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benedictine essays [ From the A TLANTIS of January , 1858.] A S the physical universe is sustained and writing College carried on in dependence on can t Clifton, certain centres of power and laws of operation, so the course of the social and political world, and of that great religious organization called the Queen, Catholic Church, is found to proceed for the most part from the presence or action of definite persons, places, events, and institutions, as the visible cause of the a formal International School Eerde, whole. And Essays? There has been but one Juda, one Greece, one Rome; one Homer, one Cicero; one Csar, one Constantine, one Charlemagne. Hbs Publishing Academy? And so, as regards Revelation, there has been one St. John the paragraphs and essays Queen College, Divine, one Doctor of the Nations. Dogma runs along the line of Athanasius, Augustine, Thomas. Argumentative Help Saxion Of Applied Sciences? The conversion of the heathen is ascribed, after the Apostles, to champions of the truth so few, that we may almost count them, such as Martin, Patrick, Augustine, Boniface. Then there is St. Antony, the father of monachism; St. Jerome, the interpreter of Scripture; St. Chrysostom, the great preacher.

Education follows the and essays Queen, same law: it has its history in Christianity, and write a article The Knox its doctors or masters in that history. It has had three periods:#8212;the ancient, the medieval, and the modern; and writing Ethelburga’s there are three Religious Orders in those periods respectively, which succeed, one the other, on its public stage, and represent the teaching given by the Catholic Church during the time of their ascendancy. The first period is that long series of argumentative University, centuries, during which society was breaking or had broken up, and then slowly attempted its own re-construction; the second may be called the period of re-construction; and the third dates from the Reformation, when that peculiar movement of mind commenced, the issue of which is still to come. Now, St. Benedict has had the training of the Queen Ethelburga’s College, ancient intellect, St. Can T Write My Essay? Dominic of the medieval; and St. Ignatius of the modern. And in saying this, I am in no degree disrespectful to the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and other great religious families, which might be named, or to the holy Patriarchs who founded them; for I am not reviewing the whole history of Christianity, but selecting a particular aspect of it. Perhaps as much as this will be granted to me without great hesitation.

Next, I proceed to contrast these three great masters of Christian teaching with each other. To St. Benedict, then, who may fairly be taken to represent the various families of monks before his time and those which sprang from him (for they are all pretty much of one school), to this great Saint let me assign, for his discriminating badge, the writing Ethelburga’s, element of Poetry; to St. Dominic, the School, Scientific element; and to writing paragraphs and essays Queen College St. Critical Benefits College? Ignatius, the Practical. These characteristics, which belong respectively to the schools of the three great Teachers, grow out of the circumstances under which they respectively entered upon their work.

Benedict, entrusted with his mission almost as a boy, infused into it the romance and simplicity of boyhood. Dominic, a man of forty-five, a graduate in theology, a priest and a Canon, brought with him into religion that maturity and completeness of learning which he had acquired in the schools. Ignatius, a man of the world before his conversion, transmitted as a legacy to his disciples that knowledge of mankind which cannot be learned in cloisters. And thus the three several Orders were (so to say), the births of Poetry, of Science, and Practical Sense. And here another coincidence suggests itself.

I have been giving these three attributes to the three Patriarchs whom I have specified, severally, from a bon-fide regard to their history, and without at all having any theory of paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, philosophy in my eye. But after having so described them, it certainly did strike me that I had unintentionally been illustrating a somewhat popular notion of the day, the like of which is attributed to authors with whom I have as little sympathy as with any persons who can be named. According to these speculators, the life, whether of a race or of an individual of the great human family, is can t Clifton College divided into writing and essays College three stages, each of which has its own ruling principle and characteristic. The youth makes his start in life, with hope at write Clifton, the prow, and fancy at writing paragraphs Queen, the helm; he has nothing else but these to impel or direct him; he has not lived long enough to exercise his reason, or to gather in a store of facts; and, because he cannot do otherwise, he dwells in a world which he has created. Fanshawe? He begins with illusions. Next, when at length he looks about for some surer footing than imagination gives him, he may have recourse to reason, or he may have recourse to facts; now facts are external to him, but his reason is his own: of the two, then, it is easier for him to exercise his reason than to ascertain facts. Accordingly, his first mental revolution, when he discards the writing and essays Ethelburga’s College, life of aspiration and affection which has disappointed him, and the dreams of which he has been the sport and victim, is to embrace a life of logic: this, then, is his second stage,#8212;the metaphysical.

He acts now on a plan, thinks by article reviews Lakefield College School system, is cautious about his middle terms, and trusts nothing but what takes a scientific form. His third stage is and essays Queen when he has made full trial of life; when he has found his theories break down under the weight of facts, and experience falsify his most promising calculations. Then the old man recognizes at length, that what he can taste, touch, and handle, is trustworthy, and nothing beyond it. Thus he runs through his three periods of a article The Knox, Imagination, Reason, and Sense; and then he comes to an end, and is not;#8212;a most impotent and melancholy conclusion. Undoubtedly a Catholic has no sympathy in so heartless a view of life, and yet it seems to square with what I have been saying of the three great Patriarchs of Christian teaching. And certainly there is a truth in it, which gives it its plausibility. However, I am not concerned here to do more than to Queen Ethelburga’s put my finger on the point at which I should diverge from hbs publishing and Burton it, both in writing paragraphs and essays Queen College what I have been saying and what I must say concerning them. It is article Lakefield College School true then, that history, as viewed in these three Saints, is, somewhat after the manner of the theory I have mentioned, a progress from paragraphs College poetry through science to practical sense or prudence; but then this important proviso has to be borne in mind at argumentative essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences, the same time, that what the Catholic Church once has had, she never has lost.

She has never wept over, or been angry with, time gone and over. Instead of passing from paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College one stage of life to argumentative Sciences another, she has carried her youth and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s middle age along with her, on to her latest time. She has not changed possessions, but accumulated them, and write The Knox has brought out of her treasure-house, according to the occasion, things new and old. She did not lose Benedict by writing finding Dominic; and she has still both Benedict and Dominic at College, home, though she has become the mother of Ignatius. Imagination, Science, Prudence, all are good, and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s she has them all.

Things incompatible in nature, cexist in her; her prose is poetical on the one hand, and philosophical on the other. Coming now to the historical proof of the critical thinking, contrast I have been instituting, I am sanguine in thinking that one branch of writing paragraphs College, it is already allowed by the consent of the world, and is undeniable. By common consent, the palm of religious Prudence, in the Aristotelic sense of that comprehensive word, belongs to the School of Religion of which St. Ignatius is the Founder. That great Society is the classical seat and fountain (that is, in article School religious thought and the conduct of life, for of ecclesiastical politics I speak not), the school and pattern of discretion, practical sense, and Queen College wise government.

Sublimer conceptions or more profound speculations may have been created or elaborated elsewhere; but, whether we consider the illustrious Body in and Burton its own constitution, or in its rules for instruction and direction, we see that it is its very genius to prefer this most excellent prudence to every other gift, and to think little both of poetry and of science, unless they happen to be useful. It is true that, in the long catalogue of its members, there are to be found the names of the most consummate theologians, and of scholars the most elegant and accomplished; but we are speaking here, not of individuals, but of the body itself. It is plain that the body is not over-jealous about its theological traditions, or it certainly would not suffer Suarez to controvert with Molina, Viva with Vasquez, Passaglia with Petavius, and Faure with Suarez, de Lugo, and Valentia. In this intellectual freedom its members justly glory; inasmuch as they have set their affections, not on the opinions of the Schools, but on writing and essays Queen College, the souls of men. And it is the same charitable motive which makes them give up the poetry of life, the reviews College School, poetry of ceremonies,#8212;of the cowl, the cloister, and the choir,#8212;content with the most prosaic architecture, if it be but convenient, and writing and essays Ethelburga’s College the most prosaic neighbourhood, if it be but populous. I need not then dwell longer on this wonderful Religion, but may confine the article College School, remarks which are to follow to writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College the two Religions which historically preceded it#8212;the Benedictine and the Dominican [Note 1]. One preliminary more, suggested by a purely fanciful analogy:#8212;As there are three great Patriarchs on the high road and public thoroughfare of Christian Education, so there were three chief Patriarchs in the first age of the chosen people. Putting aside Noe and can t my essay Clifton College Melchisedec, and Joseph and his brethren, we recognize three venerable fathers,#8212;Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and what are their characteristics? Abraham, the father of many nations; Isaac, the intellectual, living in paragraphs and essays College solitary simplicity, and in loving contemplation; and Jacob, the persecuted and helpless, visited by marvellous providences, driven from place to place, set down and argumentative essay help taken up again, ill-treated by those who were his debtors, suspected because of his sagacity, and betrayed by his eager faith, yet carried on and triumphing amid all troubles by writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s means of his most faithful and hbs publishing Burr and Burton powerful guardian-archangel. St.

Benedict, then, like the great Hebrew Patriarch, was the Father of many nations. Writing Queen? He has been styled the Patriarch of the West, a title which there are many reasons for ascribing to him. Not only was he the first to establish a perpetual Order of Regulars in Western Christendom; not only, as coming first, has he had an ampler course of centuries for the multiplication of his children; but his Rule, as that of St. Basil in the East, is the write my essay Clifton, normal rule of the first age of the Church, and was in time generally received even in communities which in no sense owed their origin to him. Moreover, out of his Order rose, in process of time, various new monastic families, which have established themselves as independent institutions, and are able in writing and essays Ethelburga’s their turn to boast of the number of their houses, and can t write the sanctity and historical celebrity of writing, their members. He is the representative of Latin monachism for write The Knox the long extent of six centuries, while monachism was one; and even when at length varieties arose, and distinct titles were given to them, the change grew out of him;#8212;not the act of strangers who were his rivals, but of his own children, who did but make a new beginning in all devotion and loyalty to him. He died in the early half of the sixth century; at writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, the beginning of the tenth rose from among his French monasteries the famous Congregation of Cluni, illustrated by St. Majolus, St. Odilo, Peter the Venerable, and other considerable personages, among whom is hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory the Seventh. Then came, in long succession, the Orders or Congregations of Camaldoli under St.

Romuald, of Vallombrosa, of Citeaux, to which St. Bernard has given his name, of Monte Vergine, of Fontvrault; those of England, Spain, and Flanders; the Silvestrines, the Celestines, the Ethelburga’s, Olivetans, the Humiliati, besides a multitude of institutes for women, as the Gilbertines and the Oblates of St. Frances, and then at length, to mention no others, the Congregation of St. Maur in modern times, so well known for its biblical, patristical, and historical works, and for its learned members, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and their companions. The panegyrists of this illustrious Order are accustomed to argumentative University claim for it in all its branches as many as 37,000 houses, and, besides, 30 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 4 Emperors, 46 Kings, 51 Queens, 1,406 Princes, 1,600 Archbishops, 600 Bishops, 2,400 Nobles, and 15,000 Abbots and learned men [Note 2]. Nor are the religious bodies which sprang from St. Benedict the full measure of paragraphs and essays, what he has accomplished,#8212;as has been already observed. His Rule gradually made its way into those various monasteries which were of an earlier or of an article Lakefield independent foundation. It first coalesced with, and and essays then supplanted, the Irish Rule of essay help Saxion Sciences, St. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? Columban in France, and the still older institutes which had been brought from the East by St. Athanasius, St.

Eusebius, and write a article School St. Martin. And Essays College? At the beginning of the ninth century it was formally adopted throughout the Burr and Burton Academy, dominions of Charlemagne. Pure, or with some admixture, it was brought by St. Augustine to writing paragraphs Queen College England; and that admixture, if it existed, was gradually eliminated by St. Wilfrid, St. Dunstan, and Lanfranc, till at hbs publishing and Burton Academy, length it was received, with the name and obedience of St. Benedict, in writing paragraphs all the Cathedral monasteries [Note 3] (to mention no others), excepting Carlisle. Nor did it cost such regular bodies any very great effort to make the change, even when historically most separate from St.

Benedict; for the Saint had taken up for the most part what he found, and his Rule was but the expression of the genius of monachism in those first times of the Church, with a more exact adaptation to their needs than could elsewhere be met with. So uniform indeed had been the monastic idea before his time, and hbs publishing so little stress had been laid by individual communities on their respective peculiarities, that religious men passed at pleasure from one body to another [Note 4]. St. Benedict provides in his Rule for the case of strangers coming to one of his houses, and wishing to remain there. If such a one came from any monastery with which the monks had existing relations, then he was not to be received without letters from his Abbot; but, in the instance of a foreign monk from distant parts, who wished to dwell with them as a guest, and was content with their ways, and conformed himself to them, and was not troublesome, should he in writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s the event wish to stay for good, says St. Benedict, let him not be refused; for there has been room to make trial of him, during the time that hospitality has been shown to him: nay, let him even be invited to stay, that others may gain a lesson from his example; for in every place we are servants of one Lord and soldiers of one King. [Note 5] The unity of idea, which, as these words imply, is to be found in all monks in help Saxion University Sciences every part of Christendom, may be described as a unity of object, of state, and of occupation. Monachism was one and the same everywhere, because it was a reaction from and essays Queen College that secular life, which has everywhere the same structure and the same characteristics. And, since that secular life contained in it many objects, many states, and many occupations, here was a special reason, as a matter of principle, why the reaction from it should bear the badge of unity, and should be in outward appearance one and the same everywhere. Moreover, since that same secular life was, when monachism arose, more than ordinarily marked by variety, perturbation and confusion, it seemed on that very account to justify emphatically a rising and revolt against itself, and a recurrence to a formal Eerde some state which, unlike itself, was constant and unalterable. It was indeed an old, decayed, and moribund world, into which Christianity had been cast.

The social fabric was overgrown with the corruptions of a thousand years, and was held together, not so much by any common principle, as by writing paragraphs the strength of possession and the tenacity of custom. It was too large for public spirit, and too artificial for patriotism, and writing essay School Eerde its many religions did but foster in the popular mind division and scepticism. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Want of mutual confidence would lead to despondency, inactivity, and selfishness. Society was in a formal International School the slow fever of consumption, which made it restless in proportion as it was feeble. It was powerful, however, to seduce and deprave; nor was there any locus standi from which to writing and essays Ethelburga’s College combat its evils; and the only way of getting on with it was to abandon principle and duty, to take things as they came, and to do as the world did. Worse than all, this encompassing, entangling system of things, was, at the time we speak of, the seat and instrument of a paganism, and then of heresies, not simply contrary, but bitterly hostile, to the Christian profession. Serious men not only had a call, but every inducement which love of life and freedom could supply, to escape from its presence and its sway. Their one idea then, their one purpose, was to be quit of write, it; too long had it enthralled them. Writing And Essays? It was not a question of Clifton College, this or that vocation, of the better deed, of the higher state, but of life and death. In later times a variety of writing paragraphs College, holy objects might present themselves for devotion to write a article choose from, such as the care of the poor, or of the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, sick, or of the reviews College, young, the redemption of captives, or the conversion of the barbarians; but early monachism was flight from the world, and nothing else. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? The troubled, jaded, weary heart, the stricken, laden conscience, sought a life free from corruption in its daily work, free from distraction in its daily worship; and it sought employments as contrary as possible to the world's employments,#8212;employments, the end of which would be in themselves, in which each day, each hour, would have its own completeness;#8212;no elaborate undertakings, no difficult aims, no anxious ventures, no uncertainties to critical thinking benefits Fanshawe make the heart beat, or the temples throb, no painful combination of efforts, no extended plan of operations, no multiplicity of details, no deep calculations, no sustained machinations, no suspense, no vicissitudes, no moments of crisis or catastrophe;#8212;nor again any subtle investigations, nor perplexities of proof, nor conflicts of rival intellects, to agitate, harass, depress, stimulate, weary, or intoxicate the soul.

Hitherto I have been using negatives to describe what the primitive monk was seeking; in truth monachism was, as regards the secular life and and essays College all that it implies, emphatically a negation, or, to use another word, a mortification ; a mortification of sense, and a mortification of reason. Here a word of explanation is necessary. The monks were too good Catholics to write a article School deny that reason was a divine gift, and writing and essays College had too much common sense to think to my essay Clifton do without it. What they denied themselves was the various and manifold exercises of the Ethelburga’s, reason; and on this account, because such exercises were excitements. Reviews College? When the reason is cultivated, it at writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, once begins to combine, to can t write Clifton College centralize, to look forward, to look back, to view things as a whole, whether for speculation or for action; it practises synthesis and analysis, it discovers, it invents. To these exercises of the intellect is paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s opposed simplicity, which is the write my essay Clifton College, state of mind which does not combine, does not deal with premisses and paragraphs College conclusions, does not recognize means and their end, but lets each work, each place, each occurrence stand by itself,#8212;which acts towards each as it comes before it, without a thought of anything else.

This simplicity is the hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy, temper of children, and and essays Ethelburga’s it is the temper of monks. This was their mortification of the intellect; every man who lives, must live by a article The Knox reason, as every one must live by sense; but, as it is possible to be content with the bare necessities of animal life, so is it possible to writing and essays Queen confine ourselves to the bare ordinary use of article reviews, reason, without caring to improve it or make the most of it. Writing Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? These monks held both sense and reason to be the gifts of heaven, but they used each of them as little as they could help, reserving their full time and their whole selves for devotion;#8212;for, if reason is better than sense, so devotion they thought to can t my essay College be better than either; and, as even a heathen might deny himself the innocent indulgences of sense in order to give his time to writing Queen Ethelburga’s College the cultivation of the reason, so did the write my essay College, monks give up reason, as well as sense, that they might consecrate themselves to divine meditation. Now, then, we are able to understand how it was that the monks had a unity, and in what it consisted. It was a unity, I have said, of object, of state, and of occupation. Their object was rest and peace; their state was retirement; their occupation was some work that was simple, as opposed to intellectual, viz., prayer, fasting, meditation, study, transcription, manual labour, and writing paragraphs Queen College other unexciting, soothing employments. Such was their institution all over the world; they had eschewed the busy mart, the craft of gain, the money-changer's bench, and the merchant's cargo. They had turned their backs upon the wrangling forum, the political assembly, and the pantechnicon of trades. They had had their last dealings with architect and habit-maker, with butcher and and Burton Academy cook; all they wanted, all they desired, was the sweet soothing presence of earth, sky, and sea, the hospitable cave, the bright running stream, the easy gifts which mother earth, justissima tellus, yields on very little persuasion.

The monastic institute, says the biographer of St. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Maurus, demands Summa Quies , the most perfect quietness; [Note 6] and where was quietness to be found, if not in reverting to the original condition of man, as far as the changed circumstances of our race admitted; in having no wants, of which the argumentative Saxion University of Applied, supply was not close at hand; in the nil admirari; in paragraphs Queen College having neither hope nor fear of anything below; in daily prayer, daily bread, and daily work, one day being just like another, except that it was one step nearer than the day just gone to that great Day, which would swallow up all days, the day of everlasting rest. However, I have come into collision with a great authority, M. Guizot, and I must stop the essay International School Eerde, course of my argument to make my ground good against him. M. Guizot, then, makes a distinction between monachism in its birth-place, in Egypt and writing and essays College Syria, and Burr Academy that Western institute, of which I have made St. Benedict the representative. He allows that the Orientals mortified the Queen Ethelburga’s College, intellect, but he considers that Latin monachism was the can t my essay Clifton College, seat of Queen Ethelburga’s College, considerable mental activity.

The desire for retirement, he says, for contemplation, for a marked rupture with civilized society, was the source and fundamental trait of the Eastern monks: in the West, on the contrary , and hbs publishing Burr especially in Southern Gaul, where, at the commencement of the fifth century, the principal monasteries were founded, it was in order to live in common, with a view to conversation as well as to Queen religious edification, that the first monks met. A Formal International School? The monasteries of Lerins, of St. Victor, and many others, were especially great schools of theology, the focus of intellectual movement. It was by no means with solitude or with mortification, but with discussion and activity, that they there concerned themselves. [Note 7] Great deference is due to an author so learned, so philosophical, so honestly desirous to set out Christianity to the best advantage; yet, I am at writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, a loss to article understand what has led him to make such a distinction between the East and West, and to assign to the Western monks an and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College activity of hbs publishing, intellect, and to the Eastern a love of retirement. It is quite true that instances are sometimes to be found of monasteries in the West distinguished by much intellectual activity, but more, and more striking, instances are to Ethelburga’s College be found of a like phenomenon in reviews Lakefield College the East. If, then, such particular instances are to be taken as fair specimens of the state of Western monachism, they are equally fair specimens of the state of Eastern also; and the Eastern monks will be proved more intellectual than the Western, by virtue of that greater interest in doctrine and in writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College controversy which given individuals or communities among them have exhibited.

A very cursory reference to ecclesiastical history will be sufficient to show us that the fact is as I have stated it. The theological sensitiveness of the monks of Marseilles, Lerins, or Adrumetum, it seems, is to be a proof of the intellectualism generally of the West: then, why is not the greater sensitiveness of the Scythian monks at Constantinople, and of their opponents, the Ac#339;met, an evidence in favour of the essay, East? These two bodies of Religious actually came all the Ethelburga’s, way from Constantinople to Rome to article Lakefield School denounce one another, besieging, as it were, the Holy See, and writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College the former of them actually attempting to raise the Roman populace against the Pope, in reviews Lakefield College behalf of its own theological tenet. Does not this show activity of mind? I venture to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College say that, for one intellectual monk in the West, a dozen might be produced in the East. The very reproach, thrown out by secular historians against Greeks in general, of over-subtlety of intellect, applies in particular, if to any men, to certain classes or certain communities of Eastern monks. These were sometimes orthodox, quite as often heretical, but inexhaustible in writing essay their argumentative resources, whether the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, one or the other. University Of Applied Sciences? If Pelagius be a monk in the West, on writing paragraphs Queen College, the other hand, Nestorius and hbs publishing and Burton Eutyches, both heresiarchs, are both monks in the East; and Eutyches, at the time of his heresy, was an old monk into the bargain, who had been thirty years abbot of a convent, and College whom age, if not sanctity, might have saved from this abnormal use of his reason. His partizans were principally monks of Egypt; and they, coming up in force to the pseudo-synod of Ephesus, in aid of a theological thesis, kicked to death the patriarch of Constantinople, and put to Burr and Burton Academy flight the Legate of the Pope, all in writing Ethelburga’s consequence of their intellectual susceptibilities.

A century earlier, Arius, on starting, carried away into his heresy as many as seven hundred nuns [Note 8]; what have the Western convents to show, in the way of controversial activity, comparable with a fact like this? I do not insist on the zealous and Burr Academy influential orthodoxy of the monks of Egypt, Syria, and writing paragraphs and essays Queen Asia Minor in the fourth century, because it was probably nothing else but an honourable adhesion to essay Saxion University of Applied the faith of the Church, without any serious exercise of writing paragraphs Queen, mind; but turn to writing International the great writers of Eastern Christendom, and and essays Ethelburga’s consider how many of them figure at first sight as monks;#8212;Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Ephrem, Amphilochius, Isidore of Burr, Pelusium, Theodore, Theodoret, perhaps Athanasius. Among the paragraphs, Latin writers no great names occur to me but those of Jerome and Pope Gregory; I may add Paulinus, Sulpicius, Vincent, and Cassian, but Jerome is the only learned writer among them. I have a difficulty, then, even in comprehending, not to speak of admitting, M. Guizot's assertion, a writer who does not commonly speak without a meaning or a reason. But, after all, however the balance of intellectualism may lie between certain convents or individuals in the East and a formal International School the West, such particular instances of mental activity are nothing to the purpose, when taken to measure the state of the great body of the monks; certainly not in the West, with which in this paper I am exclusively concerned. In taking an estimate of the Benedictines, we need not trouble ourselves about the paragraphs and essays, state of monachism in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople, as it existed after the fourth century, when the true monastic tradition was passing from the East to the West. In the fourth century, the Eastern Monks simply follow the defined and promulgated doctrine of the Church, and in following it are guilty of no exercise of Clifton, reason; their intellectualism proper, which is foreign to the genius of writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, their institute, begins with the fifth. Taking, then, the great tradition of and Burton Academy, St.

Antony, St. Pachomius, and St. Basil in the East, and then tracing it into paragraphs the West by the hands of St. Athanasius, St. Martin, and their contemporaries, we shall find no historical facts but what admit of a fair explanation, consistent with the views which we have laid down above about monastic simplicity, bearing in mind always, what holds in all matters of fact, that there never was a rule without its exceptions. Writing A Formal Essay International Eerde? Every rule has its exceptions; but, further than this, when exceptions occur, they are commonly likely to be great ones.

This is no paradox; illustrations of it are to be found everywhere. For instance, we may conceive a climate very fatal to children, and yet those who survive growing up to be strong men; and for a plain reason, because those alone could have passed the ordeal who had robust constitutions. Thus the Romans, so jealous of their freedom, when they resolved on the appointment of a supreme ruler for an occasion, did not do the thing by halves, but made him a Dictator. In like manner, a mere trifling occurrence, or an ordinary inward impulse, would be powerless to snap the bond which keeps the monk fast to his cell, his oratory, and his garden. Exceptions, indeed, may be few, because they are exceptions, but they will be great in order to become exceptions at all. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? It must be a serious emergence, a particular inspiration, a sovereign command, which brings the monk into political life; and he will be sure to writing a formal essay International Eerde make a great figure in it, else why should he have been torn from his cloister at all? This will account for the career of St. Gregory the Seventh or of St. Dunstan, of St.

Bernard or of Abbot Suger, as far as it was political: the work they had to paragraphs and essays College do was such as none could have done but a monk with his superhuman single-mindedness and his pertinacity of purpose. Again, in the case of St. Boniface, the Apostle of Germany, and in that of others of the missionaries of his age, it seems to have been a particular inspiration which carried them abroad; and it is observable after all how soon most of them settled down into the mixed character of agriculturists and pastors in their new country, and resumed the write my essay College, tranquil life to writing paragraphs and essays College which they had originally devoted themselves. As to the early Greek Fathers, some of those whom we have instanced above are only prim facie exceptions, as Chrysostom, who, though he lived with the monks most austerely for as many as six years, can hardly be said to have taken on himself the responsibilities of their condition, or to University of Applied Sciences have simply abandoned the world. Others of them, as Basil, were scholars, philosophers, men of the world, before they were monks, and writing paragraphs and essays College could not put off their cultivation of mind or their learning with their secular dress; and these would be the very men, in an age when such talents were scarce, who would be taken out of their retirement by reviews College School superior authority, and and essays Queen College who therefore cannot fairly be quoted as ordinary specimens of the argumentative help Sciences, monastic life.

Exceptio probat regulam : let us see what two Doctors of the paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, Church, one Greek, one Latin, both rulers, both monks, say concerning the state, which they at one time enjoyed, and afterwards lost. You tell me, says St. Basil, writing to a friend from argumentative University Sciences his solitude, that it was little for me to describe the place of my retirement, unless I mentioned also my habits and my mode of life; yet really I am ashamed to tell you how I pass night and day in this lonely nook. I am like one who is angry with the size of his vessel, as tossing overmuch, and leaves it for writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College the boat, and is seasick and miserable still. However, what I propose to do is as follows, with the hope of argumentative essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences, tracing His steps who has said, 'If any one will come after Me, let him deny himself.' We must strive after a quiet mind. As well might the eye ascertain an object which is before it, while it roves up and down without looking steadily at it, as a mind, distracted with a thousand worldly cares, be able clearly to apprehend the paragraphs and essays Queen College, truth. One who is not yoked in thinking benefits Fanshawe matrimony is harassed by rebellious impulses and hopeless attachments; he who is married is involved in his own tumult of cares: is he without children? he covets them; has he children? he has anxieties about their education. Then there is writing Queen Ethelburga’s College solicitude about his wife, care of his house, oversight of his servants, misfortunes in trade, differences with his neighbours, lawsuits, the merchant's risks, the farmer's toil. Each day, as it comes, darkens the soul in its own way; and night after night takes up the day's anxieties, and cheats us with corresponding dreams.

Now, the can t my essay Clifton, only way of escaping all this is separation from the whole world, so as to live without city, home, goods, society, possessions, means of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, life, business, engagements, secular learning, that the heart may be prepared as wax for argumentative the impress of divine teaching. Solitude is of the greatest use for paragraphs and essays Queen College this purpose, as it stills our passions, and enables reason to extirpate them. Let then a place be found such as mine, separate from can t College intercourse with men, that the tenor of our exercises be not interrupted from without. Pious exercises nourish the soul with divine thoughts. Soothing hymns compose the mind to a cheerful and calm state. Quiet, then, as I have said, is the first step in our sanctification; the tongue purified from the gossip of the world, the eyes unexcited by fair colour or comely shape, the ear secured from the relaxation of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, voluptuous songs, and that especial mischief, light jesting. Thus the mind, rescued from can t write College dissipation from without, and sensible allurements, falls back upon itself, and thence ascends to the contemplation of God. [Note 9] It is quite clear that at least St. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Basil took the same view of the monastic state as I have done. So much for the East in argumentative essay Saxion University the fourth century; now for writing and essays the West in the seventh. One day, says St. Gregory, after he had been constrained, against his own wish, to article College School leave his cloister for the government of the Universal Church, one day, when I was oppressed with the excessive trouble of secular affairs, I sought a retired place, friendly to grief, where whatever displeased me in my occupations might show itself, and all that was wont to inflict pain might be seen at one view.

While he was in Queen College this retreat, his most dear son, Peter, with whom, ever since the latter was a youth, he had been intimate, surprised him, and he opened his grief to him. Burr And Burton? My sad mind, he said, labouring under the soreness of its engagements, remembers how it went with me formerly in this monastery, how all perishable things were beneath it, how it rose above all that was transitory, and, though still in the flesh, went out in contemplation beyond that prison, so that it even loved death, which is commonly thought a punishment, as the gate of life and the reward of labour. But now, in paragraphs Queen consequence of the pastoral charge, it undergoes the busy work of secular men, and for can t write College that fair beauty of its quiet, is dishonoured with the dust of the and essays Ethelburga’s College, earth. And often dissipating itself in outward things, to serve the many, even when it seeks what is inward, it comes home indeed, but is no longer what it used to article reviews College School be. [Note 10] Here is the very same view of the writing Queen College, monastic state at Rome which St. Basil had in Pontus, viz., retirement and repose. There have been great Religious Orders since, whose atmosphere has been conflict, and who have thriven in a formal International School smiting or in being smitten.

It has been their high calling; it has been their peculiar meritorious service; but, as for the Benedictine, the very air he breathes is peace. I have now said enough both to explain and to vindicate the biographer of St. Maurus, when he says that the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, object, and life, and reward of the ancient monachism was summa quies,#8212;the absence of all excitement, sensible and write a article intellectual, and the vision of Queen College, Eternity. And therefore have I called the reviews Lakefield, monastic state the most poetical of religious disciplines. It was a return to that primitive age of the world, of which poets have so often sung, the writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, simple life of Arcadia or the reign of Saturn, when fraud and violence were unknown. It was a bringing back of those real, not fabulous, scenes of innocence and writing essay International School Eerde miracle, when Adam delved, or Abel kept sheep, or Noe planted the vine, and Angels visited them. It was a fulfilment in the letter, of the glowing imagery of prophets, about the evangelical period. Nature for art, the wide earth and the majestic heavens for the crowded city, the subdued and docile beasts of the field for the wild passions and rivalries of social life, tranquillity for paragraphs College ambition and care, divine meditation for the exploits of the intellect, the Creator for the creature, such was the article reviews College School, normal condition of the monk. He had tried the writing paragraphs and essays, world, and found its hollowness; or he had eluded its fellowship, before it had solicited him;#8212;and so St.

Antony fled to the desert, and St. Can T? Hilarion sought the sea shore, and St. Basil ascended the paragraphs, mountain ravine, and St. Benedict took refuge in his cave, and St. Giles buried himself in the forest, and St. Martin chose the broad river, in write Clifton College order that the world might be shut out of view, and the soul might be at rest. And such a rest of intellect and of passion as this is full of the writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, elements of the poetical. I have no intention of committing myself here to a definition of poetry; I may be thought wrong in the use of the term; but, if I explain what I mean by it, no harm is done, whatever be my inaccuracy, and each reader may substitute for it some word he likes better.

Poetry, then, I conceive, whatever be its metaphysical essence, or however various may be its kinds, whether it more properly belongs to action or to suffering, nay, whether it is more at home with society or with nature, whether its spirit is seen to best advantage in Homer or in Virgil, at any rate, is always the antagonist to science . As science makes progress in any subject-matter, poetry recedes from it. The two cannot stand together; they belong respectively to two modes of viewing things, which are contradictory of each other. Reason investigates, analyzes, numbers, weighs, measures, ascertains, locates, the objects of its contemplation, and thus gains a scientific knowledge of write a article, them. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? Science results in The Knox School system, which is writing Queen College complex unity; poetry delights in the indefinite and various as contrasted with unity, and in the simple as contrasted with system. The aim of science is to get a hold of things, to grasp them, to handle them, to comprehend them; that is (to use the familiar term), to master them, or to writing a formal International School Eerde be superior to them. Its success lies in being able to draw a line round them, and to tell where each of them is to be found within that circumference, and how each lies relatively to all the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, rest. Its mission is to destroy ignorance, doubt, surmise, suspense, illusions, fears, deceits, according to a article School the Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas of the Poet, whose whole passage, by the way, may be taken as drawing out the contrast between the poetical and the scientific [Note 11]. But as to the poetical, very different is the frame of mind which is necessary for its perception. It demands, as its primary condition, that we should not put ourselves above the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, objects in which it resides, but at help University Sciences, their feet; that we should feel them to be above and beyond us, that we should look up to them, and that, instead of fancying that we can comprehend them, we should take for granted that we are surrounded and comprehended by them ourselves. It implies that we understand them to paragraphs and essays College be vast, immeasurable, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious; so that at best we are only forming conjectures about them, not conclusions, for the phenomena which they present admit of many explanations, and we cannot know the essay School Eerde, true one. Writing Queen College? Poetry does not address the reason, but the imagination and affections; it leads to admiration, enthusiasm, devotion, love.

The vague, the thinking College, uncertain, the irregular, the sudden, are among its attributes or sources. Hence it is that a child's mind is writing paragraphs and essays so full of poetry, because he knows so little; and an old man of the world so devoid of poetry, because his experience of facts is so wide. Hence it is that nature is commonly more poetical than art, in spite of Lord Byron, because it is less comprehensible and Burr and Burton less patient of definitions; history more poetical than philosophy; the savage than the citizen; the knight-errant than the brigadier-general; the winding bridle-path than the paragraphs and essays Queen, straight railroad; the sailing vessel than the steamer; the ruin than the spruce suburban box; the Turkish robe or Spanish doublet than the French dress coat. I have now said far more than enough to make it clear what I mean by that element in argumentative help Saxion University the old monastic life, to which I have given the name of the Poetical. And Essays Ethelburga’s? Now, in many ways the family of St. Benedict answers to reviews College School this description, as we shall see if we look into its history. Its spirit indeed is paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College ever one, but not its outward circumstances. It is not an Order proceeding from one mind at a particular date, and appearing all at once in its full perfection, and in its extreme development, and in hbs publishing Academy form one and the same everywhere and paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s from first to last, as is the writing International School Eerde, case with other great religious institutions; but it is an organization, diverse, complex, and irregular, and writing Ethelburga’s College variously ramified, rich rather than symmetrical, with many origins and centres and new beginnings and the action of local influences, like some great natural growth; with tokens, on the face of it, of its being a divine work, not the mere creation of writing essay International Eerde, human genius. Writing? Instead of progressing on plan and system and from the will of a superior, it has shot forth and run out as if spontaneously, and has shaped itself according to events, from an irrepressible fulness of life within, and from the energetic self-action of its parts, like those symbolical creatures in the prophet's vision, which went every one of writing, them straight forward, whither the impulse of the spirit was to go.

It has been poured out over the earth, rather than been sent, with a silent mysterious operation, while men slept, and through the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, romantic adventures of individuals, which are well nigh without record; and thus it has come down to us, not risen up among us, and is found rather than established. Its separate and scattered monasteries occupy the land, each in its place, with a majesty parallel, but superior, to that of old aristocratic houses. Their known antiquity, their unknown origin, their long eventful history, their connection with Saints and Doctors when on earth, the legends which hang about a formal International them, their rival ancestral honours, their extended sway perhaps over other religious houses, their hold upon and essays Ethelburga’s College, the associations of the neighbourhood, their traditional friendships and a formal International compacts with other great landlords, the benefits they have conferred, the Ethelburga’s College, sanctity which they breathe,#8212;these and hbs publishing and Burton the like attributes make them objects, at once of awe and of affection. Such is the great Abbey of Bobbio, in paragraphs the Apennines, where St. Columban came to die, having issued with his twelve monks from Saxion of Applied Sciences his convent in Benchor, county Down, and having spent his life in preaching godliness and and essays planting monasteries in half-heathen France and Burgundy. Such St. Gall's, on thinking Fanshawe College, the lake of Constance, so called from another Irishman, one of St. Columban's companions, who remained in paragraphs Queen Switzerland, when his master went on into Italy.

Such the Abbey of Fulda, where lies St. Boniface, who, burning with zeal for article Lakefield College School the conversion of the Germans, attempted them a first time and failed, and then a second time and succeeded, and at length crowned the missionary labours of forty-five years with martyrdom. Such Monte Cassino, the metropolis of the Benedictine name, where the Saint broke the idol, and cut down the writing paragraphs College, grove, of Apollo. Ancient houses such as these subdue the mind by the mingled grandeur and sweetness of their presence. They stand in history with an accumulated interest upon them, which belongs to no other monuments of the past. Whatever there is of venerable authority in other foundations, in Bishops' sees, in Cathedrals, in Colleges, respectively, is found in combination in them. Each gate and cloister has had its own story, and time has engraven upon their walls the chronicle of its revolutions. Reviews College? And, even when at length rudely destroyed, or crumbled into dust, they live in writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College history and antiquarian works, in the pictures and argumentative help Saxion University Sciences relics which remain of them, and in the traditions of their place. In the early part of last century the Maurist Fathers, with a view of collecting materials for the celebrated works which they had then on hand, sent two of their number on a tour through France and the adjacent provinces.

Among other districts the travellers passed through the forest of Ardennes, which has been made classical by the prose of Csar, and the poetry of Shakespeare. There they found the great Benedictine Convent of St. Hubert [Note 12]; and, if I dwell awhile upon the illustration which it affords of what I have been saying, it is not as if twenty other religious houses which they visited would not serve my purpose quite as well, but because it has come first to my hand in turning over the pages of their volume. At that time the venerable abbey in question had upon it the weight of a thousand years, and was eminent above others in College the country in wealth, in write The Knox privileges, in name, and, not the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, least recommendation, in the sanctity of write Clifton College, its members. The lands on which it was situated were its freehold, and their range included sixteen villages. The old chronicle informs us that, about the middle of the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, seventh century, St. Sigibert, the reviews College School, Merovingian, pitched upon paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, Ardennes and its neighbourhood for the establishment of as many as twelve monasteries, with the hope of thereby obtaining from Burr Academy heaven an heir to his crown. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? Dying prematurely, he but partially fulfilled his pious intention, which was taken up by Pepin, sixty years afterwards, at the instance of his chaplain, St. Beregise; so far, at least, as to make a commencement of the abbey of which we are speaking.

Beregise had been a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Can T? Tron, and he chose for the site of the new foundation a spot in the midst of the forest, marked by the ruins of a temple dedicated to the pagan Diana, the goddess of the chase. Ethelburga’s College? The holy man exorcised the place with the sign of the Cross; and, becoming abbot of the new house, filled it either with monks, or, as seems less likely, with secular canons. From that time to the summer day, when the two Maurists visited it, the sacred establishment, with various fortunes, had been in possession of the land. On entering its precincts, they found it at once full and empty: empty of the writing essay School Eerde, monks, who were in the fields gathering in the harvest; full of pilgrims, who were wont to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s come day after day, in never-failing succession, to visit the tomb of St. Hubert. What a series of essay International, events has to be recorded to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College make this simple account intelligible! and how poetical is the picture which it sets before us, as well as those events themselves, which it presupposes, when they come to be detailed! Were it not that I should be swelling a passing illustration into a history, I might go on to tell how strict the observance of the monks had been for the last hundred years before the travellers arrived there, since Abbot Nicholas de Fanson had effected a reform on the pattern of the French Congregation of St.

Vanne. I might relate how, when a simple monk in the Abbey of St. Hubert, Nicholas had wished to change it for a stricter community, and how he got leave to go off to the Congregation just mentioned, and how then his old Abbot died suddenly, and how he himself to his surprise was elected in School his place. And I might tell how, when his mitre was on his head, he set about reforming the house which he had been on the point of quitting, and how he introduced for that purpose two monks of St. Vanne; and how the Bishop of Liege, in whose diocese he was, set himself against his holy design, and how some of the old monks attempted to poison him; and how, though he carried it into effect, still he was not allowed to aggregate his Abbey to the Congregation whose reform he had adopted; but how his good example encouraged the neighbouring abbeys to and essays Ethelburga’s College commence a reform in themselves, which issued in an ecclesiastical union of the Flemish Houses. Sciences? All this, however, would not have been more than one passage, of course, in the adventures which had befallen the abbey and its abbots in the course of its history. It had had many seasons of decay before the time of Nicholas de Fanson, and many restorations, and from different quarters. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? None of them was so famous or important as the reform effected in writing International School Eerde the year 817, about a century after its original foundation, when the secular canons, who anyhow had got in, were put out, and and essays Ethelburga’s College the monks put in their place, at the instance of the then Bishop of writing a formal School, Liege, who had a better spirit than his successor in the time of Queen Ethelburga’s College, Nicholas. The new inmates were joined by some persons of noble birth from the Cathedral, and by their suggestion and influence the bold measure was taken of attempting to write my essay College gain from Liege the body of the great St. Hubert, the Apostle of Ardennes.

But to return to the relics of the Saint; the sacred body was taken by water up the writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, Maes. The coffin was of marble, and perhaps could have been taken no other way; but another reason, besides its weight, lay in hbs publishing and Burton Academy the indignation of the citizens of Liege, who might have interfered with a land journey, and in fact did make several attempts, in the following years, to writing College regain the article reviews Lakefield College School, body. In consequence, the good monks of Ardennes hid it within the walls of their monastery, confiding the secret of its whereabouts to only two of their community at writing Queen, a time; and they showed in The Knox School the sacristy to the devout, instead, the Saint's ivory cross and his stole, the sole of his shoe and his comb, and Diana, Marchioness of Autrech, gave a golden box to hold the stole. This, however, was in writing and essays after times; for they were very loth at can t Clifton College, first to Ethelburga’s let strangers within their cloisters at all; and in essay School Eerde 838, when a long spell of rain was destroying the crops, and the people of the neighbourhood came in procession to the shrine to ask the intercession of the Saint, the cautious Abbot Sewold, availing himself of the Rule, would only admit priests, and them by threes and fours, with naked feet, and a few laymen with each of them. The supplicants were good men, however, and had no notion of playing any trick: they came in writing Ethelburga’s piety and devotion, and the rain ceased, and the country was the gainer by St. Hubert of reviews College School, Ardennes.

And thenceforth others, besides the monks, became interested in his stay in the forest. And now I have said something in explanation why the courtyard was full of pilgrims when the writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, travellers came. St. Hubert had been an a formal essay International object of devotion for paragraphs College a particular benefit, perhaps ever since he came there, certainly as early as the eleventh century, for we then have historical notice of it. His preference of the forest to the city, which he had shown in his life-time before his conversion, was illustrated by the particular grace or miraculous service, for which, more than for any other, he used his glorious intercession on a article The Knox School, high.

He is famous for curing those who had suffered from the bite of wild animals, especially dogs of the chase, and a hospital was attached to the Abbey for their reception. And Essays College? The sacristan of the Church officiated in the cure; and write The Knox School with rites which never indeed failed, but which to some cautious persons seemed to savour of superstition. Certainly they were startling at writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, first sight; accordingly a formal charge on that score was at one time brought against them before the Bishop of write a article The Knox School, Liege, and a process followed. The Bishop, the University of Louvain, and its Faculty of Medicine, conducted the inquiry, which was given in favour of the Abbey, on the ground that what looked like a charm might be of the nature of a medical regimen. However, though the sacristan was the writing paragraphs Queen College, medium of the cure, the general care of the patients was left to externs. A Article? The hospital was served by writing paragraphs Queen secular priests, since the monks heard no confessions save those of their own people. This rule they observed, in order to reserve themselves for the proper duties of a Benedictine,#8212;the choir, study, manual labour, and transcription of books; and, while the Maurists were ocular witnesses of their agricultural toils, they saw the diligence of their penmanship in its results, for reviews College the MSS. of their Library were the choicest in the country. Among them, they tell us, were copies of St. Jerome's Bible, the Acts of the Councils, Bede's History, Gregory and Isidore, Origen and Augustine.

The Maurists report as favourably of the monastic buildings themselves as of the hospital and library. Those buildings were a chronicle of past times, and of the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, changes which had taken place in them. First there were the poor huts of St. Can T Clifton College? Beregise upon the half-cleared and still marshy ground of the forest; then came the building of a sufficient house, when St. Hubert was brought there; and centuries after that, St. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Thierry, the intimate friend of the great Pope Hildebrand, had renewed it magnificently, at the time that he was Abbot. He was sadly treated in his lifetime by his monks, as Nicholas after him; but, after his death, they found out that he was a Saint, which they might have discovered before it; and they placed him in the crypt, and there he and another holy Abbot after him lay in peace, till the Calvinists broke into writing essay International Eerde it in the sixteenth century, and burned both of them to ashes.

There were marks too of the same fanatics on the pillars of the nave of the Church; which had been built by College Abbot John de Wahart in School the twelfth century, and and essays Queen College then again from its foundations by thinking Abbots Nicholas de Malaise and Romaclus, the friend of Blosius, four centuries later; and paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College it was ornamented by Abbot Cyprian, who was called the friend of the poor; and doubtless the travellers admired the marble of the choir and sanctuary, and the silver candelabra of the altar given by the reigning Lord Abbot; and perhaps they heard him sing solemn Mass on the Assumption, as was usual with him on that feast, with his four secular chaplains, one to carry his Cross, another his mitre, a third his gremial, and a fourth his candle, and accompanied by the pealing organ and the many musical bells, which had been the gift of Abbot Balla about thinking benefits College a hundred years earlier. Can we imagine a more graceful union of human with divine, of the sweet with the writing paragraphs College, austere, of business and of calm, of can t College, splendour and of simplicity, than is writing paragraphs and essays displayed in a great religious house after this pattern, when unrelaxed in its observance, and pursuing the ends for which it was endowed? The monks have been accused of can t write my essay, choosing beautiful spots for their dwellings; as if this were a luxury in ascetics, and not rather the necessary alleviation of their asceticism. Even when their critics are kindest, they consider such sites as chosen by a sort of sentimental, ornamental indolence. College? Beaulieu river, says Mr. Warner in his topography of Hampshire, and, because he writes far less ill-naturedly than the run of authors, I quote him, Beaulieu river is stocked with plenty of fish, and boasts in particular of thinking Fanshawe, good oysters and paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College fine plaice, and is fringed quite to the edge of the water with the most beautiful hanging woods.

In the area enclosed are distinct traces of various fishponds, formed for write The Knox the use of the convent. Some of them continue perfect to Queen Ethelburga’s College the present day, and abound with fish. A curious instance occurs also of monkish luxury, even in critical Fanshawe the article of water; to secure a fine spring those monastics have spared neither trouble nor expense. About half a mile to the south-east of the Abbey is a deep wood; and at a spot almost inaccessible is a cave formed of smooth stones. It has a very contracted entrance, but spreads gradually into a little apartment, of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, seven feet wide, ten deep, and about five high. This covers a copious and transparent spring of water, which, issuing from the mouth of the cave, is lost in essay help University of Applied a deep dell, and is there received, as I have been informed, by and essays Queen a chain of small stone pipes, which formerly, when perfect, conveyed it quite to hbs publishing and Burton the Abbey. It must be confessed the monks in general displayed an elegant taste in the choice of their situations. Paragraphs And Essays College? Beaulieu Abbey is a striking proof of this. Perhaps few spots in the kingdom could have been pitched upon better calculated for monastic seclusion than this. The deep woods, with which it is almost environed, throw an air of gloom and solemnity over the scene, well suited to excite religious emotions; while the stream that glides by its side afforded to the recluse a striking emblem of human life: and at the same time that it soothed his mind by a gentle murmuring, led it to serious thought by its continual and irrevocable lesson. [Note 13 ] The monks were not so soft as all this, after all; and argumentative essay help University Sciences if Mr.

Warner had seen them, we may be sure he would have been astonished at writing and essays Queen College, the stern, as well as sweet simplicity which characterized them. They were not dreamy sentimentalists, to fall in love with melancholy winds and purling rills, and article Lakefield School waterfalls and nodding groves; but their poetry was the poetry of hard work and hard fare, unselfish hearts and writing Queen Ethelburga’s charitable hands. Hbs Publishing Academy? They could plough and reap, they could hedge and paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College ditch, they could drain; they could lop, they could carpenter; they could thatch, they could make hurdles for their huts; they could make a road, they could divert or secure the streamlet's bed, they could bridge a torrent. Mr. Warner mentions one of their luxuries,#8212;clear, wholesome water; it was an allowable one, especially as they obtained it by my essay College their own patient labour.

If their grounds are picturesque, if their views are rich, they made them so, and had, we presume, a right to writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s enjoy the work of their own hands. They found a swamp, a moor, a thicket, a rock, and they made an Eden in the wilderness. They destroyed snakes; they extirpated wild cats, wolves, boars, bears; they put to write a article The Knox School flight or they converted rovers, outlaws, robbers. The gloom of the forest departed, and the sun, for the first time since the Deluge shone upon writing Queen, the moist ground. St. Benedict is the true man of Ross.

Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow? From the dry rock who made the waters flow? Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows? Whose seats the weary traveller repose? He feeds yon almshouse, neat, but void of state, When Age and Want sit smiling at the gate; Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed, The young who labour, and help University of Applied Sciences the old who rest. And candid writers, though not Catholics, allow it. Even English, and much more foreign historians and antiquarians, have arrived at a unanimous verdict here. We owe the agricultural restoration of great part of Europe to the monks, says Mr. Hallam.

The monks were much the best husbandmen, and the only gardeners, says Forsyth. None, says Wharton, ever improved their lands and possessions more than the monks, by building, cultivating, and other methods. The cultivation of Church lands, as Sharon Turner infers from Doomsday Book, was superior to that held by other proprietors, for there was less wood upon them, less common pasture, and more abundant meadow. Wherever they came, says Mr. Soame on Mosheim, they converted the wilderness into a cultivated country; they pursued the breeding of cattle and agriculture, laboured with their own hands, drained morasses, and cleared away forests. By them Germany was rendered a fruitful country. M. Guizot speaks as strongly: The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe; they cleared it on a large scale, associating agriculture with preaching. [Note 14] St. Benedict's direct object indeed in paragraphs and essays setting his monks to can t my essay Clifton College manual labour was neither social usefulness nor poetry, but penance; still his work was both the one and the other. The above-cited authors enlarge upon its use, and I in what I am writing may be allowed to paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College dwell upon its poetry; we may contemplate both its utility to man and its service to argumentative essay help of Applied Sciences God in the aspect of its poetry. How romantic then, as well as useful, how lively as well as serious, is their history, with its episodes of personal adventure and prowess, its pictures of squatter, hunter, farmer, civil engineer, and evangelist united in the same individual, with its supernatural colouring of heroic virtue and miracle! When St.

Columban first came into writing Ethelburga’s College Burgundy with his twelve young monks, he placed himself in hbs publishing Burr Academy a vast wilderness, and made them set about writing paragraphs and essays Queen cultivating the soil. Thinking Benefits Fanshawe? At first they all suffered from writing and essays Queen hunger, and writing essay International were compelled to live on the barks of trees and wild herbs. On one occasion they were for five days in this condition. Queen? St. Gall, one of them, betook himself to a Swiss forest, fearful from the multitude of wild beasts; and write my essay Clifton then, choosing the neighbourhood of paragraphs and essays College, a mountain stream, he made a cross of twigs, and hung some relics on it, and laid the foundation of his celebrated abbey. St. Ronan came from Ireland to Cornwall, and chose a wood, full of wild beasts, for his hermitage, near the Lizard. The monks of St. Dubritius, the founder of the Welsh Schools, also sought the woods, and there they worked hard at manufactures, agriculture, and road making. College? St.

Sequanus placed himself where the writing Queen, trees almost touched the clouds. He and his companions, when they first explored it, asked themselves how they could penetrate into it, when they saw a winding footpath, so narrow and full of critical benefits College, briars that it was with difficulty that one foot followed another. With much labour and with torn clothes they succeeded in gaining its depths, and stooping their heads into the darkness at their feet, they perceived a cavern, shrouded by the thick interlacing branches of the trees, and blocked up with stones and underwood. This, says the monastic account, was the cavern of robbers, and the resort of evil spirits. Sequanus fell on paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, his knees, prayed, made the sign of the Cross over the abyss, and a formal built his cell there. Such was the first foundation of the celebrated abbey called after him in Burgundy [Note 15]. Sturm, the Bavarian convert of St. Boniface, was seized with a desire, as his master before him in Queen Ethelburga’s College his English monastery, of founding a religious house in the wilds of essay help Saxion University of Applied, Pagan Germany; and setting out with two companions, he wandered for two days through the writing and essays Queen College, Buchonian forest, and saw nothing but earth, sky, and large trees.

On the third day he stopped and chose a spot, which on trial did not answer. Then, mounting an ass, he set out by himself, cutting down branches of a night to secure himself from the wild beasts, till at writing a formal essay International, length he came to the place (described by St. Boniface as locum silvaticum in eremo, vastissim solitudinis), in which afterwards arose the abbey and schools of Fulda. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s College? Wunibald was suspicious of the good wine of the Rhine where he was, and, determining to leave it, he bought the land where Heidensheim afterwards stood, then a wilderness of trees and underwood, covering a deep valley and the sides of lofty mountains. There he proceeded, axe in School hand, to clear the ground for his religious house, while the savage natives looked on sullenly, jealous for their hunting-grounds and writing Queen sacred trees. Willibald, his brother, had pursued a similar work on system; he had penetrated his forest in hbs publishing Academy every direction and scattered monasteries over it. The Irish Alto pitched himself in a wood, half way between Munich and writing Queen Ethelburga’s College Vienna.

Pirminius chose an island, notorious for writing essay International School its snakes, and there he planted his hermitage and chapel, which at length became the rich and writing and essays Ethelburga’s College noble abbey and school of Augia Major or Richenau [Note 16]. The more celebrated School of Bec had a similar beginning at a later date, when Herluin, an old soldier, devoted his house and farm to an ecclesiastical purpose, and governed, as abbot, the monastery which he had founded. You might see him, says the writer of his life, when office was over in church, going out to his fields, at the head of his monks, with his bag of seed about his neck, and his rake or hoe in and Burton Academy his hand. There he remained with them hard at work till the day was closing. Some were employed in paragraphs Queen clearing the land of brambles and writing a formal essay Eerde weeds; others spread manure; others were weeding or sowing; no one ate his bread in writing College idleness. Then when the hour came for saying office in essay help University of Applied Sciences church, they all assembled together punctually. Their ordinary food was rye bread and Ethelburga’s College vegetables with salt and water; and write The Knox School the water muddy, for the well was two miles off. [Note 17] Lanfranc, then a secular, was so edified by the simple Abbot, fresh from the field, setting about and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College his baking with dirty hands, that he forthwith became one of the party [Note 18]; and, being unfitted for labour, opened in the house a school of logic, thereby to make money for the community. Such was the cradle of the scholastic theology; the last years of the patristic, which were nearly contemporaneous, exhibit a similar scene,#8212;St. Bernard founding his abbey of Clairvaux in a place called the Valley of Wormwood, in the heart of thinking benefits, a savage forest, the haunt of robbers, and his thirteen companions clearing a homestead, raising a few huts, and living on barley or cockle bread with boiled beech leaves for vegetables [Note 19]. How beautiful is Simeon of Durham's account of Easterwine, the first abbot after Bennet of St.

Peter's at Wearmouth! He was a man of noble birth, who gave himself to writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College religion, and writing essay International School died young. Though he had been in the service of King Egfrid, says Simeon, when he had once left secular affairs, and lain aside his arms, and taken on him the spiritual warfare instead, he was nothing but the humble monk, just like any of and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, his brethren, winnowing with them with great joy, milking the ewes and cows, and in the bakehouse, the garden, the kitchen, and all house duties, cheerful and obedient. And, when he received the name of Abbot, still he was in spirit just what he was before to every one, gentle, affable, and kind; or, if any fault had been committed, correcting it indeed by the Rule, but still so winning the offender by his unaffected earnest manner, that he had no wish ever to repeat the offence, or to dim the brightness of that most clear countenance with the cloud of his transgression. And often going here and there on business of the monastery, when he found his brothers at work, he would at once take part in it, guiding the plough, or shaping the reviews Lakefield College School, iron, or taking the winnowing fan, or the like. He was young and strong, with a sweet voice, a cheerful temper, a liberal heart and a handsome countenance.

He partook of the same food as his brethren, and under the same roof. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? He slept in the common dormitory, as before he was abbot, and he continued to do so for the first two days of his illness, when death had now seized him, as he knew full well. But for the last five days he betook himself to a more retired dwelling; and then, coming out into the open air and College sitting down, and calling for all his brethren, after the manner of his tender nature, he gave his weeping monks the kiss of peace, and died at night while they were singing lauds. [Note 20] This gentleness and tenderness of heart seems to have been as characteristic of the monks as their simplicity; and if there are some Saints among them, who on the public stage of history do not show it, it was because they were called out of their convents for some special purpose, and, as I have said above, exceptions to a rule are commonly great exceptions. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Bede goes out of his way to observe of College, King Ethelbert, on St. Austin's converting him, that he had learned from the teachers and authors of his salvation that men were to be drawn heaven-wards, and not forced. Aldhelm, when a council had been held about the perverse opinions of the British Christians, seconding the principle which the Fathers of it laid down, that schismatics were to be convinced, not compelled, wrote a book upon their error and converted many of them.

Wolstan, when the paragraphs and essays College, civil power failed in its attempts to stop the slave trade of the Bristol people, succeeded by his persevering preaching. In the confessional he was so gentle, that penitents came to him from all parts of England [Note 21]. This has been the spirit of the monks from the first; the student of ecclesiastical history may recollect a certain passage in St. Martin's history, when his desire to shield the Spanish heretics from capital punishment brought him into great difficulties [Note 22] with the usurper Maximus. Works of penance indeed and works of mercy have gone hand in hand in College the history of the monks; from the writing and essays Queen, Solitaries in Egypt down to the Trappists of this day, it is one of the points in which the unity of the monastic idea shows itself.

They have ever toiled for others, while they toiled for themselves; nor for posterity only, but for their poor neighbours, and for travellers who came to them. Hbs Publishing And Burton Academy? St. Augustine tells us that the monks of Egypt and of the East made so much by manual labour as to be able to freight vessels with provisions for impoverished districts. Theodoret speaks of a certain five thousand of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, them, who by writing Eerde their labour supported, besides themselves, innumerable poor and paragraphs Ethelburga’s College strangers. Sozomen speaks of the monk Zeno, who, though a hundred years old, and Fanshawe College the bishop of a rich Church, worked for the poor as well as for himself. Corbinian in a subsequent century surrounded his German Church with fruit trees and vines, and sustained the poor with the produce.

The monks of St. Gall, already mentioned, gardened, planted, fished, and thus secured the means of relieving the poor and entertaining strangers. Monasteries, says Neander, were seats for the promotion of writing paragraphs and essays Queen, various trades, arts, and sciences. The gains accruing from their combined labour were employed for the relief of the distressed. In great famines, thousands were rescued from starvation. Writing International? [Note 23] In a scarcity at the beginning of the twelfth century, a monastery in the neighbourhood of Cologne distributed in one day fifteen hundred alms, consisting of bread, meat, and writing paragraphs Queen vegetables. About the same time St.

Bernard founded his monastery of Citeaux, which, though situated in the waste district described above, was able at length to benefits Fanshawe sustain two thousand poor for months, besides extraordinary alms bestowed on others. The monks offered their simple hospitality, uninviting as it might be, to high as well as low; and to those who scorned their fare, they at Queen, least could offer a refuge in misfortune or danger, or after casualties. Duke William, ancestor of the article Lakefield, Conqueror, was hunting in the woods about Jumieges, when he fell in with a rude hermitage [Note 24]. Two monks had made their way through the forest, and with immense labour had rooted up some trees, levelled the ground, raised some crops, and put together their hut. William heard their story, not perhaps in the best humour, and flung aside in writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College contempt the barley bread and water which they offered him. Presently he was brought back wounded and reviews insensible: he had got the worst in an encounter with a boar. On coming to himself, he accepted the hospitality which he had refused at paragraphs Queen College, first, and built for them a monastery.

Doubtless he had looked on them as trespassers or squatters on his domain, though with a religious character and object. The Norman princes were as good friends to the wild beasts as the monks were enemies: a charter still exists of the Conqueror, granted to the abbey of Caen [Note 25], in which he stipulates that its inmates should not turn the woods into tillage, and reserves the my essay Clifton College, game for writing paragraphs College himself. Contrast with this savage retreat and its rude hospitality the different, though equally Benedictine picture of the sacred grove of Subiaco, and the spiritual entertainment which it ministers to Burr Academy all comers, as given in the late pilgrimage of Bishop Ullathorne: The trees, he says, which form the venerable grove, are very old, but their old age is vigorous and healthy. Their great grey roots expose themselves to paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College view with all manner of curling lines and wrinkles on them, and the rough stems bend and twine about thinking with the vigour and ease of gigantic pythons . Of how many holy solitaries have these trees witnessed the meditations! And then they have seen beneath their quiet boughs the irruption of mailed men, tormented by the thirst of and essays Ethelburga’s College, plunder and the passion of blood, which even a sanctuary held so sacred could not stay. And then they have witnessed, for twelve centuries and more, the greatest of the Popes, the Gregories, the Leos, the Innocents, and the Piuses, coming one after another to refresh themselves from their labours in a solitude which is steeped with the inspirations and redolent with the holiness of St. Benedict. [Note 26] What congenial subjects for his verse would the sweetest of all poets have found in scenes and histories such as the foregoing, he who in his Georgics has shown such love of a country life and country occupations, and of the themes and trains of thought which rise out of the country!

Would that Christianity had a Virgil to describe the old monks at their rural labours, as it has had a Sacchi or a Domenichino to paint them! How would he have been able to set forth the adventures and the hardships of the missionary husbandmen, who sang of the my essay College, Scythian winter, and the murrain of the cattle, the stag of Sylvia, and the forest home of Evander! How could he have pourtrayed St. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Paulinus or St. Serenus in his garden, who could draw so beautiful a picture of the old Corycian, raising amid the thicket his scanty pot-herbs upon the nook of land, which was not good for tillage, nor for pasture, nor for critical benefits Fanshawe vines! How could he have brought out the poetry of those simple labourers, who has told us of that old man's flowers and fruits, and of the satisfaction, as a king's, which he felt in those innocent riches! He who had so huge a dislike of cities, and great houses, and Queen Ethelburga’s College high society, and sumptuous banquets, and the canvass for office, and the hard law, and the noisy lawyer, and the statesman's harangue,#8212;he who thought the essay University of Applied Sciences, country proprietor as even too blessed, did he but know his blessedness, and who loved the valley, winding stream, and wood, and the hidden life which they offer, and writing Ethelburga’s College the deep lessons which they whisper,#8212;how could he have illustrated that wonderful union, of prayer, penance, toil, and literary work, the true otium cum dignitate, a fruitful leisure and a meek-hearted dignity, which is exemplified in the Benedictine!

That ethereal fire which enabled the Prince of Latin poets to take up the Sibyl's strain, and to adumbrate the glories of a supernatural future,#8212;that serene philosophy, which has strewn his poems with sentiments which come home to the heart,#8212;that intimate sympathy with the can t College, sorrows of human kind and with the and essays Ethelburga’s, action and passion of human nature,#8212;how well would they have served to illustrate the patriarchal history and office of the argumentative help Saxion of Applied Sciences, monks in the broad German countries, or the deeds, the words, and the visions of a St. Odilo or a St. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? Aelred! What a poet deliberately chooses for the subject of article Lakefield, his poems must be in writing paragraphs and essays Queen College its own nature poetical. A poet indeed is but a man after all, and in his proper person may prefer solid beef and pudding to College all the creations of his own fine frenzy, which, in his character of poet, are his meat and writing and essays Queen drink. But no poet will ever commit his poetical reputation to the treatment of article Lakefield, subjects which do not admit of poetry.

When, then, Virgil chooses the paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, country and rejects the can t write College, town, he shows us that a certain aspect of the town is uncongenial with poetry, and writing and essays Queen College that a certain aspect of the country is congenial. Repose, intellectual and write The Knox School moral, is that quality of country life which he selects for his praises; and effort, and bustle, and excitement is that quality of a town life which he abhors. Herein then, according to Virgil, lies the poetry of St. Benedict, in the secura quies et nescia fallere vita, in the absence of anxiety and fretfulness, of schemes and scheming, of hopes and fears, of doubts and disappointments. Such a life,#8212;living for the day without solicitude for the morrow, without plans or objects, even holy ones, here below; working, not (so to say) by the piece, but as hired by the hour; sowing the ground with the certainty, according to the promise, of reaping; reading or writing this present week without the consequent necessity of reading or writing during the and essays College, next; dwelling among one's own people without distant ties; taking each new day as a whole in itself, an addition, not a complement, to the past; and doing works which cannot be cut short, for they are complete in every portion of them,#8212;such a life may be called emphatically Virgilian. They, on the contrary, whose duty lies in what may be called undertakings , in science and system, in sustained efforts of the writing School Eerde, intellect or elaborate processes of action,#8212;apologists, controversialists, disputants in the schools, professors in the chair, teachers in the pulpit, rulers in the Church,#8212;have a noble and meritorious mission, but not so poetical a one.

When the bodily frame receives an writing paragraphs College injury, or is seized with some sudden malady, nature may be expected to set right the evil, if left to itself, but she requires time; science comes in to shorten the process, and is violent that it may be certain. This may be taken to illustrate St. Benedict's mode of counteracting the miseries of life. He found the world, physical and social, in ruins, and his mission was to hbs publishing Burr and Burton restore it in the way, not of science, but of nature, not as if setting about to do it, not professing to do it by any set time or by writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s any rare specific or by any series of strokes, but so quietly, patiently, gradually, that often, till the work was done, it was not known to be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visitation, correction, or conversion. The new world which he helped to create was a growth rather than a structure. Silent men were observed about the country, or discovered in the forest, digging, clearing, and building; and other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister, tiring their eyes, and keeping their attention on the stretch, while they painfully deciphered and copied and re-copied the essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences, manuscripts which they had saved.

There was no one that contended, or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by paragraphs and essays degrees the woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an abbey, a village, a seminary, a school of learning, and a city. Roads and bridges connected it with other abbeys and cities, which had similarly grown up; and what the haughty Alaric or fierce Attila had broken to Burr and Burton Academy pieces, these patient meditative men had brought together and made to live again. And then, when they had in the course of many years gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invader came, and with fire and sword undid their slow and persevering toil in an hour. The Hun succeeded to writing Queen Ethelburga’s the Goth, the Lombard to the Hun, the Tartar to Lakefield the Lombard; the Saxon was reclaimed only that the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, Dane might take his place. Down in critical benefits Fanshawe the dust lay the labour and civilization of centuries,#8212;Churches, Colleges, Cloisters, Libraries,#8212;and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they did without grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and tranquilly, as if it were by some law of nature that the restoration came, and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College they were like the flowers and shrubs and fruit trees which they reared, and which, when ill-treated, do not take vengeance, or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves, or blossoms, perhaps in greater profusion, and with richer quality, for the very reason that the old were rudely broken off. If one holy place was desecrated, the a formal International School Eerde, monks pitched upon another, and by this time there were rich or powerful men who remembered and loved the past enough to wish to paragraphs Ethelburga’s have it restored in the future. Thus was it in the case of the a article School, monastery of Ramsey after the College, ravages of the Danes. A wealthy Earl, whose heart was touched, consulted his Bishop how he could best promote the divine glory: the Bishop answered that they only were free, serene, and unsolicitous, who renounced the world, and that their renunciation brought a blessing on their country. By their merit, he said, the anger of the Supreme Judge is abated; a healthier atmosphere is granted; corn springs up more abundantly; famine and pestilence withdraw; the hbs publishing, state is better governed; prisons are opened; the fetters unbound; the paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, shipwrecked relieved. He proceeded to advise him, as the best of courses, to give ground for a monastery, and to writing essay International build and endow it.

Earl Alwin observed in reply, that he had inherited some waste land in the midst of writing Queen Ethelburga’s, marshes, with a forest in the neighbourhood, some open spots of good turf, and others of meadow; and he took the Bishop to see it. It was in fact an island in the fens, and can t Clifton College as lonely as religious men could desire. The gift was accepted, workmen were collected, the pious peasants round about gave their labour. Twelve monks were found from another cloister; cells and a chapel were soon raised. Materials were collected for a handsome church; stones and cement were given; a firm foundation was secured; scaffolding and machinery were lent; and in course of time a sacred edifice and two towers rose over the desolate waste, and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s renewed the past;#8212;a learned divine from France was invited to write preside over the monastic schools [Note 27]. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Here then I am led, lastly, to speak of the literary labours of the Benedictines, but I have not room to do more than direct attention to reviews the peculiar character of their work, and must leave the subject of their schools for some future opportunity. Here, as in other respects above noticed, the unity of monachism shows itself. What the Benedictines, even in their latest literary developments, have been, in St. Maur in the seventeenth century, and at Solesme now, such were the monks in their first years. One of the chief occupations of the disciples of St.

Pachomius in Egypt was the transcription of books. It was the and essays Ethelburga’s, sole labour of the monks of St. Martin in Gaul. The Syrian solitaries, according to St. Chrysostom, employed themselves in making copies of the thinking Fanshawe College, Holy Scriptures. It was the occupation of the monks of St. Equitius and of Cassiodorus, and of the nunnery of St. Csarius. We read of paragraphs and essays Queen College, one holy man preparing the skins for hbs publishing Burr Academy writing, of and essays, another selling his manuscripts in order to and Burton gain alms for the poor, and and essays Queen of an abbess writing St.

Peter's Epistles in critical thinking benefits Fanshawe letters of gold. St. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s? David had shown the same reverence to St. John's Gospel. Abbot Plato filled his own and other monasteries with his beautifully written volumes [Note 28]. During the short rule of Abbot Desiderius at Monte Cassino, his monks wrote out can t Clifton College St.

Austin's fifty Homilies, his Letters, his Comment upon the Sermon on the Mount, upon St. Paul and upon Genesis; parts of St. Jerome and St. Ambrose, part of and essays Queen College, St. Bede, St. Leo's Sermons, the Orations of St. Gregory Nazianzen; the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Apocalypse; various histories, including that of St. Gregory of Tours, and of Josephus on School, the Jewish War, Justinian's Institutes, and many ascetic and writing paragraphs and essays other works; of the Classics, Cicero de Natur Deorum, Terence, Ovid's Fasti, Horace, and Virgil.

Maurus Lapi, a Camaldolese, in the fifteenth century, copied a thousand volumes in less than fifty years. Jerome, a monk in an Austrian monastery, wrote so great a number of books that, it is said, a wagon with six horses would scarcely suffice to draw them. Othlon, in the eleventh century, when a boy, wrote so diligently that he nearly lost his sight. Thinking Benefits Fanshawe? That was in France; he then went to Ratisbon, where he wrote nineteen missals, three books of the Gospel, two books of paragraphs and essays, Epistle and Gospel, and writing a formal essay International Eerde many others. Many he gave to his friends, but the list is too long to finish. The Abbot Odo of Tournay used to exult, according to his successor, in writing paragraphs Queen College the number of writers which the Lord had given him. Had you gone into his cloister, you might have seen a dozen young men sitting in perfect silence, writing at tables constructed for the purpose. All Jerome's Commentaries on the Prophets, all the works of St. Gregory, all that he could find of Austin, Ambrose, Isidore, Bede, and the Lord Anselm, Abbot of Bec, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he caused to be diligently transcribed. [Note 29]

These tranquil labourers found a further field in the illumination and binding of the transcribed volumes, as they had previously been occupied in the practice necessary for the then important art of calligraphy. It was not running hand that the my essay Clifton College, monks had to learn; for it was no ephemeral expression of their own thoughts which their writing was to convey, but the formal transcript, for the benefit of posterity, of the words of inspired teachers and Doctors of the Church. They were performing what has been since the printer's work; and College it is said that from the English monks is derived the small letter of the modern Roman type. In France the abbeys of Fontenelle, Rheims, and Corbie were especially famed for write a article beauty of penmanship in writing paragraphs and essays Queen the age of Charlemagne [Note 30], when literature was in its most depressed state. Books intended for presents, such as that which the mother of Leo the Ninth presented to St. Hubert, and, much more, if intended for sacred uses, were enriched with gold and silver plates and precious stones. Here was a commencement of the cultivation of the fine arts in those turbulent times,#8212;a quiet, unexciting occupation, which went on inside the monasteries, whatever rivalries or heresies agitated Christendom outside of them, and which, though involving, of course, an improvement in essay International the workmanship as time went on, yet in writing paragraphs College the case of every successive specimen, whatever exact degree of skill or taste each exhibited, had its end in itself, as though there had been no other specimen before or after. Brower, in writing School his work on the Antiquities of Fulda, gives us a lively picture of the various tranquil occupations which were going on Queen Ethelburga’s, at one time within the monastic walls. As industrious bees, he says, their work never flagging, did these monks follow out their calling. Some of them were engaged in describing, here and there upon the parchment, the special letters and characters which were to and Burton be filled in; others were wrapping or binding the Ethelburga’s, manuscripts in handsome covers; others were marking out in red the remarkable sentences or the heads of the chapters. Some were writing fairly what had been thrown together at random, or had been left out in the dictation, and were putting every part in School fair order.

And not a few of them excelled in painting in writing paragraphs and essays Queen all manner of colours, and in drawing figures. [Note 31] He goes on to refer to essay Saxion Sciences an old manuscript there, which speaks of the and essays, monks as decorating their church, and of their carpenters' work, sculpture, engraving, and brass work. Can T Write Clifton College? I have mentioned St. Dunstan in an earlier page, as called to political duties, which were out of keeping with the traditionary spirit of writing Ethelburga’s, his Order; here, however, he shows himself in the simple character of essay help University, a Benedictine. Writing And Essays College? He had a taste for the arts generally, especially music. He painted and can t write my essay Clifton College embroidered; his skill in smith's work is recorded in the well-known legend of Queen, his combat with the evil one. And, as the monks of Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard and his Cistercians joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and article reviews College painting as directly expressive or suggestive of devotion.

He excelled in writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving in wood and bone, and in work in gold, silver, iron, and brass, says the writer of his life in Surius. And he used his skill in musical instruments to charm away from himself and others their secular annoyances, and to rouse them to the thought of writing paragraphs Queen, heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words with which he accompanied his airs, and by the concord of those airs themselves. [Note 32] And then he goes on to mention how on one occasion, when he had hung his harp against the wall, and the wind brought out from its strings a wild melody, he recognized in article Lakefield College it one of the antiphons in the Commune Martyrum, Gaudete in C#339;lis, etc., and used it for his own humiliation. As might be expected, the monasteries of the South of Europe would not be behind the North in accomplishments of writing and essays Queen, this kind. Those of St. Gall, Monte Cassino, and Solignac, are especially spoken of as skilled in the fine arts.

Monte Cassino excelled in illumination and in mosaic, the Camaldolese in painting, and the Olivetans in wood-inlaying [Note 33]. While manual labour, applied to these artistic purposes, ministered to devotion, on the other hand, when applied to the transcription and multiplication of books, it was a method of instruction, and that peculiarly Benedictine, as being of a literary, not a scientific nature. Systematic theology had but a limited place in School ecclesiastical study prior to the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Scripture and the Fathers were the received means of education, and these constituted the very text on which the pens of the monks were employed. Writing Paragraphs? And thus they would be becoming familiar with that kind of knowledge which was proper to their vocation, at the same time that they were engaged in what was unequivocally a manual labour; and, in providing for the religious necessities of posterity, they were directly serving their own edification. And this again had been the practice of the monks from the first, and and Burton is included in the unity of their profession. St.

Chrysostom tells us that their ordinary occupation in his time was to sing and pray, to read Scripture, and to writing College transcribe the sacred text. [Note 34] As the works of the early Fathers gradually became the literary property of the Church, these, too, became the subject-matter of the reading and the writing of the monks. Hbs Publishing And Burton Academy? For him who is going on to perfection, says St. Benedict in his Rule, there are the lessons of the Holy Fathers, which lead to its very summit. Writing? For what page, what passage of the Old or New Testament, coming as it does with divine authority, is not the very exactest rule of life? What book of the Holy Catholic Fathers does not resound with this one theme, how we may take the shortest course to article reviews College our Creator? But I need not here insist on writing Ethelburga’s, this characteristic of monastic study, which, especially as regards the study of Scripture, has been treated so fully and so well by Mr. Maitland in a article The Knox School his Essays on the Dark Ages. The sacred literature of the monks went a step further. They would be naturally led by paragraphs Ethelburga’s their continual perusal of the Scriptures and the Fathers to attempt to compare and adjust these two chief sources of The Knox, theological truth with each other.

Hence resulted the peculiar character of the religious works of what may be especially called the Benedictine period, the Ethelburga’s, five centuries between St. Gregory and write a article The Knox St. Anselm. The age of the Fathers was well nigh over; the age of the Schoolmen was yet to come; the ecclesiastical writers of the intervening centuries employed themselves for the most part in arranging and digesting the patristical literature which had come down to them; they either strung together choice passages of the Fathers in caten , as a running illustration of the inspired text, or they formed them into a comment upon it. The Summ Sententiarum of the same centuries were works of a similar character, while they also opened the writing and essays Queen, way to the intellectual exercises of the scholastic period; for they were lessons or instructions arranged according to a scheme or system of doctrine, though they were still extracted from the works of the Fathers, and though the matter of those works suggested the divisions or details of the system. Moreover, such labours, as much as transcription itself, were Benedictine in their spirit, as well as in their subject-matter; for argumentative help Saxion University of Applied where there was nothing of original research, nothing of brilliant or imposing result, there would be nothing to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College dissipate, elate, or absorb the mind, or to violate the simplicity and tranquillity proper to the monastic state. The same remark applies to a further literary employment in which the essay Saxion of Applied, Benedictines allowed themselves, and which is the last I shall here mention, and that is the compilation of and essays Ethelburga’s, chronicles and annals, whether ecclesiastical, secular, or monastic. So prominent a place does this take in their literature, that the author of the reviews Lakefield College, Asceticon , in writing and essays Queen the fourth volume of a article School, Dom Francois's Bibliothque des Ecrivains Bndictins, does not hesitate to point to writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s the historical writings of critical benefits Fanshawe College, his Order as constituting one of its chief claims, after its Biblical works, on the gratitude of posterity. This, he says, is the Queen Ethelburga’s, praise especially due to article reviews Lakefield College the monks, that they have illustrated Holy Scripture, rescued history, sacred and profane, from the barbarism of the writing Queen Ethelburga’s, times and have handed down to posterity so many lives both of Saints and of Bishops. [Note 35] Here again is a fresh illustration of the Benedictine character; for first, those histories are of the most simple structure and most artless composition, and next, from the circumstance of critical thinking College, their being commonly narratives of contemporary events, or compilations from a few definite sources of information which were at hand, they involved nothing of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, that laborious research and excitement of mind which is demanded of the writer who has to record a complex course of history, extending over many centuries and countries, and who aims at the discovery of truth, in reviews Lakefield the midst of deficient, redundant, or conflicting testimony.

The men who wrote history, says Mr. Dowling, speaking of the times in question, did not write by paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College rule; they only write a article The Knox, put down what they had seen, what they had heard, what they knew. Very many of them did what they did as a matter of moral duty. The result was something sui generis ; it was not even what we call history at all. It was, if I may so speak, something more, an actual admeasurement rather than a picture; or, if a picture, it was painted in Queen Ethelburga’s a style which had all the minute accuracy and a article The Knox School homely reality of the and essays, most domestic of the Flemish masters, not the lofty hyperbole of the argumentative help Saxion University of Applied Sciences, Roman school, nor the obtrusive splendour, not less unnatural, of the Venetian. In a word, history, as a subject of paragraphs and essays, criticism, is an art, a noble and beautiful art ; the historical writings of the middle ages is nature . [Note 36] Mention is made in this passage of the write a article The Knox, peculiarity in paragraphs and essays Queen College monastic historiography, that it proceeded from the motive of religious duty. This must always have been the argumentative essay Saxion University of Applied, case in consequence of the monastic profession; however, we have here, in addition to the presumption, actual evidence, and not on writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, one occasion only, of the importance which the Benedictine Order attached to these notices and memorials of past times. In the year 1082, for instance, the Abbot Marquand of New Corbie, in Saxony, seems to have sent an order to all churches and critical College monasteries subject to his rule to send to him severally the chronicles of their own places. Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? Abbot Wichbold repeated the order sixty years later, and Abbot Thierry in 1337 addressed to the provosts and rectors subject to him a like injunction [Note 37]. Thinking College? Again, in 1481 the Abbot of writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, Erfurdt addressed a letter to can t write my essay College the Fathers of the writing and essays College, Reform of Bursfeld, with the view of persuading them to take part in a similar work.

If you were to agree among yourselves, he says, and make a statute to the effect that every Prelate is can t my essay College under an obligation to paragraphs Ethelburga’s College compose annals and histories of his monastery, what could be better, what more useful, what more interesting, whether for and Burton knowing or for reading? [Note 38] It is easier to conjecture what those literary works would be, in which a Benedictine would find himself at liberty to engage, than to pretend to point out those from which his vocation would debar him; yet Mabillon, equally with de Ranc, implied that all subjects do not come alike to him. Here we are recalled to the well-known controversy between these two celebrated men. The Abbot of writing paragraphs College, La Trappe, the Cistercian de Ranc, writing to his own people, put forth some statements on write a article The Knox School, the subject of the studies proper to a monk, which seemed to reflect upon the learned Maurists. Mabillon, one of them, replied, in a learned vindication of himself and his brethren. The Abbot had maintained that study of whatever kind should be kept in strict subordination to manual labour, and should not extend to any books except the Scriptures and the ascetic treatises of the Fathers. Mabillon, on writing paragraphs and essays College, the other hand, without denying the necessity of Burr Academy, manual labour, to which the Maurists themselves devoted an hour a day, seemed to allow to the Benedictine the free cultivation of the intellect, and an unlimited range of studies. When they explained themselves, each combatant would appear to have asserted more than he could successfully maintain; yet after all there was a considerable difference of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, view between them, which could not be removed. Essay International Eerde? The critical question was whether certain historical instances, which Mabillon urged in his favour, were to be considered exceptions or not to the rule of St. Benedict. I have certainly maintained in and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College an earlier page of this Essay that such instances as Alcuin, Paschasius, or Lanfranc are no fair specimens of the argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, Benedictine profession, and must not be taken to Queen represent the monks generally. Article Reviews College? Lest, however, in saying this, I may be thought to be evading the testimony of history, as adduced by a writer, authoritative at once by his learning and as spokesman of the great Congregation of St.

Maur, I think it well to extract in my behalf some of his own admissions, which seem to Queen College me fully to bear out what I have been laying down above about the spirit and mission of his Order. For instance, he frankly concedes, or rather maintains, that the scholastic method of teaching theology and philosophy is foreign to School the profession of a Benedictine, as such. Why, he asks, need we cultivate these sciences in the way of disputation? Why not as positive sciences, explaining questions and resolving doubts as they occur? Why is it not more than enough for religious pupils to be instructed in writing Ethelburga’s College the more necessary principles of the science, and thereby to make progress in the study of the Scriptures and the Fathers? What need of critical benefits Fanshawe College, this perpetual syllogizing in form, and sharp answers to innumerable objections, as is the custom in the schools? Elsewhere he contrasts the mode of paragraphs Queen College, teaching a subject, as adopted by the early Fathers, with that which the Schoolmen introduced. The reasonings of the Fathers, he says, are so full, so elegantly set forth, as to be everywhere redolent of the argumentative essay help of Applied Sciences, sweetness and vigour of Christian eloquence, whereas scholastic theology is absolutely dry and sterile. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Elsewhere he says that in the study of Holy Scripture consists the essay help of Applied Sciences, entire science of monks. Again, he says of Moral Theology, As monks are rarely destined to the cure of souls, it does not seem necessary that they should give much time to the science of Morals.

And though of course he does not forbid them the study of history, which we have seen to be so congenial to writing College their calling, yet he observes of this study, when pursued to its full extent, It seems to cause much dissipation of mind, which is prejudicial to that inward compunction of heart, which is so especially fitting to the holy life of a monk. A Article The Knox? Again, observing that the examination of ancient MSS. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s College? was the special occupation of the Maurists in his time, he says, They who give themselves to this study have the more merit with God, in that they have so little praise with men. Moreover, it obliges them to devote the more time to solitude, which ought to writing a formal Eerde be their chief delight. I confess it is a most irksome and writing and essays Queen College unpleasant labour; however, it gives much less trouble than transcription, which was the most useful work of our early monks. Hbs Publishing? Elsewhere, speaking of the celebrated Maurist editions of the Fathers, he observes, Labour, such as this, which is undergone in silence and in quietness, is especially compatible with true tranquillity of mind and the mastery of the passions, provided we labour as a duty, and not for glory. [Note 39] I trust the reader will be so good as to keep in mind that I am all along speaking of the Benedictine life historically , and as I might speak of any other historical fact ; not venturing at all on what would be the extreme presumption of any quasi-doctrinal or magisterial exposition of it, which belongs to those only paragraphs Queen, who have actually imbibed its tradition. This being clearly understood, I think I may interpret Mabillon to article reviews Lakefield College mean that (be the Queen College, range of studies lawful to a monk what it may) still, whatever literary work requires such continuous portions of time as not to admit of being suspended at a moment's notice, whatever is so interesting that other duties seem dull and heavy after it, whatever so exhausts the power of attention as to incapacitate for attention to other subjects, whatever makes the mind gravitate towards the creature, is Saxion Sciences inconsistent with monastic simplicity.

Accordingly, I should expect to find that controversy was uncongenial to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s the Benedictine, because it excited the mind, and metaphysical investigations, because they fatigued it; and, when I met such instances as St. Paschasius or St. Anselm, I should deal with them as they came and as I could. Moreover, I should not look to write a article The Knox a Benedictine for any elaborate and systematic work on the history of doctrine, or of heresy, or for any course of patristical theology, or any extended ecclesiastical history, or any philosophical disquisitions upon history, as implying a grasp of innumerable details, and the labour of using a mass of phenomena to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s the elucidation of a theory, or of bringing a range of multifarious reading to bear upon one point; and that, because such efforts of reviews College School, mind require either an energetic memory devoted to Queen Ethelburga’s matters of a formal International School, time and place, or, instead of the tranquil and writing plodding study of one book after another, the presence of a large library, and the distraction of a vast number of books handled all at once, not for perusal, but for reference. Perhaps I am open to Eerde the charge of refining, in attempting to illustrate the principle which I seem to writing Ethelburga’s College myself to detect in reviews Lakefield College School the Benedictine tradition; but the principle itself which I have before me is clear enough, and is expressed in the advice which is given to us by a sacred writer: The words of the wise are as goads, and nails deeply fastened in; more than these, my son, require not : of making many books there is no end, and much study is an affliction of the flesh.

To test the truth of this view of the Benedictine mission, I cannot do better than appeal as a palmary instance to the Congregation of St. Maur, an intellectual school of Benedictines assuredly. Now what, in matter of fact, is the character of its works? It has no Malebranche, no Thomassin, no Morinus; it has no Bellarmine, no Suarez, no Petavius; it has no Tillemont or Fleury,#8212;all of whom were more or less its contemporaries; but it has a Montfaucon, it has a Mabillon, it has a Sainte Marthe, a Coustant, a Sabbatier, a Martene,#8212;men of and essays College, immense learning and literary experience; it has collators and publishers of MSS. and of inscriptions, editors of the text and of the versions of Holy Scripture, editors and biographers of the Fathers, antiquarians, annalists, paleographists,#8212;with scholarship indeed, and criticism, and theological knowledge, admirable as often as elicited by the particular subject on which they are directly employed, but conspicuously subordinate to it. If we turn to other contemporary Congregations of St. Benedict we are met by Fanshawe the same phenomenon. Their labours have been of the same modest, patient, tranquil kind. The first name which occurs to me is that of Augustine Calmet, of the Congregation of St. Vanne. His works are biblical and antiquarian;#8212;a literal Comment on paragraphs and essays College, Scripture with Dissertations, a dictionary of the Bible, a Comment on the Benedictine Rule, a history of my essay, Lorraine.

I cast my eyes round the Library, in which I happen at the moment to be writing; what Benedictine authors meet them? There is Ceillier, also of the Congregation of St. Vanne; Bertholet, of the same Congregation; Cardinal Aguirre of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, Salamanca; Cressy of Douai; Pez of Mlk on the Danube; Lumper of St. George in the Hercynian Forest; Brockie of the Scotch College at Ratisbon; Reiner of the English Congregation. Their Works are of the critical thinking benefits Fanshawe College, same complexion,#8212;historical, antiquarian, biographical, patristical,#8212;calling to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s mind the line of study traditionally pursued by a modern ecclesiastical congregation, the Italian Oratory. I do not speak of Ziegelbauer, Francois, and other Benedictines, who might be added, because they have confined themselves to Benedictine Antiquities, and every Order will write about itself.

And so of the Benedictine Literature from argumentative essay University Sciences first to last. Ziegelbauer, who has just been mentioned, has written four folio volumes on the subject. Now one of them is and essays Queen devoted to a catalogue and argumentative University Sciences an account of Benedictine authors;#8212;of these, those on Scripture and Positive Theology occupy 110 pages; those on history, 300; those on writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, scholastic theology, 12; those on polemics, 12; those on my essay Clifton, moral theology, 6. This surprising contrast may be an exaggeration of the fact, because there is much of repetition and Queen College digression in his survey, and his biographical notices vary in length; but, after all allowances for such accidental unfairness in the list, the result must surely be considered as strikingly confirmatory of the account which I have been giving. But I must cut short an investigation which, though imperfect for the illustration of writing, its subject, is already long for the patience of the writing paragraphs Queen, reader. All human works are exposed to argumentative essay Saxion vicissitude and decay; and that the great Order of which I have been writing should in the lapse of thirteen centuries have furnished no instances of that general law is the less to be expected, in writing Ethelburga’s College proportion to the extent of its territory, the independence of its separate houses, and the local varieties of its constitution. To say that peace may engender selfishness, and humility become a cloak for write The Knox indolence, and a country life may be an writing paragraphs Queen epicurean luxury, is only to enunciate the hbs publishing Burr Academy, over-true maxim, that every virtue has a vice for writing paragraphs Queen its first cousin.

Usum non tollit abusus ; and the circumstance that Benedictine life admits of being corrupted into a mode of living which is not Benedictine, but its very contradictory, cannot surely be made an critical benefits Fanshawe College argument against its meritorious innocence, its resolute cheerfulness, and its strenuous tranquillity. We are told to be like little children; and where shall we find a more striking instance than is here afforded us of that union of simplicity and reverence, that clear perception of the unseen, yet recognition of the writing Queen, mysterious, which is the characteristic of the first years of human existence? To the monk heaven was next door; he formed no plans, he had no cares; the ravens of his father Benedict were ever at his side. He went forth in his youth to his work and to his labour until the evening of life; if he lived a day longer, he did a day's work more; whether he lived many days or few, he laboured on to the end of them. He had no wish to see further in advance of his journey than where he was to make his next stage.

He ploughed and sowed, he prayed, he meditated, he studied, he wrote, he taught, and then he died and can t write my essay Clifton College went to heaven. He made his way into the labyrinthine forest, and he cleared just so much of space as his dwelling required, suffering the high solemn trees and the deep pathless thicket to close him in. And when he began to build, his architecture was suggested by the scene,#8212;not the scientific and masterly conception of writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, a great whole with many parts, as the Gothic style in a later age, but plain and inartificial, the adaptation of received fashions to his own purpose, and an addition of chapel to chapel and a wayward growth of cloister, according to the occasion, with half-concealed shrines and unexpected recesses, with paintings on the wall as by write a article a second thought, with an absence of display and a wild, irregular beauty, like that of the woods by paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College which he was at first surrounded. And when he would employ his mind, he turned to Scripture, the book of books, and there he found a special response to the peculiarities of his vocation; for there supernatural truths stand forth as the trees and flowers of Eden, in a divine disorder, as some awful intricate garden or paradise, which he enjoyed the more because he could not catalogue its wonders. Next he read the Holy Fathers, and there again he recognized a like ungrudging profusion and careless wealth of precept and of consolation. And when he began to compose, still he did so after that mode which nature and revelation had taught him, avoiding curious knowledge, content with incidental ignorance, passing from subject to subject with little regard to system, or care to penetrate beyond his own homestead of thought,#8212;and writing, not with the sharp logic of disputants, or the subtle analysis of philosophers, but with the one aim of reflecting in his pages, as in a faithful mirror, the words and works of the Almighty, as they confronted him, whether in Scripture and thinking benefits College the Fathers, or in that mighty maze of deeds and events, which men call the and essays Queen College, world's history, but which to him was a Providential Dispensation. Here the beautiful character in life and death of St. Bede naturally occurs to hbs publishing and Burton Academy the mind, who is, in his person and his writings, as truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St. Thomas of a Dominican; and with an extract from the letter of Cuthbert to writing Queen Ethelburga’s College Cuthwin concerning his last hours, which, familiarly as it is known, is always pleasant to argumentative help University of Applied read, I break off my subject for the present. He was exceedingly oppressed, says Cuthbert of St. Bede, with shortness of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, breathing, though without pain, before Easter Day, for about a fortnight; but he rallied, and was full of joy and gladness, and gave thanks to Almighty God day and night and article School every hour, up to Ascension Day; and paragraphs and essays he gave us, his scholars, daily lectures, and passed the rest of the day in singing the Psalms, and a formal essay International Eerde the night too in writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College joy and thanksgiving, except the scanty time which he gave to essay help Saxion University of Applied sleep.

And as soon as he woke, he was busy in his customary way, and paragraphs and essays he never ceased with uplifted hands giving thanks to God. I solemnly protest, never have I seen or heard of any one who was so diligent in thanksgiving. He sang that sentence of the argumentative essay help Saxion University of Applied Sciences, blessed Apostle Paul, 'It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the Living God,' and many other passages of Scripture, in which he warned us to shake off the slumber of the soul, by anticipating our last hour. And he sang some verses of his own in English also, to the effect that no one could be too well prepared for his end, viz., in calling to mind, before he departs hence, what good or evil he has done, and writing Ethelburga’s how his judgment will lie. And he sang too the antiphons, of which one is, 'O King of Glory, Lord of Angels, who this day hast ascended in triumph above all the heavens, leave us not orphans, but send the promise of the critical thinking benefits College, Father upon and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, us, the Spirit of Truth, alleluia.' And when he came to the words, 'leave us not orphans,' he burst into tears, and wept much. He said, too, 'God scourgeth every son whom He receiveth,' and, with St. Ambrose, 'I have not so lived as to hbs publishing and Burton Academy be ashamed to have been among you, nor do I fear to writing and essays Queen College die, for we have a good Lord.' In those days, besides our lectures and the Psalmody, he was engaged in two works; he was translating into English the Gospel of St. John, as far as the words, 'But what are these among so many,' and some extracts from the Not [Note 40] of Isidore. On the Tuesday before Ascension Day he began to suffer still more in his breathing, and his feet were slightly swollen. However, he went through the day, dictating cheerfully, and he kept saying from time to time, 'Take down what I say quickly, for I know not how long I am to last, or whether my Maker will not take me soon.' He seemed to us to be quite aware of the time of his going, and he passed that night in giving of thanks, without sleeping.

As soon as morning broke, that is on the Wednesday, he urged us to make haste with the writing which we had begun. We did so till nine o'clock, when we walked in procession with the write my essay Clifton, Relics of the Saints, according to the usage of that day. But one of our party said to him, 'Dearest Master, one chapter is writing and essays Ethelburga’s still wanting; can you bear our asking you about Lakefield School it?' He answered, 'I can bear it; take your pen and be ready, and write quickly.' At three o'clock he said to me, 'Run fast, and writing paragraphs and essays Queen call our priests, that I may divide among them some little gifts which I have in my box.' When I had done this in much agitation, he spoke to each, urging and write The Knox School entreating them all to make a point of saying Masses and prayers for him. Thus he passed the day in joy until the evening, when the above-named youth said to him, 'Dear Master, there is yet one sentence not written;' he answered, 'Write quickly.' Presently the youth said, 'Now it is written;' he replied, 'Good, thou hast said the truth; consummatum est ; take my head into thy hands, for it is very pleasant to me to sit facing my old praying place, and thus to call upon my Father.' And so, on the floor of his cell, he sang, 'Glory be to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' and, just as he had said 'Holy Ghost,' he breathed his last, and went to the realms above. It is remarkable that this flower of the Benedictine school died on the same day as St. Philip Neri,#8212;May 26; Bede on Ascension Day, and Philip on writing paragraphs Queen College, the early morning after the feast of Corpus Christi. It was fitting that two saints should go to heaven together, whose mode of a article The Knox School, going thither was the same; both of paragraphs Ethelburga’s, them singing, praying, working, and guiding others, in writing essay School joy and exultation, till their very last hour. 1. Owing to the temporary suspension of the Atlantis , the article on the Dominican Order was not written. 2. Helyot, Hist. Mon.

Ziegelbauer, Litt. Writing? Hist. Soame's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 26. International? Brockie. Prf. ad Regul. Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, p. 81, etc., etc. 3. Butler, June 22. 4. Queen Ethelburga’s College? Thomassin, Disc. Writing A Formal School Eerde? Eccl., t. i., p. 705.

Calmet, Reg. Ben., t. ii., p. 25. Mabillon, Acta Sc. iv., p. 1, prf., p. xxx. Annal., t. i., prf., § 19. 6. Mabillon, Act Benedict., t. iv., p. 1, p. xxxvii. 7. History of Civilization, vol. ii., p. 65, Bohn; and so Ampre. 10. Dial., i. Paragraphs And Essays? 1. Argumentative Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? Vid . Essays, vol. ii., p. 284.

Me ver primm dulces ante omnia Mus #8230; Accipiant, c#339;lique vias et sidera monstrent , etc., etc. Sin, has ne possim natur accedere partes, Frigidus obstiterit circm prcordia sanguis, Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes , etc. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas , etc. Fortunatus et ille , Deos qui novit agrestes, etc. 12. Voyage Littraire. Vid . also Calmet, Lorraine, t. i., p. 1043.

Moreri, art. S. Hubert. Gallia Christ., t. iii. p. Queen Ethelburga’s College? 966. Mabillon, Annal. Bened., t. ii., pp. 16, 441, 606. Bucherii, Gest. Tungr. Benefits? etc., t. i., p. Writing Paragraphs? 153. Helyot, Ordres Mon., t. Can T Write Clifton College? vi., p. 296. And Essays Queen? 13.

Vol. i., p. Argumentative Essay Help Saxion Of Applied Sciences? 237, etc. 14. Writing Paragraphs Queen? Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. iii., p. 436. Forsyth, Antiqu., vol. i., pp. 37, 44, 179. Hbs Publishing Academy? Turner, Anglo-Sax., vol. ii., p. 167. Murdoch's Mosheim, vol. Paragraphs And Essays College? ii., p. 21, etc. Guizot, Hist. Civil., vol. Critical Benefits Fanshawe College? ii., p. 75, Bohn. 15. Neander, Memorials, pp.

436, 451, 473, Bohn. Rader, Bavaria Sacra. Calles, Arm. Germ., t. i., pp. 200, 276, 317, 318. Guizot, Civil., vol. ii., p 134. Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. ii., p. 196. Fosbroke, Antiq. p. 16. 16.

Meyrick's Willibald, p. 68. Bavaria Sacra, p.119. Petri, Suevia Eccles., p. 96. Calles Ann. Germ., t. i., p. 191. 17. Butler's Lives, Aug. 20. 18. Apud. Mabillon Act. Bened. Paragraphs? 19. Thomass. Disc. Eccl. Write The Knox? t. iii., p. 513. 20. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? P. 93. The passage seems taken from Bede. 21. Bede, Hist. Eccles., i. 26. William of Malmesb. Ponfic. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton Academy? Angl. 23. Writing Queen? Eccl. Hist., vol. vii., p. 331, Bohn. 24. Writing Essay School? Duchesne, Script. North., p. 236. 25. Turner, Middle Ages, vol. v., p. 89. 27. Vid . Turner, Anglo-Saxons, vol. iii., p. 468. 28. Pallad, c. 39.

Cassian, Inst., iv., 12. Calmet, Reg., t. ii., p. 150. Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. iii., p. 505. Ziegelbaum, Hist. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Litt. Bened., t. ii., p. Critical? 510. 29. Annal.

Camald., t. vii., p. 300: vid . other instances in Maitland's Dark Ages, and Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, who, however, is deficient in references. 30. Guizot's Hist. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? Civil., vol. ii., p. 236, Bohn. 32.

Vid , also Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. School? i., p. 167, and the whole chapter. 33. Meehan's Marchese, p. And Essays College? xxiv. 34. Hist. Litter. de St. Write? Maur. 1770, p. 21. 35. P. 379. Printing, another tranquil work, was introduced into Italy by the Benedictines of Subiaco.

Vid . Dr. Ullathorne's Pilgrimage. 36. Introd. Eccles. Hist., p. 56. 37. Ziegelbaur, t. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s? ii., p. And Burton? 401. 38. Ibid ., t. i., p. 424. For lists of monastic histories, vid . Mr. Dowling, Introd.

E. H., p. 260; the Asceticon as above, § 26. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 398. Balmez., Prot. and paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s Cath., p. 195. 39. Stud. Monast., ed. 1732; t. i., pp. 52, 135; t. Can T Write College? ii., p. 2; t. i., pp 145, 147, 191, 64. 40. The Bollandists have not been able to determine which of St. Isidore's works is here intended.

Not means Musical Notes, according to Du Cange. According to writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s Leb#339;uf in Ampre, Hist. School? Litter. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? t. iii., p. 253, the word means penmanship. Newman Reader #151; Works of John Henry Newman. Copyright © 2007 by The National Institute for Newman Studies. All rights reserved .

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Immigration-Related Dissertations, 2005. It is the mission of the Center for and essays Queen Ethelburga’s Immigration Studies to inform, examine, and critique American immigration policy. In the pursuit of this goal, the Center seeks to write provide the latest immigration news and writing Queen research for all involved in the debate of this complex issue. College? In addition to its e-mail news services, papers, books, and monthly publications, the Center disseminates an writing and essays Ethelburga’s annual list of doctoral dissertations and theses inspecting some aspect of Academy, immigration in order to keep those involved abreast of the most recent developments in writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s emerging immigration scholarship. This compilation contains dissertations completed in 2004. Abstracts of these dissertations can be viewed for free though the end of this year at ProQuest Digital Dissertations. Hbs Publishing? Full copies may be obtained for a fee. For ease of use, the list is organized into writing and essays College the following categories: Policy/Politics, Migration Processes/Networks, Economics/Labor, Acculturation/Ethnicity, Language, Education/Schools, Women/Families, Health, Religion, History, Canada/Mexico, Overseas, and can t Refugees/Asylum. However, many of the items in this list could have easily fallen into writing Ethelburga’s College two or three different categories. Those readers who are interested in a particular topic are encouraged to browse the entire list due to the list's necessarily subjective organizational scheme. We won’t turn back: The political economy paradoxes of immigrant and write a article The Knox ethnic minority settlement in suburban America.

by Lorrie Ann Frasure, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK. Rethinking culture and cultural: The politics of writing and essays Queen, meaning-making. by Rita Dhamoon, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA) Citizenship unbound: The global politics of The Knox School, neo-liberalism and labor migration. by Isabelle Virginie Barker, PhD. RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW BRUNSWICK. The politics of writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, European Union immigration and asylum policy cooperation. by Matthew James Fouse, PhD.

The fiscal impacts of immigrants and article reviews Lakefield School the resultant changes in state redistributive policy. by Stephanie A. Botello, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON. Local races, politicized ethnicity, and political narratives in paragraphs Queen College New York. by Andreas Yiorgos Kourvetaris, PhD. Policing the boundaries between ‘us’ and ‘them’: Immigrants, narrative identity, and critical benefits the politics of inclusion/exclusion (New York City, California) by Kevin James Keogan, PhD. RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW BRUNSWICK. La Idea Salvadora: Immigration and colonization politics in Mexico, 1821--1857. by David K. Burden, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA.

Open for business, closed for bodies: Rethinking territoriality of United States statecraft at and essays Ethelburga’s College, the United States-Mexico border. by Coleman, Mathew Charles Coleman, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES. Population-based empowerment practice in immigrant communities. by Alireza Moula, Dr. LINKOPINGS UNIVERSITET (SWEDEN) UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK. International migration of essay Saxion University Sciences, physicians and writing College nurses to Academy the United States. by Peter Sotir Hussey, PhD. THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.

Qualitative case study of a Palestinian immigrant in writing paragraphs and essays Queen the United States. by Shawn McCall, PsyD. CHICAGO SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. Housing tenure choice of argumentative essay Saxion University of Applied, immigrants in paragraphs Queen the United States. by Zhenfeng Pan, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE. Immigration multiplier: A new method of measuring the immigration process. Toward a common market in write a article The Knox School residency: International migration and regional integration. by Lee Biernbaum, MA. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA. Three essays on international migration.

by Juventino Ulyses Balderas Gonzalez, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER. The immigrant lifecycle: A story of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, unskilled migration from India to the United States. by Paritosh Bansal, MA. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. Communication and collective identities in hbs publishing and Burton Academy the transnational social space: A media ethnography of the paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, Salvadoran immigrant community in write a article School the Washington, D.C.

Metropolitan Area. by Jose Luis Benitez, PhD. Islam and the making of writing Queen Ethelburga’s, transnational citizenship: Pakistani immigrant experience in Houston, Texas. by Ahmed Afzal, PhD. Placing progress: Contextual inequality, internal migration, and immigrant incorporation. by Jamie Michelle Goodwin-White, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. The significance of social networks and migration to the health status of Mexican immigrant mothers and their children: A bi-national case study.

by Theresa L. Article Reviews? Thompson-Colon, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON. Migration, demographic change, and the enigma of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, identity in can t Clifton College Belize. by Karl Steven Seitz, MA. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY. Comparative diasporas: Jamaicans in South Florida and Queen Ethelburga’s Toronto (Ontario) by Terry-Ann Jones, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI, 2005, 230 pages. Bootstraps and beltways: The state’s role in immigrant community banking. by Alethia Elizabeth Jones, PhD.

One hundred years of argumentative essay University of Applied, buying care: Gender, race, immigration and market care work in the twentieth century. by Mignon Duffy, PhD. BRANDEIS UNIV., THE HELLER SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL POLICY AND MGMT. Manufacturing bodies: A (re)description of the undocumented sweatshop worker in the United States. by Ricardo Andres Garza Wicker, MA. CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY (CANADA) Ideology, policy and the (re)production of labour market inequality: A critical discourse analysis of Access to Professions and Trades. by Michelle P. Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? Goldberg, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA) Three studies of immigrant labor market assimilation in the United States.

by Ilana Redstone, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Orientation towards ‘clerical work’: Institutional ethnographic study of immigrant women’s experiences and Burr employment-related services. by Hongxia Shan, MA. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA) Narratives of Chinese female immigrant professionals: Factors that affect their career development and strategies used for career adjustment. by Yuting Shih, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST. Critical reflections of Filipino immigrant accountants on their work experiences in the San Francisco Bay Area.

by Manuel Z. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College? Baldeviso Valle, EdD. UNIVERSITY OF SAN FRANCISCO. Essays on Clifton welfare and immigration. by Francesca Mazzolari, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO.

Doing the corner: A study of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, immigrant day laborers in Brooklyn, New York. by Carolyn Pinedo Turnovsky, PhD. CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. Crossing borders in the information age: The impact of highly skilled migrants on the labor market outcomes of the a article The Knox, United States highly skilled workers. by Janna Batalova, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE. Gender, racialization and the incorporation to work among Dominican and Mexican women in New York City. by Norma Fuentes-Mayorga, PhD. Picking a living: Farm workers and organized labor in paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College California’s strawberry industry.

by Gilbert Felipe Mireles, PhD. Wage earnings of Chinese in write my essay the United States: Individual and contextual determinants. by Binbin Qin, PhD. TEXAS AM UNIVERSITY. High-skilled immigrants in the United States labor market: Significance of country-of-origin. by Sarinda Taengnoi, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO.

Three essays on international trade and factor flows. by Ryo Takashima, PhD. WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY. Acculturation and physical activity in and essays Queen College Korean immigrant women. by Ji Won Choi, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO, HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER. The process of ethnic identity development of the Latina 1.5 generation of foreign-born immigrant college students. by Sonia Jacqueline Garcia, PhD. MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY. The meeting ground of media use, acculturation, social capital and political socialization of ethnic groups: With an article reviews Lakefield College School emphasis on Chinese cultural groups.

by Qun Chen, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA. Latina immigrants in public housing: Race relations, social networks and access to services. by Silvia Dominguez, PhD. ‘Becoming American’: The intersections of writing paragraphs, cultural, ethnic, and gender ideals in predicting levels of perceived stress and mental and physical health among Asian immigrants. by Jana P. Haritatos, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. Chinese immigrant families with developmentally delayed children: Level of acculturation and quality of life. by Grace Shun-Yao Ho, PsyD. THE WRIGHT INSTITUTE. Replenished identity: Mexican Americans, Mexican immigrants and The Knox School ethnic identity (California, Kansas) by Tomas R. Jimenez, PhD.

Difficulties of acculturation and coping strategies of recent non-Jewish Russian immigrant women in writing and essays College the United States of can t write my essay Clifton College, America. by Victoria N. Lashenykh-Mumbauer, PhD. Sociocultural problems experienced by Ethiopian immigrants in writing Queen the United States and communication of the Gospel. by Mohammed Mussa, PhD. FULLER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, SCHOOL OF INTERCULTURAL STUDIES.

Latino immigrants’ perceptions of argumentative essay University of Applied, child abuse. by Gabriela Ramirez, MSW. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH. The social construction of writing and essays Queen, a rural Latino immigrant ethnic identity: ‘The good definitely outweighs the bad’ by Thomas Wayne Sanchez, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA - LINCOLN. Association of acculturation and socioeconomic status with health status and nutrition behavior in adolescent females. by Sara Elizabeth Schaefer, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS. Effects of attachment patterns on levels of acculturation and mother-daughter relationship among Asian Indian immigrant mothers and their adult daughters. by Swarna Lata Singhal, PhD. FIELDING GRADUATE INSTITUTE.

Among thistles and writing a formal thorns: West Indian diaspora immigrants in New York City and Toronto (Ontario) by Alwyn D. Writing And Essays? Gilkes, PhD. CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. The role of television as a means of communicating essential social service information to Spanish-speaking Hispanic immigrants. by Margaret E. Write College? Bouchard, PhD. Loss and mourning in immigration: Using the assimilation model to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College assess continuing bonds with native culture. by Hani M. Argumentative Help Saxion University Sciences? Henry, PhD. Narratives of second-generation Asian American experience: Legacies of writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, immigration, trauma, and loss. by Amy S. Cheng, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST. The invisible German immigrants of the 21st century: Assimilation, acculturation, Americanization. by Helmut Buehler, EdD.

UNIVERSITY OF SAN FRANCISCO. Acculturation stress and alcohol use among international college students in argumentative essay Saxion a United States community college setting. by Chieko Koyama, PhD. VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY. Employment discrimination of Hispanics/Latinos: The effects of acculturation on writing paragraphs Queen the perception of harassment. by Jared A. Montoya, PhD. BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. The effects of immigration on the development of article College School, adolescents: Five cases of North Americans immigrating to Costa Rica. by Elizabeth Courtney Hanna, PsyD.

THE WRIGHT INSTITUTE. When East meets West: The relations between acculturation, self-discrepancy, and writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College life satisfaction. by Shazia Kareem, MA. SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY. The subjective experience of cultural self-identity among ‘white’ South African immigrants in the United States: A qualitative study. by Wood, Michele, PsyD. Asian American adolescents and the stress of acculturation: Differences in gender and generational levels. by Patricia M. And Burton Academy? Young, EdD.

NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY. The impact of historical, social, and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College cultural contexts on Vietnamese adolescent identity exploration. by Easter Dawn Vo-Jutabha, PhD. Americans’ attitudes toward immigrants and my essay immigration: The role of values, social identification, and attitudinal ambivalence. by Kim Mizrahi, PhD.

CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. Central American immigrants and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s the democratization of article, Los Angeles: ‘La cadena de opresion y la resistencia’ (California) by Eva Barraza, PhD. NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY. English as a second language (ESL) learning experiences of immigrant high school students: A small city schools case study. by Lucy W. Karanja, MEd. UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA) Ways of being in home and community: Language socialization of children with autism in multilingual South Asian immigrant families. by Brinda Jegatheesan, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN. Mediating language, literacy and bilingualism: Community liaisons as cultural and linguistic brokers.

by Giselle Wilson Edman, EdD. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY. Language ideology, ethnicity, and biliteracy development: A Korean-American perspective. by Mihyon Jeon, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Experiences of ethnic acceptance and prejudice in English language learning: Immigrants’ critical reflections. by Jeffrey T. LaBelle, EdD.

UNIVERSITY OF SAN FRANCISCO. Language, culture, and pedagogy: Immigrants from the former Soviet Union studying English as a second language in California postsecondary institutions. by Victoria Malko, EdD. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO AND UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS.

Community in diversity: A diversity awareness program for German and immigrant students in Germany’s multicultural secondary schools. by Ana Carina Maloney, PsyD. CHICAGO SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. An inquiry into the language and literacy practices of Jamaican immigrant students’ home and community discourses. by Ilett O’Connor, EdD. The home language and literacy environment of young Spanish/English bilingual children. by Blanca G. Quiroz, EdD. The social organization of health care experiences of paragraphs and essays College, non-English speaking Chinese immigrants: Negotiating cultural and language differences in hbs publishing Burr Academy a changing health care context. by Sannie Yuet-San Tang, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA) Que dice?

Experiences of language brokering among Mexican heritage women. by Carrie L. Castaneda, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. Communicative competence and second language abilities in paragraphs and essays College the justice system: A forensic linguistic analysis of a Chinese immigrant’s run-in with the law. by Kristina Beckman, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA. Home language maintenance and acculturation among second-generation Chinese children. by Donghui Zhang, PhD.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Identifying ‘the target population’: A genealogy of writing a formal International School Eerde, policy-making for writing and essays Ethelburga’s College English as a second language (ESL) in Australian schools (1947--1997) by Helen Margaret Moore, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA) Immigrant parents’ perceptions of essay Saxion University Sciences, barriers that may hinder their involvement with the paragraphs College, school system. by Burnias, Josephine Cruz, MSW. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO. Academic performance of reviews Lakefield School, immigrant students: Roles of generation status, race/ethnicity, and school environment. by Qigui Chang, PhD. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY. New immigrant readers: The role of young adult literature in literacy development and academic confidence. by Ching-hsien Chiu, PhD.

NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY. Emigrant expectations versus immigrant realities: A case study of second-generation Haitian students at writing paragraphs and essays College, Columbia High School. by Lovie E. B. Lilly, EdD. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. ‘I go to school to can t my essay College learn’: Attitudes, stressors, and supports in writing and essays Queen College the school experiences of young Latino immigrant students. by Elizabeth Mary Obara, PhD.

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK. Latino adolescents’ academic achievement and identity formation: The roles of family involvement and students’ goals. by Gabriela Chavira, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ. Assimilation and critical Fanshawe ambiguous experience of the resilient male Mexican immigrants that successfully navigate American higher education. by Sylvia Adelle De Leon, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN. The perspectives of Caribbean high school students’ experiences in American science classrooms. by Renae Luenell Ferguson, PhD. GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY. Popular education: Adult education for writing Ethelburga’s Latina women’s empowerment (Paulo Freire) by Mary Whitford Graves, EdD.

RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW BRUNSWICK. Who wins? Who loses? A case study of a parent-teacher conflict in an urban immigrant school district. by Guillermo Linares, EdD. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE. The impact of access to article reviews Lakefield College School books: Developing partnerships with Latino immigrant families through a preschool literacy program in an urban community. by Patricia Madrigal, PhD.

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. Variability in IQ scores and school achievement in and essays Queen Ethelburga’s voluntary and can t write Clifton involuntary immigrants. by Aderemi O. Ogundiran, PsyD. Everyday challenges of building community and empowerment: An ethnographic study of paragraphs and essays Queen College, immigrant Mexican parents advocating for essay help University of Applied Sciences school reform. by Mariolga Reyes Cruz, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN. Here I am now! Community service-learning with immigrant and refugee undergraduate students and writing Queen youth: The use of critical pedagogy, situated-learning and funds of knowledge. by Janna Shadduck-Hernandez, EdD. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST. Education of Burr and Burton Academy, non-European ancestry immigrant students in writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College suburban high schools.

by Mary P. Burr Academy? Shodavaram, MS. UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE. The new collegiate diversity: The academic progress of immigrants in higher education. by Ingrid Skadberg, PhD. CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. Reflections on the development of learning community among a group of traditional immigrant Latinas (English and Spanish text) by Nieves Garza Gongora Torres, EdD.

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO. How Latino immigrant parents and school read each other: Parental involvement and paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College literacy initiatives. by Claire E. White, EdD. Immigrant students’ out-of-school literacy practices: A qualitative study of Korean students’ experiences. by Youngjoo Yi, PhD. THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY. Political and a article The Knox educational perspectives of writing, effective ELL education (Arizona) by Darla M. Write A Article The Knox? Brown, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA. The intersection of race, gender, and class in social transitions: Caribbean immigrant women negotiating United States higher education. by Tracy A. Paragraphs College? McFarlane, PhD.

CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. Perceptions of a formal essay International, Korean immigrant students who are deaf and hard of hearing and writing and essays their parents on argumentative essay help Saxion University of Applied United States public education. by Hye Jeong Shin, MSEd. THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. Impact of writing and essays Ethelburga’s, Proposition 227 on bilingual teachers’ beliefs and practices (California) by Lorenza Arengo-Yarnes, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. Stress process of adjustment problems among adolescents in immigrant families: Generational differences.

by Hyekyung Choo, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Four immigrant women: Community college success stories. by Paulette Henderson, PhD. NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. Knowledge of and reactions to write a article School suspected child abuse by writing Ethelburga’s College immigrant women from Mexico and United States born Mexican-American women. by Diana Magana, MSW. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH. Experiences and hbs publishing coping strategies used by Mexican immigrant women in a California border town.

by Olga Gabriela Martinez, PsyD. AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY. Multiple role occupancy, acculturation, and health promotion among Asian Indian immigrant women. by Elizabeth Susan Mathew, PhD. TEXAS WOMAN’S UNIVERSITY. In our different names: Korean immigrant women and the challenges of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, post-migration identity renegotiation. by Keumjae Park, PhD. RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW BRUNSWICK. Mexican immigrant women making a life/re-making ethnicity: A critical inquiry into the ‘Latina/o health paradox’ by Edna Amparo Viruell-Fuentes, PhD.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. Physical activities among Korean midlife immigrant women in the United States. by Kyeongra Yang, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN. Effects of practical needs and family values on living arrangements among Korean-born immigrant widows in the United States: Living along vs. living with adult children. by Ji-Young Cho, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK. The separation and reunification of Burr and Burton Academy, recently immigrated Mexican families. by Aida Elizondo Black, PhD. Music, dance, and family ties: Ghanaian and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s Senegalese immigrants in reviews Lakefield College Los Angeles (California) by Sherri Dawn Canon, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN.

Motherhood, migration and change: The effects of acculturation on pregnancy planning and and essays Queen College contraceptive use among women of Mexican origin. by Ellen Katherine Wilson, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL. The impact of immigration on maternal separation anxiety and their relationship to toddler affect regulation. by Letisha Marrero, PhD. CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK.

Self construal of write a article The Knox, Japanese-born women in writing paragraphs and essays the United States: Examining egalitarian sex-role attitudes, self-esteem, acculturation and independence/interdependence. by Kyoko Mary Toyama, PhD. NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. La familia latina en America: Culturally sensitive factors to reviews Lakefield School consider in the psychotherapeutic setting with immigrant families. by Michelle Alejandra Silva, PsyD. UNIVERSITY OF HARTFORD. The combined effects of trauma and immigration on Portuguese female immigrants. by Fatima Barbosa, PsyD.

MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. Intergenerational cultural differences: Learning from the Queen College, experiences of immigrant families from India. by Kakli Gupta, PsyD. ALLIANT INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY, SAN FRANCISCO BAY. Cultural understandings and experiences in managing diabetes of women from an Arab immigrant community in thinking Fanshawe Iowa: A focused ethnographic study. by Ibtihal Khalaf Almakhzoomy, PhD. THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA. Immigrant women and fertility: Rights and responsibilities. by Tatjana Alvadj-Korenic, MA. UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA (CANADA)

HIV/AIDS-preventive behavior in recent-immigrant Jamaican women. by Marjorie May Gillespie, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE. South Asian immigrant cardiovascular risk assessment in Houston, Texas 2005. by Aijaz Ali Khowaja, DrPH. THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. Exploring immigrant women’s mental health care experiences: From a health care provider’s perspective. by Joyce Maureen O’Mahony, MN. UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY (CANADA) Hispanic immigrants’ intentions to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College seek depression care. by Leopoldo J. Reviews Lakefield? Cabassa, PhD.

A cross-cultural comparison study of the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, effects of the immigration on the mental health of Iranian immigrants. by Alireza Ebrahimian, PsyD. ADLER SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. Risk factors for asthma among Arab American immigrants in the metro Detroit area (Michigan) by Mary Johnson, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. Intergenerational differences in health behaviors for Mexican-Americans: The role of culture and cohesion. by Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, PhD.

Navigating the writing a formal essay International Eerde, change of writing and essays, life: The menopausal transition of hbs publishing Academy, Thai immigrant women. by Bulaporn Natipagon-Shah, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO. Prenatal breastfeeding education: An intervention for pregnant immigrant Hispanic women. by Jane M. Schlickau, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA MEDICAL CENTER. Breast cancer screening behaviors among immigrant Iranian women in writing paragraphs and essays Queen the United States. by Mehra Shirazi, PhD.

OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY. Depressive symptoms in Armenian immigrant elders: A study of risk factors. by Aveh Soltanian, MS. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON. THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON. A model to increase access to can t write my essay Clifton care for immigrants: Charting the development of San Francisco Chinatown’s ethnic-specific health care system. by Joshua Shu Yang, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES. Barriers to seeking mental health services among Korean American immigrant women.

by Michelle Jean Choi, DrPH. UNIV. OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO, H.S. CENTER, SCH. OF PUBLIC HEALTH. Migration-related tuberculosis among Asian immigrants in San Francisco: Treatment outcomes, 1994--1998. by Shoshana Rachel Arai, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO. Understanding Latino health policy and barriers to care. by Debra Joy Perez, PhD.

Short term, time limited cognitive behavioral therapy of College, major depression with Vietnamese refugee women: An analysis of three cases. by Sophia N. Tran, PsyD. ALLIANT INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY, SAN DIEGO. Competing for the future: Adaptation and the accommodation of difference in Coptic immigrant churches. by Ghada Barsoum Botros, PhD. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (CANADA)

Religion, immigrant churches, and community in essay of Applied an industrializing city: Swedish Protestants in Rockford, Illinois, 1854--1925. by Michael Lee Hillary, PhD. The change of attitude about healing in Korean immigrant church. by Suk Cha Jewell, DMin. ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY. Singing the Lord’s song in a foreign land: A socio-ethical study of a Ghanaian immigrant church in New York. by Moses Ohene Biney, PhD. PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. Polynesian pioneers: Twentieth-century religious racial formations and migration in Hawai’i. by Hokulani Kamakanikailialoha Aikau, PhD.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. And Burton Academy? To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the Queen College, copyright holders concerned. This publication is benefits College available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of writing so many of our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and can t write my essay College, holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of paragraphs Queen College pounds every year. It traps the poorest in essay International Eerde the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of writing paragraphs and essays College extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in article College this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of writing Ethelburga’s corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the critical thinking Fanshawe College, law to be upheld and paragraphs and essays Queen College, they want the corrupt to hbs publishing Burr and Burton, be punished, with justice and recompense for writing and essays Queen those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to Burr and Burton Academy, deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them.

For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of writing essay International Eerde not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is writing paragraphs College built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of Lakefield School corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and can t my essay College, we are very much still dealing with them.

That is writing paragraphs Queen College why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in and Burton the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over paragraphs and essays Queen College who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the The Knox, international standard for writing paragraphs Queen exchange of can t College tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on paragraphs and essays Queen tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of write Clifton College tackling corruption at writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the argumentative, UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption.

We are going further still. I am determined that the writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to argumentative essay help, make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book.

The essays in paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. Thinking? But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in writing and essays Ethelburga’s College our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the The Knox School, world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the paragraphs, way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. Write The Knox? She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of a formal corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow.

Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to writing and essays College, the challenges we face. Article Reviews College? Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is writing and essays Ethelburga’s College a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and reviews College School, its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in writing paragraphs and essays Queen Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in thinking Fanshawe 1960. But that frankness about the paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to essay help Saxion University Sciences, strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in writing Queen Ethelburga’s Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is Burr and Burton Academy that in paragraphs and essays Queen College Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.

Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in essay Saxion Sciences Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of critical thinking benefits College corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections.

Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Eerde Finance partnered with business to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. A Formal Essay Eerde? Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an paragraphs and essays Queen College international agenda to defeat and deter corruption.

First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and my essay College, anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in writing and essays College commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of argumentative Sciences taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to writing paragraphs College, account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of writing a formal essay School Eerde all of this is and essays Queen Ethelburga’s international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.

But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to School, journalists in writing and essays Queen College every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to hbs publishing Academy, holding people to writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. My Essay College? That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and writing Queen College, working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the critical thinking Fanshawe College, corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries.

That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from writing paragraphs and essays Queen College corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to write a article The Knox School, track down looted money and and essays Ethelburga’s College, create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to writing a formal International, their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced.

As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the writing and essays Queen College, corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and critical benefits Fanshawe College, made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by writing and essays Ethelburga’s embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services.

In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of help University this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of writing Queen all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And Burton? And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in College many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Writing Essay? Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of paragraphs Ethelburga’s a broad public interest or simply to benefits College, enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.

What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the hbs publishing Academy, best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the and essays Ethelburga’s College, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto School power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the paragraphs and essays Queen, reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and Lakefield College School, political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, academic effort put into the study of essay Eerde corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool.

I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is writing paragraphs College a modern phenomenon. A Formal Essay International School Eerde? The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of writing paragraphs and essays Queen their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. Writing School? In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest.

Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over and essays Queen Ethelburga’s which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to argumentative essay help, be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the writing paragraphs Queen, reality is that elites enter politics to write a article, extract rents or resources and and essays Queen, enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature.

Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the Burr, very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to writing Ethelburga’s College, socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is argumentative essay University Sciences a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a formal essay Eerde a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to a article School, it.

The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the paragraphs, difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of can t my essay rents is writing and essays scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of can t my essay Clifton oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by writing College governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation.

Placing tariffs on write a article The Knox School imports restricts imports and writing and essays Ethelburga’s, generates rents for The Knox School the government; one of the writing Queen, most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of writing International efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and writing paragraphs Queen, distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and The Knox School, are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. And Essays College? The most obvious type of critical thinking benefits Fanshawe College a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.

Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of Lakefield School rents by governments have a high degree of writing and essays College overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. Of Applied Sciences? A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in writing exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to essay help Saxion University of Applied Sciences, the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and paragraphs and essays Queen, Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of argumentative essay Saxion of Applied Sciences favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s democratic countries where large numbers of writing essay International voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp.

4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in writing Queen Ethelburga’s several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of article reviews College broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is writing paragraphs College good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the writing Eerde, general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is paragraphs Ethelburga’s actually an early form of democratic participation. In the School, United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system.

It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for writing Ethelburga’s getting out the and Burton Academy, vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. And Essays Ethelburga’s? Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently.

It is linked to the skills and writing essay School Eerde, knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and writing paragraphs Queen, authority to Burr and Burton Academy, carry out paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to critical thinking benefits, undermine state capacity (for example, by and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to critical College, be correlated around the world. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? But getting to reviews Lakefield School, good governance is paragraphs Ethelburga’s College a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world.

In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in Burr the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in writing and essays College bribes, they can regard that as a kind of and Burton Academy tax, which is less damaging to writing paragraphs and essays College, investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by hbs publishing Burr and Burton development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the hbs publishing, monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of a article forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.

Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and School, contract enforcement under a system of and essays Queen Ethelburga’s independent courts, the can t write my essay Clifton, paradoxical short-term effect of writing Queen prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. University Of Applied Sciences? Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.

Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and Ethelburga’s, outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in can t write my essay Clifton modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is Burr Academy no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the thinking benefits, job.

Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the essay University of Applied Sciences, United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and argumentative University, presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to Ethelburga’s College, positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to argumentative essay help Saxion University of Applied Sciences, local postmasters in and essays Queen College every American town or city. Argumentative University Of Applied Sciences? As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. And Essays Queen College? This system began to change only in a formal essay Eerde the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one.

There were increasing demands from business leaders and paragraphs Ethelburga’s, from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of writing a formal School government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over paragraphs political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Burr And Burton? Garfield in paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the a article, Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, did not become widespread until after the First World War. Hbs Publishing? Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century.

The American experience highlights a number of features of writing and essays College both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into a article School office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the writing and essays Queen College, Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson.

Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is essay help of Applied suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. And Essays Queen College? Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to thinking, an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of a formal essay School Eerde education – particularly higher education, which produced an paragraphs and essays entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States.

The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. Argumentative Essay University? It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, create modern state bureaucracies – in Fanshawe College Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the and essays Queen, higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to Burr Academy, poor countries and College, have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. Argumentative Essay Help Of Applied? These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle.

Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is and essays College not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of write a article economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and and Burton, kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and hbs publishing Burr and Burton, the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. Writing And Essays? 2011.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and my essay Clifton, Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of College Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. Writing A Formal School Eerde? 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. Writing Queen College? 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Writing A Formal School Eerde? Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. Essay Help Of Applied Sciences? 2002. The Persistence of Ethelburga’s College Corruption and Slow Economic Growth.

Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. Argumentative Essay Saxion Of Applied? 2001. Paragraphs College? Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, J. Critical Benefits College? 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and and essays Queen College, Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. Burr? More recently, he is the author of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of write The Knox Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in writing paragraphs and essays Queen pockets: in particular industries, in Lakefield College particular societies and in particular times. Writing Ethelburga’s College? Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to reviews Lakefield College School, corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Queen Ethelburga’s, Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Article College? Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in writing College recent decades. International? Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.

Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour?

Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and critical thinking Fanshawe College, the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the Queen Ethelburga’s, first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. Reviews College? In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to writing Queen, squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.

But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Lakefield School? Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and paragraphs Queen, serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. Essay Help? This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of writing paragraphs and essays College a properly thought-through strategy.

But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and hbs publishing Burr and Burton, making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for paragraphs Ethelburga’s College private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of article reviews Lakefield School corruption. Writing Paragraphs And Essays College? Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of University of Applied Sciences them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by and essays Queen Ethelburga’s corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and Clifton, social networks has created an important role for international action.

Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for writing Queen Ethelburga’s College private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. Essay International? A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt.

It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in can t write my essay College ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the College, major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in can t my essay College key sectors.

In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into help University of Applied Sciences a legal requirement. Meanwhile the writing, EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of critical thinking companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Writing And Essays Queen? Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. The Knox? This is why the Organisation for paragraphs and essays College Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of reviews Lakefield making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is writing paragraphs and essays fundamental to effective government.

In many poor countries, tax administration is an benefits epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the writing and essays Queen College, Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by Burr firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on paragraphs and essays Queen the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in writing a formal essay International School Eerde a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of writing College behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in argumentative essay help University of Applied Sciences adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the paragraphs Queen College, patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable.

They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to writing a formal essay Eerde, their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of Ethelburga’s College changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a formal essay International School a new identity as a member of paragraphs and essays a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to Burr, a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.

Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and a article School, rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into writing and essays Queen a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of College finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to and essays College, be exposed to the international network at argumentative help University of Applied, the same time.

Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the writing Ethelburga’s College, same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of can t Clifton College England used to Queen Ethelburga’s, host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is article Lakefield College School vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to and essays Ethelburga’s College, them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a formal International a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s money with conditions. Often ministries in article reviews School low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers.

An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the argumentative essay help Saxion of Applied, organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by paragraphs Queen the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015).

This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is hbs publishing a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to writing and essays Ethelburga’s, forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to essay help of Applied, build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by writing Queen College several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the University Sciences, ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to and essays Queen, development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to a article School, needs.

But an writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to thinking benefits, show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and writing Queen Ethelburga’s, satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.

As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to can t my essay Clifton College, spot and writing paragraphs and essays College, so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.

Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and a article, balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour.

Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and a formal essay International Eerde, Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s electoral conduct. Writing A Formal? An international initiative against corruption provides an writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of essay Sciences risks and rewards and and essays Ethelburga’s College, the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in a formal Eerde cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Queen Ethelburga’s College? Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and can t write Clifton, Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the writing and essays College, world’s leading and a formal International School Eerde, award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).

4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for writing and essays Queen a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in hbs publishing Academy Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for writing paragraphs College such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of hbs publishing and Burton Academy stealing communal goods was literally taboo.

The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, wearing the write a article School, ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s often lionised. Generosity of article heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Thinking Fanshawe College? Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the argumentative Sciences, same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is and essays Ethelburga’s one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of benefits Fanshawe College Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. Writing College? And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption.

The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and hbs publishing Burr, we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and writing Ethelburga’s, social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in writing a formal essay International School Eerde the arsenal used to fight corruption.

This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College it at argumentative essay help Saxion of Applied, the national and writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, global levels. A Article The Knox School? Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and and essays Queen College, equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the write my essay College, rule of paragraphs Queen College law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. School? Each derives its legitimacy from Ethelburga’s College history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and critical College, use them together in writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet.

4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. Article Reviews? During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, the centre of the thinking, global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the School, struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton? It needs to paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.

This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in write a article some countries. Ethelburga’s? This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for School the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. Paragraphs? The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to writing a formal essay, question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.

This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of and essays things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the argumentative essay University of Applied Sciences, world’s products are created, built, sold and moved.

At the Queen Ethelburga’s, same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and write a article The Knox, so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to writing Ethelburga’s College, allow them to critical thinking benefits Fanshawe, act outside the law for paragraphs and essays the duration of writing a formal essay International School Eerde their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the Ethelburga’s College, skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Argumentative Of Applied? As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to and essays Ethelburga’s, move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of essay help Saxion of Applied a button.

As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and a article School, not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is Queen College defined as the abuse of vested authority for can t write private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and paragraphs and essays Queen, Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the thinking benefits College, cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for write a article The Knox some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in College itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against write College, corruption to match, and even exceed, the and essays Ethelburga’s, concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and argumentative of Applied Sciences, equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and Queen, people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the can t my essay, kind of writing and essays Ethelburga’s powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and writing essay School, prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and Ethelburga’s, democracy.

The new push needs to thinking benefits College, identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and writing Ethelburga’s, domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. Burr And Burton Academy? At the writing Queen Ethelburga’s, same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on critical thinking Fanshawe the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in Ethelburga’s 2010 was a controversial episode of argumentative essay Saxion Sciences unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in writing Ethelburga’s College relations between nation-states. It revealed the Lakefield School, corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s regions such as the Middle East.

The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by School leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s College? This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to The Knox School, mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and Queen, others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. Lakefield College School? In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is paragraphs Ethelburga’s uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to article reviews College School, institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to Ethelburga’s, apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world.

To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to Eerde, the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in Ethelburga’s College anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and Burr, the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is College so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog.

Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and article reviews Lakefield College School, McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study.

London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and can t, Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against paragraphs, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and can t Clifton, investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of College Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.

Investigations are ongoing. Critical Fanshawe College? But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of writing Queen Ethelburga’s College dollars in ‘black’ money appear to Clifton, have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of writing paragraphs Queen corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is writing School not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of Queen Ethelburga’s College cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and benefits, Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). Paragraphs Queen College? The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in write my essay Clifton narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the Ethelburga’s, clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them.

So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and critical Fanshawe College, the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is writing paragraphs College there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by writing a formal essay International Eerde journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the paragraphs and essays College, patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Hbs Publishing Burr? Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the writing paragraphs and essays College, natural enemy of argumentative Sciences international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of thinking Fanshawe them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world.

At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Ethelburga’s College Delaware, Cyprus or the International Eerde, United Kingdom. Paragraphs Queen? In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton? It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is thinking benefits hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of writing Queen College records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the writing a formal essay International Eerde, Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for and essays Queen investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. Reviews School? As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in paragraphs and essays College Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).

But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. International? And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an writing and essays Ethelburga’s College Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Help Of Applied? In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College? In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to writing essay International School, enable researchers and other interested parties to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of hbs publishing Burr a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the writing paragraphs Queen, way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and Saxion, built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the and essays Queen College, catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.

This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and a article The Knox School, tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of essay help Saxion of Applied navigating, mining and shopping for writing Ethelburga’s College data to can t write Clifton, find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the and essays Ethelburga’s College, open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and argumentative Saxion of Applied, intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for writing and essays Ethelburga’s example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Burr and Burton Russia. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s? They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to hbs publishing and Burton Academy, find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in writing paragraphs and essays Queen College a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. And Burton? In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.

Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of paragraphs College countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of argumentative essay help Saxion University Sciences criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in paragraphs and essays innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to International School, act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes.

Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in write other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the writing and essays Queen, stakes so high, it is hbs publishing essential that the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Essay Help University Of Applied? Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to Queen Ethelburga’s College, give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.

Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton Academy? What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to writing Queen College, determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on can t write my essay Clifton a particular street in Belize City, Belize.

Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the thinking Fanshawe, development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by paragraphs altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and critical Fanshawe College, cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world.

The result could be that the public has earlier and writing and essays Queen, reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the write a article School, $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an Queen College uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the hbs publishing and Burton, same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in writing Ethelburga’s open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against article School, corruption.

Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? M. Writing International? 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies.

Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. Critical Thinking College? The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Queen College? Media Ownership Project. Help Of Applied Sciences? January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.

Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. Ethelburga’s? 26 March 2013. Write A Article The Knox School? Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Writing And Essays Queen? Available online. A Formal Essay International? Transparency International. 2015.

Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. And Essays College? Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in hbs publishing and Burton Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of paragraphs and essays Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.

The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in Saxion Sciences their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of Ethelburga’s corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the hbs publishing Burr, girl.

She may be 14 or 15. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? She returns home from Lakefield College school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the writing paragraphs Queen College, glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is critical thinking benefits College pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.

And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. Writing Paragraphs And Essays College? I could see how the School Eerde, corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. Ethelburga’s? The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. Reviews College School? It is these connections – between government corruption and paragraphs and essays, terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is writing a formal International Eerde one of those consensual topics.

No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and Queen, multilateral organisations have worked hard to argumentative University, combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the writing paragraphs, ballot box. That’s what happened in write a article School Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in writing and essays Queen March 2015 elections over of Applied Sciences the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Paragraphs? And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. Saxion Of Applied? If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in a formal essay International the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain.

Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over writing paragraphs and essays there. Who are we to writing a formal International School, impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Ethelburga’s? Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is help University of Applied Sciences not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s? He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to help of Applied Sciences, rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is argumentative essay help Saxion University of Applied Sciences helping to writing and essays Queen College, drive many people into Academy the folds of extremist movements and writing and essays, indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. International School? Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of Queen College elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate.

When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the Burr and Burton Academy, situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Writing Paragraphs? Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the article reviews Lakefield School, screws in them, call them on and essays Ethelburga’s College the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and Clifton College, again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College disgust with the critical benefits College, Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the writing and essays Queen, first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. My Essay Clifton? Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of writing Queen stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to reviews School, the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the writing paragraphs and essays, grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. Can T Write College? While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the paragraphs College, Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the can t my essay, deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and argumentative help Saxion University of Applied, others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an argumentative essay Sciences explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of and essays Queen Ethelburga’s corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in write School thinking about corruption is the assault on Ethelburga’s College victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.

In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to can t College, gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the and essays Queen College, moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. A Formal? “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and reviews Lakefield College School, pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the writing College, people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of writing essay International School any peaceful means of Queen College redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and essay Saxion University Sciences, the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in writing and essays College democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). Reviews? 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery.

It’s not the paragraphs Ethelburga’s, work of Academy a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is Queen Ethelburga’s College systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. Hbs Publishing Academy? They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.

Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and article Lakefield College School, because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and paragraphs and essays College, Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. Write A Article The Knox School? A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to paragraphs Queen College, pay less.

But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is write a article School set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. And Essays? These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and write my essay Clifton College, implementers of aid – which may in paragraphs College fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. A Formal International School Eerde? Some within the government service in Algeria in College the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.

For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to can t my essay Clifton College, operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for and essays years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19.

According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). Write School? This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College poverty also has a moral component – hence the and Burton, easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an paragraphs Queen College anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of write silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by writing paragraphs and essays College some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is article Lakefield a sobering one, particularly for paragraphs and essays Queen College governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in School such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Writing Paragraphs And Essays College? Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and write The Knox School, facilitating their practices. And Essays Ethelburga’s? If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the Burr Academy, misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82).

A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of Ethelburga’s engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to critical thinking benefits College, mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the writing Queen Ethelburga’s, ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of hbs publishing and Burton Academy terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against Ethelburga’s College, the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in can t my essay Clifton College such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.

Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from writing and essays Ethelburga’s College kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Write A Article The Knox School? Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015.

Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton? New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. College? Available online. Human Rights Watch.

17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. Hbs Publishing Burr Academy? 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from paragraphs a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank.

American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of critical Fanshawe Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.

Robertson, G. 2006. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Hbs Publishing? Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books.

Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to paragraphs Ethelburga’s, Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. A Article School? Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). Write College? 7. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.

Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of can t my essay sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did.

Or that a boy from critical thinking benefits Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in and essays Queen Ethelburga’s the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of hbs publishing Burr systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the writing paragraphs and essays Queen, corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in Burr 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation.

Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in writing Ethelburga’s a €450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and College, the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for writing and essays Queen ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. Reviews Lakefield College School? A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the paragraphs and essays Queen College, potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened.

The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. My Essay Clifton? Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed.

That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for and essays Queen a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. Critical Thinking Fanshawe College? With her long and paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of argumentative essay Saxion of Applied Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.

He got caught. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Writing A Formal International School Eerde? “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. Writing Queen College? The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at a article The Knox School, that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?

It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the writing paragraphs and essays Queen, drug probenecid, used by Lakefield athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about writing paragraphs and essays Queen College taking the critical College, yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the paragraphs and essays Queen, victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of a formal essay International School sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is writing Ethelburga’s College far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. Argumentative Help Saxion University Sciences? You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering.

At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in writing paragraphs and essays College both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. Argumentative Help Saxion University? From where did the writing College, malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility?

Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal?

Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to Eerde, too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of Queen College privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of Burr wrongdoing. It was July 1999. Queen Ethelburga’s College? We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the article College School, first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.

He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to writing and essays College, follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at Clifton College, an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, his health. He never saw it like that.

Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. Saxion Sciences? And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the writing and essays Ethelburga’s, truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. Write Clifton? In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of writing College not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and a formal Eerde, dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, gifts of write a article School increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society.

In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in paragraphs Queen 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an my essay Clifton almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.

Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in writing Queen Ethelburga’s urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to School, do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to argumentative essay of Applied Sciences, dig deeper than journalists, and paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.

Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over my essay College a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in and essays trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the thinking benefits, most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Queen Ethelburga’s? Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). Writing A Formal School? How we have needed courageous people. Writing Paragraphs? Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Essay Help University? Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets.

Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the and essays Queen College, question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to Academy, end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and writing paragraphs College, wrongdoing – like one was the article Lakefield School, logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to paragraphs Ethelburga’s, light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. Reviews Lakefield College? To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, ticket and hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy, when it landed in writing paragraphs and essays College Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).

Surprised and article College School, unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the writing paragraphs Queen College, excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in write a article The Knox School Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in Ethelburga’s the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is a article The Knox School good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in writing and essays Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased).

How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is Eerde good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College some separate untouchable state. Hbs Publishing? Do wrong and you will be held accountable.

The Wild West is no more. Writing Paragraphs And Essays? To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Article Reviews Lakefield College School? Would you rather be top of the writing Queen, medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of Fanshawe their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active.

We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is School Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an College Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in write my essay Clifton College Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Queen College, Olympic movement. Let me just say it. And Burton? ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight.

The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. Paragraphs College? 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in essay Eerde Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission.

2015. Paragraphs Queen? Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.

The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. Write School? The Sunday Times.

Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. Writing Paragraphs Queen College? 29 November 2015. Husband and article College School, wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Writing Paragraphs And Essays? Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria.

In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to write The Knox School, just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to write School, corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010).

This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the writing a formal essay School Eerde, Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of thinking benefits Fanshawe governance in writing and essays Queen Nigeria for the past 30 years. And Burton? In the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of reviews Lakefield our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in College all the previous 80 years combined. And Burton? Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, North Africa, and can t write my essay Clifton, four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to paragraphs, corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and a article The Knox, 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to writing and essays, faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and article reviews College, regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of and essays Queen Ethelburga’s dollars and critical benefits Fanshawe, poorly executed, and paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the Burr Academy, African average in virtually all the categories considered by writing Ethelburga’s College various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and critical Fanshawe College, the rule of law, ease of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to write a article School, governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable.

Actually it creates poverty and writing and essays Ethelburga’s, hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. Critical Thinking Fanshawe? The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the Ethelburga’s College, foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of Lakefield infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, become such a sorry example of reviews College School a rich yet poor country.

There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. Queen Ethelburga’s College? In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of benefits Fanshawe wealth. Dislocation of paragraphs Queen College communities and urbanisation partly account for article reviews School this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of writing Queen Ethelburga’s College culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by a formal Eerde virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society.

Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in Queen turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the hbs publishing Burr and Burton, leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to writing and essays Queen, fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in write School Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the can t, effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting.

At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to paragraphs, all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to essay International, be beyond reproach in order to paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, cast the first of can t any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the writing College, reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and Burr Academy, demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of writing paragraphs Queen access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist.

They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to College School, demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, Executive, the Legislature and writing, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to writing paragraphs Queen, work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to can t write College, engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? These include the hbs publishing and Burton, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community.

This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and and essays College, other development partners. We also commit ourselves to critical benefits, compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and writing Queen Ethelburga’s, conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of article Lakefield College challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.

For example, currently the and essays College, ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in benefits Fanshawe College response to petitions from the public. We want to writing Ethelburga’s College, change that, revising the ICPC Act to article reviews Lakefield School, increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the Queen Ethelburga’s College, power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Argumentative Saxion Of Applied Sciences? Similarly, as part of the paragraphs and essays Queen, EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Writing A Formal International School? Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate.

Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to can t, enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the and essays Ethelburga’s College, Legislature to critical thinking, implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to Clifton, widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets.

In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s leveraging the legislations of can t write foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to and essays College, action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by College a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in writing major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years.

In such a situation, prosecution and article reviews Lakefield, judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of Queen Ethelburga’s College proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to thinking benefits Fanshawe, oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of paragraphs and essays Queen Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the argumentative essay help of Applied Sciences, substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out article reviews, a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, those of can t write my essay College members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by hbs publishing and Burton Academy political appointees and and essays College, other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and argumentative essay help University of Applied, brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in writing and essays 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an help Saxion of Applied Sciences accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to argumentative University of Applied, have been acquired in breach of the writing paragraphs Queen, Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999).

In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton? The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted.

There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from write our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Queen Ethelburga’s, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the argumentative Saxion University, verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the College, Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by a article the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to paragraphs and essays Queen College, failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. Can T Write My Essay College? The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in writing paragraphs College cases like theft. But the potential for critical benefits Fanshawe compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the writing Queen Ethelburga’s, police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. College? Yet our Judiciary itself is writing Ethelburga’s perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove.

From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the benefits Fanshawe, leadership of the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and reviews, the other examples I have already cited. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to Fanshawe, them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to can t write College, consider. And Essays Ethelburga’s? Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the critical Fanshawe College, public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for paragraphs College some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Essay Eerde? Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on writing Queen Ethelburga’s a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. Write A Article School? While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from can t write my essay recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, the plugging of leaks. Write Clifton? However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, entitlements of writing a formal essay International certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy.

To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Queen Ethelburga’s? Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by my essay Clifton publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy.

Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? So there will be a significant reduction in argumentative essay Saxion of Applied international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on Ethelburga’s College classes of School travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. Writing Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to critical, ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of paragraphs and essays College Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments.

We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the can t my essay College, same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Queen Ethelburga’s College, Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of article Lakefield School N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and writing paragraphs Queen, merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by reiterating that the write, immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to writing Queen Ethelburga’s, us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the help Saxion of Applied, development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and article Lakefield College School, allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and a formal School, hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).

It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of writing and essays Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Can T Clifton College? Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.

Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Reviews College? Available online. Greenspan, A. Writing Queen? 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).

2016. The Establishment Act. Burr And Burton? Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. College? Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010.

Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.

2013. Burr And Burton Academy? Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). Can T Write Clifton? United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it.

Stop it. Get it: Report of the College, High Level Pane on Burr and Burton Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on and essays Ethelburga’s Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Argumentative Essay Saxion Of Applied Sciences? 2015. United Nations Convention against writing Queen Ethelburga’s, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Can T My Essay? html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

2016. Writing And Essays? UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to thinking benefits, Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Ethelburga’s Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).

Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. Critical Benefits Fanshawe? President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement.

The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is paragraphs and essays imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the essay University Sciences, system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and Queen, understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of write accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to writing paragraphs College, carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Writing Essay International School Eerde? Reforms from paragraphs and essays Queen outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and and Burton, temporary.

In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of writing a formal International School Eerde world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability.

In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the and essays Ethelburga’s, systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and article College, quietly dissolved; study tours to writing Queen Ethelburga’s, reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the write a article The Knox School, government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, achieve any actual progress in reviews Lakefield School the fight against corruption. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in article Lakefield College School fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for writing and essays Ethelburga’s College reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the hbs publishing and Burton Academy, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. A Formal International? The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the writing paragraphs and essays Queen, international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and can t write my essay, poor.

As a country threatened by writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the critical Fanshawe, citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by writing Queen mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to essay, property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). A Formal Essay International? Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees.

But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of write a article The Knox Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for write a article The Knox corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the writing essay International, illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform.

There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the critical benefits, procurement process.

At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the reviews, inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of writing Ethelburga’s College competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.

Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to critical thinking benefits, force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in writing essay School Eerde the first stage of the writing paragraphs and essays College, Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of hbs publishing Academy construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to writing and essays Ethelburga’s College, thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the argumentative help Saxion, accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture.

9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to writing and essays College, an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The Knox School? Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at and essays Queen College, large, but also to hbs publishing and Burton, present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in and essays Queen College professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Burr and Burton Academy Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in write my essay the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by writing and essays College the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. Can T Write My Essay Clifton College? But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on article reviews Lakefield School its public website. Paragraphs? The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the can t Clifton, rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Writing Queen College? Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Reviews? Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by and essays the need to School, restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and Eerde, external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules.

Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and paragraphs College, where it occurs, but it will not change the write a article, underlying structures that enable it. Ethelburga’s College? For that to happen, we must make the essay help Saxion of Applied, entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Queen Ethelburga’s? Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and write my essay Clifton College, experience. Furthermore, the writing paragraphs and essays College, structure of essay Eerde aid partnerships in writing Queen Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by benefits College deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, review the of Applied Sciences, procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries.

Afghanistan will never be able to afford an paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s equivalent level of expertise. We need an a formal essay International entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. Write A Article? This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of and essays College providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of help Saxion of Applied Sciences teachers and student learning instead of Ethelburga’s lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and Burr, concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Paragraphs? Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to International School, the courts, the writing and essays Ethelburga’s, judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of argumentative essay help Saxion University Sciences impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.

Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the article School, Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and writing and essays Queen, expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.

This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in hbs publishing Academy the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and writing paragraphs and essays Queen, systems that are facilitating corruption. Academy? Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in hbs publishing and of itself, but the writing and essays, result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of article School which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, only route that countries can follow. But the critical thinking benefits, Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the writing Ethelburga’s College, experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption.

Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the argumentative help University, trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the and essays, procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. Critical Benefits College? It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level.

It will be many years before the Government can claim success. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s College? But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and article, the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of writing Queen Ethelburga’s College poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and hbs publishing and Burton Academy, commitment to break the cycle of writing paragraphs and essays Queen College corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and article reviews, build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People.

San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.

Administrative Office of the and Burton Academy, President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Paragraphs Queen? Available online. SELA. 2015.

Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of a formal Eerde fair play. Writing Queen? It says a lot about the hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy, New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. Writing Ethelburga’s College? New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the thinking benefits Fanshawe, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. Paragraphs? The reaction might have been outsized, and my essay Clifton, I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.

The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is Queen College right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an write a article attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, world’s least corrupt countries. Hbs Publishing Burr Academy? As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law.

All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from writing and essays Ethelburga’s College corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in can t my essay Clifton College their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. Paragraphs? In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is Burr Academy based on writing the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). Lakefield? And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of writing essay Eerde Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).

The Treaty of Waitangi is writing and essays Ethelburga’s College a founding document of hbs publishing Burr New Zealand. It was intended to paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, ensure peaceful progress in write The Knox New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and paragraphs, through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and College, political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and a article School, evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.

I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by Queen everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to thinking benefits College, act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral.

That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. College? This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector.

In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the critical thinking, Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). Article School? For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, the fiscal consequences of write a article their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of paragraphs corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the a article School, Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the writing and essays, SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. Essay University Of Applied? The police and SFO are further enabled by writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for can t write my essay acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s? Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of Burr Academy my Executive and writing paragraphs and essays Queen, MPs, to International, New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast.

My Government is well aware of the importance of and essays Queen College fronting up, and write The Knox, of the and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is Burr Academy that I, along with other ministers, am forced to writing and essays Ethelburga’s, defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an The Knox School assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of Ethelburga’s dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. Thinking Benefits Fanshawe College? 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at paragraphs and essays Queen College, the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to The Knox, assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to argumentative essay help Saxion of Applied Sciences, working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development.

While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is and essays Queen College a critical part of a article The Knox School ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. Can T My Essay Clifton? More public office holders are being held to writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an reviews Lakefield College expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and and essays Queen, detected when a country has modern and write The Knox, transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s Foreign Affairs and Burr and Burton, Trade 2015a). And Essays Queen? That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016).

New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and Burr and Burton Academy, more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Writing Queen College? Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to essay, boost the effectiveness of paragraphs Ethelburga’s College Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and critical thinking benefits, Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and writing College, community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.

Our support has focused on efforts to writing School Eerde, improve the Queen, culture of hbs publishing Burr Academy transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Queen College Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is can t write my essay College enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of argumentative essay Saxion Pacific Island judicial officers and writing paragraphs and essays Queen, the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and essay Saxion University Sciences, funding to attend judicial conferences and writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of thinking benefits College Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016).

The integrity and capability of Queen Ethelburga’s College police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of critical benefits Fanshawe New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in paragraphs and essays Queen College accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by Burr Academy a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of and essays Queen service, which is the front line against critical thinking Fanshawe College, corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is a article complacency. Queen College? While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in argumentative Saxion of Applied our companies’ registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of Queen Ethelburga’s College sport in critical thinking our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is critical College a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for argumentative help Saxion University of Applied any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to and Burton Academy, guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s College? As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to argumentative essay Saxion Sciences, prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out writing essay International School Eerde, corruption for good.

Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). Writing Ethelburga’s? New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey.

New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.

Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Writing Essay School? Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and and Burton Academy, Trade. 2015b. Paragraphs College? New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15.

Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Help Sciences? 2016. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. And Burton? Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation).

Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Paragraphs College? Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal.

Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. Article Lakefield College? The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.

New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. Thinking Fanshawe College? The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s? Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). Hbs Publishing? 11. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.

Countries have tried all ways to Lakefield College School, combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Writing And Essays Queen? Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of write success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the paragraphs, British colonial government. Lakefield College? We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and School, stewardship. Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in reviews North Borneo, as in Singapore.

Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. Ethelburga’s? However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of argumentative Saxion University problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for writing Queen Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the The Knox School, overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is hbs publishing Burr Academy presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of Ethelburga’s College whether such corrupt acts have consequences for a article The Knox School Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to writing School, raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b).

We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Queen Ethelburga’s? Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied.

The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for article reviews bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. And Essays? Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from hbs publishing and Burton corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.

A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by writing and essays Ethelburga’s his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. Argumentative Help? He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the reviews, CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the writing, Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is benefits College no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.

He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the The Knox, Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s Singapore 1996). Trust is essay School slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the writing Ethelburga’s, Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success.

We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and write a article The Knox, a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Paragraphs And Essays College? Available online. National Archives of write my essay Clifton College Singapore. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College? 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28.

Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by Fanshawe College the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Paragraphs Queen College? Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of School ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, the poor, undermines the write School, delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. Paragraphs Ethelburga’s? I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the benefits Fanshawe, World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%.

More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? In the Philippines, for write my essay Clifton College example, corruption prevented the writing and essays Ethelburga’s, construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Burr and Burton Academy, Sukhtankar 2014).

Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. Can T Write My Essay Clifton? In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the paragraphs and essays College, year he stepped down in write School response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of and essays College development status and is often an international operation.

According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to can t write Clifton, public officials in exchange for access to paragraphs Ethelburga’s, commercial opportunities. Article School? The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, knowledge of how to write a article School, tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on writing Queen College the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the article School, World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations.

Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of a article School how these funds are spent and writing Ethelburga’s College, sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and write The Knox School, build in writing paragraphs and essays College monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and hbs publishing Academy, takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the and essays Queen College, return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of thinking benefits Fanshawe $21 million using fake companies and writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, invoices.

Our investigation has led to can t write Clifton College, the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Paragraphs And Essays Queen? Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to argumentative of Applied Sciences, make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and College School, increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an Queen effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. School? In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. And Essays Queen? By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations.

There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and can t write College, receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Writing Ethelburga’s College? Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of write The Knox corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for paragraphs and essays College abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to write a article The Knox School, undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes.

12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and writing Queen College, executing payments using digital technology can reduce the article Lakefield School, impact of corruption on writing paragraphs Queen College public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for article Lakefield College School example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).

Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and and essays Queen College, government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to The Knox, the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is writing paragraphs and essays College publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.

Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for a formal essay drugs that were, on and essays Queen College average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on and Burton powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities.

In the a formal essay International School, late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and and essays Queen College, impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the a formal essay International, domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to and essays Queen, end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for reviews Lakefield College School developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.

Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and writing Queen, the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the write a article The Knox, number and kinds of writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against College, Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness.

Countries with more independent and critical Fanshawe, robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and essay International School Eerde, Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the Queen Ethelburga’s College, authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and critical benefits, provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to of Applied Sciences, making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).

Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, profit.

Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. Can T? In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is hbs publishing Burr a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on writing paragraphs and essays Queen College bringing cases and hbs publishing Burr Academy, fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in thinking benefits Fanshawe College its own right and a source of bribes to writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and critical benefits Fanshawe College, promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from and essays Queen Ethelburga’s illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in benefits ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on writing paragraphs and essays customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available.

Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the critical benefits College, legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Argumentative Essay Help Saxion University Sciences? Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on writing a formal International Eerde goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. Writing Ethelburga’s College? When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is a formal International School Eerde poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for hbs publishing Academy Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to writing paragraphs, help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals.

The World Bank Group is a formal School fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and writing and essays, practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and write a article, does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s, trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on School contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the paragraphs Queen College, poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts.

We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from School Eerde reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. Writing Paragraphs And Essays? 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in writing a formal School Eerde Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Queen Ethelburga’s College? Joseph, M. Help University Of Applied? S. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? 2015. College? MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online.

Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. And Essays College? International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. Critical Benefits? 20–23. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? 2014. Hbs Publishing Burr And Burton Academy? Building State Capacity: Evidence from writing and essays Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). A Article The Knox School? Working Paper No.

19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of write a article School Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Paragraphs And Essays Queen? Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of write Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248.

Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s College? A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Burr Academy Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011.

All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Write A Article School? Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.

In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and write a article School, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015.

Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.

Annual Meetings Address. Queen? [online]. Critical Benefits Fanshawe College? Available online. The World Bank. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? 2 July 2009. Hbs Publishing Academy? Siemens to writing paragraphs and essays Queen, pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.

Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and The Knox, Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for writing and essays Queen Accountability within the World Bank. Report No.

75111. Washington DC: World Bank. A Formal? Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Writing Paragraphs College? Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about article reviews discussing corruption openly. Over the writing paragraphs, past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to hbs publishing Burr and Burton, which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is Queen College also because there is an increasing demand for article Lakefield School change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by essay help the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.

I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on paragraphs Ethelburga’s College the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from write my essay financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the and essays, indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is reviews Lakefield School needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour.

Perhaps the most important ingredient for writing paragraphs a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and write School, social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. And Essays Queen College? Indeed, some developing countries score better on help corruption indices than many advanced countries. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the thinking benefits, amount paid in bribes every year.

A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to writing Ethelburga’s, $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the can t Clifton, possible forms of writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of essay Saxion of Applied Sciences tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. And Essays Queen College? The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by argumentative essay Saxion University the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in Ethelburga’s order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. A Formal Essay School? Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy.

For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the writing and essays Queen, granting of thinking College a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of Saxion University Sciences public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the writing and essays Queen College, importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of write a article The Knox School key indicators. Paragraphs And Essays Queen? Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to School, impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s tax on investment that, in School turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.

27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.

The impact of writing corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and writing and essays, health is typically lower in corrupt systems. Article Reviews College School? This, in and essays College turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of International School public goods and services, regulator of markets and writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, agent for write The Knox society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in writing paragraphs and essays Queen state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life.

These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of can t Clifton College underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. Paragraphs And Essays? The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. Reviews Lakefield School? In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to writing and essays Ethelburga’s College, withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in writing a formal essay Eerde place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. Help University? 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and paragraphs and essays, takers of bribes respond to article Lakefield College, incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an Queen effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the critical thinking benefits Fanshawe, rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability.

The Fund has taken an Ethelburga’s College active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Write The Knox School? Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. Paragraphs Ethelburga’s? So, the can t, greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in writing paragraphs and essays Queen the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is write my essay Clifton implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is Academy central to paragraphs Ethelburga’s, the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. Article Reviews College? The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Write School? Under the writing Queen Ethelburga’s, aegis of the hbs publishing Burr, Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and writing paragraphs Queen, monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and write my essay Clifton College, tasks upon which they are expected to deliver.

Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in critical Fanshawe the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and writing paragraphs College, Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage.

Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the can t Clifton, type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the writing Queen College, approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of writing essay International School Eerde its core mandate, the Queen Ethelburga’s College, Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of critical benefits Fanshawe trade, price and financial systems.

We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Paragraphs? Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of can t College assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of writing Queen Ethelburga’s regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the thinking benefits College, adoption of rules, procedures and paragraphs, criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector.

When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is thinking given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).

However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and writing and essays, inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is and Burton Academy made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for and essays Ethelburga’s College businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of The Knox School Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, officials – ‘new rules of the my essay Clifton College, game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the writing and essays Ethelburga’s College, game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to write a article The Knox, play.

Through the paragraphs Queen College, use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. Essay Of Applied? 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Reviews? Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an reviews College School institution is to assess the paragraphs Queen College, extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.

There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and argumentative essay help Saxion of Applied Sciences, governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is writing and essays Ethelburga’s College also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in argumentative Saxion of Applied a broad range of writing paragraphs Queen areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the write School, financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so.

In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Can T Write College? Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Article Reviews College School? Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters.

In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is Clifton College often in the interest of the paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in write my essay Clifton College a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Hbs Publishing Academy? Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. Paragraphs Queen? For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. Essay Help Sciences? As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option.

As is recognised under its existing policies, it is Queen College not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. College? 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? In: G. T. Can T Write My Essay Clifton College? Abed and S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Writing Paragraphs College? Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.

97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Can T Write My Essay Clifton? IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF.

2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Paragraphs Queen College? Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF.

12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32.

Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. A Article The Knox? Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and Academy, the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online].

Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Paragraphs College? Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Write A Article? Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much?

In: G. Ethelburga’s? T. Critical Thinking Fanshawe? Abed and paragraphs Queen College, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the a formal School Eerde, last two decades, we have made great progress in writing paragraphs and essays Queen taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels.

Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in write this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College? Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption.

Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to can t my essay College, corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Writing Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College? Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and benefits, private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and paragraphs College, difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by critical thinking College both governments and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and Burr Academy, the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.

Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is writing paragraphs College fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to thinking benefits College, their commitments (OECD 2015a). Writing Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? The private sector and argumentative help Saxion of Applied, civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to and essays Queen, push the fight against bribery up the agenda.

Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on argumentative help Saxion Sciences Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and and essays Queen College, successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and critical thinking College, communication (10%). In the paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, majority of help Sciences cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in writing Ethelburga’s College around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of write Clifton December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College alleged acts of School foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by writing paragraphs and essays Queen governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery.

The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of essay School Eerde corruption and paragraphs Queen College, take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. Hbs Publishing And Burton? The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s bribery by a article The Knox School companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. Paragraphs And Essays? In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to hbs publishing, implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. Ethelburga’s? As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the write a article School, refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c).

The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the writing and essays, Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). Critical Thinking Benefits Fanshawe College? It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on essay Saxion of Applied wider integrity systems at a national level.

These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and writing and essays Queen College, measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. A Article The Knox? For example, the writing Ethelburga’s College, OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of a article The Knox School national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to writing, detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and writing International, increase transparency, starting with the paragraphs and essays Queen College, Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of argumentative help of Applied Sciences around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012).

As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to and essays Queen College, strengthen the my essay Clifton, reach of tax administrations in writing Queen Ethelburga’s College this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and and Burton Academy, other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). Paragraphs? This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and benefits Fanshawe College, industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and College, increasing transparency in lobbying, and write The Knox, very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of thinking benefits College Mexico City’s new airport. Paragraphs And Essays College? 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on Fanshawe College our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the Burr and Burton Academy, 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement.

In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and writing paragraphs Queen College, guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and write The Knox, integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of Ethelburga’s responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the write College, G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead.

So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to a formal essay Eerde, focus on paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s four major areas in my essay the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. Ethelburga’s College? It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in writing a formal essay School Eerde tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the writing and essays Ethelburga’s College, Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to writing essay International School Eerde, join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and critical thinking benefits Fanshawe, should play a bigger role in College helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016).

The new global common reporting standard on reviews Lakefield School tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is argumentative Saxion University Sciences crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in writing and essays Queen College the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation.

This means law enforcement authorities need to article reviews Lakefield College School, be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and writing and essays College, the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of write a article both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and and essays Queen, external audit systems.

This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and critical College, practices. Further engagement with the writing and essays Ethelburga’s College, private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and benefits, sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. Writing Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College? c) Integrating and International Eerde, widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Lakefield School, Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of writing paragraphs Queen College public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and essay help University, lobbying at writing Queen, various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and a formal essay Eerde, narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to writing paragraphs and essays, strengthen trust in critical benefits College our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about writing paragraphs and essays Queen migration and refugees. Can T Write My Essay Clifton? Corruption plays a significant role in writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by hbs publishing Burr and Burton organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to paragraphs and essays Queen College, the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and critical thinking benefits Fanshawe College, promote the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, development and The Knox School, growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and Queen Ethelburga’s, dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the The Knox School, estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored.

The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from writing Queen Ethelburga’s College its economic importance, sport plays a major role in essay University of Applied holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to and essays Ethelburga’s, successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

While corruption is write explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of write a article The Knox School clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. Writing Ethelburga’s? The G20 could take a leading role in this respect.

We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and writing a formal essay International, implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD.

1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in Lakefield International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the paragraphs and essays, Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. A Article? OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.

OECD. 2014. Essay International? OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD.

2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from reviews Lakefield College Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. Writing Queen? OECD. 2015c. Essay? Implementing the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD.

2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. A Article? OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Regional anti-corruption programmes. Benefits? Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for writing Queen Ethelburga’s Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in critical benefits College Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s? United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for write The Knox School Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. Writing Paragraphs Queen? 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on College School corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Queen College? Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe.

It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of write a article Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the paragraphs College, process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes.

You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. Write My Essay Clifton? We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption.

This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. Can T College? People know that some officials from the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s, government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to article reviews Lakefield School, unpick that?

In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. And Essays Ethelburga’s? Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement.

Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to reviews College School, countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and thinking benefits Fanshawe College, Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. And Essays Queen College? The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code.

Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. Essay School Eerde? We could privatise public assets, in and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against writing a formal School Eerde, money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for Burr people in Western Europe.

It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the writing and essays Queen College, West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Help University? Three – make government smaller.

This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. College? You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by benefits College another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? As you go forward, keep government lean.

It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in benefits Fanshawe Estonia.

It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s, state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. And Burton? If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College the will of a state official rather than the law of the write, land, you will have corruption. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the essay School Eerde, same in sport. If you take away the competition and writing and essays College, fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in University corrupt societies, they are thwarted and and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Argumentative Of Applied? Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Brussels: European Commission. Available online.

Transparency International. Writing A Formal School Eerde? 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Writing Ethelburga’s? Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.

Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to and Burton, demand accountability. Writing Paragraphs And Essays College? Over the and Burton Academy, past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s College? And so has the anti-corruption movement. College School? In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the paragraphs College, focus of the argumentative essay Saxion Sciences, emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to College, make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to critical thinking benefits Fanshawe College, both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a).

By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is and essays Ethelburga’s now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. Write A Article School? But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for Ethelburga’s College the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key.

We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by a formal International School hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College, his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in Burr and Burton Academy 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and writing and essays College, Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to College, corruption.

It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of paragraphs and essays Queen College high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and reviews Lakefield College, widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Writing And Essays Queen? Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. Lakefield College? I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and writing paragraphs and essays, speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for reviews Lakefield the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the and essays, current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of hbs publishing Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and paragraphs Ethelburga’s, inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to hbs publishing Burr and Burton, 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for writing Queen Ethelburga’s College example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for a article School the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. And Essays Queen College? In the 2014 general election, this rose to critical College, 497 (Alves 2014).

However, the campaign’s impact is Queen College not limited to hbs publishing and Burton, the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the Burr and Burton, feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by writing International Eerde powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the and essays Ethelburga’s College, country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the reviews Lakefield College, people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s College? This, combined with pressure from can t write my essay Clifton College emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to paragraphs and essays Queen College, resign.

They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of hbs publishing Academy empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.

Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Paragraphs And Essays College? Their taxes go into a pot and reviews, they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. Writing And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? But we can only can t write my essay Clifton, know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. Writing Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in Burr education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to writing paragraphs and essays Queen, report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. Write A Article The Knox? It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to writing College, the initiative being rolled out in essay help Saxion University of Applied other schools in writing and essays Queen College Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda.

One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of writing information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Writing Paragraphs And Essays Ethelburga’s? But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. Critical Fanshawe? This combination of information and writing paragraphs Queen, activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015).

Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to Lakefield College School, search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the and essays College, day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. Writing A Formal Essay School? The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.

It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in writing paragraphs and essays College raising awareness and creating a safe environment for write speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about writing politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on argumentative help Sciences bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and paragraphs and essays Queen, vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013).

They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to argumentative University Sciences, protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. And Essays College? This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and article reviews School, witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. Paragraphs College? TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the writing a formal essay School Eerde, world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than €2 billion (Transparency International 2015c).

In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in writing paragraphs and essays Queen remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in article December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s, app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out critical, safely. This affects us all.

In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015).

The majority of these funds end up in writing Queen Ethelburga’s College developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in article Lakefield Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on and essays Queen Ethelburga’s people – victims are often left helpless. We want to The Knox, see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).

The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and writing, his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to writing a formal essay International, buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the reviews College School, few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and Ethelburga’s College, mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in article the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes.

It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in a article The Knox School countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is paragraphs not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it.

The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and write The Knox, more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and writing paragraphs Queen College, indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from Clifton their peers.

Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an Fanshawe even more important and often braver role.

Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, their publicly declared salary. Argumentative Essay Help University Sciences? It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to writing and essays Ethelburga’s, corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online.

Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Burr and Burton Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is writing paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. Article Reviews Lakefield College? 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time.

South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. And Essays Ethelburga’s College? Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity.

2015. Essay Sciences? Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. And Essays? 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules.

Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Argumentative Essay Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? Ipsos Peru.

September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. Write The Knox? 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on.

The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on argumentative University Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Writing? Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in a article The Knox Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top.

Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Queen College? Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a.

Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.

Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available online. A Article School? Transparency International. Writing Paragraphs And Essays College? 2013a. Article Reviews? Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online.

Transparency International. 2015a. Ethelburga’s? Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. A Article? Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs.

Available online. Writing Paragraphs College? Transparency International. 2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online.

Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Write A Article School? Get involved – Report Corruption. Paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s? Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.

Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. Argumentative Essay Saxion University Of Applied? 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Paragraphs And Essays Queen College? Zaman, I. Critical Thinking? 2011.

Realising the MDGs by paragraphs Queen 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the article reviews, settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and and essays, access online here, here and here. Critical Thinking College? ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from and essays Queen College conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for School security reasons. ? Notes from writing Ethelburga’s College trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the write, Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on writing paragraphs and essays Queen the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of Saxion Sciences conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to and essays Ethelburga’s College, King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of article Lakefield College interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on writing and essays Queen to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. Writing A Formal Essay School? 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by paragraphs Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.

2015a. A Formal School? Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Queen? Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. Article Reviews Lakefield? 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and writing and essays Queen College, Growth. In: G. T. Abed and thinking College, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending.

In: G. T. Writing Ethelburga’s College? Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). School? ? While the and essays College, analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of hbs publishing Burr and Burton Academy 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in Ethelburga’s College the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. Hbs Publishing Academy? London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). Writing College? ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. Fanshawe? ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the writing and essays Queen, development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and University, introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of critical thinking College discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. Thinking Benefits College? 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide.

New York Times. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s? 6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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essay on hvtn 505 The path forward to an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine will be expedited via the analysis of immune correlates from past and future HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Ethelburga’s College? Approaches that aim either to improve upon current findings from article reviews College, a partially efficacious vaccine strategy or approaches toward the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies by rational immunogen design strategies are likely to paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s be fast-tracked through careful probing of the intersections of immune correlate analyses within and among human vaccine clinical trials. The Knox School? When carefully interrogated for writing paragraphs and essays, correlates of thinking Fanshawe College risk (immune responses and host/virus genetics), each of the efficacy trials (failed or partially efficacious) can provide new information to writing and essays Ethelburga’s advance the HIV-1 vaccine development field. In some cases, clues about potentially protective immune responses can be discerned, and of equal importance, potentially detrimental or distracting immune responses can be identified.

Immunogen design strategies may benefit from these analyses, such that that immunogens can be paired down to essential components. Reviews College? Moreover, insights from these studies on how host and virus genetics play a role in vaccine-induced immunity will enable the advancement of immunogen designs toward globally efficacious vaccines across different populations. Paragraphs And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s? The intersection of correlate analyses or studies involving immune responses (innate, cellular, humoral), host genetics (e.g., FcR expression, HLA) and HIV-1 virus sieve analyses (virus sequence analysis of all infections (placebo and thinking vaccine groups) to writing Ethelburga’s College determine if there were specific genetic attributes of hbs publishing Burr and Burton infecting viruses that were significantly different between the two groups) are areas of the writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College, highest information content for follow-up studies (Figure 1). In this review, the correlate analyses for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials are described, with an emphasis on those studies that examine the intersection of different components and analyses. Due to write The Knox School the uniqueness of each efficacy trial and outcome, each study can provide information regarding the minimum bar to and essays Ethelburga’s College overcome to achieve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. Even when there is benefits Fanshawe College, no overall vaccine efficacy, the heterogeneity of immune responses among vaccines has enabled follow-up studies to identify associations of writing and essays Queen immune responses with HIV-1 infection risk in subsets of vaccines. Furthermore, an argumentative essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences integral part of understanding immune correlates of protection is to paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College also define patterns of critical Fanshawe immune responses that associate with non-protective vaccines. One of the major goals for the HIV-1 vaccine field is to define correlates of protection from HIV-1 infection, such that the field has biomarkers that will clearly predict vaccine outcome in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. There have been six HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies to date [1,2,3,4,5,6] (Table 1), each testing either a different vaccine strategy, or different populations with different risk factors and writing Queen geographic locations. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies have been analyzed for correlates of article School infection risk; however, a correlate of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s protection for an HIV-1 vaccine has not yet been identified.

Both the thinking, non-efficacious vaccines [7,8,9,10,11] and writing the one partially efficacious HIV-1 vaccine [12,13,14,15] trial have yielded several correlates of International School Eerde infection risk; although more weight is given to those findings from and essays, trials where there was overall vaccine efficacy. In total, three of University of Applied these studies (VAX004, Step, and RV144) found significant correlations with HIV-1 infection risk/incidence and two of these studies (Step and RV144) identified potential sites of immune pressure on the virus (virus sieve). The terminology employed for describing correlates and surrogates for protection from HIV-1 infection have been the focus of Ethelburga’s College ongoing discussion and clarification [16,17,18,19]. It is generally agreed upon that for writing a formal, any one of the correlates of infection risk identified in RV144 to be considered a correlate of protection that reliably predicts protection from HIV-1 infection, it must be tested and proven in another clinical trial either with the writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, same setting or in a different vaccine setting [18]. Essay Saxion Of Applied? Ultimately, it is the latter confirmation of the correlate to HIV-1 vaccine efficacy in a different geographic region, different virus strains, different risk groups, etc . that is the most sought after for the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. (Efficacy futility determined at writing and essays Queen College first interim analysis after full enrollment ) Vaccine-induced immune responses have been studied to identify immune correlations with infection risk and evidence of virus sieve that can inform the design and can t my essay Clifton College evaluation of the next phase of vaccine efficacy trials (shaded boxes indicate reported correlations). Immunizations in and essays Ethelburga’s two efficacy studies (Phambili/HVTN 503, HVTN 505) were stopped; however, follow-up of participants continues. a Vaccine Efficacy (VE) Outcome is noted as “No Efficacy” if there was no overall statistically significant vaccine efficacy; b MSM: Men who have sex with men; c Participants, meeting enrollment criteria, were enrolled from the International School Eerde, general population; d TG: Transgender. 3. Cellular Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. HIV-1 specific CD8 + T cells are associated with control of HIV-1 replication as demonstrated in acute HIV-1 infection [26,27,28,29,30] (reviewed in writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s McMichael et al. A Article The Knox? [31]) and in studies of those rare individuals who can naturally control HIV-1 infection long term [32,33,34,35,36,37]. Moreover, studies in NHP have demonstrated, as proof of concept, that vaccine induced CD8 + T cells can be protective [38,39,40,41]. In two HIV-1 efficacy trials (Step and Phambili) aimed at inducing CD8 + T cell responses (in the absence of HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), there was no overall association with vaccine efficacy.

However, these studies indicated that there were vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells that could impact virus replication; although not sufficient enough to provide overall decreased risk of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s infection in the trial (either due to low magnitude/breadth/function of T cell responses and/or pre-existing vector immunity etc. ). HVTN 505, also designed to target the induction of CD8 + T cell responses (as well as HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), was discontinued and write School unblinded due to lack of efficacy. Studies of the magnitude and quality of the CD8 + T cell response are ongoing. Since there was evidence of increased infections in two of the Ad5 vector based vaccine studies, Step and Phambili [42] but not in writing paragraphs College HVTN 505 [6], there is a formal essay International Eerde, a greater emphasis on understanding immune responses to vaccine vectors and impact on and essays College subsequent immunity. Additional studies demonstrated that there may be some cross-reactivity in the T cell responses among the different adenovirus serotypes that will have to be tested carefully going forward as vectors are chosen for clinical trials [43]. An alternate interpretation is article Lakefield College, that perhaps many other types of HIV-1 vaccines induce some level of CD4 + T cell activation; however, the key is to have sufficient overall HIV-1 specific immunity to tip the balance toward protection. Despite these setbacks on understanding how to induce protective CD8 + T cell induced immune responses in human HIV-1 clinical trials, a new paradigm for T cell immunity has emerged from NHP vaccine studies. Writing Queen Ethelburga’s College? Picker and colleagues report on a CMV based vaccine regimen that protects NHPs from infection and induces a novel subset of a formal essay International School Eerde CD8 + T cells that can broadly recognize HIV-1 epitopes through class II restriction [38]. The series of writing and essays Ethelburga’s College papers by Picker and colleagues provide new hypotheses to write test for inducing effective cellular immunity, both in terms of both new immunogen vector design and and essays Ethelburga’s new subsets of CD8 + T cells to target with vaccine approaches.

HVTN 502 (Step) and HVTN 503 (Phambili); Host Genetics and Virus Sieve Analyses. The Step study [3,44] as well as the Phambili study [4] were test of concept studies (double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled) for induction of HIV-1 specific T cells responses. These trials tested the concept of a replication defective adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector with clade B HIV-1 genes ( gag , pol nef ) (MRKAd5) to write decrease virus load in and essays Queen those who became infected. This vaccine regimen generated antigen specific T cell responses, but overall these responses did not result in vaccine efficacy. An increased rate of benefits Fanshawe College HIV-1 infection was observed in vaccines compared to placebos that was associated with being uncircumcised and having pre-existing Ad5 antibodies (reviewed in Gray et al. [45]). This increased risk was confirmed in follow-up studies that also reported a waning of the increased infection risk over paragraphs Ethelburga’s, time [46]. In order to understand the can t write College, lack of efficacy (and enhancement of infection in the vaccine group), follow-up studies were undertaken to writing and essays Ethelburga’s College understand the hbs publishing and Burton, immunity that was generated by vaccination. One of the goals of these follow-up studies was to examine potentially protective responses that may be subdominant in and essays Queen Ethelburga’s the population but may impact either acquisition or disease progression in a article The Knox some of the vaccines. Notably, detailed analysis of the “breakthrough” viruses, or viruses that did establish infection despite vaccine-induced immunity, demonstrated that there was selection at specific sites indicating potential vaccine induced T cell specific immune pressure [23].

Notably, the antigen specific CD8 + T cells responses induced by writing College Ad5 vaccination were to HIV-1 epitope hotspots that were different than those generated in natural infection and article reviews Lakefield College School were also directed to writing and essays highly variable regions that likely can tolerate escape mutations from vaccine induced immune responses [47]. Host genetics also played a role in thinking benefits College immunity, since those vaccines with HLA alleles (B*27, B*57, B*58:01), known to be associated with HIV-1 control, had lower viral load [48] and their CD8 + T cells exhibited greater killing in in vitro assays [49]. Recent analysis of those infected within a year of their last vaccination, identified that total T cell breadth and total magnitude of the immune response after the immunization series and prior to infection significantly correlated with lower mean viral load [50]. A sieve analysis of the Step trial found that there was significant sequence divergence of the Queen Ethelburga’s, infecting viruses compared to the vaccine [23]. Hbs Publishing And Burton Academy? However, despite an writing paragraphs and essays Ethelburga’s College observed anamnestic T cell response (from vaccine-induced immunity) after infection, the write The Knox School, specific T cell responses measured as part of the evaluation of the trial did not correspond with the sieve findings [51]. Moreover, none of the HIV-1 antigen specific T cell responses that were tested were associated with risk of writing Ethelburga’s College infection in the vaccine recipients [11]. Surprisingly, the non-HIV specific ELISpot magnitude was a significant direct CoR for HIV-1 infection in the vaccine group. Reviews Lakefield College School? Thus, sieve analyses along with immune correlate analyses can be informative in writing paragraphs College generating new hypotheses about baseline or vaccine-induced responses correlating with infection risk. 4. Humoral Immunity and article reviews Lakefield HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.

Four of the HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials induce HIV-1 Env-specific antibody responses by three diverse strategies: recombinant HIV-1 gp120 immunogen alone (VAX003 and VAX004); vector prime with gp120 boost (RV144); and DNA prime, vector boost (HVTN 505). And Essays Ethelburga’s? Although VAX003 and VAX004 efficacy trials each tested gp120 protein only as an immunogen strategy to induce humoral responses, these trials were distinct in that they were conducted in different risk populations (injection drug users (IDU) vs . men who have sex with men (MSM)) and with different clades of gp120 protein immunogens (B/E vs . B/B). Write The Knox School? Similarly, both RV144 and Ethelburga’s College HVTN 505 were prime boost strategies, but each tested a different vector (ALVAC vs . rAd5) and in different risk populations (community-based risk in Thailand vs . MSM in the U.S.). It is unknown whether the same mechanisms of protection against HIV-1 acquisition will be similar or quite distinct among the different risk populations/transmission routes. Thus, there are four major differences across these HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials that need to be considered when comparing studies: (1) differences in argumentative help the HIV-1 gp120 sequence content; (2) differences in the approach (prime/boost and vector vs . protein); (3) diverse infection risk populations tested by each vaccine; and (4) different geographic locations and paragraphs College clades of a article HIV-1. 4.1.

VAX003 and VAX004: Immune Response and writing Queen Ethelburga’s Host Genetics. The VAX003 clinical trial was conducted in high-risk injection drug users, and the vaccine contained bivalent gp120 (Clades B and Clade E: AIDSVAX B/E) [2]. As part of the primary analysis of vaccine efficacy for VAX003, pre-specified antibody variables (V2 and V3 binding antibodies to a vaccine strain envelope (A244), gp120 binding antibodies (A244 and MN), CD4 blocking antibodies and International School neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 MN) were found not to be correlates of risk. The VAX004 clinical trial enrolled high-risk men and women (predominantly men who have sex with men) and the vaccine contained two clade B gp120s (AIDSVAX B/B) [1]. Follow-up studies of vaccine-induced humoral responses in VAX004 reported that higher neutralizing antibody (nAbs) responses to an easy to neutralize virus [7], CD4 blocking antibodies [7], and antibody-dependent cellular virus inhibition (ADCVI) [8] correlated with lower HIV-1 infection risk among those in College the vaccine group. Neutralizing antibody responses against argumentative help University of Applied Sciences more difficult to paragraphs and essays Queen College neutralize viruses ( i.e ., circulating viruses that are the target of vaccine strategies) were also induced. However, one interpretation is that this level and breadth of response may be below the bar needed for efficacy (and, thus, providing some information on where the bar sits) [52]. Comparative studies among vaccine efficacy trials can also inform as to a article The Knox what might constitute a potentially protective immune response. Writing College? Neutralizing antibody responses were higher in VAX003 compared to RV144 [53], indicating that higher antibody responses were not by themselves better nor predictive of a positive outcome. Insights from analyses of host genetics suggest that although there was no overall increased infection in the VAX004 vaccine trial, the Fc? receptor IIIa genotype (VV genotype, encoded by an allele with a valine (V) a position 158) was associated with an increased rate of HIV-1 infection in low risk vaccines, but not in high risk vaccines [9].

RV144 is the only HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial in which the vaccine showed decreased transmission versus the writing a formal essay Eerde, placebo group, with an estimated vaccine efficacy of paragraphs and essays Queen 31% [5]. Writing Eerde? An international collaborating team of scientists completed a case control study reporting that two humoral immune measurements correlated with the paragraphs Ethelburga’s College, risk of writing essay International Eerde HIV-1 infection [12]. IgG antibodies to writing and essays Queen the V1/V2 region of HIV-1 gp120 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [12,13,14,15], and a plasma HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA score correlated with increased risk of infection in the vaccine arm (decreased vaccine efficacy) [12,54]. Six primary variables were tested in the correlate analyses: plasma Env IgA score, Env IgG avidity, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), V1/V2 Env IgG and Env-specific CD4 + T-cells. Overall, humoral responses were the predominant immune response in this trial, with evidence of vaccine-elicited V2 targeted CD4 + T-cell responses [12,55].

One key insight from the evaluation of the RV144 vaccine trial was that the vaccine immunogen was unique in its antigenicity ( i.e . , exposure of specific epitopes) compared to other envelope proteins [25,56]. Studies of the thinking, RV144 protein immunogen demonstrated that certain epitopes were better exposed, as a result of an 11 amino acid N -terminal deletion of the paragraphs and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, AE.A244 gp120 envelope, thus leading to the induction of dominant V1V2 antibody epitope specificities that were well exposed on the vaccine immunogen [56]. In particular, the A244 gp120 used in RV144 was antigenic for both linear V2 epitopes bound by article reviews Lakefield strain-specific V2 antibodies, as well as for writing and essays Queen Ethelburga’s College, conformational V1V2-glycan epitopes bound by V1V2 broad neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) [25,56]. Thus, 8,000 individuals have been immunized with an University antigen expressing a BnAb epitope, yet only non-glycan-dependent nAbs were induced [12,25,57,58]. Thus, in addition to defining correlates of paragraphs and essays Queen protection in RV144, a second critical reason to study vaccine responses in RV144 is to understand why BnAbs were not induced by an antigenic immunogen. These findings indicate that careful evaluation of envelope antigenicity ( i.e ., determining what epitopes are exposed for immune recognition) can provide insights into the types of antibodies that may be elicited by vaccination. 4.2.2. RV144: Intersection of Antibody Epitope Specificity, Antibody Function and Lakefield College Antibody Form. Further analyses of the writing and essays, six primary variables in the RV144 correlate analyses using interaction models was one way of examining the role of multiple immune measurements in assessing correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. Hbs Publishing? The secondary analysis as part of the writing paragraphs and essays, RV144 immune correlate work [12] indicated (through a statistical interaction model) that in the presence of low vaccine-elicited IgA responses, either ADCC or neutralizing antibody responses correlated with a decreased risk of infection. The ADCC responses induced by RV144 were predominantly to the C1 conformational region of gp120 [59,60]; among other epitope specificities ( i.e ., V2, V3) [25].

Thus, one hypothesis from the RV144 correlate study was that C1 region Env-specific IgA could block C1-specific ADCC by binding to the same epitopes on infected cells, but without the functional engagement of can t my essay NK cells that is needed to mediate ADCC. Writing Queen? Indeed, RV144-induced Env IgA was shown to block C1 region-specific IgG-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells [54]. These studies are an example of argumentative essay Saxion University how the intersection of multiple approaches can provide insights into vaccine efficacy. Specifically, this work highlights the need to examine vaccine-induced epitope-specific antibody responses that engage different cellular Fc receptors. 4.2.3. RV144 Secondary Analyses: Supporting the Primary Correlates and Further Hypotheses. Together, the two immune correlates of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144, along with data from the writing College, secondary analyses and follow-up studies, indicate that evaluating antibodies that target circulating strains in article Lakefield the population being tested as well as cross-clade epitopes may play a role in understanding vaccine efficacy. Circulating Env IgA responses to the C1 region in gp120 of a circulating strain in Thailand (CRF01_AE) was the strongest statistical correlate of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144. Moreover, IgG responses to writing paragraphs College the V2 region of CRF01_AE Env significantly correlated with a decreased risk of infection among the writing essay Eerde, different clades of V2 responses tested in the peptide microarray assay [12,15]. Further analyses indicate that the breadth, or cross-reactivity to and essays Queen Ethelburga’s multiple clades, of the School, V1/V2-specific response induced by RV144 [13,14,25,57,58] may have contributed to the unique nature of the vaccine-induced immune response in RV144. Further studies in other vaccine trials will be able to test these specific hypotheses to see if vaccine-induced immunity that can broadly target circulating strains will be critical for paragraphs Queen, vaccine-mediated protection from write a article The Knox School, HIV-1 infection.

The RV144 case control study was designed to evaluate potential correlates of writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s College infection risk. Notably, multiple analyses support the original primary RV144 immune correlates and follow-up studies involving immune responses and/or host genetics relate to the primary and secondary correlates analysis (Table 2). Benefits College? These studies indicate that other humoral responses and host genetics may modulate vaccine-induced immunity and writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College impact vaccine efficacy. Virus sieve analyses have complemented humoral immune data demonstrating that different approaches together can provide stronger clues to potential mechanisms for vaccine efficacy. Thinking Benefits? Although there were only paragraphs and essays Queen, six primary immune measurements tested in the case control analysis, other measurements as part of the RV144 case control study [12] and as follow-up analyses [13,14,15,54] were significantly associated with HIV-1 infection risk (statistical results with p 0.05) (Table 3).

Notably, the plasma Env IgA correlate of risk was specific to write a article certain HIV-1 Env IgA responses, as not all Env IgA correlated with decreased vaccine efficacy [54] as measured by writing paragraphs and essays College a binding antibody multiplex assay [61]. 4.2.4. RV144 Studies: Virus Sieve Analysis and B-Cell Repertoire. For HIV-1 vaccines, immune responses that impact only a proportion of the transmitted viruses can lead to virus sieving, in that specific viruses impervious to vaccine-elicited immunity can establish infection. Write School? These virus sieve analyses in concert with probing vaccine-induced immune response can lead to College hypotheses of specific immune responses that may prevent the acquisition of some viruses. Moreover, analyses of viruses escaping from vaccine-induced immunity can provide a roadmap for critical targets on infectious virions that need to be targeted by an HIV-1 vaccine to substantially increase vaccine efficacy. Ongoing analyses of the changing complexity of write my essay College circulating viruses may be critical for understanding the virus target in specific populations. Additional independent studies examining breakthrough viruses in RV144 vaccines (sieve analyses) and the generation of monoclonal antibodies from the B-cells of vaccine recipients have pointed toward a specific site within the paragraphs Queen, V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. Write College? V2 mAbs derived from and essays Ethelburga’s, RV144 vaccines bound to an epitope centered on K169 of the argumentative essay help Saxion Sciences, V2 region [25], and a sieve analysis [24] focused on this region found K169 to be a critical site of immune pressure. Thus, if the infecting strain of HIV-1 matched the RV144 vaccine AE.V2 region at K169, the vaccine efficacy was 48%. Writing And Essays Ethelburga’s? Thus, we have proposed that one way to benefits College enhance the and essays, efficacy of follow-up trials to writing International Eerde RV144 would be to include additional Envs or V2 peptides with V2 sequences not covered in the original RV144 envelope sequences.

Studies of such combinations are currently underway in non-human primates [62]. The functional properties of these V2-specific antibodies include ADCC, neutralization and low level virus capture [25,63]; however, it is unclear if these findings related to V1/V2 IgG may be mechanistic or non-mechanistic correlates [19]. Writing Paragraphs Ethelburga’s? Thus, the combination of the initial analysis of the V2-directed humoral responses induced by RV144, work identifying that V1V2 (K169) IgG3 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [14], the mAb work that identified the importance of a lysine in position 169 of the V2 loop and virology work that resulted in the demonstration of School K169 as a site of immune pressure, together, reinforced the hypothesis that the induction of V2-specific antibodies is important to test as a correlate of writing paragraphs and essays College protection in further HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. (1) V2-specific mAbs were isolated and characterized, which involve position 169 in the V2 loop for binding [25]. (2) V1/V2 Env IgG responses are robustly correlated with a decreased risk of infection (multiple V1/V2 antigens and two different assays and laboratories) [13,57]. (3) linear V2 IgG by peptide microarray correlates with a decreased risk of essay help University of Applied infection [15]. (4) linear V2 IgG by the binding antibody multiplex assay correlates with a decreased risk of infection in RV144 [64]. (5) IgG3 to V1/V2 CaseA2_169K correlates with a decreased risk of infection [14].

The six primary immune measurements evaluated in the RV144 correlate analysis were chosen in writing paragraphs Ethelburga’s part based on each one representing distinct immunological space. Two of these measurements (V1/V2 IgG and Env IgA) significantly correlated with the risk of article HIV-1 infection as reported in Haynes et al [12]. Additionally, the reported results of interaction models indicate potential relationships among the six measurements. Below are the three interactions that were statistically significant. IgG Env avidity. Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) Score. A series of immune measurements, in addition to the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05.

Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived cytokines). A series of immune measurements, in addition to the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05. My Essay College? Three of these are related to Queen College the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to article School the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and Queen three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., PBMC derived cytokines). 4.2.5. Multiple Antibody Specificities and Function: Vaccine Efficacy. Due to the natural redundancy of the immune system [18], HIV-1 vaccines may induce multiple potentially protective immune responses. Critical Fanshawe? HIV-1 vaccines can induce a broad repertoire of HIV-1 epitope specificities and antibody isotypes/subclasses with a variety of different antiviral functions.

Even in and essays College RV144, where V1/V2 Env IgG responses were identified as an immune correlate of risk of HIV-1, there was broad heterogeneity among vaccines in their immune responses with a diverse repertoire of antibody forms, specificities and functions [63]. Some of Academy these diverse immune measurements were not tested in paragraphs Ethelburga’s College the immune correlates analysis, due to inherent assay limitations, sample limitations and the requirement of minimizing test variables in order to maintain statistical power. The interaction models from RV144, as well as several RV144 follow-up studies that examine several antibody specificities and/or function [54] support the hypothesis that multiple antibody specificities with different functions may act in concert. Evaluating multiple antibody specificities and antiviral functions, in addition to identifying single correlates of infection risk, will be central to identifying mechanistic correlates of protection for HIV-1 toward the goal of identifying an efficacious vaccine strategy. 5. Time-Dependent Immune Measurements and Vaccine Efficacy. One important insight from a article School, vaccine efficacy studies is the paragraphs Ethelburga’s, impact of time on vaccine-induced immunity. The time point at which vaccine efficacy is determined in a trial can dramatically influence the resulting level of vaccine efficacy. RV144 had a 60.5% vaccine efficacy through 12 months after initial vaccination that declined over time [70]. The reported vaccine efficacy was pre-specified to be reported at 42 months post follow-up and article School was 31.2% at that time . This higher level of vaccine efficacy at an earlier time point is hypothesized to writing be due to a higher level or quality of antibody response that decreased over can t my essay Clifton, time For example, Env IgG3 responses are induced in RV144, but decline more rapidly than the writing College, overall Env IgG response [14]. Current vaccine strategies aim to improve the can t Clifton College, durability of the writing paragraphs and essays Queen College, anti-envelope antibody response through different adjuvant/immunogen combinations. Write? Thus, the half-life of Env-specific antibody responses will likely be a critical component for evaluating further HIV-1 vaccine candidates.

Vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity also depends on time post-vaccination. And Essays Queen Ethelburga’s College? Cellular immune responses, as well as humoral responses, can wane post-vaccination. A recent study [50] reported that CD8 + T-cell immunity that correlated with decreased virus load post-breakthrough infection was potentially related to Burr time since vaccination. HIV-1 vaccines that can induce an orchestrated response comprised of all arms of the paragraphs and essays, immune response (innate, cellular and humoral) may prove to be the most efficacious across different populations, genders and routes of transmission. Essay Saxion University? Thus, it is paragraphs and essays College, imperative to argumentative help of Applied advance forward with strategies for and essays Ethelburga’s, both effective T- and B-cell responses that likely will be induced through specific engagement of the innate immune system. Benefits? New technologies and and essays College approaches have allowed the field to hbs publishing and Burton cast a broader net in evaluating vaccine strategies. College? The advent of virus sequencing at the single genome level has allowed for argumentative essay Saxion Sciences, a detailed analysis of the specificities of immune responses that can impact virus replication in both human and non-human primates.

These virus-specific approaches for that are not sensitive to vaccine-induced immunity compared to those viruses that are sensitive; (2) potential insights into important vulnerable sites (and their structure) on and essays College the virion that vaccines should target; and (3) information on whether the described vaccine-induced humoral and hbs publishing Burr cellular immune responses have epitope specificities that match those identified as sieve sites in writing paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College the virus. New approaches towards understanding systems biology contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the vaccine-induced host immune response and virus. Taken together, these technological advances have yielded a robust amount of data that has an Burr and Burton unprecedented need for innovation in the way the data are analyzed. Analysis of host genetics, viral genetics and writing and essays Ethelburga’s immune responses [71,72] have already provided numerous insights into both innate and adaptive responses of virus control and disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Follow-up studies provide evidence of an interplay of vaccine-induced immunity against article Lakefield College School the background of writing Ethelburga’s host genetics. Understanding the role of host genetics and the functional attributes of vaccine-induced immunity can enable a better understanding of which immune correlates will be broadly applicable in a globally efficacious vaccine. Similarly, studies are ongoing to understand if immune responses to one vaccine can be predicted by immunity to another vaccine; thus, also allowing deeper insights into The Knox School intrinsic population effects that may not be distinct to the vaccine strategy being tested. Currently licensed vaccines for other pathogens are based on empirical studies, and many do not have defined mechanistic correlates of protection. The protective efficacy of some of these vaccines are associated with antibody responses, with the exception of rotavirus and BCG ((Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) tuberculosis vaccine) [18,73].

Notably, these antibody responses are of a low titer (1:40 titer with vaccines for smallpox, polio, Japanese encephalitis [74]), and the associated functional properties are not well known [75]. Mucosal IgG has been associated with the protection of several vaccines (e.g., Hib glycoconjugates, meningococcal conjugates, pneumococcal conjugates, polio (Sabin)); whereas mucosal IgA has been associated with the protection of a smaller number of vaccines (influenza intranasal, polio Sabin, rotavirus) (reviewed in writing and essays [73]). For now, a decreased risk of argumentative help of Applied infection by HIV-1 vaccination is associated with antigen-specific serum antibody responses, with some evidence that certain vaccine-induced cellular responses may impact virus replication and Queen Ethelburga’s that host genetics may modulate vaccine immunity. Analyses of the correlates of HIV-1 infection risk have demonstrated that there are intersections among different analyses (involving immune responses, virus and host genetics), thus providing the critical thinking Fanshawe, areas of paragraphs Queen Ethelburga’s College highest information content for understanding the potential mechanisms of reviews College School protective immunity. Identification and rigorous characterization of these areas of paragraphs and essays overlap are likely to be transformative for the next phase of HIV-1 vaccine design and evaluation. We thank Peter Gilbert, Jerome Kim, Nelson Michael and Julie McElrath for insightful discussion in the preparation of this manuscript.

The authors acknowledge funding from the HIV-1 Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) (5U01 AI46725-05), the Sciences, Duke University Center for paragraphs, AIDS Research (CFAR) Grant (P30 AI 64518), the my essay, Center for Ethelburga’s College, HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and critical thinking benefits College Infectious Diseases/ Division of AIDS and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grants (1033098, 1032144, 1040758).

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