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How to Write an Argumentative Essay - Counter Paragraph


Introducing the British Council s How to Write an Argumentative Essay animated video series. This is the fourth of five simple and ...

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Argumentatif essay Westminster School

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broad essay topics You will choose a single topic for all three of your major essays in Westminster School this course: the Background Essay (BE, Literature Review (LR), and Final Research Article (FRA). Teaching Essay School University Of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas)? How you choose and narrow your topic is therefore obviously a very important process; after all, you don't want get bored! You may find yourself going through many twists and turns before you end up with a topic with which you're happy. Even after you think you've found a suitable and interesting topic, you may end up changing your topic altogether or at argumentatif, least changing how you narrow it and the questions you end up asking and trying to answer. Richard Mill Hill International? Review the Assignments page to see how the argumentatif, three major papers fit together. Because you are choosing a topic for define richard Mill International, a research project, you should not automatically choose something about Westminster which you already know, in the hopes that this will reduce the amount of work that you have to do. At the same time, you should not automatically discard a topic on which you have some prior knowledge or even expertise. Still, you should only admission essay Burr Academy choose such a topic if you are genuinely curious to learn more than you already know and Westminster, if you feel that you can be genuinely open-minded and willing to alter your starting views and beliefs, based on the research and how to, perspectives that you will run across. Also note that you are choosing a topic within the essay School, social sciences, which means that you will not be doing research, for School, example, on argumentatif essay Westminster School the geology of Mt. Everest.

Still, it is not only the topic that makes something fall within social sciences, but the define richard The Mount, Hill International, kinds of questions we ask with regard to the topic and essay School, the kinds of approaches or research methods we follow as we try to answer those questions (review the Social Science Disciplines webpage for more on this point). For example, if you were writing on the BP oil spill, you would not focus on American University scientific and engineering issues around cleanup but perhaps on political or economic concerns. You shouldn't dilly dally in thinking about possible topics and even beginning initial, targeted reading on several topics in the library, databases, or the internet, but you should make sure you are allowing yourself the time to argumentatif consider several real topic possibilities before tying yourself down to one for the rest of the quarter! Choose a topic that is of current relevance in the United States. You will still be required to how to write College provide some historical background, no matter how current your topic. While you may end up finding and describing some global comparisons or connections, your focus should remain the U.S.

Browse through the Table of Contents and readings of our textbook Rereading America for ideas, especially the short 2-3 page introduction for each section: 1) The Myth of the essay School, Model Family; 2) The Myth of Education and Empowerment; 3) Myths of Porgress on the Tech Frontier; 4) The Myth of Individual Opportunity; 5) Myths of Gender; 6) The Myth of the Melting Pot. Note that you must choose at least one article from Rereading America as one of your secondary sources in write essay your Final Research Article for the course. Prohibited topics include abortion, gun control, death penalty, legalization of argumentatif Westminster, drugs, assisted suicide, religion, evolution, cloning, smoking, eating disorders, teen pregnancy, sex education, global warming, videogame violence, school prayer, and obesity . See more on money Preparatory School this prohibition below. Do not choose a topic or approach that places the discussion into a yes/no, good/bad, pro/con, for/against, either/or framework, nor one that ask you to Westminster School take sides in a controversy. Write The Perkiomen? Your job will also not be to predict the future or to propose a solution to a social problem, though you certainly may end up analyzing problems and evaluating solutions. 1. Brainstorm: Develop a list of at least 12 topics you might be interested in researching. Include a wide range of topics, including those about which you know something, those about argumentatif essay School which you don't know much but would like to know more, those that you think matter a great deal socially, or those that you think may be relevant for your future. Choose at least three possible topics within each of these categories: 1) your personal background and experience, including your community; 2) your current or future educational or professional goals; 3) cultural issues of concern; and 4) current events, politics and essay writing middle Lowell (Navitas), policy debates.

Again, prohibited topics include abortion, gun control, death penalty, legalization of drugs, assisted suicide, religion evolution, cloning, smoking, eating disorders, teen pregnancy, sex education, global warming, videogame violence, and argumentatif Westminster School, obesity. (See below for why these are prohibited.) 2. Feature Ross School? Other strategies for finding topics: After your brainstormed your own topics, you should also look through reference sources like CQ Researcher and essay School, Credo Reference (see Holman Library Class Guide). If you're still not satisfied, go to write article Preparatory School an actual library and browse the stacks and magazine section or go to a good bookstore's magazine rack. Argumentatif School? You should be able to find a good range of magazines at such chain bookstores as Barnes Noble, as well as other independent bookstores like Elliott Bay Books in Seattle. Look for what appear like serious newsmagazines (without a lot of write essay Algonquin College, glossy advertisements) as well as some academic journals you will find there. Argumentatif? Browse through and see what captures your attention. You can also read through CR , Quick Tip: Finding Topics (pp. Richard The Mount, Hill? 49-50) for some more suggestions, as well as the essay, Broad Suggestions for richard, Topics list that appears at essay Westminster School, the bottom of this page. 3. Feature Article Ross? Initial consideration: After you have identified some of your top choices for topics, explore each one a bit further. School? Brainstorm a list of questions for each one. What would like to know?

Are you able to an intro paragraph for an The Perkiomen School go beyond good/bad, yes/no, for/against, pro/con frameworks? Start doing some browsing on the internet (for example, using a search engine like google.com) or a preliminary review of Westminster School, articles and sources that might be available on your potential topics using a database like ProQuest (available through the Holman Library website). Note that when you're doing these preliminary searches for define richard The Mount, Mill International, information, you will make use of research skills like experimenting with a range of subject and keyword terms to search for articles and results for any given topic. 4. Reconsideration: This is an important moment. You may be ready to essay Westminster School choose ONE topic at this point because you may have discovered that you're no longer equally interested in or curious about all of the topics that were remaining in the previous stage.

After a preliminary review of feature article Ross School, available articles and argumentatif essay School, sources, you may have discovered that you cannot find equally rich ones for write University, all of them. Argumentatif Essay? A brand new topic may have occurred to how to an intro paragraph for an you. Essay? If you still can't decide on just one yet, start reading one or two articles on more than one topic, recognizing that you can't stay in this limbo of write essay, not deciding your topic choice for too much longer. 6. Narrowing your topic: You may not be happy to hear that, even though you've gone through a number of argumentatif essay School, steps already, finding a topic is only half the an intro paragraph School, battle! Because the amount of time you have in argumentatif Westminster a single quarter to produce a research paper is feature article relatively short, you must narrow your topic so that you are not biting off more than you can chew.

Even with significantly greater time, you would still have to narrow your topic so that your purpose and School, audience are clear and focused. The way in richard The Mount, Mill which you narrow your topic and the aspects that you research further will continue to go through some revision as you move through the essay Westminster, various stages of the define richard The Mount, Hill International, process. 7. Developing a research question: Later in essay School the process, even after you have picked and narrowed your topic, you will still need to develop a SINGLE research question that you will attempt to answer or at least address in your Final Research Article (FRA). You will come up with possible research question at the end of your Literature Review (LR); and finally you will have another chance to revise it for your FRA. Note that your research question should not be a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, etc. kind of question. Nor should it be a question that tries to and earn University Preparatory School predict the future or solve a problem. Legalization of argumentatif School, Drugs. These topics are prohibited because they have been debated for a long time, and it is rare that new points of view and analyses are added to the conversation. I have excluded Religion as a topic because academic writing has specific standards of argumentation that are often not compatible with religious ones. Write Commentary In An Algonquin? Note, however, that there is a long tradition of highly complex theological debate that has been conducted in essay academic settings; these debates, however, are usually not suitable for the social sciences, the length of assignments in this course, nor for the strategies of how to write and Burton Academy, argumentation we will cover.

If you have a strong interest in one of the topics from this list and believe that you have a unique angle you wish to explore, I will consider making an exception. Once again, your research question (the original angle you will be pursuing with regard to your narrowed topic) should not be a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, etc. Argumentatif Essay Westminster? type of write commentary College, question; nor should it be a question that tries to predict the future or solve a problem. Media Violence (including films, music, videogames, etc.) Homelessness and Poverty. Genetically Modified Foods. Immigration Policies and Immigrant Rights. War on essay School Terrorism. US presence in Iraq and write admission Burr, Afghanistan. Psychiatric Drugs (Ritalin, Prozac, etc.) Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) Media Bias and argumentatif School, Fake News. As in the Prohibited Topics category above, these topics are very important but have also been debated extensively. Do not choose from feature article, this list unless you are prepared to do new kinds of thinking and argumentatif, research, going beyond simple yes/no or for/against positions, as well as the obvious perspectives that we see repeated in the mainstream media. However, with a bit of additional reading and teaching essay writing school University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, critical thinking, you may discover new angles and questions that go beyond the commonplace understanding of them.

As with any topic you choose, narrowing your topic and posing interesting questions are crucial to a successful essay. I'm hoping that you will find a topic on your own based on your own interests or by browsing current newsmagazines or social science textbooks. In addition to the topics in the previous section, below is a list of topics that may lead to useful new research projects, but you should by argumentatif essay School, no means regard this list as exhaustive. I cannot possibly list all possible good topics for a project in the social sciences. Note that if you haven't heard of some of the topics below, e.g., green criminology, do some quick research on the internet about write and earn money them. Familiarize yourselves with a wide variety of possible topics before making your final topic selection. Argumentatif? Protest and how to write and Burton, other forms of activism. Access to Higher Education.

Unemployment, part-time labor, outsourcing. Argumentatif School? Media Democracy: Independent, Alternative Media, Community Radio, etc. Campaign Finance Reform: Citizens United Supreme Court Ruling (2010), etc. Iraqi, Afghani, Pakistani, Iranian Immigrants in the U.S. Environmental Impact (e.g., Dakota Access Pipeline, etc.) Criminal Justice (must be narrowed; see blue explanation below) Please note the earlier discussion about narrowing topics and finding research questions. The topics in this section are still way too big. For example, Criminal Justice can include Racial Profiling, Private Prisons, Prison Labor, Mandatory Sentencing, White Collar Crime, etc. Even after you have chosen a subtopic, you have to figure out what argumentative angle you're going to explore. For instance, an investigation of Private Prisons might lead you to explore the financial contributions of commentary in an essay Algonquin, prison corporations to political campaigns.

I have taught a themed section of English 127 just focusing on argumentatif essay Westminster Criminal Justice. Paragraph The Perkiomen School? Look at the huge list of potential criminal justice topics.

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Gilgamesh and essay, John Campbell#x27;s Hero#x27;s Journey. The tale begins with an exposition describing Gilgamesh and Enkindu's daily life. According the first step in Campbell's theory, a Hero's journey must begin in an ordinary world. How To Write Paragraph School! Enkindu fits this description perfectly. As far as a natural living is concerned, every aspect of Enkindu's life is argumentatif Westminster ordinary; he lives completely off the land, his whole body was “shaggy with hair”, and he satisfies his thirst with “mere water” (Anonymous, n.d.). Gilgamesh, in contrast, does not have a conventional life. Not only is he royalty, he is Hill “supreme over other kings”, he is the offspring of deities, and he is described as being “awesome to perfection” (Anonymous, n.d.). It is essay Westminster clear that the story begins with two starkly different lives, with Enkidu truly fitting Campbell's primary criteria as a Hero. Indeed, when the plot begins, Enkindu fulfills several more of Campbell's archetypes.

Enkidu is feature Ross School called to adventure (Campbell's second criteria) when a trapper notices him in the woods one day and becomes frightened when catching sight of him. In an effort to civilize the man (and remove him from his woods), the argumentatif essay, trapper uses the richard The Mount, International, harlot Shamat to seduce Enkidu: “The woman will overcome the fellow as if she were strong [. ] when he sees. . Standard Version was, since so few fragments of the Old Babylonian version have survived for argumentatif essay comparison. From what we can see, he is often a conservative editor, following the older version line for line, with few if any changes in vocabulary and word order. Sometimes, though, he expands or contracts, drops passages or adds them, and functions not as an editor but as an define richard Hill International original poet. The two major passages that we know he added, the Prologue and essay School, the priestess Shamhat's speech inviting Enkidu to Uruk, have the vividness and how to The Perkiomen, density of great art. Argumentatif Essay Westminster School! The Gilgamesh that you are about to read is a sometimes free, sometimes close adaptation into English verse of Sin-leYqi-unninni's Standard Version. Even scholars making literal translations don't simply translate the Standard Version; they fill in some of the in an essay, textual gaps with passages from other versions, the Old Babylonian being the most important.

I have taken this practice further: occasionally, when the Westminster, Standard Version is write article money University Preparatory particularly fragmentary, I have supplemented it with passages from the Sumerian Gilgamesh poems. I have also added lines or short passages to bridge the gaps or to clarify the essay School, story. My intention throughout has been to re-create the ancient epic, as a contemporary poem, in the parallel universe of the feature School, English language. CIVILIZING THE WILD MAN Gilgamesh is the story of a hero's journey; one might say that it is the mother of all heroes' journeys, with its huge uninhibited mythic presences moving. Words: 3615 - Pages: 15. . The Epic of Gilgamesh is known to be the oldest recorded story in essay School human history that is over 4000 years old. Write! The story introduces “the first hero” ever known.

A cruel Sumerian king who ruled the city of Uruk and did not care for his people but himself, he thought too highly of himself because he was half god, very strong, and had never found an equal. Although no one could defeat him, the people and gods were tired of his selfishness and argumentatif essay, decided to end his cruelty. They created a human named Enkidu who was as strong as him and write essay Burr, both fought a fiercely battle where Gilgamesh had defeated Enkidu but realized that he had finally found an argumentatif School equal. The story follows Gilgamesh on a quest with Enkidu who becomes his friend. They both go out and fight different obstacles to save the world but before they can do that Enkidu dies in a battle leaving Gilgamesh with great sorrow, and seeks on a new quest to find eternal life for him and to essay Burr Academy bring his friend back to argumentatif essay life.

His selfishness to gain immortality leaves him with nothing but to realize that eternal life is not just given that easy. This old story continues to influence modern storytelling. There are different connections to this story like the Bible’s Old Testament and Greek mythology that still have a role in Burr today’s society. The Bible’s Old Testament has many stories in common with the Epic of Gilgamesh. Westminster School! Since there are many followers of the Bible, it is very interesting to know how people would react to define richard The Mount, International the similarities that. Words: 1380 - Pages: 6. . Argumentatif Essay Westminster School! Depth and Weight Wendy Reyes Journey into Literature Instructor Alex Vuilleumier August 19, 2013 Depth and Weight When it came time for me to choose a poem to write about I pondered the thought and when I came across “How Do I Love Thee” it was the University, one that stood out the essay Westminster, most that I was most engaged in. It speaks of an unconditional love of a marriage that one woman had for her husband something that every young girl one day wishes to have. Article Ross School! In her poem Elizabeth Barrett Browning considers attitudes, actions, and responses that make love (marriage relationships) meaningful on this side of death and prospectively infinite on the other side.(Clungston 2010). The world has always been as rich and varied as it is at essay, this moment. Wealth and poverty, joy and how to admission and Burton, pain, peace and struggle have always existed side by argumentatif essay side.

The history of human life is the history of each person’s journey from birth to death. When we study history; we are always reading someone’s interpretation or argument. There’s much we can learn from other’s stories. Yet to be fully human is to essay writing middle — UMass Lowell (Navitas) escape the neat outlines of such a story. Argumentatif Essay Westminster! We immerse ourselves in life; we are surrounded by it. The poem is considered attitudes, actions, and responses that make love (marriage relationships) meaningful on this side of death. The sonnet is a highly structured form of lyric poetry with different specifications for Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet and for the English (Shakespearean) sonnet. Words: 491 - Pages: 2. Gilgamesh and John Campbell#x27;s Hero#x27;s Journey. . When reading Gilgamesh, it is not uncommon for admission many to argumentatif relate the tale's protagonist to John Campbell's theory on the twelve steps of a Hero's journey, which characterizes the write admission and Burton Academy, typical progression of most epic stories.

However, I make the claim that, as per Campbell's theory, it is not Gilgamesh himself who is the hero of the essay Westminster, tale. Rather, Gilgamesh and his ally Enkindu combine to form the single hero of the story, with Enkindu actually meeting most of Campbell's criteria. Write Commentary Essay College! Together, both characters symbolize one hero who embodies mankind's yearning to “incarnate unearthly covenants” (Campbell, 1968, p. Argumentatif Westminster! 3), consistent with Campbell's views on mythology. The tale begins with an exposition describing Gilgamesh and Enkindu's daily life. According the first step in how to Campbell's theory, a Hero's journey must begin in an ordinary world. Enkindu fits this description perfectly. Essay Westminster School! As far as a natural living is feature concerned, every aspect of Enkindu's life is essay Westminster School ordinary; he lives completely off the land, his whole body was “shaggy with hair”, and he satisfies his thirst with “mere water” (Anonymous, n.d.). Gilgamesh, in contrast, does not have a conventional life.

Not only is he royalty, he is “supreme over other kings”, he is the offspring of deities, and he is richard The Mount, Hill described as being “awesome to perfection” (Anonymous, n.d.). It is clear that the story begins with two starkly different lives, with Enkidu truly fitting Campbell's primary criteria as a Hero. Indeed, when the plot begins, Enkindu. Words: 1769 - Pages: 8. . that through his intimacy with Shamhat, Enkidu will become more human than Animalia. “His beasts that grew up with him on School, the steepe will deny him” (Gilgamesh 41). Sure enough this plan to tame Enkidu worked; “six days seven nights was Enkidu aroused, flowing into Shamhat” (Gilgamesh 42). The story shows how the power that women have over men, that with their bodies, they can satisfy their men and and make them weak. Enkiduke’s legs were wobbly after he had ‘spent himself’ and he was no longer the wild animal that he used to be. Shamhat talked to write money American University Preparatory School Enkidu and told him that he is above the average man; he doesn’t need to be roaming around with animals. This scene emphasizes the power of the argumentatif essay Westminster School, woman. She can change a man’s mind and comfort him. “Her words found favor, he was yearning for one to know his heart”. Through Shamhat, Enkiduk and Gilgamesh meet and become loyal friends and define The Mount, Mill International, companions after they fight at a wedding; when Enkiduke tries to stop the king from taking the bride’s virginity.

Ninsun, wife of argumentatif essay Lugalbanda is how to write for an Gilgamesh’s mother. Westminster! Since she is the priestess of the temple of Uruk, she holds a very important position. When Gilgamesh has his first dream where there were stars around him, he went to his entrusted mother and how to write School, told her about it seeking an interpretation. Showing her loving nature, Gilgamesh says “I fell in love with it, like a woman I caressed it” (Gilgamesh 43). Before he leaves, her son asks her to pray to argumentatif essay School Shamash for protection throughout their journey. Words: 1477 - Pages: 6. . Despite coming from two different parts of the world, Gilgamesh and Sunjata have many similarities within being an feature School epic character. First, the two stories share the fundamental aspects, intrinsic upon epics.

Both tales are told in a poetic format. In addition, the two tales both involve a hero who embarks on some sort of journey. For example, after witnessing the death of his good friend Enkidu, Gilgamesh has trouble coming to terms with his own mortality. In turn, he leaves Uruk hoping to find the secret to eternal life. This is argumentatif comparable to Sunjata's obstacles in his quest to become king. Sunjata had to come to terms with being a lame child unable to walk properly.

Furthermore, Sunjata was forced to travel to foreign kingdoms in exile while he waited for the appropriate time to regain control over his kingdom as prophesied. Both characters face their journey immediately after a tragic death; Gilgamesh witnesses his best friend Enkidu die of write article and earn money American Preparatory illness and essay, Sunjata discovers his mother passed away prior to fighting the Sosso. Moreover, Gilgamesh and Enkido's battle with Humbaba is paralleled with Sunjata's large fight against the Sosso leader Sumaworo. Both these illustrate the similarities in the hero confronting and define richard The Mount, Mill Hill International, defeating a great enemy while navigating through treacherous obstacles along the way. Essay Westminster School! Also, by the end of the tales Gilgamesh and Sunjata proved both to themselves and their to their constituents that they were worthy of leading their people.

Although Gilgamesh. Words: 627 - Pages: 3. . How To Admission Burr Academy! Gilgamesh: His Road to Westminster School Virtue Herbert Mason’s book, Gilgamesh: A Verse Narrative, depicts how a man evolves into a human being who experiences emotions he has never felt before. Gilgamesh begins the tale as a heartless man, but his friendship with Enkidu enlightens him, which allows him to become a virtuous person. Initially, Gilgamesh acts like a god. How To Write! He feels untouchable and emotionless until he forges a friendship with Enkidu. This deep human connection between the two men is then lost, marking the start of Gilgamesh’s journey where he acquires the traits of three cardinal virtues: fortitude, justice, and prudence. In the beginning, Gilgamesh is not a just person and argumentatif School, fails to how to admission essay respect other people. He “ was a tyrant to his people,” overworking them with no regard for them as human beings (Mason 15). He is oblivious to argumentatif essay Westminster School the world around him and article School, does not understand how every choice that he makes consequently affects others. Gilgamesh’s behavior changes for the first time when Enkidu is essay Westminster hurt during their quest. Gilgamesh shows grief and appeals to how to and Burton “his mother and to the elders…to save his friend” (Mason 48).

It is then, when he knows that his friend is close to death, that he is able to express compassion for another person. In addition to becoming a just person, Gilgamesh also gains wisdom. Gilgamesh originally lacks the wisdom he needs to Westminster School make good decisions and does things because he feels that he is privileged, regardless of if they are right or wrong. Mason. Words: 588 - Pages: 3. . I have read, understand, and am in compliance with the Academic Honesty policy.

In particular, I have not committed any kind of plagiarism. There are no un-attributed direct or indirect quotations or paraphrases from printed materials, websites, other students' papers, or any other sources in my essay. Professor Iglesias, Valint, and Nathanael English 203 10 April 2014 The Substance I Lack I Find in write and earn School You When looking for love we may not realize that many times we are merely looking to improve our own areas of opportunity. Argumentatif Essay School! We subconsciously look for counterparts that create a balance by contributing to what attributes are lacking within ourselves. In “The Epic of Gilgamesh” and Ama Ata Aidoo’s “Anowa” we see two character’s Gilgamesh and Anowa searching for substance in people who are unlike themselves.

Their life’s counterparts have what they are lacking within themselves; security. In both Anowa and Gilgamesh’s relationships we are able to see their true characteristics through their choice of money Preparatory mates. Both characters are portrayed to be powerful but when we see who they fall in love with we learn the nature of their true self. We learn that though they may appear strong and confident are in actuality both insecure. Gilgamesh is described in the beginning of the story as “like a bull he makes himself mighty head raised (over others)” (Iglesias, Mays and Pierce 8).

He is boastful and essay Westminster School, constantly ensuring everyone feels his presence when around. He acts as. Words: 1487 - Pages: 6. . RR: Gilgamesh The epic poem Gilgamesh is about the king of Uruk, Gilgamesh. He was two-thirds god and one third human, and ruled as a tyrant. The gods created Enkidu, a wild man just as powerful as Gilgamesh, to keep him in check.

A hunter finds him living with animals, and brings a temple prostitute to tame him. Enkidu sleeps with the woman and becomes part of the human world. Once Enkidu learns about School Gilgamesh, he wants to challenge him. Gilgamesh and Enkidu fight, but Gilgamesh eventually wins. He and Enkidu become friends, and decide to go on an adventure. They go to a forest forbidden to mortals, and steal trees.

They send the trees back to Uruk, and make a gate. The goddess of love, Ishtar, is overcome with lust for argumentatif School Gilgamesh, but he rejects her. Her father Anu sends the Bull of Heaven to punish him, but Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill it. After this, the gods decide that either Gilgamesh or Enkidu must be punished. Write Commentary In An Algonquin! The gods make Enkidu sick, and he dies. Gilgamesh grieves immensely for argumentatif Westminster School Enkidu, and how to write admission essay, goes to seek out Utnapishtim, who was granted eternal life, in order to try and learn how to argumentatif School avoid death. Write Commentary In An Essay College! However, Utnapishtim test Gilgamesh and he fails. Utnapishtim sends Gilgamesh back to essay Westminster Uruk, where he learns to accept his mortality.

The story of Gilgamesh relates to IGE in that it examines values, in this case the value of article Ross life. Gilgamesh is so materialistic that he wants as much of everything as he can get. The fact that he is part god pretty much. Words: 517 - Pages: 3. . Essay: Gilgamesh and School, Enkidu by Omar Ahmed The relationship between Enkidu and Gilgamesh is a complex bond of true friendship. Write Admission Essay And Burton! Enkidu not only serves as a friend, but also a loving brother, a soul mate and argumentatif essay Westminster, a mirror of Gilgamesh. However; this relationship is more than just a bond between friends. Enkidu's life and death serve a great purpose as a catalyst for Gilgamesh.

Gilgamesh is deeply affected by article Ross School Enkidu and this is primarily because of the strength of their relationship. Anne Kelly cites Aristotle when defining this bond as a true friendship. Aristotle believed in four types of friendships. Essay! First, a friendship of how to write Academy utility. This is based on what the Westminster, friends can gain from each other. Write University Preparatory School! Second, a friendship of pleasure, which is argumentatif Westminster School based on the pleasure gained from and earn money American University Preparatory each other.

The third type of friendship is of inequality, where both parties gain something different than what they give. And finally, the fourth type is a true friendship, which grows slowly over time. This type involves love and trust between equals. (Kelly, 1) The relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu is a good example of the fourth type of argumentatif essay Westminster School friendship. At first, they are not friends at all. Enkidu was created as a test for Gilgamesh. Once this trial is overcome, their bond slowly starts to build.

Although Enkidu is uncivilized when they first meet, Gilgamesh takes him under his wing and humanizes him. By doing this, Gilgamesh treats Enkidu as an equal and a friend. Kelly goes on to state that Aristotle. Words: 1233 - Pages: 5. . How To Write Commentary In An College! race. In the track “Beggin’ For a Thread” Banks describes how humans have flaws. “So, I got edges that scratch And sometimes I don't got a filter.…But I'm so tired of eatin' all of my misspoken words” People say things they regret and make mistakes all the time. When people can’t say how they feel like they have to repress part of argumentatif Westminster School themselves. Ross! It’s important that people tell themselves that it’s okay to make mistakes. Banks argues that we still can be accepted in society even though we have flaws. The song “Someone New” describes personal growth, which goes coincides with the song “Beggin’ for a Thread”. “And now I am supplying you the time and space To let you grow into the person that I know, that I know you can be.

And I can be one too.” Before we learn how to establish relationships with others we have to learn our own self worth. As members of society, we naturally want the best for ourselves. Gilgamesh and Borderlands can be connected to these two songs. Gilgamesh is supposedly the greatest of all men. He is the School, fiercest of warriors ambitious, wealthy, and powerful. During his quest to learn the secret of eternal life, he instead the wisdom to how to write commentary in an essay College strike harmony between his attributes that made him so great. Through his journey, especially with the death of Enkidu, Gilgamesh becomes a better king. Argumentatif Westminster! Even though this story is about journeys, one of those journeys is of self discovery and worth like Bank discusses. Gilgamesh’s many journeys mirror his internal. Words: 1831 - Pages: 8. . Epic of Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh gives voice to the ancient Mesopotamian's expectations and desires for essay writing school University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) its kings. Argumentatif Westminster! Through this chronicle the reader discovers that Mesopotamian kings should please the gods but understand humanity.

With knowledge, courage, counsel and judgment the how to write for an essay, kings should protect their people, be strong and impressive; create legacies; consult with experts and be appropriately humble; they should beware of arrogance, boastfulness and, in the case of School Gilgamesh and Ishtar, should not disrespect powerful women. Throughout the epic the narrator reminds the importance of knowledge. Gilgamesh is lauded for feature Ross being the man to whom all things were known, including the countries of the world, secrets, mysteries and history of life prior to a devastating catastrophe (P. 61). Near the end of the tale the narrator repeats that Gilgamesh was wise and had witnessed mysteries and knew secrets (P. 117). The epic describes the School, collection of knowledge, creation of writings, buildings and passages, and feature School, begins with the narrator proclaiming to the world the deeds of Gilgamesh (P. Argumentatif Westminster School! 61).

Knowledge, wisdom and legacies are expected of kings; such attributes please the gods and serve to fortify the an intro for an School, kings' societies through physical protections, cultural development and ideology. To obtain knowledge and protect legacies, Mesopotamian kings should be courageous, seek counsel and exercise good judgment (P. 61, 76, 80-81). A good king should exhibit compassion and. Words: 302 - Pages: 2. . The journey from high school to college will be challenging as far as time management and argumentatif Westminster, personal responsibilities. In high school, scheduled school days are structured based upon the portion of Hill time during the day that stays the same every day.

In college, the individual must make a drastic change to argumentatif a more unpredictable and flexible schedule. Time management will be challenging for students because one will have to decide what time the courses will be taken and how those courses will align with other responsibilities. Personal responsibility is a wake up for call for college students. Write American University Preparatory! In college, the individual is responsible for essay Westminster what happens in their lives. One is responsible to make sure they are up for how to an intro for an The Perkiomen their 8am class because no one is there to wake them up to Westminster be sure that they are on time. It is the essay writing school University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), students’ responsibility to make sure that their assignments are complete and are turned in on time because the professor may not remind one of these things. Argumentatif Essay Westminster School! In one’s younger years, it is easy to put the blame on article and earn money University Preparatory School, others to make themselves feel better about their own fault. Both failures and success should be appointed to the person individually. Argumentatif Essay Westminster School! Making the transition from high school to college will be the most challenging experience of many students’ lives.

The transition from high school to how to write commentary in an essay Algonquin College college will build one’s character. Argumentatif Essay Westminster! School overall, both high school and college, help discover, refine, and test students’ character. Values and write admission Burr and Burton Academy, ethical systems of. Words: 745 - Pages: 3. . Adva Asraf English 391-0500- Pamplin January 14th, 2016 Essay #1 Epic heroism usually denotes to an individual of highest social class such as great kings or leaders. Epic heroes are outstanding fighters, sometimes carrying some divine powers. To show his heroic elements, the hero must confront some supernatural enemies, quests, war, or adversity. The Epic of Gilgamesh depicts most of these characteristics of epic heroism.

The description about his birth to the journey and adventures in his life meets the argumentatif, characteristics of an epic hero. Although, at some points, Gilgamesh engages in acts of selfishness and arrogance, I believe he achieves the characteristics of an epic hero and portrays those characteristics throughout the epic. Gilgamesh is described as a son of a mortal man and a goddess, which makes him a one-third man and essay College, a two-thirds god. During his birth, Gilgamesh is marked out as a unique type of a person who has connections with both the mortal world and the divine world. The divine birth is very central and important to the various adventures and achievements to come into his life. “When the gods created Gilgamesh they gave him a perfect body…..Two-thirds they made him a god and one-third man (Mitchell, 13). Like most epic heroes, Gilgamesh embarks on heroic quests where he fights with the guardian Humbaba, which was a monster of the holy forest in order to achieve immortal status. Gilgamesh reveals his courageous nature by defying his advisers. Words: 692 - Pages: 3. . underlying motive for his quest. Westminster! He encounters a veiled tavern keeper, Siduri, who warns him that seeking immortality is futile and that he should be satisfied with his life. The individuals that he meets on his quest contribute to how to write essay and Burton the second part of his life and cause him to reflect on his inner self. Jung would suggestive the hero is beginning understand that it is not all about the accomplishments of essay Westminster School his physical actions but also the discovery of understanding.

When Gilgamesh finally finds Utnapishtim and is told the story about the attempted destruction of the world by the gods, he learns that men will die, but humankind will continue. Again the how to write admission Burr, Mesopotamian people believed that the gods had the power to end humanity. Argumentatif Essay School! Their lives depended on and earn American, their gods. Argumentatif Essay School! Utnapishtim was only define richard The Mount, Hill International, granted life because the argumentatif essay Westminster, god, Ea allowed the knowledge that permitted him to survive. Then Utnapishtim tests Gilgamesh with a challenge of staying awake for a week, which he fails. How To Write An Intro Paragraph Essay School! However, he is given the argumentatif essay Westminster, opportunity to obtain a plant that restores youth. Gilgamesh obtains the plant and decides to share it with the teaching writing middle University — UMass Lowell (Navitas), elders of his people in Uruk. This is argumentatif another example of how the hero is better defined by what he discovers and not by what he does. Define Richard Mill International! The desire to share his discovery reveals his growing understanding that he alone would not be able to sufficiently govern his people without assistance.

The fact that a snake eats the essay Westminster School, plant while he is asleep on his journey home does not.

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11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. Valedictorians and star quarterbacks aren’t the only ones earning college scholarships. In the 2011-12 school year, more than $6.2 billion in private scholarships was awarded to more than 1.8 million undergraduate students with all manner of academic and athletic achievements. Starting early is a key to success. The fall of your junior year of essay Westminster School, high school is a good time to begin evaluating your scholarship options. Application deadlines will vary, but don’t be surprised if some are due a full year before college starts. And it’s never too early to start. Jif, the how to commentary in an College, peanut butter maker, has awarded a $25,000 college fund to the winner of its “Most Creative Sandwich Contest.” Only kids between the ages of 6 and essay School, 12 can qualify.

With so many options available, be sure to look beyond the big-money scholarships. Write An Intro Essay The Perkiomen? “Small awards can add up,” says Eric Johnson, a spokesman for the Office of Scholarships and argumentatif, Student Aid at American University Preparatory the University of North Carolina at argumentatif essay Chapel Hill. Plus, each award that you win will beef up your credentials on subsequent scholarship applications. We’ve identified 11 great sources of college scholarships. Take a look to see which ones are right for you. By Dylan Cunningham, Contributing Writer and Meilan Solly, Intern | Updated August 2015. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. Feature Ross School? The best place to start your search is online. With free scholarship finders that will do the initial legwork for you, the argumentatif School, 30 minutes or so that you spend creating your profile can turn into hundreds of scholarship opportunities. Be sure to fill out every available field in richard The Mount, International your profile -- even the optional ones -- because the more information you provide, the more scholarships you can get matched with. Kiplinger’s favorite scholarship finder is at Fastweb.com, which maintains a database of more than 1.5 million scholarships . Other reliable online scholarship finders can be found at Westminster Scholarships.com, StudentScholarshipSearch.com and Bigfuture.collegeboard.org. Available scholarships and search criteria can vary by Web site, so try using at feature School least two to boost your odds of success.

Once you’ve been matched with scholarships, talk to your high school counselor to narrow the field to the most promising candidates, recommends Eli Clarke, a college counselor at Gonzaga College High School, in Washington, D.C. Beware scholarships or scholarship services that charge a fee. “The cardinal rule is, never pay a person or service to apply for scholarships,” Clarke says. Essay Westminster School? “The information and process is always free.” The scholarship pursuit doesn’t end once you arrive on campus. Mark Kantrowitz, founder of FinAid.org, a financial aid Web site, advises students to write article money American University Preparatory continue searching for scholarships throughout college because there are a lot of single-year awards for current college students that you have to reapply for annually. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. When you decide to apply to essay Westminster a college, the money School, first thing you should do is contact the essay School, admissions office to request a list of scholarships offered by the school. University Lowell (Navitas)? Be sure the list includes detailed information on eligibility requirements and deadlines. Essay? Don’t wait to inquire about article Ross scholarships until after you are admitted, which might not happen until the spring of your senior year.

School-based scholarship applications can be due as early as the fall of your senior year, before admissions decisions are made. Some schools automatically consider applicants with grade point averages or standardized test scores that are above a certain threshold for merit scholarships . No additional scholarship application is required. Schools do this in order to Westminster School woo top academic students. Other school-based scholarships are available only to students nominated by their high schools. For example, the Morehead-Cain Scholarship at UNC-Chapel Hill, which offers a full merit-based scholarship for writing Lowell — UMass Lowell, four years in essay addition to summer enrichment opportunities, involves a multistep application process that begins the define Hill, summer before senior year. Another full scholarship, the Jefferson Scholarship at argumentatif essay the University of Virginia, requires nominees to how to commentary in an essay go through several rounds of competition in order to earn a scholarship that covers tuition and additional enrichment activities over four years. Every college’s scholarship application process is different, so it’s critical to stay on essay Westminster, top of the details and deadlines.

11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. As a perk for workers, some businesses have scholarship programs available not only to employees but also to employees’ children and sometimes even extended family . If you’re a student with a job, contact the human resources department to see whether you qualify for how to write admission and Burton, any scholarship opportunities. McDonald's, for example, has a National Employee Scholarship Program that awards $1,000 to one employee in each state and the District of Columbia every academic year. In addition, the fast-food chain annually gives one $5,000 scholarship to the “McScholar of the Year.” If your employer doesn’t offer a scholarship, don’t be afraid to ask why it doesn’t. Essay? Management might be receptive to an opportunity to give back to ambitious employees. Taking the initiative could pay off for you.

Don’t restrict yourself to your own employer, though. “Look at your family tree,” says Clarke. “Ask any and write an intro for an School, all family members if they know of a scholarship for which they can nominate you.” Many employers use a third-party administrator, such as Scholarship America, to select scholarship recipients, so don’t assume that the money only goes to the higher-ups’ kids. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. Check with your place of worship to see whether it offers any scholarships to members. If not, staff might know of local or regional groups that do offer scholarships to students of your faith. Just keep in essay mind that faith-based aid might be directed to students attending universities with religious missions, or students pursuing religious studies and an intro for an essay, related professions. Be sure to argumentatif essay Westminster School expand your search to how to essay Burr Academy include national religious governing bodies . The United Methodist Church, for example, oversees more than 50 scholarship programs available to essay Westminster its active members. The average undergraduate award is between $500 and $2,000. Write Article And Earn Money American University Preparatory School? Even non-believers can get in on the action.

American Atheists gives out two $1,000 scholarships and six $500 scholarships every year. The awards are presented annually at Westminster the group’s national convention. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. You can take advantage of a wealth of how to write an intro paragraph for an The Perkiomen, resources in your community if you know where to look. School? “Many public libraries have career centers or bulletin boards with local scholarship opportunities posted,” says Kantrowitz, and some parent-teacher associations have programs to feature help fund local students’ college ambitions. If your local PTA doesn’t award scholarships, it might be able to point you to argumentatif School a state-level PTA group that does.

The Texas PTA, for example, offers $1,000 scholarships to graduating high school seniors; the California PTA, a $750 and $500 scholarship. Also check around to see if any local businesses offer money to help area students attend college. If not, ask if they would consider it. Scholarships are a good way for business owners to give back to the community and good publicity for the business . Feature Article School? It’s also common for essay Westminster, Rotary Clubs, whose ranks are often made up of local business owners, to sponsor club scholarships funded by define The Mount, Mill International members. It’s not a bad idea as well to see if a Dollars for Scholars chapter operates in your area. The nationwide network of more than 500 locally based affiliates is run by Scholarship America. Each chapter raises money to fund college scholarships for local students. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships.

Your High School and Elementary School. Some schools, with funding from the argumentatif Westminster School, local parent-teacher association or local philanthropists, award annual scholarships. For instance, John Champe High School, in Aldie, Va., offers two $1,000 scholarships, sponsored by the PTSA, to graduating seniors. University? And the Clarence M. Gillis Memorial Scholarship Fund, a $500 privately endowed award, is given to a graduating senior from School, one of two Roanoke, Va., high schools. If you are part of the school University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas), band or chorus at Lincoln High School in argumentatif essay School Lincoln, R.I., you can apply for essay of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, the Daniel Patrick O’Neil Memorial Scholarship. Other schools, such as Staples High School, in Westport, Conn., offer tuition grants to students demonstrating financial need. Argumentatif Essay? In 2014, Staples awarded $320,000 to feature 112 graduating students and alumni.

It’s worth checking with your elementary school, as well. The PTA-sponsored $500 Davis Alumni Scholarship, for example, is awarded to students who spent at least three years at Will Davis Elementary School, in Austin, Texas. Westminster? 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. Jakert via Wikimedia Commons. If you think there’s no way that your obscure hobby could help you pay for school, think again. From duck calling to competitive eating, name your pastime and feature, there is Westminster probably a related college scholarship for enthusiasts just like you.

Hobbies with national governing bodies are the most likely sources of college funding , says Kantrowitz. Take scouting, for instance. The Boy Scouts of America lists about two dozen scholarship opportunities for Eagle Scouts. A biggie is the Mabel and Lawrence S. Cooke scholarship, which usually awards $48,000 over four years to one Eagle Scout and $25,000 over four years to four other winners. Teaching Essay — UMass Lowell (Navitas)? There are scholarships just for females, too. Some come from national organizations, such as the Girl Scouts of the Westminster School, USA, and others come from smaller groups. If you happen to be an aspiring female filmmaker, check out the Girls Impact the how to write Academy, World Film Festival. By creating a three- to five-minute film discussing issues faced by women around the world, you can compete for School, $1,000 to how to essay and Burton $5,000 in argumentatif essay School cash, as well as an internship with the Creative Visions Foundation. 11 Top Sources of how to in an Algonquin College, College Scholarships. Corporations and professional organizations offer scholarships to standout students in their fields. Argumentatif Westminster School? You don’t have to pursue a major or a career in a related discipline to apply for write Algonquin, a scholarship , but demonstrated interest in the field will set you apart from other applicants.

As Kantrowitz explains, “Depth matters more than breadth.” Scholarship providers like to see students who invest their time in a specific interest rather than spend a limited amount of time working with many interests. Science-oriented students can enter competitions such as Intel’s Science Talent Search, which awards three high school seniors a whopping $150,000 apiece. Winners are judged on essay Westminster, their scientific research and write in an College, future potential. School? Runner-ups pocket anywhere between $7,500 and $75,000. There are similar opportunities for Ross School, right-brained creative types.

ShurTech, the maker of Duck brand duct tape, offers $10,000 apiece (plus $5,000 to the winners’ school) to the winning couple in its Stuck at Prom scholarship contest. Entrants are required to create and accessorize their prom outfits with duct tape. Runners-up receive between $500 and $5,000. No prom date? No problem. Essay? There’s also a singles category. Students involved in honor societies, such as the National Honor Society or the National English Honor Society, can apply for scholarships worth between $1,000 and $13,000. 11 Top Sources of paragraph for an essay The Perkiomen, College Scholarships.

Companies and argumentatif essay School, Philanthropic Foundations. Almost anybody is eligible for the high-value scholarships offered by several large corporations. For instance, the Coca-Cola Scholars Program Scholarship awards 150 $20,000 scholarships. It requires applicants to have a minimum GPA of 3.0, but additional requirements are fairly standard. Feature Article? The Jack Kent Cooke Foundation has more requirements than Coca-Cola (a minimum GPA and SAT score requirement, as well as demonstrated financial need), but the pay-off is high. About 40 winners earn as much as $40,000 for each year of school. Essay School? In order to select winners, the Coca-Cola Scholars Program and the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation look at academic records, leadership and extracurricular activities, and essays. If you are a member of an ethnic minority, you can also apply for the Gates Millennium Scholars Program. Additional requirements include a 3.3 GPA, leadership experience and Federal Pell Grant eligibility.

The program hands out how to write an intro paragraph for an School 1,000 scholarships each year, with an argumentatif essay Westminster average award of write money, more than $12,000. You’ll face more competition for larger national scholarships with less-restrictive eligibility requirements, but the higher award money could be worth the time spent on an application. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. If you aren’t interested in filling out essays and submitting transcripts, you can leave the fate of your scholarship funds to chance. Companies such as lender Sallie Mae and college-search sites Cappex and Niche conduct monthly scholarship sweepstakes that give random winners between $1,000 and $2,000. Another option is ScholarshipPoints.com, a service provided by financial aid Web site Edvisors.com. By completing activities on the site, you earn points that you can use to enter scholarship drawings. In 2015, ScholarshipPoints is set to give away more than $100,000 through random drawings.

Kantrowitz offers several tips for differentiating legitimate scholarship opportunities from scams. “If you have to pay money to argumentatif essay School get money, it’s probably a scam,” he says. Two approaches are Googling the name of the organization with “scam” added to the end to see what others are saying or asking a high school guidance counselor or college financial aid administrator for their thoughts on the scholarship’s validity. 11 Top Sources of College Scholarships. Look in feature article Ross School the mirror, identify what sets you apart from argumentatif Westminster, your peers, and search for write and earn University School, ways to translate that into financial support for your education. Scholarships are available to students based on everything from essay School, race and ethnicity to unique physical traits , such as writing left-handed or being a twin. Too tall to see yourself in the mirror? You might qualify for a scholarship worth up to $1,000 from the Tall Clubs International Foundation. Male applicants must be at least 6-feet-2; females, 5-feet-10 or taller.

Little People of define richard The Mount, Mill Hill, America offers educational scholarships ranging from $250 to $1,000. Argumentatif School? Its members typically are 4-feet-10 or shorter. The United Negro College Fund partners with numerous organizations to provide college scholarships. And despite the organization’s name, not all funding is limited to write article and earn American Preparatory School African-American students. Essay Westminster School? Other organizations dole out scholarships for students who can claim Irish, Japanese and other heritages. For those who have faced great adversity in feature Ross their lives, consider Beat the Odds scholarships. Various states, including Texas, California and New York, offer funds to students who overcome obstacles to receive an Westminster School education. School University — UMass Lowell? Your parents’ unique traits can help you find scholarships, too. The Through the Looking Glass Scholarship is awarded to students whose parents have disabilities, and argumentatif Westminster, children of veterans are eligible for scholarships such as the Military Commanders’ Scholarship Fund.

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Direct Seeding Literature Review Essay. The world’s total forest area is essay Westminster School, just over 4 billion hectares, which corresponds to an average of 0.6 ha per capita (Figure 1). The five most forest-rich countries (the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China) account for more than half of the total forest area. Deforestation – mainly the conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land – shows signs of decreasing in several countries. Around 13 million hectares of forest were converted to write commentary College, other uses or lost through natural causes each year in the last decade. At a regional level, South America suffered the Westminster School, largest net loss of forests between 2000 and 2010 – about money American Preparatory School 4.0 million hectares per year – followed by Africa, which lost3.4 million hectares annually (Figure 5). Westminster School? Oceania also reported a net loss of forest (about 700 000 ha per essay University Lowell year over argumentatif essay Westminster, the period 2000–2010), mainly due to how to write admission, large losses of forests in Australia, where severe drought and forest fires have exacerbated the loss of forest since 2000. Asia, which had a net loss of forest of some 600 000 ha annually in the 1990s.

Need of Forest Restoration: Within the last ten years, tropical rainforests have been destroyed at an annual rate of essay, 0.8% of area (Whitemore, 1997). So this things brings to human being to think about the forest restoration. Forest restoration is defined as “actions to re-instate ecological processes, which accelerate recovery of forest structure, ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest” Various forest restoration methods have been developed, for instance, the accelerated natural regeneration ( ANR) (Jansen and Pfeifer , 1989), The Framework Species method(Goosem Tucker, 1995) and The Maximum Species Diversity method. The ANR method is how to Algonquin, Effective where natural regeneration is already underway. Argumentatif Essay? Eliminates nursery and tree planting costs. Relatively cheap – Capitalizes on “free” ecological services US$ 1,400/ha. The Framework Species method is suitable where native vegetation is close by. Its only how to write essay Burr Academy, need a single planting and it is self sustaining.

In the argumentatif, Maximum Species Diversity method a large percentage of species are from the mature phase and primary promoters are avoided. The major disadvantage of this method slower growth rate and post planting management is required. Now a days there is some evidence that , reforestation plays a key role in how to write Academy the long term of restoration of landscape functioning, as well as social and economic development. Reforestation can catalyses and induce succession of forest ecosystems using native species (Parrotta, 2000). Direct Seeding: An ancient method of establishing trees is by argumentatif essay, sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required.

In many circumstances, this method is superior to define richard The Mount, Mill Hill International, the traditional method of planting nursery-raised plants. In several tropical countries, the demand for reforestation is often not met due to limited resources. Supplementing traditional planting with direct seeding can enable these countries to increase reforestation. Direct seeding is a regeneration method of sowing seeds directly where the future trees are required, whether it is for forest plantations, shelterbelts or in agroforestry. Argumentatif Essay? In this way the in an essay College, laborious task of raising nursery plants and argumentatif essay Westminster School, transplanting them to the planting site is omitted. Direct seeding offers various interesting possibilities e.g. the ability to rapidly increase the area being forested or the ability to provide rural people with an inexpensive method to how to College, obtain benefits from trees. History of Direct Seeding: Direct seeding has over essay, the last 50 years gained in importance, especially in North America and China where large areas have been direct seeded from helicopters or aero planes. Direct seeding from the article Ross School, air has been widely used in China where more than 15 million ha have been reforested between 1956 and 1985 (Xinhua Jingchun, 1988). In the developed countries more than 1?2 million ha were reported to be direct seeded in 1974 or about 20 % of the area being planted (Appleroth, 1975).

Direct seeding in the tropics is argumentatif School, less reported compared with the subtropics (Australia and USA) or the richard The Mount, International, temperate regions (USA, Canada and Scandinavia). Trials have been carried out and argumentatif Westminster School, reported from various tropical countries for example Indonesia, Philippines, India, Central America, Northern Australia and feature article Ross School, the Sahel in argumentatif essay Africa. Direct seeding in how to write essay Burr the tropics has been carried out many times without the results ever being published. In the dry tropics traditional forestry is limited and most trees are raised in connection with agriculture. Here, direct seeding already plays an important role, this could increase in the future by being implemented in afforestation and in establishment of shelterbelts. In the humid tropics it appears that direct seeding is less common, probably due to many tree species having recalcitrant seeds and competition with weeds being fiercer. School? Nevertheless direct seeding has the ability to contribute significantly to tropical forestry in the future, probably not as the main regeneration method but as a method that under certain circumstances is superior to other methods. The following will describe various scenarios where direct seeding is richard Hill, employed in the tropics. Advantages of Direct Seeding: Most forest restoration projects involve planting nursery raised tree seedlings,, but this is most labor and capital intensive method of forest restoration.

Seed collection, raising seedlings in a nursery, planting and maintaining planted saplings until they can establish and become independent all require substantial labor inputs (Hardwick et al., 2000). Furthermore root deformities caused by transplanting techniques can reduce sapling survival in the field ( Zangkum, 19980). Argumentatif Essay Westminster? The Potential advantages of article Ross School, direct seeding over other plantation establishment techniques include cost savings associated with nursery care and planting as well as the possibility that trees established by this means may develop more naturally or quickly, than would transplanted seedlings or cuttings( Engel Parrotta,2001). The Eden Project in Niger is recommending direct seeding as an appropriate method of establishing trees where water is essay Westminster, scarce (Eden Foundation, 2000). It is claimed that nursery plant use precious irrigation water, whereas direct seeding carried out prior to or during the rainy season does not need irrigation. How To Admission And Burton? They further maintain that plantation established by direct seeding tend to produce extensive root system, whereas the above ground shoots grow more slowly. In contrast seedlings in nurseries tend to produce large shoots and have to be irrigated or they they will suffer high mortality, whereas plants that established through direct seeding are more likely to be able to reach moisture remaining in the soil after rainy season.(Oschner,2001). This was quantified by Samba (1992) who sowed the seeds of Faidherbia albida at the same time as planting as planting nursery raised plants. Four months after sowing direct seeded plants were about twice as tall and had a mean dry root mass 25 times higher than that of the nursery raised plants.

The disadvantages of Direct Seeding: The significant disadvantages of direct seeding that can outweigh these advantages include low germination survival percentages, seedling mortality associated with weed competition and also poor weather condition (Evans, 1982). Steven stated that the results of direct seeding are affected by a number of factors including species, soil conditions, site preparation and techniques for seed germination. Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by animals also plays a key role in reducing seed germination. Direct Seeding in different purposes: Direct deeding can used for many purposes like for plantation, restoration, in mine spoils rehabilitation, in agro forestry. Negreros et al., 2003 worked in Mexico to restore the area by Mahogany seeds. Westminster? Because this is how to essay The Perkiomen School, very valuable for timber.

He found that Burying Mahogany seeds were clearly better than sowing them on the soil surface and it yields double comapared to sowing method. For restoration purposes by direct seeding method, Tunjai and Elliott (2011) found that seed trait is very important to argumentatif essay Westminster, achieve the goal of forest restoration by this method. They said Large or intermediate sized seeds, Round or oval seeds, Medium or low moisture content seeds showed good establishment when they sowed in the field for School forest restoration purposes. For mine site rehabilitation Parrotta and Knowles(2001) found that In term of species richness, densities and life span over 40 years Direct seeding got the most priority. They experimented with four forest restoration techniques and direct seeding showed the good result for argumentatif essay rehabilitation mine site in Brazil. Factors effecting seed germination when applied by direct seeding: Seed germination is the activation of the essay writing middle school University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, metabolic machinery of the embryo, leading to the emergence of a new seedling ( Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995).

Seeds of some species do not germinate due to hard seeed coats hindering intake of water ( Baskin Baskin, 1998). Seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and argumentatif School, improve the seed coat permeability. Article University? For germination to be initiated three conditions must be fulfilled: first seeds must be viable that the embryo must be alive and capable of germination. Argumentatif? Second, the article and earn money, seed must be subjected to a proper environmental conditions, available water, proper temperatures, a supply of oxygen and sometimes light. Third dormancy must be overcome. ( Poulsen and Stubsgaard, 1995).However seed treatments can be applied to break dormancy and improve seed coat permeability such as scarification, soaking in water or boiling in hot water or hot sand.( Hardwick Elliott,1992). Problems with weeds: Studies conducted by Sun, Dickson and Bragg ( 1995) in Australia, found that the survival and early growth of Alphitonia petriei through direct seeding are largely affected by weed competition and site conditions. The death of germinated seedlings, a few weeks after germination in argumentatif the plots where weeds remained undisturbed through out the experiment, was mot likely due to the effects of competition for light from the existing weeds. Results from define richard The Mount, Hill International both the argumentatif essay Westminster, glasshouse and how to write an intro paragraph for an essay The Perkiomen School, field experiments also indicate that weed compition severely limited the early growth of Alphitonia. Frequent weeding is necessary during the early growth phase.(Engel Parrotta 2001). Problems with predation:

Seed predation can be severe and looses up to 100% have been reported. (Crawley, 1992). Seed predation has identified as one of the biotic barriers to argumentatif essay School, natural forest regeneration in the abandoned Amazon pasture derived from rainforest ( Nepstad et al., 1991). Garwood (1989) pointed out that seed destructed by article and earn money University School, animals also play vital roles in reducing seed germination. However Crouch And Radwan (1975) recommending seed coating and argumentatif essay School, pelleting against seed predators. But little is known about this technique in tropical situation. The study of how to write paragraph for an The Perkiomen School, Woods and Elliott (2004) was designed based on the premise that scarifying seeds before sowing them in the fields cleared of weeds would shorten seed dormancy to argumentatif Westminster School, decrease the time available for define richard The Mount, Hill seed predation to argumentatif essay Westminster, occur and that burial conceals seeds from potential predator. They found that ants were the only predator observed. Seeds buried or covered by mulch were better able to escape seed predation by ants or other types of predation. The results from Sun et al., 1995 showed that compacted and eroded soils are inhospitable to the establishment of A. petriei seedlings. So,at this point site preparation is necessary to admission essay and Burton, overcome this problem. Points to achieve succession of using direct seeding:

Sun et al.1995 conclude that weed control and maintenance of argumentatif essay School, nutrient levels are essential for success. Engel and write an intro The Perkiomen School, Parrotta (2001) suggested that what is required is Westminster School, a more systematic screening of potential species and their response to The Mount,, direct seeding under field conditions and evaluation of coast associated with plantation establishment and aftercare. Seed quality is essay Westminster School, also other concern, using fresh seeds collected from several parent trees growing on sites where soil and climatic conditions are similar to those being reforested and planting should be carried on teaching University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell, high rainfall. Woods and Elliott suggested that seeds should be sown in tha field immediately after fruit collection if possible. In order to minimize seed storage, species selected for argumentatif essay Westminster School dirct seeding should fruit at the beginning of the writing middle school Lowell Lowell, rainy season when direct seeding is most likely to be successful. Areas where direct Seeding could get an argumentatif essay, importence: Many tropical species have recalcitrant seeds, e.g. most trees in the dipterocarp family. This means that the seeds deteriorate rapidly after collection and can only be stored for a short period. If transport and temporary storage can be reduced to a minimum by processing the seedlot at the collection site before direct seeding the seeds at the planned site, the whole operation may be done in fewer days compared to a solution with a central processing centre and a nursery. How To Write In An Essay Algonquin? This solution should result in a seedlot with better germination and possibly a higher overall percentage of established plants.

In areas with seasonal rains, recalcitrant seeds are adapted to ripen at the start of the rainy season and germinate soon after dispersal from the mother plant. Time for direct seeding will thus naturally be at the beginning of the argumentatif, wet season, just after collection of the seeds, where the rains will provide a good start for the seedlings. In contrast, nursery stock has to be planted out a year after seed collection at the onset of the next rainy season or alternatively at a time where drought can hinder the growth and survival of the seedlings. Many species will reach a fair size after a year in the nursery, resulting in more costly transport and planting of nursery stock compared to direct seeding. How To Admission Burr And Burton? In Southeast Asia large areas of former rain forest lands have been turned into imperata (Imperata cylindrica) grassland, due to failure of reforestation. In Indonesia alone the latest estimate of Imperata grasslands is 8,6 million ha (Garrity et al.

1997). In these areas it is essay School, difficult for trees to establish naturally due to annual fires. Article Ross School? Direct seeding in connection with constructing fire-belts could perhaps offer an alternative method to reforest these areas. In a trial in Jamaica a variety of trees was successfully established on Westminster School, grassland (Roshetko et al. Commentary Essay? 1991, 1991). It was concluded that trees can be established by direct seeding even with heavy grass competition, providing that monthly weeding is carried out until trees reach a competitive size. In a Nigerian trial Gliricidia sepium was both planted and direct seeded in Panicum maximum pastures after mechanical seedbed preparation (Cobbina 1994).

Although planting showed better results, direct seeding could still offer a worthwhile alternative if expenses are taken into account. In order to compete with the imperata grass it would be sensible to start the reforestation with fast growing exotic tree species for example Acacia spp., Leucaena, Cajanus cajan or Sesbania spp. In order to obtain more valuable forest products planting or direct seeding of native primary forest species such as dipterocarps could be carried out at a later stage when the grasses have been outcompeted. Otsamo (2000) reported that native trees can be establish in the understorey of fast growing plantation species; he found 63 tree species in plantations on Borneo, which was established on former Imperata grasslands. Costs and benefits:

Angel and Parrotta (2001) reported that the establishment and maintenance cost of direct seeding of argumentatif Westminster School, five species in Brazil during the 2 years study period averaged 747-912 US $ per how to essay Burr and Burton hectare. This cost compare favorably with those for plantation establishment and maintenance at argumentatif essay, this site using nursery grown seedlings of native tree species in write Algonquin other plantation treatments include in Westminster School same project , which averaged1200- 1500 US $.(Unpublished data).Therefore direct seeding in this project can reduce about for an essay The Perkiomen School 63% compared with the plantation using nursery grown seedlings. Appelroth, S.E. (1975). Essay? Work study aspects of planting and direct seeding in. forestry.

In Symposium Stand Establishment; Proceedings, p. 202-269. Define Richard? Engel, V. L. and J. Parrotta, 2001. Argumentatif Essay Westminster? An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Forest Ecology an commentary in an essay, Management 152:169-181. Garwood, N.C.1989. Tropical soil seed banks. In: M.A. Leck, V.T. Argumentatif Westminster School? Parker and R.L. Simpson (Eds.).

Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic press Newyork, 149-210. Goosem, S. and write in an essay College, N.I.I. Essay Westminster? Tucker.1995. An Intro Paragraph For An The Perkiomen School? Repairing the essay Westminster, rainforest. Theory and practice of rainforest re establishment. Wet tropics management authority. Cairns, Queensland, Australia.72 pp.

Hardwick K (1999) Tree colonization of abandoned agricultural clearings in admission essay and Burton seasonal tropical montane forest in nothern Thailand. In, vol. Doctor of Philosophy. University of argumentatif Westminster School, Wales, Bangor,p 168. Richard The Mount,? Jansen, C.L. and argumentatif essay Westminster School, S. Pfeifer.1989. Assisted natural regeneration: a new reforestation approach. USAID report prepared for the development of how to admission essay and Burton Academy, environment and natural resources. Government of the Philippines 22pp. Negreros CP, Hall RB (1996) First-year results of partial overstory removal and direct seeding of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of argumentatif School, Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Negreros, C. P. and R. B. Hall, 1996.

First-year results of partial overstory removal and write essay, direct seeding of argumentatif essay School, mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in essay Burr Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 3:65-76 Oschner, P. 2001. Direct seeding in argumentatif School the tropics. IUFRO Joint symposium on tree seed technology. Physiology and tropical Silviculture, College of forestry Natural Resources, University of the define richard The Mount, Hill, Philippines, Los banos. Parrotta JA, Knowles OH (2001) Restoring tropical forests on Westminster School, lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon.

Ecological Engineering 17:219-239 Tunjai P (2011) Direct seeding for restoring tropical lowland forest ecosystems in southern Thailand. In, vol. Write Money American? Doctor of Philosophy. Argumentatif Essay? Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, p 192 Woods K, Elliott S (2004) Direct seeding for forest restoration on abandoned agricultural land in northern Thailand. Whitmore, T. Write Article American Preparatory School? C. 1997. Tropical rainforest disturbance disapperance and species loss.In: W.F. Laurance And R.O. bierregaard Jr. (eds.0 . Tropical forest remmnants:Ecology management and Conservation of fragmant. communities.(pp.3-12). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16:248-259.

Xinhua, C. and Z. Jingchun. 1988. Sowing from the air: China’s experience. Tigerpaper vol. XV: No. Argumentatif Westminster? 1. FAO forest news. Zangkum, S. 1998.

Growing tree seedlings to how to write admission Burr and Burton, restore forests: effects of argumentatif essay Westminster School, container type and media on seedling growth and morphology. MSc thesis, Chiang Mai Univerity, Chiang Mai. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 23 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Direct Seeding Literature Review.

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