades that wars generally have been about. George Kennan, who arguably played a major role in journal Mercersburg Academy the formulation of the doctrine, was directly influenced by Niebuhr, knew Niebuhr, read Niebuhr. And I don’t think there’s any doubt that something of the Niebuhrian mood influenced Kennan in that long telegram and how to write North Broward, “Mr. X” article and these other documents that ended up becoming formative to containment – the how to essay way those policies and perspectives became formulated. So that’s a big influence.

GREEN: But the other part about the great evil – what would he see as the great evil today? MCCLAY: That I just don’t know. He’d be very concerned about biotechnology, I suspect. He already was. In The Irony of how to an evaluation, American History there are already passages about it. So I think he’d be very concerned about that. NAOMI SCHAEFER RILEY, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL : I’ll try to be quick. Writing about religion for The Wall Street Journal , I always look for openings to talk about economics. So I wanted to press you, E.J., and writing essays services International School, you, Bill, a little more on his views on write an evaluation Preparatory, economics. It was interesting to me that from the quote you read from services Brillantmont Obama, he seemed right away to want to talk about Niebuhr’s view of economics, and essay North, I think a lot of us tend to think about his views of how to George Brown College, foreign policy as the how to write North School most formative ones.

And you seem to say that he was on write article Mercersburg, board with the social gospelers as far as their view of economics went. And, if you can clarify that, that would be great. And then, I guess the how to write North Broward second half of that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of bringing themselves out of write essays AUTO, it. MCCLAY: I think his instincts were socialist. He supported Norman Thomas on the Socialist Party ticket in 1932, and his doing so was actually a moderate position compared with what some of his friends were doing. There were a lot of people, intellectuals, supporting the Communist Party that year. However, I do think you can deduce from Niebuhr some support for how to write an evaluation Broward Preparatory School, free market principles, simply because really, by the time he writes The Irony of American History , he’s completely sold on the structure and Madeira School, dynamics of the U.S. Constitution, on how to write an evaluation North School, the sort of writing Madeira, Madisonian idea – or Montesquieu, really – that it’s important to divide and disperse power as much as possible.

But he’s clearly sold on all of that. I think economics is one area in which he could be a little formulaic and weak and write an evaluation North School, just kind of write journal article, go with the journalism of the day rather than thinking and reading deeply into it, and thinking independently. I think you can deduce free market principles, or at how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory least mixed-capitalist, mixed-economy kinds of principles from write essays SKODA AUTO his view of politics. But I think it would be anachronistic to go too far with that. In terms of his political commitments, he cordially disliked businessmen. He disliked Eisenhower and Eisenhower’s support for the business community. He was much more of an Adlai Stevenson kind of guy. DIONNE: A quick concrete answer that parallels this. He was either a liberal or a social democrat. This is from Richard Fox’s biography. Fox says: “To remember Niebuhr is to remember the union movement in its heyday.

For most of write North School, his life, the word ‘justice,’ a term constantly on his lips, meant justice for workers, especially industrial workers. Only at the very end of how to do an article George Brown College, his life did ‘justice’ come to mean racial justice to the same degree that it meant industrial justice.” Although he was still earlier than most in supporting civil rights. “When Niebuhr tried to write an evaluation North Preparatory, give concrete content to his notion of justice, he instinctively thought about how to review George equalizing standards of living, reducing job insecurity and write essay Broward, enacting social insurance schemes. He was irreversibly shaped by his encounter with Henry Ford in open shop, Detroit, in the 1920s.” So I think he would have had differences with the Wall Street Journal editorial page on these questions. (Laughter.) CARL CANNON, POLITICS DAILY : I was interested in what other presidents thought of Niebuhr. Bill mentioned Jimmy Carter.

Three presidents have mentioned Reinhold Niebuhr. Lyndon Johnson gave him a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill Clinton gave a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Joseph Rauh and essay Madeira School, mentioned that he worked for Niebuhr. But Jimmy Carter spoke about Reinhold Niebuhr on three separate occasions. I’ll go through it real quick because I want to ask each of you a question, what the implications are. One was in May of write an evaluation Broward Preparatory School, 1978. Carter was talking to the Los Angeles Bar Association and he said, “As a governor and as a president” – and this made me think that he was thinking about Niebuhr even when he was governor – he said that he’d learned that “as Reinhold Niebuhr said, it is the sad duty of politics to establish justice in essays SKODA a sinful world.” In March 1978, he said, “From the experience of the how to an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory urban renewal program of the 1950s, we learned to be skeptical about what Reinhold Niebuhr called ‘the doctrine of salvation through bricks’ – the idea that we can bulldoze away our urban problems.” That was a bit of a straw man. Niebuhr probably was talking about building our way, not bulldozing, but still. And then, in June, same year, he actually quoted and named Moral Man in ppt on essay Madeira Immoral Society , and Carter went on this riff, and he said that Niebuhr “pointed out the difference between a society and people. The expectations and demands on a person are a much higher standard.

A person should have as our goal” – ungrammatical was his, not mine – “complete agape love.” The sitting president. He just went on this riff. “The most we can expect from a society is to institute simple justice.” So my question for Bill is, what does this tell us about write essay North Broward Preparatory a president who embraces Niebuhr in this way and keeps coming back to him? And then, I would ask you, E.J., as a Niebuhrian: Should we reconsider Carter now that we’ve established his Niebuhrian credentials? Carter was Mike Gerson’s candidate in 1976, it should be pointed out. CROMARTIE: Carl, what was your source? I thought you were going to Colegio Montfort, bring out write an evaluation essay North School a PowerPoint or something like that. CANNON: No. Trust me on those quotes. CROMARTIE: Okay. You were just quoting. (Laughter.)

CANNON: From the public papers of the president. CROMARTIE: You brought them with you? MCCLAY: I think those are fairly anodyne observations by Carter that have Reinhold Niebuhr’s name tacked onto the end of them. The thing about bricks, I can’t even really quite imagine Niebuhr saying that. But he wrote so much that it’s quite possible he did. I think Carter may have at some point been a serious student of Niebuhr. Write Mercersburg. I just don’t know.

But there’s a kind of Niebuhr line that you can embrace which is to say, well, you can’t expect the an evaluation essay Preparatory School same things of institutions that you do of individuals. True, but that seems fairly obvious. You don’t really need all that heavy theological artillery to make that point. And the belief that one should have a sense of humility about oneself as a leader – I don’t know whether this came before or after he identified himself as born-again, which scandalized the press corps. Ppt On Essay Madeira School. Such referencing of Niebuhr was a way of redeeming his reputation as a man of some education and breeding. I don’t want to be too harsh about it. But if you look at Carter’s presidency, I think, in fact, many of the how to essay North Broward Preparatory criticisms that Niebuhr makes of the children of light – that they have a kind of conviction about their virtuousness and the virtuousness of can t write SKODA University, their cause, and that by being virtuous and showing their virtue they will sway the how to write essay Preparatory opinions of others – this just doesn’t work in Niebuhr’s view. The biblical passage – DIONNE: The children of darkness are wiser in this world than the children of light.

MCCLAY: In this generation. Yes. DIONNE: Yes. In this generation. MCCLAY: And it comes from the parable of the dishonest steward in the Bible, which is one of the most perplexing things in the entire New Testament.

I never have known what it means. Essays University. But I think Carter, in practice, didn’t show an write an evaluation North School ability to exercise the teacher Montfort kind of shrewdness and deviousness even that Niebuhr thought an effective leader needed to show. Essay North. He hadn’t really taken in all of ppt on writing Madeira School, Moral Man and Immoral Society . By the way, as we were talking I did think of something else in Niebuhr: that he was a tremendous influence on Martin Luther King. DIONNE: Yes. I was going to say that. Write North Broward School. That’s really important. MCCLAY: Because if you look back – I believe it’s the last chapter of Moral Man and Immoral Society – there’s a discussion of non-violent resistance that’s a blueprint for what King does, and King evidently read it and was very influenced by it. King is not an example of a political leader, but an ppt on writing Madeira School example of a social leader, a movement leader.

DIONNE: And I just wanted to underscore too, that if you talk about somebody’s influence – “by their fruits shall ye know them” – King did a lot of his academic work on Niebuhr. Richard Fox says Niebuhr didn’t see race as early as he saw the injustice of how to an evaluation essay Broward School, labor, but he was pretty early in understanding how important racial equality was. And in terms of Jimmy Carter: Jimmy Carter was, and marking Montfort, is, an intellectually serious believer and he’s an how to write North intellectually serious believer of article review George Brown, a certain age. And if you were, like Carter, an evangelical but not a fundamentalist, someone who was a moderate or a liberal, you could not help but encounter Niebuhr and take him seriously. You can debate, as Bill suggested, exactly how he applied Niebuhr. But I don’t think Jimmy Carter lost in 1980 because he sort of loved Reinhold Niebuhr. I don’t think it changes our view of him.

I think we knew that he was a thoughtful Christian. He lost because of stagflation and the hostage crisis and an evaluation essay North Preparatory, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. And I don’t know what one can draw from his love for Niebuhr out of those things. Writing Essays Brillantmont International School. I don’t mean to be glib about how to an evaluation North Broward School it. Writing Services International School. I just think what you said proves what I think we already knew about Carter, and a good side of Carter that a lot of people liked even if they disagreed with him. AMY SULLIVAN, TIME : Professor McClay, you warned us at the beginning that Niebuhr often wrote as a counterpuncher – speaking in reaction to other people. And it seems like that’s particularly true, at least in the way you outlined his criticism of religious liberals and particularly the social gospel. You could be excused for how to write essay Broward Preparatory, coming away from that thinking that he wasn’t that different and that he believed Christians still should be engaged in efforts to make the world a better place and progress in social causes. They just shouldn’t be surprised if bad things happen and how to reflection essay American School, their hands got dirty. But there must be more to it than that.

And I wondered if one or both of how to essay North Broward School, you could talk just a little bit about what his affirmative theology was, or his sense of how religious people or institutions should operate? MCCLAY: Well, I’m afraid this is going to sound like I’m rehashing what I said but maybe I didn’t say it well enough. I think that Niebuhr wanted to write Heritage School, stress – and yes, he is counterpunching when he does this – that there is no resolution to essay North Broward School, the problems of politics in this life. You can ameliorate suffering here and there, and you are obliged to try to do so. But the notion that history is somehow moving towards some sort of omega point where frictionless social relations will come into being, where the self-realization of individuals is write essays AUTO University, going to occur in how to an evaluation Preparatory School an unimpeded way, that it’s possible to imagine that the interests of different individuals and different groups are not going to clash, and write journal Academy, clash in how to write Broward Preparatory a way that’s more or less permanent in character, that those interests may shift around in how to do an review George complexion but will not clash – that’s an illusion.

MCCLAY: Yes. I don’t believe in being concise. They pay me by the word. But you know, I’m trying to how to write an evaluation essay North Broward School, unpack what anti-utopian means in this context. It doesn’t just mean having moderate expectations. It doesn’t mean that perfection can only be approached asymptotically, and journal Academy, is not achievable for Broward, us here below. For Niebuhr, it is International School, something much more disturbing. How To Write An Evaluation North. It’s the notion that the more we progress, the Brillantmont International more we put ourselves in danger. That’s a very scary but very powerful principle.

And I think that’s very different from the how to an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory kind of progressive view that the social gospelers, by and large, took. But there’s an argument to be made that he oversimplifies people like Walter Rauschenbusch, who are not quite as blithe and services International School, naive as he makes them out to be. And John Dewey even. SULLIVAN: I guess my question, which I may not have made clear, is what do Christians then do with that? That may be the view, but then, how should they proceed?

DIONNE: See, I think that he assumed that Christians – it was a deep assumption reflected in how to write an evaluation North the way he lived his life and the way he was a pastor – that Christians would be, should be engaged in social action. When you were a minister in a poor parish in can t write University Detroit – a place you love – at a time of how to write an evaluation essay North, union organizing, low wages and all the writing essays services Brillantmont School struggles going on. It was built into the cake, if you were his kind of Christian, that you would be engaged in social action. What he was about was trying to think through not only what was the how to an evaluation most effective form of social action, but also how should one think about SKODA that social action as a Christian. He came to believe – he started out as a socialist, and an evaluation School, still maintained some of the socialist aspirations – nonetheless he came to see utopianism as both theoretically flawed and also as ineffectual in politics. Larry O’Brien, who was an aide to Kennedy and a Democratic National Committee chairman, had a great book title for his memoirs. The book title was No Final Victories . And I think that’s an excellent view of marking, democratic – small ‘d’ – politics. I suppose, for that matter, capital ‘d’ too. Essay North Broward School. There are no final victories in democratic politics because we are imperfect.

The world is imperfect. All political systems are imperfect, so you have to just keep fighting. And you shouldn’t give up because you don’t win a final victory. It’s a philosophy of constant improvement and Brillantmont School, accepting that setbacks happen along the way. And he would have said this in a more profound way than I just said it, but I think that’s what it comes down to. And, at least to me, that is probably the most rational way to approach democratic politics. MCCLAY: Can I say one other thing?

I think I’m getting a better feel for what you’re really asking. Broward School. And I think it bears on Mike Gerson’s question and point, which I didn’t initially understand either. Niebuhr lived in a time when you could count on do an George, Christian culture as a propulsive force, when your real task was how to channel that, how to how to write an evaluation essay North Broward, correct it, how to keep it from its worst excesses and make it more self-aware and self-critical. This is one of the problems about can t essays SKODA AUTO reviving Niebuhr – the fact that his time isn’t the write an evaluation essay Preparatory School one we live in now. Today, an intelligent person is faced with the question: “Why should I be a Christian rather than nothing? Why should I take a Christian view of politics rather than a strictly secular view? What does the Christian modifier contribute to all of this?” And I think Mike’s point about the problem of religion being a corrective rather than being an engine bears on writing services School, this too.

These are questions that Niebuhr didn’t really have to face. DAN GILGOFF, U.S. NEWS WORLD REPORT : It struck me that so far, a lot of the conversation about Niebuhr has centered on his enduring, or perhaps not-so-enduring, influence on American politics and on policymakers both current and past. And I’m wondering if you could talk a little bit about whether that influence is discernable at write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School all in American Christianity today, given that that was the realm in which he was operating. And also, I know you both do a lot more in terms of examining politics and essays International, theologians’ influence on it besides Niebuhr. Looking at Obama, his public statements, the degree to which he invokes the Bible, or religion, or father, or morality, do you see any other specific figures besides Niebuhr and traditions like the social gospel shining through his words? And I don’t know if you’d go so far as to how to an evaluation Broward Preparatory, say actions. I mean, I think that’s more difficult to analyze, but if you could speak to how to article Brown College, that point too, beyond Niebuhr. MCCLAY: Well, let me make one observation to start with, and I think E.J. would be better on Obama than I am. One thing that’s curious about all of this, and I think it tells you something about the times we’re living in too, is that – I think I mentioned this in passing – if you venture into how to write an evaluation the seminaries, what you will find is that Niebuhr is almost universally held in how to article Brown low esteem. And I think among many of the brightest young theologians I know, and some who are still graduate students, there are some who see him as completely irrelevant.

CROMARTIE: Is it because they don’t like the ambiguity? MCCLAY: I think they don’t like the write Broward Preparatory School ambiguity, and, in some ways, they don’t see him as being bold enough. He’s tailored too much for a secularist worldview. Ppt On Essay. Stanley Hauerwas is – CROMARTIE: A theologian at Duke University. MCCLAY: – is, in some ways, far more influential. And Stanley Hauerwas – to talk about a counterpuncher – he has pretty much made a career out of write North Broward Preparatory, eviscerating Reinhold Niebuhr at every turn, including in his own Gifford lectures. So what’s odd is that people in the position of David Brooks and teacher marking Colegio, E.J. and others – I suspect E.J. has a little more contact with the academy than David does – they’re the ones who are interested in essay North Preparatory School Niebuhr. And people like me. Marking Colegio. I’m a historian.

I’m not even in a theological world. Write Essay North Broward School. But the theologians, I think they see him as a back number. Now, what that means, I don’t know. People like Hauerwas have a much more – to use the word these theologians would use – “prophetic” engagement with the how to do an article culture and with politics. One way of translating “prophetic” means without any sort of acknowledgement of the sort of Broward Preparatory, half-measures and compromises and acquiescence that you need to make to ppt on writing Madeira, be politically effective. These theologians are much more interested in people who make very bold statements.

And in that sense, ambiguity is indeed part of the write an evaluation essay Preparatory School complaint. CROMARTIE: Let me just ask, Bill, before E.J. responds: Professor Putnam, if you could tell us your perception of what Niebuhr is, say, in Cambridge, Mass. Or at least, if you know, in write SKODA the divinity school or in how to write North School the political science world in which you work. MCCLAY: Well, there is a Reinhold Niebuhr chair at Union Theological Seminary, where he taught. And the writing Madeira guy who occupies it – DIONNE: He’s a great guy. Gary Dorrien. MCCLAY: Yes. He’s a big critic of Niebuhr. DIONNE: He’s an write North Broward affectionate critic of Niebuhr.

CROMARTIE: Professor Putnam, you don’t have to answer the question, but I was just thinking, as we are talking about Niebuhr in the academy, what you might want to tell us. ROBERT PUTNAM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY: This is what will cause you to withdraw the invitation to me to marking Colegio Montfort, speak here even tomorrow because actually, I have relatively little contact with the an evaluation Broward Preparatory School divinity school at do an review Harvard and almost no contact with theologians. An Evaluation Broward School. It’s not a matter of principle. (Laughter.) In my own field, political science, when I was growing up, which was actually a long time ago in the ’60s, Niebuhr was a major figure actually. How To Do An Article Brown College. And essentially along the lines of what’s been discussed here, in this kind of Broward, tragic realism kind of writing essays services International, sense.

So, probably, most political scientists of my generation know a little bit about Niebuhr. But I frankly doubt if contemporary political scientists know much about him. An Evaluation North Preparatory School. And maybe they should, I think, from a political-science point of view, not from a theological point of writing services School, view. This recent Niebuhr revival is actually quite interesting because I do think it reflects a little bit of an evaluation North Preparatory, what’s happening religiously, but mostly what’s happening sociologically, in America. I think this notion is partly the Lincoln tolerance part and partly the unintended consequences part: Don’t start pushing grand plans and distant ideals because you’re almost certain to get it wrong. That part, along with the hope part. I don’t know if that fits theologically or not now, but I think I see it as a little bit of the how to do an article George Brown ethos of our times. But actually I don’t have any reason to disagree with the account that was offered about Niebuhr’s standing among academic or non-academic theologians. DIONNE: Can I have a different view than – CROMARTIE: I know you do, but I want – DIONNE: It’s overlapping but different. DIONNE: Bill, you may not completely disagree with this.

It seems to me that Niebuhr went out of fashion somewhere in the 1960s and that was partly a product of the anti-war movement, which saw him as more of a realist. And, you know, there was a rebellion against realism. He wasn’t left-wing enough. And also, when you think back to some of the theological trends in the late ’60s and how to write an evaluation essay School, ’70s, the write Heritage death of God movement, the how to an evaluation Preparatory theology of hope, the how to George Brown College theology of write essay Broward Preparatory, liberation – I would love to know what Niebuhr would have made of liberation theology; what he would have agreed with, what he would have critiqued. I think that the journalistic and political comeback of Niebuhr has some parallels now in write SKODA University the academy. An Evaluation Essay Preparatory. For example, Harvey Cox was one of my old teachers at teacher marking Colegio Montfort Harvard Divinity School, and he was to essay North Preparatory School, Niebuhr’s left.

And he had a very interesting little letter in The New York Times after Arthur Schlesinger wrote his piece that I think was probably friendlier to can t write essays SKODA AUTO, Niebuhr than Harvey would have been circa 1969 or 1970. I want to ask Cox about this. I think it reflects Niebuhr’s resurrection – a good theme for a Christian theologian – and essay Broward Preparatory School, the new engagement with Niebuhr that’s going on now. Bill is ppt on essay Madeira School, absolutely right about Hauerwas. How To Write An Evaluation North Broward Preparatory. Hauerwas, by writing Brillantmont International the way, played a big role in the symposium about Niebuhr I quoted earlier. Write An Evaluation Preparatory. So I don’t dispute much of Academy, what Bill said, but I think that for write an evaluation essay North Preparatory, a variety of reasons, some of them having to write SKODA, do with the zeitgeist, there is how to an evaluation North Broward Preparatory, a kind of rediscovery of Niebuhr. There are probably some neo-Niebuhrian theologians being born right now. MCCLAY: Just one quick thing. One of the appeals of writing essays services Brillantmont International School, Hauerwas, and I think one of the concerns – this is a Putnam-esque theme, that’s why I’m bringing it up – Niebuhr really was in his heyday in write an evaluation essay School the ’30s through the ’50s.

Living in those years, it is not surprising that individualism and what might be called the sort of defense of the integrity of the individual over against collectivities and groups of how to do an article review Brown, any kind became one of write essay, his greatest themes. That is not, it seems to me, so large a concern now. I think there’s a lot more concern with, if I may coin the phrasing, bowling alone with anomie. How To Essay American. To take it to how to an evaluation essay North Broward School, a theological level, one sees a lot of concern, particularly among the writing Brillantmont International young, that our churches are not organizations in which people really are experiencing community, being bound together. And I think there is a lot more interest, particularly among the younger people, with finding a more vibrant and vital form of community than Niebuhr really has to offer, because Niebuhr is write an evaluation Broward School, very guarded.

He offers a very low level of can t write SKODA University, social trust, Niebuhr. North Broward School. He’s always looking out for the ways the individual can be captured and co-opted by groups, and trying to maintain that individual’s independence. DIONNE: Ten seconds – just 10 quick seconds on that. There’s a debate over whether the Niebuhr of Moral Man and Immoral Society , which is decidedly against the collective – but remember, he’s writing in a moment when Hitler and Stalin are rising – whether that emphasis is quite as strong in some of the how to reflection essay Heritage School later work. And I’d argue that there is a greater concern for community in the Niebuhr of the ’40s and ’50s than there was in that particular book. PUTNAM: People around the table have also observed that Niebuhr is primarily a counterpuncher. The culture and how to write North Broward, theology against which he was counterpunching then is just very different from the kind of theology and society in which it would be useful to have counterpunching now. That’s my view, and I guess that’s close to what you were just saying. DIONNE: He is more than a counterpuncher. Can T Write. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: And I agree with that, too. LYNN SWEET, C HICAGO SUN-TIMES : My question is aimed at you, professor: How did the Holocaust influence Niebuhr?

As you said – or as E.J. might have said – he was in his heyday during this period, and I know he certainly was a supporter of the state of Israel and all that, but you know, you often don’t get these great figures who are working real-time with one of the great issues of the world happening. So I’m just wondering, how did the how to write Broward Preparatory Holocaust influence him as it was unfolding, as he was on duty? MCCLAY: You mean during the’40s? Well, I don’t know. I can’t answer for that. I think it’s not a theme that figures all that prominently in his work, but I think – and this is sort of a cliche, but I think it’s true – that it was really after the ’67 and ’73 wars that the AUTO Holocaust as a theme becomes much more prominent in American Jewish consciousness and in American public life. So there are a lot of people who we might have expected to give more attention to it who didn’t. But that doesn’t answer, and an evaluation essay Broward, I really can’t answer the point about how he saw the Holocaust. I mean, he was very aware of issues like the journal Academy firebombing of Dresden and strategic bombing in how to write an evaluation North general and the use of nuclear weapons and the moral calculus involved in those things. DIONNE: He was a very, very strong opponent of how to article review George, anti-Semitism, a very early person in inter-religious dialogue, and one of the reasons he broke with his pacifist friends is because he believed Nazism was evil.

And his whole critique of Nazism was rooted in the idea that it was demonic in general, but in particular, demonic in how to its treatment of the Jews. So I don’t know what he was. I just don’t know the answer to the question of what he said as we learned about the Holocaust. But everything in his history – all of teacher Colegio Montfort, his associations with people like Abraham Heschel and lots of other Jewish leaders, and how to essay North Broward Preparatory, his writing about Nazis, says this was all very important to reflection essay American, him. I don’t have in front of me more detail than that. Write Essay North Preparatory. But it mattered to him. It mattered to him enormously.

CROMARTIE: How close was he to teacher marking Montfort, Dietrich Bonhoeffer? Were they close at all? DIONNE: I don’t know if they knew each other. They may well have. MCCLAY: Someone asked me about that yesterday. Write School. I’m going to look it up actually. Journal Article Academy. I have Fox’s biography so I’m going to look it up. I think they met when Bonhoeffer came to America, but I don’t think – CROMARTIE: It was brief. It was brief.

CROMARTIE: We’re moving the Niebuhr library books back and forth. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Can I say something? This doesn’t only, necessarily, relate to Jews, but he has always had a strong cadre of supporters in the academy, described in a term variously attributed to Morton White and Perry Miller and others as “atheists for Niebuhr.” He had a remarkably ecumenical outlook, aside from his rather dismissive view of evangelicals like Billy Graham or Billy Sunday. But he had very good relations with Jews, both religious and secular. There’s a story about the Niebuhr family place in a little town called Heath, near Stockbridge in western Massachusetts, where they spent a lot of time.

And Niebuhr’s daughter, Elizabeth Sifton, has written a book about the serenity prayer, which also talks a lot about this little town. Felix Frankfurter came out there once and went to a service that Niebuhr conducted where he preached, and as he was leaving, he shook Niebuhr’s hand and said, “Thank you for preaching such a wonderful sermon that really warmed the heart of a believing unbeliever.” And Niebuhr, without missing a beat, said, “Thank you, that means so much to write an evaluation essay School, me, an unbelieving believer.” So he had a great degree of how to essay American, comfort with people of non-Christian, particularly secular outlook. DIONNE: Just to essay North Broward School, answer the question from Fox’s biography: Niebuhr actually wrote a piece for The Nation called “Jews after the War.” And Fox notes that one of his major reasons for favoring intervention was his concern with what Hitler was doing to how to write essay American, the Jews. By the how to early ’30s, he grasped that Hitler was bent on the cultural annihilation of the Jews. Do An Article Brown College. From that time on, he was a firm, though sometimes qualified, backer of the Zionist cause. So it was a big part of him.

FRED BARNES, THE WEEKLY STANDARD : What was Niebuhr’s objection to Billy Graham? MCCLAY: I think it was part of this sort of critique that people like Will Herberg made of American religion in the ’50s: that it was too culturally complacent, too adapted to how to an evaluation essay School, American life. I mean, Billy Graham was, in a sense, the quintessence of the emphasis on individual conversion and nothing else, at least in Niebuhr’s view. And let me quickly add that this was not at teacher marking all fair to how to write an evaluation Broward School, Billy Graham. In fact, Billy Graham was remarkable in the area of civil rights, for example, and did things that went beyond a lot of what Niebuhr did. But that was Niebuhr’s view. And it’s true that Graham didn’t challenge social structures. He became cozy with presidents, saw himself as a kind of counselor to them, which was something that Niebuhr thought was perhaps inappropriate and writing services International School, certainly not anything that he ever sought to do. CROMARTIE: Actually let me add quickly, if I could here, that Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr in New York because Niebuhr was very critical of Graham’s New York crusade. And because of that criticism, Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr and Niebuhr refused to meet with him. DIONNE: Mike Gerson will like this.

This is from Fox’s book: “Niebuhr found himself pushed to a defense of the how to an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory School same liberal social gospel he had been repudiating for decades by Graham. Journal Article Mercersburg. It might have lacked ‘realism,’ he said, but it was ‘infinitely more realistic than the how to essay Broward pietistic individualism which it replaced and which Graham was resurrecting.’ Graham was certainly better, Niebuhr urged, than the popular religious therapists who dispensed with a God of Madeira, judgment altogether,” but Fox quotes Niebuhr – this is write Broward School, about Graham – “‘Evangelism has a blandness which befits the Eisenhower era.'” ADRIAN WOOLRIDGE, THE ECONOMIST : I’m going to ask two questions. One is ppt on Madeira School, about Niebuhr’s influence outside the United States. We have a very American-centric view of an evaluation North, things. Write Article Mercersburg Academy. I wonder if he had much influence in Britain or Europe?

And the second is about this other character who seems to how to write an evaluation North, have suffered the same fate as a lot of people in the politburo when they fell out of favor, sort of being written completely out of history – Jeremiah Wright. I wondered what sort of can t SKODA, influence Niebuhr had on an evaluation School, Jeremiah Wright, if anything? MCCLAY: Oh yeah, I wouldn’t know about the second one. I mean, my sense of write, Jeremiah Wright is that he’s much more influenced by James Cone and by black liberation theology, although I’m sure he had some contact. You don’t associate a whole lot of how to Broward Preparatory School, ambiguity with Reverend Wright, but – (laughter) – I really don’t know that much about him other than the Cone influence. CROMARTIE: What about British influence? MCCLAY: Well, Niebuhr was part of how to School, this transatlantic group of liberal anticommunists, membership in which ended up being part of what counts for a decline in his reputation, too. People like Fox, who were new-left types, found him too much of a prop to the status quo, too anticommunist for their taste. But he was part of the Congress for Cultural Freedom crowd, and wrote for Encounter magazine occasionally, and well you get the picture.

So he was part of that world and was read all over Europe, not just in essay North Broward Preparatory Great Britain. And there’s a bit of a revival of Niebuhr going on in the U.K. now. There’s a British scholar named Martin Halliwell at Leicester who’s written a very good book on teacher Montfort, Niebuhr that’s well worth reading. CROMARTIE: Is it a biography or an explication of how to write an evaluation essay Preparatory, him? MCCLAY: It’s more of an explication. It has biographical elements. WOOLRIDGE: Is it more than 700 pages? DIONNE: You know, I think that’s right. I agree with what Bill said in terms of the transatlantic influence of his liberal anticommunism and do an review, his view of foreign policy. Write North Broward School. He very much influenced Hans Morgenthau, who had a lot of influence over there. On Jeremiah Wright, I did an interview with Obama in that period for article, a piece I wrote for The New Republic . Obama had a very interesting observation on Wright, where Obama made a distinction between King and Wright.

He noted that in his early stage King had the an evaluation North Broward Preparatory combination that was all about – publicly, especially – reconciliation, but that King was angrier toward the write Mercersburg Academy end of his life, particularly about the an evaluation North Preparatory School Vietnam War, and that Wright came along in ppt on essay writing Madeira that late stage and was much more influenced by the period of disillusionment at the end of the how to write essay Preparatory School civil rights years than by the spirit of hope at the beginning of the civil rights years. And so my hunch is that, just as Bill said, Wright clearly was influenced by James Cone and his black liberation theology, which was part of write journal article Mercersburg, all those post-liberal theological developments in divinity schools that led to more radical forms of write essay Broward, theology. But I bet you – I’m sure Wright had to how to reflection American Heritage, have some contact with the ideas of Niebuhr. He was in the United Church of Christ which, you know, had a lot in common with Niebuhr at one point. CROMARTIE: Well, he may well have introduced President Obama to Niebuhr’s work, one would think.

DIONNE: That’s an essay North Broward School interesting question. MCCLAY: Well, you know who did read Niebuhr was Malcolm X, who clearly is Montfort, a major influence on Jeremiah Wright. I mean – the whole “chickens coming home to roost” trope – that’s a Malcolm phrase from his famous description of the Kennedy assassination. DAN HARRIS, ABC NEWS: The second part of the question about beyond Niebuhr, who are the theologians, religious figures, religious traditions that you see, you know, embodied in some of Obama’s rhetoric or perhaps beyond that, if you’re daring enough to read it into his actual policies. Just to kind of get beyond Niebuhr while still on the subject of Obama.

DIONNE: I have tried to figure out who has influenced him. Write An Evaluation Essay School. If you read the Sojourners speech, he’s clearly spent some time, or somebody has, looking at the whole debate around John Rawls: What are the essay School obligations of the religious person in the public square in making arguments that are accessible to those who do not share the same religious commitments? With the public reason debate, he seems familiar with that, so that’s one set of influences on him. I think the how to an evaluation essay North Broward School formative influences, both rhetorically and to some degree substantively, are all the traditions of civil rights Christianity. Writing School. And, you know, clearly there are a lot of echoes of King – and how to an evaluation essay North Preparatory, not only King’s rhetoric but also his theology, in writing International the way he speaks. And in some ways, what I see in Obama is an effort to go back to civil rights Christianity as part of how to write essay North Broward Preparatory, his way of reformulating a sort of progressive gospel – to journal article Mercersburg Academy, make a link between that and Niebuhr, which is quite a natural link since King himself was influenced by Niebuhr in a lot of his language. How To Write Essay North Preparatory School. But beyond that, I don’t know. I’d be very curious. It’s a good question. CROMARTIE: Bill, you have anything to add to how to write essay American Heritage School, that? MCCLAY: Well I’m sure you’re right about that and this is just something I don’t know enough about.

But I’ve read The Audacity of how to essay North Broward Preparatory, Hope and the other autobiographical book and I don’t think his rhetoric has the kind of yeastiness of a lot of the ’60s-era civil rights people who were really coming right out of the black Baptist church. You know that book by David Chappell, A Stone of Hope ? This is a terrific exposition of the ways in which the civil rights movement was a religious movement. He may overemphasize it a little, but I think it’s a corrective worth making. And you know, someone like Fannie Lou Hamer – who admittedly is hardly typical – everything she says sounds like it comes out of the Bible or out of reflection Heritage School, a black sermon. And Obama is much more of a guy who went to prep school, who went to elite colleges and how to an evaluation essay North Broward, universities and how to write reflection Heritage School, wants to kind of draw on that religious language and how to an evaluation North Preparatory School, imagery, but I just don’t know that it steers him. DIONNE: A book that I think is really important in writing Brillantmont School understanding King is Jonathan Rieder’s The Word of the Lord is Upon Me , and the subtitle is The Righteous Performance of Martin Luther King Jr. And what Jonathan’s book points out is that King had many different rhetorical styles used at different moments and with different audiences. And I think it’s a really good account of King taken whole. How To Essay Preparatory. There’s a lot of use of King for particular purposes and people quote the do an review George Brown College more-conciliatory King when they want to, they quote the write an evaluation North Broward more-angry King when they want to. And Jonathan argues, you’ve got to take him whole with all of these parts, and it’s a very interesting take on King, I think.

MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Follow-up on do an article review George Brown College, that question to maybe return it to Niebuhr a little bit. You know, he points to Lincoln as the example of Niebuhrian rhetoric in American history. If you look at the history of American rhetoric, Niebuhrian rhetoric is pretty rare. I mean, during World War II, Franklin Roosevelt didn’t use it – he used The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness . During the Cold War, John Kennedy didn’t use that language; he actually used much more morally charged language. And a lot of King’s rhetoric, whatever his influences by Niebuhr, were certainly more in the social justice tradition. You know, the write an evaluation Broward Preparatory School kingdom of God on Earth. But I think there’s a misinterpretation of George Brown, Lincoln in a lot of ways.

I think the subtext of the second inaugural address is the evil of write Preparatory, slavery, not some kind of essay, paradox or irony in that circumstance. There’s a certain humility in how to write essay Broward School its application, but this sin of slavery affected both North and South – they were both complicit in it. But I think it’s a misunderstanding of Lincoln in write Mercersburg a lot of ways to say that this represents a Niebuhrian viewpoint, filled with irony and how to write an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory School, paradox; there’s none there. But what does it say that when people need to motivate in American history – if you’re Franklin Roosevelt and you’re engaged in the long twilight struggle, that you don’t use Niebuhrian language – that it isn’t even a rhetorical option in essays SKODA American history? You call people to grand purposes and moral missions and American exceptionalism and a lot of how to essay North School, other things – and how did Niebuhr himself kind of write journal article, deal with that notion?

DIONNE: Just on Lincoln: I don’t think there’s any ambiguity in essay North Preparatory Niebuhr’s view about writing slavery. The paradox and how to write essay Preparatory, irony around and about slavery – the how to essay Heritage paradox and write North School, irony are that even though you are engaged in a just struggle against slavery, you may nonetheless be inveigled in its evils, as you suggest. The struggles of war create sin on both sides even though the core sin of slavery is at the heart of it. So I don’t think he is ironic about writing Brillantmont International slavery itself and I was not asserting that and would not assert that. GERSON: And I guess my point was not necessarily to assert that. I think, actually, if you look at Lincoln’s rhetoric and North Broward School, actions on these issues, it was a fairly extreme course that he took in writing services International these situations, insisting essentially on certain views at the cost of the Union and, you know, the cost of hundreds of thousands of lives on moral principle. Write Broward. That had a terrible cost, which he realized.

But he was willing to do those things. But just on the broader point, about the kind of moral clarity in rhetoric. I mean, how would he diagnose that? Is it just that Americans are ignorant, that they need to be motivated by moral clarity, but the reality is the moral ambiguity? I’m just curious about the level of rhetoric. MCCLAY: I think it’s worth pointing out that at the time that he gave the second inaugural, there was no doubt about who was going to win and that it was going to happen very soon. Writing Essays Services Brillantmont School. So, while I do think it is a tremendously magnanimous speech, it’s the magnanimity of the victor. Write Essay Broward Preparatory School. And that’s important to note, but the teacher marking Colegio Montfort other thing is how to write an evaluation Preparatory, that there is a different task that the rhetorician is called upon to play in that instance, in how to write essay Heritage calling the nation to a task that has yet to be performed – to heal, to reconcile.

Particularly in the case of write an evaluation North, this particular war, the point is not just to crush the journal article South; it’s to how to an evaluation Broward Preparatory School, bring the South back into teacher Montfort the Union, into this sort of how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School, family that they had thought to writing services School, extricate themselves from, for whatever reason. So the strategy that they use, the Niebuhrian part, I think, comes in – maybe E.J. already said this – in not saying well, we’ve defeated the bad guys and now we’re going to how to, be a morally better nation because we’ve defeated the bad guys. What he says is, that this is a national sin for which we all bear some responsibility; it is a mark upon all of is, and maybe this war came because of the need to essays Brillantmont International, expiate the how to write an evaluation North Preparatory School sin of slavery, and if it has to go on and on writing Brillantmont School, and on, the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. How To An Evaluation Broward Preparatory. So he’s – GERSON: Maybe I shouldn’t have mentioned Lincoln, because, you know, that’s a different debate. GERSON: The point is the difference between Niebuhr’s diagnosis of the moral conflicts of the do an article review George Brown College Cold War or World War II. Maybe one of the reasons, to just put it bluntly, that Niebuhr’s influence waned in the aftermath of that is that he was talking about the ironies of American history just at the point that America was on the verge of how to write an evaluation North Preparatory School, some of the teacher marking greatest moral achievements in human history. It wasn’t as though these were deeply conflicted circumstances; liberating death camps was a pretty good thing. Americans were pretty confident about our moral role in the world in write Broward School the aftermath of World War II because it had been a very good one. The Cold War was conducted with a language of moral certainty – DIONNE: Can we go back and forth on this?

Because I think the how to write Heritage very notion of containment, as opposed to rollback, was in how to fact full of Niebuhrian ambiguity. In other words, I think what’s important is that Niebuhr was unambiguous about the can t essays morality of the how to write an evaluation essay North Broward School struggle. And it’s good, actually, that you brought up Lincoln, because Niebuhr, just so we get him on the record correctly, said that Lincoln’s brooding sense of can t University, charity was derived from a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning than that of immediate political conflict. This combination – a moral resoluteness – about the how to write School immediate issues with a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning and judgment must be regarded as almost a perfect model of the difficult but not impossible task of remaining loyal and responsible toward the moral treasures of write, a free civilization on the one hand, while yet having some religious vantage point over the struggle on how to write essay North School, the other. Colegio Montfort. Niebuhr was at write an evaluation his high tide in marking Colegio the ’40s and ’50s because he believed in the struggle against the Nazis, the liberation of death camps and anticommunism. But he was not a jingoist. He did not believe America was automatically moral or always right. And the very idea that he was in favor of containment as opposed to how to write an evaluation essay North Preparatory, rollback says that we can behave in the world in a way that is responsible in confronting communism but does not carry all the teacher marking Montfort risks that rollback would entail. How To Write Broward Preparatory School. I think possibly – and we would probably both have to write journal article, look this up and how to write Broward Preparatory School, then we could debate the text – I do think some of Kennedy’s rhetoric had some of that in it. The very notion of a long twilight struggle is quite different from what you say in the middle of a war – for example, what FDR would say in the middle of the war. Kennedy’s speech in favor of disarmament at American University in 1963, I think, has some Niebuhrian elements.

And then Obama going to teacher marking Colegio, Europe and saying, we Americans have sometimes been arrogant, but you Europeans have engaged in a kind of write an evaluation North Broward, anti-Americanism that’s dangerous. That struck me – now, maybe I was looking for Montfort, it – but that struck me as a very Niebuhrian sort of balance. I thought it was a good thing to say. Others didn’t think it was a good thing to write an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, say. But I thought that sounded like somebody who, whether he was influenced directly by write journal article Academy Niebuhr or not, clearly was carrying that message.

JOHN SINIFF, USA TODAY : Last night there were a few of us who were having a discussion about the office of how to essay Broward School, faith-based initiatives, or whatever it has become under President Obama, and I realized that at the end we came to this unsatisfactory, very Niebuhrian conclusion as to writing essays, what he’s trying to do to with this office. And I wondered, E.J., if you see anything Niebuhrian in the re-casting of the an evaluation North Broward School office – because ultimately I think four or five of us at the table couldn’t quite figure out what he’s trying to do. Maybe that’s the purpose. You know, the worst thing is to kill it off, and the second-worst thing is what he’s doing in letting it sit there and fester. DIONNE: As far as I can tell Niebuhr has no direct influence or indirect influence on Obama’s thinking on the White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. (Laughter.) God knows what Niebuhr would think of this, and he does, but we don’t know. (Laughter.) I think what Obama is do an article, trying to do is walk a line between not wanting to overturn it and thinking there is how to write an evaluation essay North Broward, good work done here; and in fact, partnerships between government and faith-based groups pre-date President Bush. I think that it distorts the debate on how to write reflection American Heritage School, both sides if liberals say, this is write an evaluation, a Bush creation and we’re against it. Essays Brillantmont International. Well, it wasn’t a Bush creation; he pushed it in certain directions, he did certain things, you know, and that can distort the conservative view as well.

And I think Obama is trying to figure out, “How can I be true to things I say or believe about how to write Broward Preparatory School church-state separation and religious liberty and still keep this thing going?” So I think they’re still struggling toward resolving that, and he’s clearly kicked down the marking Colegio Montfort road the Broward Preparatory hardest question, which is the religious hiring issue, and he’s clearly tried to fudge that for a while, and Colegio, my impression is that he’s going to fudge it for a while longer. I think he’s going to how to an evaluation North, have to confront it, but the shrewd thing I think he did – shrewd because I thought he did the right thing – was to say we don’t want this whole effort to get blown up immediately in writing services International School a debate over this hiring issue when we know there is quite a lot of common ground on these partnerships. Bill Clinton had some of the first faith-based offices at write an evaluation North Preparatory School the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other parts of the writing School administration. So what Obama’s doing is how to essay School, not that far out of writing Madeira, line with what a number of Democrats have done, and write essay School, certainly Clinton before him. And so I think they’re still figuring it out, is the short answer. CROMARTIE: You have anything to can t write AUTO University, add to that, Bill? MCCLAY: I agree about the how to write North Preparatory continuity with Clinton.

You know, Charitable Choice came in during the Clinton administration, with welfare reform, with the idea that you can’t discriminate against can t essays SKODA AUTO a faith-based organization in awarding government contracts for the provision of social welfare. You can’t discriminate against them simply because of an evaluation North School, their religious identity. This goes to the point that Amy Sullivan, Fred Barnes and others have brought up, or maybe it was in our conversation on do an Brown, the side: that we live in a very different world. I mean, at one time in the past correctives seemed to have been needed to an evaluation Broward, protect the how to write reflection Heritage secular, to keep the religious realm from overwhelming the secular. Now, it seems to me both Democratic and Republican administrations have seen the need to push back the other way, to some extent. Whether Obama will sustain that or not, I don’t know.

But I agree with E.J.; this has lasted for how to write an evaluation essay Broward, a while, even if it hasn’t always been so effective. CROMARTIE: Well, on that note of heated agreement – (Laughter.) CROMARTIE: – raging moderation and heated agreement, you are allowed to continue these conversations, I promise you. There will be another reception out there where we were last night, so bring all your copies of marking Colegio, Niebuhr and we’ll continue the conversation. Join me in thanking both these gentlemen for their time. This transcript has been edited for clarity, accuracy, spelling and grammar. Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe. Video: Israel's Religiously Divided Society. Where the Public Stands on Religious Liberty vs.

Nondiscrimination. American and Israeli Jews: Twin Portraits From Pew Research Center Surveys. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from write Broward societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class?

Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Writing Brillantmont. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions.

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am psychology essay by Prof. Charles Tart. Who am I? If you think life is a meaningless accident, your perceptions of the write an evaluation School, complex world around you will likely be biased toward seeing the meaningless and absurd. If you believe in original sin and write journal article the great difficulties of finding salvation, your perceptions will be biased toward seeing your own and write an evaluation essay North Broward School others' failures. Our beliefs about who we are and how to article review what our world is like are not mere beliefs they strongly control our lives. We can gain more control by finding out how to write an evaluation essay School, what we believe and how those beliefs affect us.

-- Prof. Charles Tart in his thought-provoking essay Who Am I? The penetrating article below explores the University, profound question, Who am I? Charles Tart, professor of psychology at how to write North Preparatory the University of Montfort, California, Davis, has written this intriguing essay inviting us to question our beliefs and our view of reality. Do you really know who you are? Do I really know who I am? How much is our thinking around this and other deep questions shaped by our beliefs and how to write an evaluation essay North our upbringing. Read on to explore further into the depths of this mystery and open to a more expanded awareness of who we are. With best wishes, The question is an eternal one. If you don't answer it, you may never be able to distinguish between what your essential self wants and can t essays SKODA University what other people manipulate you to want. Each of us may do best to how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory, answer it for himself or herself. Writing Services International? Yet the answers given by others do affect the way we approach (or avoid) this question. Several general types of answers have been offered.

The most traditional answer in Western culture is that you are a creature, a creation of God, a creation that is flawed in write an evaluation Broward Preparatory vital ways. Conceived and ppt on essay writing School born in original sin, you are someone who must continually struggle to obey the rules laid down by how to essay Preparatory School that God, lest you be damned. It is an answer that appears depressing in many ways. One the one hand, it can lead to low self-worth and the expectation of do an article Brown, failure. On the other, it may lead to the rigid, conceited arrogance of being one of the elect. Further, this view doesn't much encourage you to write School, think about who you really are, as the answer has already been given from a higher source. The more modern answer to how to write American School, Who am I? is that you are a meaningless accident. Contemporary science is largely associated with a view of reality that sees the entire universe as totally material, governed only by fixed physical laws and blind chance. It just happened that, in a huge universe, the how to write School, right chemicals came together under the right conditions so that the chemical reaction we call life formed and ppt on essay writing Madeira eventually evolved into you. But there's no inherent meaning in that accident, no spiritual side to existence. Write North Preparatory School? I believe that this view is not really good science, but rather what we believe to be scientific and factual.

More important, it's a view that has strong psychological consequences. After all, if you're just a mixture of meaningless chemicals, your ultimate fate death and nonexistence is clear. Don't worry too much about other people, as they are just meaningless mixtures of chemicals, too. Teacher Colegio Montfort? In this view, it doesn't really matter if you think about who you really are whatever conclusions you arrive at how to essay Broward School are just subjective fantasies, of no particular relevance in the real physical world. Psychologically speaking, this materialist view of write AUTO, our ultimate nature leaves as much to how to write an evaluation School, be desired as does the born-into-original-sin view. As a psychologist, I stress the psychological consequences of these two views of your ultimate identity, because your beliefs do shape your reality. Modern research has shown that, in many ways, what we believe affects the way our brain constructs the world we experience. Some of these beliefs are conscious. You know you have them. Yet many are implicit you act on them, but don't even know you have them. If you think life in general is a meaningless accident, your perceptions of the complex world around you will likely be biased toward seeing the writing Brillantmont International, meaningless and absurd.

Seeing this will in write School turn reinforce your belief in the meaninglessness of things. If you believe in International original sin and the great difficulties of an evaluation Broward School, finding salvation, your perceptions will be biased toward seeing your own and others' failures, again reinforcing your belief in a self-fulfilling prophecy. Our beliefs about who we are and what our world is like are not mere beliefs they strongly control our lives. So we can gain more control by finding out what we believe and how those beliefs affect us. Between the traditional religious and materialistic views of who you are, there are a variety of ideas that embrace elements of each which include rich possibilities for personal and social growth. The common element in these other views is that life and the universe do have some meaning and that each of us shares in some form of spiritual nature. Yet they also recognize that something has gone wrong somewhere. We have temporarily lost our way. We have forgotten the Madeira, essential divine element within us and have become psychologically locked into how to write Preparatory School, a narrow, traditional, religious or materialist views. There is an old Eastern teaching story that illustrates this the story of the Mad King. Although he is actually the write journal, ruler of vast dominions, the Mad King has forgotten this.

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How to start a bed and breakfast business. Running a BB is a bit like having a new baby - lots of how to an evaluation essay Preparatory, early mornings and laundry, a seriously diminished social life and the constant need for ppt on Madeira School, energy. But if you love caring for people, don't mind having strangers sharing your living space, and are always able to write an evaluation essay Preparatory School, give service with a smile, it's all worth it. Marking. Your biggest outlay will be on the premises - either buying an existing BB or adding lots of how to write an evaluation essay North Broward School, en-suites to your home. Top earners can hit ?100,00 a year, but the lower rungs are anything from loss-making upwards, once the financial pressure of a big mortgage has been chucked in.

You might be working within the comfort of your own home, but running a bed and breakfast is reflection essay Heritage School no easy feat. Expect very early mornings (everything has to be ready for when guests wake up) and say goodbye to weekends and most ventures out (as someone always has to be on-hand should a guest need you). Day-to-day activities will be repetitive: having to undertake the an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School, same tasks you did yesterday, with the knowledge they'll have to be done again tomorrow. Cleaning rooms, making breakfast, doing laundry, repairing broken fixtures, greeting or saying goodbye to guests, and keeping strict accounts are all part of running a BB. The personal touch is Heritage what draws people to BBs, and how to essay Broward things like learning guests' names and advising them on what to writing essays services Brillantmont International, do during their stay are really important. Above all, your job is to make sure guests enjoy themselves and want to come back again, or at least recommend to others. The UK tourism industry is one of the largest in Preparatory School, the world, comprising of around 180,000 businesses, employing 1.4 million people, and generating ?19bn per year in how to American School, foreign revenue. The BB sector turns over ?2bn per year, making it 28% bigger than the write North Broward, low-cost hotel sector, and how to write essay American Heritage School 35% of the size of the UK hotel sector. The best BBs provide everything tourists look for: small-scale, high-quality accommodation with one-on-one personal service.

This is an how to write, incredibly competitive industry, and you'll have to work hard to can t write SKODA University, make your business the most desirable to potential guests. Really enjoy being surrounded by how to North Broward Preparatory School new people - to write Mercersburg, the extent you're unfazed by how to write Preparatory having strangers in can t essays SKODA AUTO, your home every day. Great customer care skills, and always happy to go the extra mile. Enjoy looking after others. Enjoy cooking. Keen cleaner and tidier.

Be good and handiwork and DIY, or have someone close to how to essay Preparatory School, you who is who won't mind doing you constant favours! There are no set-in-stone qualifications required, but it's advisable you research this type of business thoroughly before starting up. Several companies offer training programs for can t essays SKODA University, people aiming to open their own BB: The Bed and Breakfast Academy offers a course on write North Broward Preparatory School how to set up, market, and write reflection American run a successful BB. Write An Evaluation Broward. It charges ?250 for two days, and recommends that each person involved in running the business attend with you. Writing Essays. For those with a smaller budget, BandBtraining offers an eBook on a variety of topics for write an evaluation essay North Broward School, people aiming to start a BB for ?25.

Definitely sign up to training on food hygiene standards, particularly if you're going to run a large business, as you'll be inspected by the council at some point and teacher Colegio you don't want to be responsible for upset tummies. Are you going to buy an established business, purchase and customise a new building, or renovate your existing home? Each option has its advantages, but buying an established business is usually the most hassle-free. It will cost more to purchase, but will already have a client base and so need little spent on marketing or renovation. It will also be easier to get finance from the bank if you can prove the how to essay North Broward Preparatory, business is successful. If you decide to purchase a house and how to do an George Brown build the business from scratch, consider the size carefully. How To North School. If you want a four bedroom BB, you'll need a house with around six bedrooms so you and your family can live comfortably. Ideally you'll have your own private living room to give you a break from the guests. This is important for your business too, because guests will feel uncomfortable if they have to share space with your family. Your premises will be furnished differently depending on how you market your business. Are you a value-for-money getaway, or a luxurious retreat?

If you market your BB as a quiet, relaxing hideaway, then a television in do an article George College, each room won't be necessary. If, however, you want to essay Broward Preparatory, create a luxurious home-from-home, you'll need all the mod cons. Whatever your choice, make it clear on your advertisements what you offer. If starting your BB from scratch, remember that most guests expect a private bathroom, so you'll need to buy somewhere with multiple en-suites, or get these installed in whatever property you're using. Make sure you have sufficient parking spaces nearby and are well positioned for guests to write SKODA University, visit local attractions. Avoid noisy roads, too, but not so much that guests would be scared to walk back alone at night.

Of course, as soon as you look at how to write North Preparatory School, buying a property, you need to be thinking about mortgages. Writing. This can get complex when you're mixing residential and business premises - this article gives a good run-down of the basic considerations. You'll usually require staff if your BB has anything more than four guest rooms. How To Essay Broward School. Staff need to be able to take on a variety of roles: cleaning, greeting guests, basic cooking, and so on. Ideally, your employees should be able to how to do an article George College, do everything you can do, to allow you some time away from the business. All staff must have excellent customer service skills, because the happier your guests are, the more likely they are to refer you to their friends. How To Write An Evaluation School. This is an important way to get bookings in the tourism industry. The bigger your business, the larger the property you'll need. More rooms may mean more guests, but they also mean more furnishing, more utility bills, and more staff. Essays Services International. The cost of buying either an existing BB or a large property varies hugely depending on size, location, how the market is doing, how long the property has been for sale, and so on essay North Broward - anything from ?50,000 - ?5m.

Look at sites like Business for Sale. Established BBs in sought-after areas don't stay on the market for long: in fact many receive offers before they're even advertised! It's because of this that some experts recommend selling your home before searching for a business. If needs be, stay with family or live in rented accommodation until you find your new business, otherwise you could miss out because the sale of do an article, your property took too long. A bank can provide around 70% of the purchase price for your new property, if you have a normal credit rating. You'll need roughly 30% of the how to write an evaluation essay, purchase price again for essays services Brillantmont, the ongoing costs,.

Expect to pay 5% of the purchase price to cover fees, stock, stamp purchase, business valuation and admin fees. The cost of furnishing your business will vary depending on how you aim to market it - a simple BB won't be outrageously expensive. It's the en-suites that will really bite into your budget. Accurate records must be kept of all outgoings for when the time comes to pay tax. Get an accountant. They can keep an write Broward, eye on spending and help you avoid any nasty surprises. A chunk of your initial funds will go on insurance, and how to do an article George Brown you will need most of the how to write an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School, following: Buildings cover Contents cover Public liability - covers you for civil actions brought by guests who sustain injury on your property Employee liability Cancellation insurance - in case guests cancel at the last moment Personal accident, health, and write Mercersburg Academy key person insurance - in case you're incapacitated at write North Preparatory, an important time Motor insurance for business use Here are a few companies that offer insurance specifically for BBs (links lead to relevant bits of the website): Premierlinedirect.co.uk Hodgsoninsurance.co.uk Morethanbusiness.com. Figure out if there would actually be enough guests in your desired area to sustain the business throughout the year.

Visit your local Chamber of Commerce, local council and tourist information office to can t essays AUTO, get important tourism information: how many visit the area, the types of attractions they visit, whether tourism is seasonal etc. Also consider how many travelling businessmen and an evaluation essay Broward women spend the night in your area. They will be valuable guests through the 'slow season'. Vigorously assess your competition and how you will beat it. Google searching is a great start - will you appear on write article Mercersburg the first page of search listings for your area? This is key.

Talk to your band manager early on about loans and mortgages. Look at property prices in your desired areas. Stay in BBs in your chosen area to get an how to write essay, idea of how the write journal article, business is run. You can see how they're decorated, what the house rules are, what you're charged - and how to out-do them. Read plenty of books and articles from people who've been there and how to an evaluation North Preparatory done it to make sure this is the George Brown College, right choice for you. It's a big commitment, more so than many other types of business because of the big property expenditure, and you need to be sure. Get food and write an evaluation School safety standard accreditations. Get listed on Trip Advisor - ask guests you get on with if they'll recommend you on writing essays International it. How To Write North Broward Preparatory. Make yourself known to local tourist offices and websites listing BBs in your area. Put yourself up for teacher marking Montfort, as many awards as you can - read this feature for advice on how to stand the Preparatory, best chance of how to reflection Heritage School, winning: /advice/sales-and-marketing/pr/how-to-win-awards Give a decent, hearty breakfast.

Offer yoghurt, fruit and muesli as well as the full English. Try adding a few locally-sourced ingredients to your breakfast menu - particularly if you're in the countryside. These days guests eat that up - literally. Have a guest book and encourage guests to write an evaluation Broward Preparatory, sign it, then add the most shining comments to your website. Make sure your website is services International School geared up with all the SEO you need to get found online - this is where the vast majority of guests start their search for accommodation.

Leave chocolates on guests' pillows - a small touch, but one that always brings a smile to a guest's face! Have a leaflet counter full of write essay North, brochures of things to do in the area during their stay, and give guests maps. How To Do An Article Review. Show as many photos of rooms on your website as possible. How To Write An Evaluation Essay North Broward Preparatory. Provide very clear instructions for how to find you for all main modes of writing School, transport (road, air, train, etc) and give a number the guest can call should they get lost. Have mini-bars and small fridges in rooms fully stocked and with price cards - these are great profit-makers. Casually ask guests why they're staying with you (business, pleasure, a specific nearby attraction) and record results so you can tailor your advertising in future. Have a protocol in place for what you'll do if a guest gets locked out late-night or loses their key. Always offer to carry luggage. Make recommendations for the best bits of the locality. Know your local area inside out!

Make sure guests are familiar with your terms and how to write essay conditions and cancellation policies (it's standard for guests to have to give 24 or 48 hours notice to entitle them to a refund). You need to journal, budget incredibly carefully to see yourself through the off-peak season. Consult your accountant and save as much as possible after your first summer. Market to business travellers who might still need accommodation throughout winter, and write an evaluation Broward offer decent discounts for off-peak visitors. Mortgage payments make things complicated. See what we mean here. Guests running off without paying can hit you hard. How To Essay American Heritage School. Take passports, credit card numbers or other form of essay Preparatory School, ID at the beginning of a stay to avoid it. You need to have a protocol in place for rude guests who stay up later making lots of can t write SKODA AUTO, noise, and how to write disturbing other guests. Find a way to handle them without insulting them. Sharing your home with strangers can be very wearing - emotionally as well as physically.

Give yourself plenty of time away from the house when you can, and find time to essays services Brillantmont, enjoy the write an evaluation Broward Preparatory, company of your partner, if you're working with one, away from the business. Laundry and electricity bills will creep up on you. Talk to non-competitor BBs (perhaps in other parts of the UK) who are roughly the same size as you to make estimates. Think ahead. If you're planning on having children (or more children!) in the next few years, you'll need to make sure you have rooms ready for them in the property you purchase now - even if those rooms won't be used for a few years. Competition can be killer in top tourist destinations.

How will you market yourself to get heard over other BBs? How will you differentiate and find a competitive edge? Use what's out there to write essays SKODA AUTO, help you. Software like Smarta Business Builder will make it easier to keep track of all aspects of your business. Other resources include: To help you on how to essay School your business journey, we've created Smarta Business Builder, the complete online tools package for how to Brown College, growing your business. Website Builder, Business Plans, Accounting Software, Legal Documents and Email - all in one place - from just ?20 per month with no contract! Try it out today. Smarta Business Builder is write an evaluation essay North Smarta's online solution offering a carefully picked selection of essay writing, online tools to help business owners manage and grow their businesses. Smarta Business Builder also offers a dedicated and knowledgeable Support Team always on-hand to write an evaluation Broward, support our customers.

Smarta Business Builder TM is powered by Smarta Apps, which is a service of Smarta Enterprises Limited, a company registered in do an article George Brown, England and Wales under company no. 06643570 and how to write essay Broward School with a registered office at No.1 Croydon, 7th Floor, 12-16 Addiscombe Road, Croydon, CR0 0XT, United Kingdom. VAT no. Ppt On Madeira School. 936 5717 92. Copyright © 2010 – 2016 Smarta Enterprises Limited.

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