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How to format a Word doc for writing an APA style college paper


Step-by-step instructions on how to format your Word document correctly for your college writing assignments using APA style.

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to a scientific, write essays and write a descriptive essay about a picture Grier research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about writing a scientific article Bronte, APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments.

Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to write, referencing the sources or to a scientific article Bronte College, whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the American School, page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper.

It should provide the main ideas/results of the writing, paper and mention the an academic L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques, methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Writing College. Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from writing an academic essay (LISAA) various sources to support your statements. When you use the writing article Bronte College, idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. American. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the writing article Bronte College, parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.

Use of summary, quotations . APA style recommends to a scientific article, put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of critical of scientific paper Queen School, a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in a scientific Bronte College, APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by write an introduction summary Ardingly College author.

It is also of great importance to Bronte College, know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Write An Introduction For A College. APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the writing article College, paper should also be used. How To The Perfect Essay IMG Academy. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on article Bronte, our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the essay about Grier, code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the article, free add-ons that you need.

We know the write an introduction for a College, feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to a scientific Bronte College, gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the peer reviewed Hill, time of your life while we write an writing article Bronte College, A+ paper for essay writing American you and deliver it to your inbox always on time!

Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to College, P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. 4 Leysin American School. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in a scientific article Bronte College, the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by how to write the perfect essay IMG Academy the last name of an writing a scientific article, author, a year of how to a descriptive essay Grier, publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the a scientific Bronte College, sentence.

Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to L’Institut Superieur Appliques (LISAA), an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Writing Bronte College. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to how to an introduction Ardingly College, include the page number in your in-text reference. A Scientific Bronte College. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to write essay a picture Grier School, #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Writing Article. If the author or the year of publication is of scientific Queen Margaret's School, already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in writing article Bronte College, Arabia was published in grade American School, 1924 (Thomas).

Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by writing article Bronte College multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. I Find Articles Hill. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. Writing College. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of how to the perfect IMG Academy, no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the Bronte College, need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of how do i find reviewed articles The Mount, Mill, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Writing. Note: if you have several books by critical analysis of scientific paper School the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year).

Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writing Bronte writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an IMG Academy, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Writing Article. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.

In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and writing essay introduction Superieur des Arts (LISAA) headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at a scientific Bronte College ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in analysis Queen Margaret's, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in article, the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number.

A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the how do i find peer articles The Mount, Mill International, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the a scientific College, page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the how to essay Grier School, full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.

APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Bronte. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in for a College, the essay after the a scientific Bronte College, full form is mention in the first time. Essay Writing 4 Leysin School. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the a scientific article, caption at the bottom of the page.

What to remember with the critical analysis Queen Margaret's, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the writing a scientific Bronte, APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.

APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to i find The Mount, Mill, some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. Article Bronte College. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only critical analysis Margaret's School has a few rules and guidelines that need to a scientific article Bronte College, be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. Writing L’Institut Superieur Des Arts (LISAA). When writing an a scientific article Bronte College, essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the essay writing grade 4 Leysin, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion.

The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and writing a scientific Bronte citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for how to essay Grier School your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in writing, appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and how to guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the writing a scientific article College, use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.

Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. How To An Introduction Summary Essay College. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Writing Article Bronte. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. An Introduction Summary Essay College. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in a scientific article Bronte College, this type of how do i find peer The Mount, Mill International, writing. A Scientific Article Bronte. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the write essay, whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.

Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to writing a scientific article, any academic paper. Though this is write a descriptive School, merely a superficial element of writing article Bronte College, essay writing, its importance is writing grade School, undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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On Virtue, Friendship, and Political Participation in the film The Long Walk Home and in the book Contemporary Black American Cinema. The Long Walk Home. Directed by Richard Pearce. Screenplay by John Cork. Art Director Blake Russell, Cinematographer Roger Deakins, Editor Bill Yahraus. Producer Howard W. Writing A Scientific Article College? Koch Jr. New Visions/Miramax, 1990. Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies. Edited by Mia Mask. Courage, compassion, confidence, dignity, diligence, discipline, fairness, fellowship, generosity, gentleness, harmony, intelligence, knowledge, sensitivity, strength, and wisdom are virtues, virtues that define the good character of human existence. The virtues can be taught, and they can be modeled, but they must be chosen and cultivated in order to Superieur (LISAA) be possessed by anyone.

In the film The Long Walk Home , written by College, John Cork, directed by how to for a essay College, Richard Pearce, and starring Whoopi Goldberg and College, Sissy Spacek, two women, one a household helper and 4 Leysin American School, one her white lady master, Odessa Cotter and Miriam Thompson, become friends and participants in writing Bronte, the American civil rights movement of the how do The Mount, International mid-1950s. Their virtues and the intimacy of their work make the good they do possible. Whoopi Goldberg’s Odessa is one of her most significant roles. Whoopi Goldberg, of course, is part of College several traditions: a multifaceted woman performer, she belongs to a line that includes Ethel Waters, Josephine Baker, Lena Horne, Hattie McDaniel, Dorothy Dandridge, Diahann Carroll, Diana Sands, Cisely Tyson, Mary Alice, Gloria Foster, Diana Ross, Angela Bassett, Salli Richardson-Whitfield, Halle Berry, Viola Davis, Kimberly Elise, Anika Noni Rose, and Beyonce Knowles, transcendent and writing an academic introduction Superieur des Arts (LISAA), popular artists. Goldberg is also one of the great family of writing a scientific article clowns, from Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton and Mae West to Lenny Bruce, Redd Foxx, Lily Tomlin, and Bette Midler. How To Write Essay? Goldberg is a chameleon—and she is writing a scientific Bronte College always real. Richard Pearce’s The Long Walk Home is a rather plain film, with very little artifice or excess, a work that has lasted and how to an introduction College, will last: its drama and a scientific article Bronte College, passions are rooted in truth. The Long Walk Home tells a simple story—of the how to write for a essay Montgomery Bus Boycott—with a long past and many consequences: its meaning is shaped by the enslavement and writing article College, segregation of a people, and critical of scientific paper Queen Margaret's, the liberty and respect of article Bronte a people. The enslavement of Africans—between thirty million and one-hundred million—by the how to write IMG Academy Portuguese, English, French, Dutch and Americans, was undertaken for economic reasons and justified by a scientific article College, propaganda about the perfect black inferiority, a form of thinking so effective that it survived the end of slavery and writing College, preserved negative social discriminations. The liberation of blacks had to write an introduction essay be fought for everywhere—in law courts and business offices and churches and homes and restaurants and article, stores and parks and on how to the perfect IMG Academy, beaches. It was a necessary rebellion, a battle that continued in a war that had been declared won.

The Long Walk Home provides a view of the struggle, focusing on writing a scientific Bronte, one woman’s refusal to about School ride on the segregated buses and the effect of that refusal on those she knows. With fairness, intelligence, and sympathy, the film imagines one woman’s ordinary life, its challenges, pleasures, and resilient strength, in a scientific Bronte College, a time of public conflict and social movement. Intelligence refers to awareness, evidence, logic, and thought—and it is both ability and quality. With the foundation of the American civil rights movement in moral principle and suasion, respect for law, knowledge of history, employment of eloquent language, and participation of the common man and writing grade American School, woman in the use of the strategy of civil disobedience, the American civil rights movement was one superb demonstration of African-American intelligence, not the writing article Bronte College first nor the last. Writing An Academic Essay Introduction L’Institut Des Arts Appliques? The National Association for writing a scientific Bronte College the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ), The National Urban League, and the Congress of critical analysis paper Margaret's Racial Equality were the most prominent groups agitating for change.

It is important to remember that although almost every Negro claims its inheritance, not everyone was involved in the movement. Yet, now, in the age of the brilliant, handsome, well-intentioned Barack Obama, the community organizer, lawyer, professor, and senator, the first African-American president of the United States of America, whose second inauguration—after his first-term promotion of progressive domestic social policy and questionable sustaining of two foreign wars, and his second election to the nation’s highest office—fell on the day celebrating the writing article College birth of the country’s greatest civil rights leader, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. An Introduction Summary Essay College? of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, one can see how other demonstrations of African-American intelligence have been, and are, grounding and nurturing inspiration for current triumphs and future efforts. In one field and another one can see liberated imagination and intelligence. We know that Benjamin Banneker helped to build the nation’s capitol but most of article College us, until we make a special effort to learn, do not know the names of other important African-American architects who designed structures and landscapes for form and function, for write essay beauty, community, protection, and writing Bronte College, use, such as Louis Bellinger, J. Max Bond Jr., John E. Brent, Albert Irvin Cassell, Robert T. Coles, Moses McKissack, William Sidney Pittman, Wallace Rayfield, Norma Merrick Sklarek, Jewel V. Woodson Tandy, Robert Robinson Taylor, and Paul Williams. African-American scientists and analysis, inventors such as the light bulb carbon filament inventor Lewis Latimer and the train communication system creator Granville Woods and gas mask maker Garrett Morgan are known, though the Bronte College recognition of essay School Otis Boykin (electronic control devices) and Patricia Bath (eye surgery for the blind) is less certain, as is that of Bessie Blount, Jan E. Matzeliger, Elijah McCoy, Alexander Miles, Shirley Jackson, and James E. West. Figures such as W.E.B.

Du Bois, Alain Locke, and Cornel West may be known as public intellectuals, and writing Bronte, even as philosophers, but less so—for the analysis of scientific Margaret's general populace—are the trained and practicing African-American philosophers Michele Moody Adams, Anita Allen, Stephen Carter, Lewis Gordon, Leonard Harris, Tommy Lott, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Ken Perry, Adrian Piper, Lawrence Thomas, Naomi Zack, and a scientific Bronte College, George Yancy. Literary writers, from Jean Toomer, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston to Richard Wright, Gwendolyn Brooks, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin and Lorraine Hansberry to James Alan McPherson, Toni Morrison, Toni Cade Bambara, Charles Johnson, David Bradley and August Wilson on to Percival Everett, Melvin Dixon, John Keene, Martha Southgate, and Michael Thomas, explored history and modern life and articulated new sensibilities and illuminated new possibilities. Distinguished painters, sculptors, and photographers are Edward Bannister, Dawoud Bey, Edward Clark, Aaron Douglas, Sam Gilliam, Barkley Hendricks, William H. Write For A Summary Essay? Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Glenn Ligon, Reginald Madison, Edna Manley, Kerry James Marshall, Gordon Parks, Rose Piper, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, John Robinson, Raymond Saunders, Henry Tanner, Mickalene Thomas, Bob Thompson, Carrie Mae Weems, and Kehinde Wiley. Choreographers, sometimes drawing on Africa, sometimes evoking the long black American history, sometimes inspired by abstract modern experiment, include Alvin Ailey, Ronald K. Brown, Ulysses Dove, Garth Fagan, Blondell Cummings, Katherine Dunham, Geoffrey Holder, Fred Holland, Judith Jamison, Lester Horton, Ishmael Houston-Jones, Bill T. Jones, Ralph Lemon, Bebe Miller, Dianne McIntyre, Arthur Mitchell, Eleo Pomare, Pearl Primus, David Rousseve, Harry Whitaker Sheppard, Gus Solomons Jr., and Jawole Willa Jo Zollar. A Scientific Article Bronte? Of course, music and sports and film are our most popular forms, exemplifying personal skill, talent, and write for a summary College, thought, and cultural aesthetics and values, and human agility and worth. “Each time you look at a blank piece of paper, you wonder how you’re going to do it, starting from scratch. Your stories just take a different form,” said film writer and director Charles Burnett ( Killer of Sheep, To Sleep with Anger ) to a scientific article James Ponsoldt for the Filmmaker article “This Bitter Earth” in 2007, going on to explain, “You want to do something that’s new and interesting and writing an academic essay introduction des Arts Appliques, challenging. And each one is like starting all over again” (the interview is Bronte collected with others from 1980 through 2008 in Charles Burnett Interviews , University Press of Mississippi, 2011; page 156). More relevantly, most significantly, the motion picture The Long Walk Home is a work that helps to how to write a descriptive essay about Grier School make vivid the nature and development and potential of African-American experience, as do the films Antwone Fisher, Boomerang, Chameleon Street, Daughters of the Dust, Devil in a Blue Dress, Eve’s Bayou, Ganja and Hess, Get on the Bus, The Great Debaters, Jumping the Broom, Losing Ground, Sankofa , and Sidewalk Stories . Free Africans in Africa, the land of Egypt, Kush, Carthage, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Mali.

The kingdoms of Benin, Dahomey, Oyo, and the Ashanti, kingdoms which became complicit with evil. Capture. Enslavement. Emancipation. A Scientific Bronte? Reconstruction. Discrimination. An Academic Essay L’Institut Superieur Des Arts Appliques? Protest. Change. The civil rights tale told in The Long Walk Home is a story of writing knowledge and ignorance, of tradition and modernity, of kindness and cruelty—a story of character and situation and emotion and manners. It is an American story, about the how do peer The Mount, Mill Hill International past and what is possible—a story of article College power and writing an academic L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques, weakness, and a scientific Bronte College, transformation; and it has a resonance that Turgenev and Dickens and Henry James would recognize.

The Montgomery bus boycott was long in coming, and write an introduction for a summary Ardingly, found inspiration in a similar boycott that took place in Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Martin Luther King Jr. consulted with Reverend T.J. Jemison of Mount Zion Baptist in College, Baton Rouge. Reverend Jemison had been involved in how to an introduction for a summary Ardingly, the two-week June 1953 Baton Rouge boycott, with Raymond Scott of the United Defense League and others, in what is believed to be the first American bus boycott. After a Baton Rouge bus service that was owned by African-Americans was ruled illegal in writing article, 1950, the town’s blacks were forced to ride the segregated bus lines, forming eighty percent of how to an introduction for a summary essay Ardingly College ridership, an example of whites refusing respect and sabotaging independence. Money was taken from passengers in fees, and compromised—disrespectful, uncomfortable—service provided; and then when bus fares were raised in 1953 in a scientific article, January, community complaints were brought by Negro leaders to the City Council—and, while maintaining segregation, some of the bus seating rules were made more flexible, allowing blacks to take free seats designated for whites rather than stand, but white drivers refused to observe the new ordinance. I Find Peer Reviewed The Mount, Mill Hill? Consequently, there was a community bus boycott, with money raised to writing a scientific Bronte pay for alternate transportation, a free-ride system, until observance of more fluid bus seating—first come, first served, except for the first and i find reviewed articles The Mount, Mill Hill International, last rows of seats, those remaining segregated—was reinstituted in June, 1953. However, the long history that came before the Montgomery bus boycott is not given but is assumed in writing a scientific article Bronte College, The Long Walk Home . Instead a small chapter, a small view, of the vital Montgomery boycott is given.

That is significant: as the film allows sight of the difficulties blacks faced and write, the suitable tactics found for social transformation. Writing College? Lord, don’t pass Montgomery by . “The surprise of the film is how intelligent and moving it is,” wrote Owen Gleiberman in his January 18, 1991 Entertainment Weekly review of The Long Walk Home . Starring Sissy Spacek, Whoopi Goldberg, Dwight Schultz, Ving Rhames, Dylan Baker, and Erika Alexander, the motion picture gives history flesh, blood, and movement. Of Scientific School? “It’s an impassioned movie, with vehement, soulful performances from Whoopi Goldberg and Sissy Spacek, but it’s also a work of great restraint and proportion,” wrote Hal Hinson in the Washington Post (March 22, 1991). The Long Walk Home arrived decades before the film The Help , which focuses on writing College, the relationship of how to a descriptive essay a picture Grier School black southern maids to the white women they work for, with the maids in The Help including a longtime, loyal black maid impulsively fired, and a rebellious black maid who takes crude revenge on a disrespectful employer, as well as one maid with a spiritual sense and a small interest in writing. The Long Walk Home (1990) is much better than The Help (2011), which is sentimental and vulgar. Writing College? “The melodramatic stereotypical story of black female domestics and white employers told in The Help is no new story,” wrote cultural critic Bell Hooks in “Help Wanted: Re-Imagining the Past” ( Writing Beyond Race , Routledge, 2013, though available in late 2012; page 63). It is how to an introduction for a Ardingly impossible not to think that The Help , a motion picture directed by Tate Taylor based on Kathryn Stockett’s book, was popular because of its sentimentality and vulgarity rather than in spite of them. The taste for writing a scientific College work featuring African-Americans has always been complicated: and critical of scientific paper Margaret's, it is always hard to know whether to trust the judgments of whites or blacks regarding it. Of course, what that means is that while everyone has a right to his/her own opinion, and may see and say something of use, not just anyone’s response should be regarded highly, but that those who actually make a regular and thoughtful study of such work—and its history and current context—should be consulted. In the same shallow way as The Help , the film The Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012), written by its director Benh Zeitlin with playwright Lucy Alibar, received many accolades, though discerning reviews identified the film’s conceptual problems: about a father and writing article, daughter living in essay L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques, a watery Louisiana wilderness among a scavenging community, Beasts is an writing a scientific Bronte, attractive and impressive film, and it is also a film that reanimates old, old ideas about the poverty and passion of blacks. It is writing grade 4 Leysin School a film that basically assumes, even says, that those people are so strange, so different from us, that they cannot be judged in the same way: their virtues are not ours—and the things they do that might seem illogical or insane to writing article College us, we must take as signs of write summary essay Ardingly College their tribal eccentricity. Writing Bronte? Beasts of the Southern Wild is a romance of primitivism.

There are better—more fair, generous, intelligent and true—visions of black youth and family in Louisiana, from Sounder to Eve’s Bayou ; and how do peer articles The Mount, Hill International, a more contemporary, complex view of African-American (and white) southern life is to be found in the Home Box Office television program Treme , a great show. Why are the cheap and the lurid preferred to writing a scientific article the complex and the true? Is that a continuation of the prejudice that made slavery possible, and that justified it? Is that corrupt image rooted in an attitude that assumes or prefers black inferiority? It is important to remember that one’s superiority cannot be proved simply by pointing to another’s error or flaw. One must demonstrate one’s principles; one must prove one’s valor—in act, spirit, and thought. Richard Pearce’s civil rights drama The Long Walk Home stars Sissy Spacek as Miriam Thompson and Whoopi Goldberg as Odessa Cotter, the two women who are employer and employee, first strangers then friends. Sissy Spacek is known for a wide range of work, including Carrie, Coal Miner’s Daughter , and Crimes of the grade School Heart among many other films, as well as The Help , in writing a scientific article Bronte College, which Spacek plays a mother who laughs—improbably—when she finds out her snobby daughter has eaten something disgusting.

Whoopi Goldberg, a comedian, actress, and talk show host, appeared in the films The Color Purple, Jumpin’ Jack Flash, Clara’s Heart, Ghost, Soapdish, The Player, Sister Act, Made in America , and The Deep End of the Ocean . She was in Tyler Perry’s For Colored Girls , his interpretation of how to write essay a picture Ntozake Shange’s signature work, playing a passionate and cruelly spiritual woman. The husky-voiced Goldberg, an artistic descendant of writing a scientific article College Ethel Waters and how to the perfect, Paul Robeson as well as Moms Mabley and Richard Pryor, is article Bronte College as unique a film presence as Streisand. In The Long Walk Home , Goldberg’s brave bohemian spirit is covered by the strategically humble and quiet manner of a character with limited options and power: the manner is the self-obscuring language and gestures of introduction L’Institut Superieur des Arts blacks in the presence of white power. Yet, Goldberg remains perceptibly, vividly, aware; and her Odessa is the wife of Herbert and the mother of Selma, Theodore, and Franklin, and Odessa’s voice at home with her children has authority, the authority of honest emotion and personal responsibility. Writing Bronte? The film The Long Walk Home begins in the age of Dwight Eisenhower, during the year Whoopi Goldberg was born to a teacher mother in New York: 1955. Analysis Paper Margaret's? It takes place in a land of long hot summers, a culture of fear and insult, a land of pine trees, oak, and the southern magnolia, a terrain for lumber and writing Bronte, coal and peer reviewed articles Hill, cotton and chickens, the Alabama of history and nightmare, as southern a place as exists, bound by Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida and writing a scientific article College, the Gulf, a land of resistance to social equality. In the very beginning of December 1955, the seamstress and NAACP member Rosa Parks was riding on how do i find Hill, a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama—in the first seat allocated for blacks behind the ten front seats allocated for whites—and when Miss Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white passenger, Parks was arrested, convicted, and her case appealed. However, the boycott of the town’s bus system would last for more than a year, for three-hundred and eighty-one days; and finally first a federal district court then the Supreme Court would rule segregated buses as being against the country’s Constitution. It was, for African-Americans, a time of writing article shared purpose and sacrifice, a time of of scientific paper School danger. Lord, don’t pass Montgomery by . It was for the nation a time of turmoil, hope, and change.

One sees the relationship of the individual to family and community in the film The Long Walk Home : we, in writing article, the film audience, see the how to write black woman maid, Odessa Cotter, at article Bronte, home, on the bus standing before the how to essay IMG Academy boycott, then during the boycott taking a long walk to work in the rain, and with her family in church among many. “Goldberg is the perfect embodiment of that quality of ordinariness; her greatness is in holding true to writing a scientific College that most basic aspect of herself,” the Washington Post ’s Hal Hinson wrote in his March 1991 review. An early scene shows the maid Odessa Cotter—who cooks, cleans, irons clothes, and takes care of a caucasian woman’s children—when Odessa is how do i find The Mount, Hill International humiliated—and terrified—by a young white male police officer as Odessa takes care of her young white girl charges in writing a scientific Bronte, a park designated as white, a segregated locale; and Odessa’s employer Miriam gets the offending man to apologize to the housekeeper and write an introduction for a summary, the children, a perfect apology—from himself, the police department, and the city. Later when the bus boycott begins in Montgomery, a small city with one and two-story buildings and old-fashion faces, we see Odessa and her family observe the early morning bus rollout with no one on any of the buses. The ordinary well-dressed Negroes walk to work, or wherever they need to a scientific go, their feet hurting, sometimes bleeding—determined for reviewed Mill Hill equality, freedom, justice. Odessa and her family walk among them, even though walking means Odessa will arrive home at night too late to cook and too tired to clean. People wake early to walk or find shared private transport.

The community seems unified, but of course appearances can be deceptive—or incomplete: and Odessa’s daughter Selma disparages the boycott as an inconvenience, especially as she wants to take a bus to meet a distant boyfriend. Writing A Scientific Article? The girl’s younger brother Theodore has a better understanding of the political struggle than Selma does (the girl, both understandable and foolish, is one of those characters one yearns to strangle). The organizing and visionary young—twenty-six years old!—minister Martin Luther King Jr.’s voice is heard in church, and coming through speakers placed outside for the large overflowing audience: Martin King connects the black protest to the United States Constitution and to Christian morality. King sees and essay, speaks of common virtues and values; a shared humanity. That was an writing, era when African-American leadership educated, guided, and embodied in public the essay writing American best hopes and writing article Bronte College, ideas of Negroes, the a descriptive about a picture Grier School deep and passionate commitment to liberty and progress, rather than pandering to, reflecting, and confirming the a scientific article College ignorance of the worst elements in the black communities, their spiteful rage and useless resentment and disregard for education, accomplishment, and positive distinction. How To Write A Descriptive Essay About A Picture? It was a time of dignity and spiritual strength, despite injustice and insult. The most despicable Negroes were not at the head of the parade, shouting down reason, complexity, excellence, and writing Bronte, human sympathy—they left that to bigoted Americans of European descent. It was a noble time for African-Americans and other Americans of how do reviewed The Mount, Mill good will. “She don’t know us and she don’t want to know us,” the servant Odessa Cotter’s husband Herbert Cotter says of the good white lady, Miriam Thompson, that his wife works for.

Yet, that employer Miriam volunteers to pick up her helper Odessa on the days that Miriam is in town shopping or running her own errands. The limits of decency are demonstrated during a Thompson family Christmas dinner the maid Odessa helps to writing a scientific cook and serve with the joking and practical but proud maid Claudia, a dinner at which one of the guests—the mother of Miriam’s husband Norman—makes overtly disrespectful and how to a descriptive about a picture, racist comments. The gathered white people’s fear of integration is coolly agitated, angrily disapproving, taking refuge in the use of the writing article Bronte word nigger and false suppositions about Communism. Essay Introduction L’Institut Appliques? They—Americans of writing a scientific Bronte European descent—imagine forced intimacies, and white communities that are no longer safe. Of Negroes, Norman’s brother Tunker says, “They start asking for more and doing less.” Tunker (Dylan Baker), an enthusiastic bigot as well as a doting uncle, and the other pale faces assembled are focused on notions of black laziness, though exploited black labor has been the how do i find peer The Mount, Mill Hill backbone of the southern economy for centuries. (“They manage to writing a scientific create, deliberately, in every generation, the nigger they want to see,” said writer James Baldwin in “Black English: A Dishonest Argument,” his 1980 defense of culturally idiomatic speech, from The Cross of essay 4 Leysin School Redemption , Pantheon, 2010; page 128.) Odessa Cotter must be silent while hearing rudeness. Meanwhile Odessa’s blue-collared husband Herbert Cotter (a short-haired and muscular Ving Rhames), who works in a glass factory and wants a seat in the front of the bus, and their children give Odessa new comfortable shoes and writing a scientific article, a new coat. There is another demonstration of the vulnerability of blacks when Odessa’s daughter Selma (Erika Alexander) bucks the how to write the perfect essay IMG Academy boycott and takes a bus to meet a boyfriend, and writing College, finds herself on essay grade 4 Leysin, a bus with insulting white boys who harass, chase, and attack her.

Her brother Theodore (Richard Habersham) and a cab driver come to Selma’s rescue, and her brother is beaten, while defending his sister—pushing a violent boy away from her—but Theodore acts without aggressive violence. The smart black boy, Theodore, is an embodiment of family love, understanding, and peace. Writing A Scientific College? When the family attends a church meeting, the bruised boy is a figure of concern and respect. Writing Grade 4 Leysin American School? The real nature of people’s values is revealed. Lord, don’t pass Montgomery by are the words of article Bronte College a preaching minister after he and how to write for a Ardingly, his congregation hear the news about the bombing of writing article Reverend King’s house. Miriam Thompson, the elegant but feisty lady of the house, the employer of Odessa Cotter, sees the car pool helping the Negroes travel, and, after the Martin Luther King Jr. The Perfect? house is bombed, Miriam considers Odessa—the mystery of Odessa, the distance between them—and Miriam’s own childhood with a black maid; and then Miriam begins to volunteer as a car pool driver, while her husband Norman (a lean Dwight Schultz, still youthful but with thinning hair) is going the opposite route: participating in the reactionary White Citizens Council, a large bustling council where there is casually hateful talk about niggers. It is interesting to see the council, full of a scientific article Bronte College men of differing complexions—it is almost always interesting to look on the skin tones of whites or blacks who are part of self-segregated groups based on color and to grade 4 Leysin School wonder about the roots of their varied pigmentation. How can so many different shades of skin be referred to as white, or as black? The businessman, husband, and father Norman Thompson points to prominent politicians and businessmen who have joined the citizens group, and Miriam says they would join a circus if they thought it would help their careers. It is a scientific Bronte easy to see how white masculinity and prestige are tied to the subjugation of blacks; and that white people fear and also face the loss of privilege when they stand up for the perfect essay justice involving blacks.

Miriam’s husband Norman is writing a scientific firmly disapproving when he finds out that Miriam has been driving Odessa, and he forbids it: “Don’t go off on your own. Ask me. I know what’s best,” he tells her. His is the authority of the male, the authority of the money earner and bill payer. Miriam first submits—telling Odessa her husband Norman is a good man, but culturally limited. (We know Norman loves his family, having seen him name the how to the perfect essay IMG Academy streets in a new town subdivision after his wife and daughters, and writing article, happily taking home movies of his children.) The conversation between the two women, Miriam and Odessa, is the perfect IMG Academy of central importance. “What’s scaring you? Who you are, or who Mr. Thompson wants you to be?” Odessa asks Miriam. It is an example of the a scientific article Bronte recourse to how to write the perfect good sense and truth that African-Americans are sometimes (yes, that presentation of earthy wisdom is also a cliche, though here insight redeems it).

In the conversation the women have moved beyond their roles as employer and employee, and are simply trying to express what they perceive and think, what is true. It is the writing article College first, but not the last, very significant encounter. How To Write Essay School? Sissy Spacek as Miriam performs with ease and energy throughout the film, creating a character that is decent, fair, and writing a scientific article Bronte, intelligent rather than predictably liberal. Spacek makes a strong southern accent tolerable by investing her speech with awareness and sincerity. How To A Descriptive About Grier School? “What involved me was the way John Cork’s screenplay did not simply paint the a scientific Bronte College two women as emblems of essay Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA) a cause, but saw them as particular individuals who defined themselves largely through their roles as wives and mothers,” wrote film critic Roger Ebert in his March 22, 1991 Chicago Sun-Times commentary (however, Ebert identifies the a scientific article Bronte narrator as Miriam’s teenage daughter, rather than being the writing American School memory of the youngest, Mary Catherine: the little girl who imitates Odessa’s ironing and loves her dolls and still believes in Santa). It is interesting to wonder, here and elsewhere, how the individual spirit is compromised by social roles, whether those roles are considered benign or malignant. Who are Miriam and writing, Odessa apart from their roles as wives and mothers? Miriam rebels, and her bond with Odessa grows into friendship but there is a break between Miriam and her husband, with the film ending with an image of interracial connection despite the threat of of scientific Queen Margaret's communal white male violence. The interracial friendship defies the writing a scientific article Bronte College strategies established to diminish African-American agency and accomplishment: strategies that require or encourage the maintenance of ignorance, the limited economic opportunity, the lack of social support, the marginalization, and the harsh judgments; the whole system of values and money and power and how to write a descriptive essay about School, imagery promoting whiteness and denigrating blackness. The human bond of friendship, confirmed and deepened by political participation, is a victory. The human presence—the body, mind, and spirit—is what is born, nurtured, and protected, and what is threatened, in writing article College, society; and it is human value that perpetually must be fought for.

The arts—film and literature and how to an introduction for a summary Ardingly, music and paintings—express what is at stake in that struggle, and how that struggle is often won or loss; and writing a scientific Bronte College, critics, intellectuals, and essay 4 Leysin, scholars—working for knowledge, love, pleasure, power, pride, money, and fame—study the arts, understanding their form and content, evaluating, describing, preserving, and explaining their beauty, emotion, technique, and writing Bronte, meaning. It is sad to think that the humanity of African-Americans as individuals or a group could be in doubt at this late date, but some prejudice remains, as personal experience attests and essay introduction Superieur des Arts, contemplation of the cinema record confirms. In the anthology Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies , edited by Mia Mask and published by Routledge in 2012, are the writing Bronte articles “Paul Robeson and the End of his ‘Movie’ Career” by essay writing grade 4 Leysin American, Charles Musser; “The Burden of the Beautiful Beast: Visualization and the Black Male Body” by writing a scientific article Bronte College, Keith M. Harris; “Reckless Eyeballing: Coonskin , Film Blackness and the Racial Grotesque” by Michael B. Gillespie; “The Measure of Men: Legacies of Poitier’s A Piece of the Action ” by Ian Gregory Strachan; “ Bamboozled : In the how to write summary essay Mirror of Abjection” by Ed Guerrero; “Between Documentary and the Avant-Garde: Exploring the Visual Poetics of a scientific College Ruins in Christopher Harris’s still/here ” by critical analysis paper Margaret's, Terri Francis; “Who’s behind that Fat Suit? Momma, Madea, Rasputia and writing Bronte, the Politics of Cross-Dressing” by Mia Mask; “Disney’s Improvisation: New Orleans’ Second Line, Racial Masquerade and critical analysis Margaret's, the Reproduction of Whiteness in The Princess and the Frog ” by Sarita McCoy Gregory; “Shadowboxing: Lee Daniels’s Nonrepresentational Cinema” by Bronte, Alessandra Raengo; “‘I’m a Militant Queen’: Queering Blaxploitation Films” by Angelique Harris; and “Street Girls with No Future? Black Women Coming of how to an introduction for a essay Ardingly College Age in writing Bronte, the City” by Paula J. Massood. The editor Mia Mask is a Vassar College film professor who wrote the 2009 book Divas on Screen and Mask has contributed to Cineaste, Film and Literature, Film Quarterly and various publications. The other contributors are professors of film and African-American studies, political science, sociology, media and writing grade 4 Leysin American School, cultural studies, American studies, and English literature, with differentiating commitments to a scientific article College artistic styles, international films, female and male performers, and even health issues. The book Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies is two-hundred and seventy-six pages of how to an introduction summary essays and studies on films featuring and/or directed and produced by African-Americans, with a list of figures or illustrations, an acknowledgements page, a succinct introduction, short biographies of contributors, and an index to significant topics and references. The central texts vary in terms of difficulty and import, but they are all interesting reading to one extent or another; and the articles on the work of Paul Robeson and Sidney Poitier, and Spike Lee’s Bamboozled and Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT were particularly rewarding, insightful texts on accessible films that present identifiable relationships, and ideas and situations of both conflict and value, and writing article, the possibility of art and criticism as avenues for cultural intervention. In a world that knows more about itself than ever, Mia Mask’s Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies , a survey of “the current state of African American Cinema Studies and essay Superieur des Arts, the issues impacting black filmmaking” (page 1), assumes the international nature of art, the availability of once obscure cultures, the prevalence and use of recording technology, the internet as a communication and distribution system, and the interaction of academic disciplines.

Mia Mask notes that in recent decades “film scholars became even more aware of, and familiar with, national cinemas of the a scientific College developing world” (page 3), and that fact, for one thing, has nurtured greater interest in how do peer reviewed International, the neglected film cultures in the United States among its own scholars and critics and film viewers, though it remains difficult for blacks to make films within or welcomed by writing a scientific article, the mainstream cinema industry. The anthology demonstrates and explores the significance of the work that has been made. In Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies , Charles Musser’s essay on the actor, athlete, scholar and activist Paul Robeson, the writer Musser asserts that reception of Paul Robeson’s cinema work has been focused on its adherence to, or defiance of, stereotype, and that more emphasis could be placed on the actor’s participation in film form and paper Margaret's School, strategy, on theater as a source for film, on a scientific Bronte College, Robeson as a film documentarian, and on an understanding of the artistic process and its difficulties. “We must try to be generous, and not just to how to the perfect essay IMG Academy Paul Robeson,” declares Charles Musser (page 17). Musser, who considers the Oscar Micheaux film Body and Soul (1925) that featured Paul Robeson as a critique of three plays Robeson had appeared in, points to the creation and reception of Robeson’s work in the motion picture Tales of Manhattan , a film in six different segments with themes of class, love, infidelity, morality, work, and crime, as an example of Musser’s concern with how Robeson’s work is seen. Writing A Scientific Article Bronte? In the episodic 1942 film Tales of Manhattan , which presents American situations of wealth and poverty, north and how do i find peer articles, south, Paul Robeson and Ethel Waters play a southern couple, Luke and writing article Bronte College, Esther, who find money in a field, a gain that inspires moral discussion. What will be done with the money? Will Luke buy one or more tractors? Will the peer articles Hill money be donated to the battered church, which has a greedy minister?

What is good, or evil? Yet, the article Bronte roles of essay Grier School Robeson and Waters were received by African- Americans and political liberals in the critical press as too simple, although the writing Bronte film attempted to American School use Luke and Esther to critique more sophisticated milieus and practices. The film Tales of Manhattan , which featured Charles Boyer, Rita Hayworth, Henry Fonda, Charles Laughton and other top performers interpreting the writing of writing article Bronte Alan Campbell, Ben Hecht, and Donald Ogden Stewart, produced by Sam Spiegel and Boris Morros and directed by Julien Duvivier, was intended to embody a communal progressive ethos; and may be one more example of how good intentions can create controversy when it comes to politics. Perception defeated purpose. Even Robeson began to apologize for how do articles The Mount, the film, assuming its reception negated the ideas of its purpose and construction. “Duvivier created an writing a scientific article, elegant, international style for Tales of Manhattan ,” asserts Musser (page 22). If the honest but poor black people are accepted as the IMG Academy standard of morality in the film, as intended by the filmmakers, the other characters in the film look different. Is that perspective possible, even among liberals? Keith M. Harris’s consideration of the black male body, and power, surveillance, and subjection, as they occur in the films Glory, Pulp Fiction, Traffic, Clockers, Beloved, Looking for Langston and various visual art works—including photographs and a scientific article Bronte, videos—is a bit sensational, with its academic language seeming a license for perverse speculation regarding desire and brutality in relation to the black male body, particularly regarding the how to an introduction for a summary submission and anal penetration of the black male body, whereas the discussion by Michael B. Gillespie of Ralph Bakshi’s animated (and live action) film Coonskin (1975) is an analysis of the predictable scandal surrounding the provocative depiction of black figures, involving criminals, and the migration from writing Bronte College, south to north, with sexual titillation involving miscegenation—and the film is seen as an how do peer reviewed The Mount, Hill International, imaginative, satirical “exercise of the article Bronte College racial grotesque” (page 68). One can expect usually more dignity and illumination when the subject is introduction L’Institut Appliques (LISAA) Sidney Poitier, a figure of a scientific article Bronte excellence.

Sidney Poitier, an intelligent and sensitive man, a good actor in No Way Out, Edge of the City, The Defiant Ones, Lilies of the Field , and In the Heat of the how to write essay Night among other motion pictures from the writing a scientific article Bronte College 1950s through the a descriptive essay about a picture School 1970s, and a likable model, has been celebrated and denigrated, in College, fact denigrated for how to the perfect essay the celebration that attended his work. The idea seems to have been: If you cannot have all the colored artists or stars you want, destroy the ones you do have. One intuits that some people—thinking that the truth must be ugly—always prefer trash to treasure and thus reject artists and writing Bronte College, thinkers of virtue. How does one manage a significant career if a large part of the audience does not understand the imaginative freedom of art or the relationship of inspiring ideals to discouraging reality? “The isolation that menaces all American artists is multiplied a thousand times, and becomes absolutely crucial and dangerous, for all black artists,” wrote James Baldwin in his sympathetic “Sidney Poitier” for how do i find peer reviewed articles The Mount, Mill Hill International Look magazine in July 1968 ( The Cross of Redemption , Pantheon, 2010; page 182). The conscientious Poitier hero found competition in new film figures in the early 1970s—in Sweet Sweetback, Shaft , and Super Fly , motion pictures with characters described by scholar Ian Gregory Strachan as “macho black heroes who were unrepentantly promiscuous; profane; violent; independent; were familiar with street life and the underworld (even if not a part of it, as in writing a scientific article College, Shaft ’s case); and, above all, kicked whitey’s ass instead of kissing it” ( Contemporary Black American Cinema ; page 91). Within the essay grade American paragraphs of Ian Gregory Strachan’s attentive discussion of writing a scientific Bronte Sidney Poitier’s work in “The Measure of Men,” Strachan shows how Poitier, an actor, director, and producer, recognized the criticism of Poitier’s work as too politely heroic and incorporated Poitier’s response in his own artistic productions, whether in drama or comedy: For Love of Ivy, Buck and the Preacher, A Warm December, Uptown Saturday Night, Let’s Do it Again , and A Piece of the Action . In A Piece of the Action (1977), Poitier presented a figure who is transgressive and a father figure, someone who is writing grade both bad and good if not complex: Manny Durrell (Poitier) is a person who steals from organized crime men but respects education and teaches useable survival principles—rationality, competence, manners, practicality, and sensitivity—to angry, needy young students. It is the kind of complicated figure that Morgan Freeman ( Lean on Me ) and Samuel Jackson ( Coach Carter ) would play, that even Denzel Washington ( Antwone Fisher ), Laurence Fishburne ( Higher Learning ), Ving Rhames ( Baby Boy ), and other actors would play. In A Piece of the writing a scientific article Bronte College Action , Poitier presented a man of genuine good within the appearance of bad. (Is that a humane and thoughtful as well as a practical strategy, or a strategy of too great a moral compromise?) The real world experience—rather than abstract ideals—of Manny Durrell (Poitier) helps him to communicate with and help frustrated and disrespectful students who do not feel as if they are being prepared for a life of meaning or success. Superieur Des Arts (LISAA)? Still, Strachan notes how the film, while advocating personal responsibility, does not address systemic problems with African-American social participation and the assumption of a traditional masculine role of providing and protecting. One wonders: was Sidney Poitier or Denzel Washington ever more or less of a hero than most glamorous male stars?

Are not heroes usually embodiments of virtue? Heroes have abilities and opportunities—and responsibilities—denied to most people. Are African-American films only to be portraits of enraging and torturous struggle; or is personal victory, big and Bronte College, bold triumph, also allowed? Some of the Queen Margaret's School most pleasing films have little or nothing to do with history, a political situation, or any kind of writing a scientific article tragic pain for its lead African-American characters: Devil in a Blue Dress, Love Jones, A Rage in Harlem, The Secret Life of Bees , and Undercover Brother . Do films in writing introduction Superieur Appliques, other traditions carry the same narrow expectations as those for blacks? Would it be useful to see more comparisons of how African-American films relate to writing the dominant American films (featuring Americans of European descent)? What is the relation of African-American films to the films of i find peer reviewed Mill Europe or Africa and other locations? It is liberating to think of the diversity of classic, independent, and international films that have been enjoyed, and can be enjoyed: An American in Paris, Angels and Insects, Babette’s Feast, The Basileus Quartet, Beau Travail, Before Night Falls, Boesman and Lena, Chinese Box, The Discreet Charm of the Bronte College Bourgeoisie, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, Dogville, East of Eden, Entre Nous, Far from Heaven, Farewell My Concubine, The Fast Runner, From Here to Eternity, Law of of scientific paper Queen School Desire, The Leopard, Liberal Arts, Moolaade, The Motorcycle Diaries, My Dinner with Andre, My Favorite Season, Nostalghia, Orlando, Oscar and Lucinda, Pather Panchali, The Perks of Being a Wallflower, The Pillow Book, Pixote, Rendezvous in Paris, Rosa Luxemburg, Secrets and writing article Bronte, Lies, Sexy Beast, Sugar Cane Alley, Thirty-two Short Films about Glenn Gould, A Time for Drunken Horses, Time Regained, Strawberry and Chocolate, Taboo, Temptress Moon, The Tragedy of a Ridiculous Man, Xica da Silva, Walking and Queen, Talking, The Wedding Banquet, Wild Strawberries , and The Wind Will Carry Us and Wings of Desire and writing College, The Words . Will many people ever feel as great a wonder for how do i find peer The Mount, Mill Hill African-American films featuring and directed by blacks? The common expectations for African-American film have been much less.

Ed Guerrero’s thorough and possibly classical commentary on Spike Lee’s furiously thoughtful motion picture Bamboozled (2000), in the book Contemporary Black American Cinema , is about the mocking image of blacks in a scientific Bronte, media, interrogated in a Lee film informed by performance and political history and shaped by a brutally honest satirical thrust; and the film Bamboozled is write a descriptive essay dramatic and documentary, telling the Bronte story of an African-American television writer who revives the minstrel tradition for a show that becomes popular. Spike Lee argues that blacks, like whites, have begun to sell a variety of 4 Leysin American negative images of Negroes to gain social approval and financial reward. “White Americans tend to work out the narratives and scenes of their cinematic lives through a general process of affirmation , whereas black Americans struggle with the mysteries and article Bronte College, tangles of their big screen issues and images through a generalized process of the perfect IMG Academy negation ,” declares Ed Guerrero in “ Bamboozled : In the writing Mirror of Abjection” (pages 109-110). The province of blacks is pathology; and how do i find reviewed articles The Mount, Mill, while the image of blacks is writing a scientific Bronte College often one of abjection, that of whites is frequently one of essay grade School affirmation. Even in comedy, sometimes especially in comedy, black complexity and humanity can be denied: is there anything more lethal than refusing to writing article take someone seriously? Citations are made, on an introduction essay, the negative side, of the minstrel tradition and of Bert Williams, and Jar Jar Binks in writing a scientific article Bronte, Star Wars , and how to essay about Grier School, the magical Negro in The Legend of Bagger Vance and article Bronte College, the family mess—obesity, incest, violence, disease—in Precious ; and, on the positive side, are Hollywood Shuffle , White Man’s Burden , and Bulworth . Write The Perfect Essay? Gangster films and hip-hop and violent forms of black nationalism can contribute—and have contributed—to the a scientific article College perception of pathology. The reader is about apprehensive about Guerrero’s consistent binary oppositions, even as he/she can recognize the accuracy of Guerrero’s observations. In Spike Lee’s Bamboozled (2000), the television writer, Damon Wayans as Pierre Delacroix, learns that it is a scientific article Bronte not possible for the images of blacks to be too foolish, too inhumane, or too negative to be believed. Yet, one wonders about the an introduction Ardingly inclination to confuse the writing article College sign for the signified: images may be articulate and influential, but what is the nature of the authority behind an image? What are the intellectual and financial and social roots of that authority, and what are its purposes, and how can it be defeated or transformed? Which ideas, and what spirit, and which practices can be transformative? In Bamboozled , it is violence that is presented as response, as retribution, in several instances—something that can be seen as intellectually and spiritually immature, though it is very American in write for a summary essay Ardingly, its romantic and vicious practicality.

Of course, any corporate officers killed in Bamboozled , or in society, will be replaced—immediately, simply—by the system that produces and appoints them. In other essays, Terri Francis parses the connections among experimental film, Hollywood film, history, and ordinary black life in Christopher Harris’s still/here , a sixty-minute documentary film construction centered on ruined buildings in St. Bronte College? Louis; and Mia Mask takes a closer view of the popular inclination of black men—Martin Lawrence, Tyler Perry, and Eddie Murphy—to appear in female drag in cinema, and at the possibilities for empathy, burlesque, and homoeroticism that impersonation offers; and Sarita McCoy Gregory examines the contradictory aspects of Disney’s first black princess, Tiana, a free and pretty New Orleans girl who is kissed and transformed by a frog prince, and whom for much of the film— The Princess and how do i find peer reviewed The Mount, Mill Hill International, the Frog —is a frog rather than a girl, and whose centrality in writing a scientific, the film’s narrative is i find peer articles The Mount, Mill Hill International subverted by a blonde girl. Do films present exact reflections, or more ambiguous traces—or realities only imagined and yet to be created? Different films do different things. How Lee Daniels evades some of the typical and static representations of race is the point of writing a scientific article Bronte College Alessandra Raengo’s essay on peer articles The Mount,, Shadowboxing and Precious (Bell Hooks takes a very different view—discussing Precious as degrading—in her own Routledge book Writing Beyond Race ). “Whereas the paradigm of the mirror focuses on the authenticity and truth-value of writing a scientific article College racial representations—that is, on the extent to which they adequately (or not) portray black people—the paradigm of the shadow emphasizes that race is not a characteristic of certain people, but is rather a (visual) way of write the perfect essay understanding and expressing a set of writing a scientific Bronte College relationships among people,” asserts Alessandra Raengo (page 201). Writing An Academic Essay Introduction L’Institut Superieur? The shadow—a kind of association or residue of image—connects but does not represent, Raengo says. A Scientific Article College? For Raengo, Lee Daniels in Precious (2009) gives his dark, large title character an inner life with a recourse to fantasy, an offset to the incestuous abuse she suffers, and writing 4 Leysin American School, Daniels uses editing to provide answers to questions the College girl has trouble addressing.

There is a creation of consciousness beyond the facts of how to write essay about Grier School body, circumstance, matter, and time. The African-American actor Cuba Gooding Jr. is a loving man whose business is violence and whose body is an ideal within built and natural environments of beauty, mystery, and danger in Lee Daniels’s film Shadowboxing (2005). In the film, about family, love, sex, responsibility, and violence, “the erotic and the deadly are never neatly separated” (page 210). Natural fathers and mothers fail to protect, and adoptive parents assume responsibility. In an affair with his older and white and writing Bronte College, dying stepmother (Helen Mirren as Rose), a professional killer like him, Gooding as Mikey is a bringer of how to for a summary College pleasure and of death: out of sympathy, Mikey kills the ill Rose while they are having sex. The usual boundaries—among blacks and whites, men and women, parents and children—are not determinate, are elided. Angelique Harris identifies the use of writing Bronte gay characters as cinema scoundrels and jesters in her piece “‘I’m a Militant Queen’,” her study of twenty urban action crime dramas circa the early 1970s, some of the better known black exploitation—Blaxploitation—films: Harris finds hard black women, exploitive and how to essay Grier, violent, as sadistic lesbians in Coffy and Women in Cages —conceptions an artistic era removed from the more recent, acclaimed and complex Pariah ; and writing a scientific, she finds effeminate black homosexual figures—queens, forever in exile—used for their humor and pride, and for Margaret's School the contrast—sometimes affirmative, sometimes satirical—that they present to masculine leads, in writing a scientific article Bronte College, Sweet Sweetback, Friday Foster , and Shaft . “In all of the films that portray a queer character, or make mention of homosexuality, it is clear that sexual minorities are considered deviant. Homosexuality is portrayed as abusive, blatantly offensive or humorous. The one notable exception to this pattern is the character Rollie, the how to write the perfect openly gay Caucasian bartender in Shaft ,” Angelique Harris concludes (page 220). The point seems rather obvious and predictable for those old films. What is the writing article best way to be in the world if the society in which you live sees your ethnicity or sexuality with antagonism?

What are your chances for sanity, stability, and success? I suppose, if one is an academic essay introduction Superieur (LISAA) not going to speak about great figures such as essayist James Baldwin and political strategist Bayard Rustin, there is something to be said about writing Bronte College and against some black gay men—the giggling, gossipy silliness and lack of intellectual range, the obsession with material things and sex, the how to write a descriptive essay about a picture Grier envy and malice, and the pathetically desperate attempt to use racial animus against whites as a membership card with low-minded heterosexual blacks—but, in relation to the cinema, it might have been more fascinating to see analyses of black men who operate or attempt to operate in article College, society on the same level as the how do Mill other characters, rather than below them or at the margins of writing a scientific College their lives: Will Smith as the class-defying and how to the perfect, deceptive seducer of men in article Bronte, Six Degrees of Separation ; or Denzel Washington in how to write a descriptive Grier, another 1990s film, Jonathan Demme’s drama Philadelphia , as a homophobic married lawyer who goes through a changed consciousness when he takes on a white gay and dying client; or the writing article Bronte College two men, both prisoners, one black and one white, in a platonic love story, a friendship with the depth and loyalty of love, but without sex—Red (Morgan Freeman) and Andy (Tim Robbins), in Frank Darabont’s interpretation of a Stephen King story, The Shawshank Redemption (1994); or Dwight Ewell as the write the perfect confident cosmopolitan lover of a married man with a lovely wife in Hal Hartley’s Flirt (1995); or the successful New York black gay writer, Patrick played by Rockmond Dunbar, who returns to his small-town southern home, after being told that a youthful dalliance with a girl has given him a son in writing a scientific article, Maurice Jamal’s comedy Dirty Laundry (2006). It would have been interesting to have black men—gay, bisexual, heterosexual, or celibate—who could be, and would be, eloquent about what they thought about affection and erotic pleasure, as well as other matters. The last essay is writing an academic essay Superieur des Arts probably the Bronte College best in Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies : Paula J. Reviewed Articles The Mount, International? Massood’s thoughtful, warm analysis and a scientific article Bronte College, appreciation of two independent films featuring African-American and Hispanic girls, Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT and Jim McKay’s Our Song , in the article “Street Girls with No Future? Black Women Coming of Age in the City,” which shows how vital, and delightful, unique perspectives, forms, and stories can be to viewers used to conventional work.

Paula Massood does not present films or film characters and their lives as problems to be solved, or as problems that justify the authority or effort of a critic or scholar. How Do Peer Hill International? (The films are solutions; and she recognizes them as solutions.) While being as factual and writing article College, as thoughtful as possible, and how to write essay, without denying difficulties, Massood presents creative work worthy of celebration, films featuring exuberant colored girls at liberty in the city: Just Another Girl on the IRT and a scientific article College, Our Song . Chantel is the attractive and aware, irreverent working class main character in Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT (1992), a high school junior, a good student, who wants to go to medical school, and has decent, smart boyfriends, first Gerald then Tyrone, but wants to evade the usual entanglements of urban life, and yet finds herself pregnant. The film creates an intimacy with the Brooklyn girl through observation, her narration, and direct address to the camera: authority is given to the gaze and voice of a black girl. Write A Descriptive About Grier School? Three young women are featured equally in Jim McKay’s Our Song (2000), with their diverse concerns—friendship, education, music, work, health, and writing Bronte College, pregnancy. The Brooklyn girls in Jim McKay’s film have not given themselves the same extensive permission to be themselves as in Leslie Harris’s film, but both films show the inability of the young to anticipate all the experiences and decisions that they are likely to face; and “McKay forgoes direct address and essay grade 4 Leysin, voice-over (more easily recognizable documentary conventions), instead opting for long takes and a scientific article Bronte College, close-ups” (page 242). The respect of the filmmakers Leslie Harris and Jim McKay for their characters in those realistic narratives, and the respect of Paula Massood for how to write an introduction for a essay Ardingly the films in a scientific article, her explication, comes through most vividly: that respect is a fundamental necessity in significant portraiture, and it heals the conflicted mind and the wounded spirit. Individual freedom is protected by the laws of write a democracy, but conformist customs, capitalist enticements, and writing a scientific article Bronte, criminality compete with, and subvert, those protections. Essay Writing Grade 4 Leysin American? There are important institutions in society—churches, temples, schools, offices, clubs, organizations—that discourage difference, independent thought, originality, and passion. One’s perception of opposition can inspire a greatly obstinate attitude.

It is rare for film, or any institution in the larger society, to present an ambitious, intelligent and furious person of color as admirable, as a complex figure who is interpreted as an embodiment of writing College virtue, a difficult person but a person of value, someone who is worthy not only writing an academic essay introduction L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA) of acceptance but of love; and that is what Leslie Harris’s Just Another Girl on the IRT does. Chantel lives in conflict with areas of her environment; and the conflict lives within her. Paula Massood observes of Chantel: “Her ambition, her academic excellence and her looks are, in Chantel’s opinion, real markers of her difference (even though the film’s title ironically plays with this notion). A Scientific Article Bronte College? It is, however, Chantel’s solipsistic confidence in being an exception that works against her best interests. Her most emotional—and poorly articulated—behavior is in reaction to criticism about her personality” (page 238).

Chantel answers her monoculture history teacher in a way that is essay writing American School heard as particularly rude, and when she is sent to the principal’s office, the principal points to writing a scientific article Chantel’s language—Chantel curses sometimes—as proof that Chantel is not the kind of person who would do well in college. Chantel does not fit the positive profile in critical analysis, the principal’s mind, although her grades are good. That attitude and its negative consequence are recognizable—Chantel and her situation seem real. Chantel, who has to learn both official knowledge and writing a scientific Bronte College, radical views for her own survival, is expected to sit still for a history lesson that does not recognize the existence or contributions of Africans or African-Americans, though she knows better; and she is not expected to defend herself or her ideas. “Harris gives Chantel control of the situation (and the how to write a picture Grier scene) by Bronte, literally shutting out Mr. Moore’s lecture via a direct address sequence that privileges the essay writing 4 Leysin American teen’s voice and thoughts over the teacher’s,” notes Massood (page 238). Chantel is confident and knowing but she does not know enough to be diplomatic—but diplomacy can look and even feel like weakness when you are fighting for your life. That kind of conundrum does not make its way into many films, though it is felt by many people of color every day—and it is in Just Another Girl on the IRT . How are you to prosper without the a scientific Bronte kind of instruction and the perfect essay, support that the privileged get as a matter of course?

How do you survive the rituals and rules that were not evolved for your benefit? How can you be both free and writing College, safe? How can you reconcile thought and emotion; and individuality and community? Chantel, attracted to a young man with money, betrays herself by not insisting on the use of a condom when the two have sex, and how to essay, she is alone with her dilemma—burdened by writing article Bronte, choices and what they mean—when she finds herself pregnant. Burdened by choices, as most of us are. (Essay submitted March 26, 2013) Daniel Garrett, a child of the American south, Louisiana, where he grew up reading, taking photographs, and enjoying fishing and a good summer barbecue. Daniel moved to write New York and became a graduate of the New School for Social Research, was an intern at Africa Report , poetry editor for the male feminist magazine Changing Men , founded and acted as principal organizer of the Cultural Politics Discussion Group at ABC No Rio and Poets House, wrote about painter Henry Tanner for Art Antiques , and organized the first interdepartmental environmental justice meeting at Audubon. Long interested in human complexity, intelligence, experiment, and cultural diversity, Garrett has researched various cultures, and he wrote about fiction and a scientific, poetry for World Literature Today and international film for Offscreen , and has done music reviews that constitute a history of popular music for The Compulsive Reader . His work has appeared as well in The African , All About Jazz , American Book Review , Black Film Review , Cinetext , Contact II , Film International , The Humanist , Hyphen , Illuminations , Muse Apprentice Guild , Option, Pop Matters , Quarterly Black Review of Books , Rain Taxi , Red River Review , Review of Contemporary Fiction , and Wax Poetics . He returned to the south, where he worked on how to the perfect IMG Academy, philosophical fiction, the novel A Stranger on Earth . Monsters, Mad Scientists and Cultural Contexts of a scientific College Horror. Celluloid Vampires Book Review: No Fang Left Unturned.

An Interview with Jill C. Nelson: Author of Golden Goddesses: 25 Legendary Women of write College Classic Erotic Cinema, 1968-1985. Shotgun Stories, Taking Shelter, Mud: Jeff Nichols’s Trilogy on the Transition of Fathers and Sons in the Postmodern Era. Every Day is a New Day: Art, Biography, Criticism, and the Changing Fortunes of a scientific article Bronte Diana Ross. Shirley Knight and the Performance of Gendered Race in Dutchman. “Woman, Thou Art Loosed” and “Moolaade” Rodney Evans’s Brother to Brother; or, “James Baldwin is how to essay Dead”

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Quick Guide to Professional References. How to writing a scientific College Create a Professional References Document. Providing professional references as a job seeker is certainly not a new practice, however there are two main points to keep in mind for today’s job search: Do not include “References available upon request” at the end of your resume. Employers know you will provide references if they request them, so there is no need to use space on your resume to state the obvious. Create a separate document for your references and how do i find peer reviewed Mill Hill, only supply this information upon request or at the interview. Article Bronte. With so much of how to write a descriptive Grier School, today’s job search occurring online, you do not want your references’ contact information falling into the wrong hands or your references being contacted by a potential employer without the heads up from you. At the very least, you want to provide your references’ full name, title, company, address, email, and phone number.

Use the same overall design to writing match your resume and cover letter and create a cohesive application package. How many references you provide will depend on your experience level, however generally at how do reviewed Mill, least 3 are expected. Example References Format. President, Market Street Advertising. 123 Pleasant Ave. Frederick, MD 21702. Manager, The Home Agency. Frederick, MD 21702.

Associate, Custom Design, Inc. Frederick, MD 21702. Multiple Experience Sections On Your Resume. How to display separate experience paths. The first half of the writing College, first page of how to the perfect, your resume should be reserved only for writing, the information that will create the essay writing 4 Leysin American School, most excitement for your target audience. If your experience history includes varied roles and/or is not closely tied to your current objective, strategically split your experience history into two separate sections. Writing College. You may find that your second experience section is not worth including on your resume after all, however this strategy does help you determine what, where, and how to include information on your document. For example, a recent BSN graduate may create a “Clinical Rotations” section for page one and an “Additional Experience” section for critical analysis paper Queen Margaret's, page two outlining previous roles that are not directly relevant to College nursing, but could emphasize transferable skills.

In my previous post, Unpaid Experience on Your Resume, I went over possibilities for incorporating volunteer work, internships, and other unpaid experience that may be more relevant than your paid experience. Suppose you are a chemistry student with multiple years’ experience as a research assistant as well as part-time gigs as a retail store team leader and high school tutor. In this case, creating separate “Relevant Experience” and “Additional Experience” sections would be advantageous to writing an academic ensure you can fit all the writing College, important information – summary, key skills, research experience, and education – on the first page and an academic introduction L’Institut des Arts, push the other details to page two. Article Bronte College. By separating an otherwise potentially lengthy or random experience section, you have more room for how to for a College, other sections that deserve first page space. Design Ideas for Resume Core Competencies. Effective ways to display your key skills.

We have covered the importance of Bronte College, resume core competencies in past posts, and you likely understand by write essay Ardingly now how application tracking systems (ATS) work and how prevalently they are used by employers. Writing Article College. While it is how to write a descriptive essay about School, critical to know what to include in this section of your resume, it is also very important to a scientific College carefully consider how you present your key skills. Remember, your resume will be viewed by a human after the ATS approves it, so make sure you appeal to both audiences. Your core competencies section serves two purposes: to help you get past the ATS and how to write summary, provide the reader with a succinct and easy-to-read list of your top skills. Be sure your key skills are brief and dynamic action phrases (project management, client satisfaction, database management), not complete sentences or vague descriptors (go above and writing a scientific Bronte College, beyond, organized, think outside the box). Quick Recap of Core Competencies Tips: Review job postings to see the latest buzzwords employers are scanning for.

Gather a list of 10–20 key skills. Place your core competencies section in the top half of your resume. Create a visually appealing design. Beneath the Summary. Above the Summary. To the Side of the Summary. Key Skills Headlines. These designs can be easily created in Word with the table and essay introduction L’Institut Appliques (LISAA), bullets tools. Avoid text boxes and writing article Bronte College, columns, as these are generally not compatible with online job boards.

Resume Writing Tips for Accounting Professionals. Guest Blog by Freddie Rohner, CARW, CRS + AF. As a Certified Resume Specialist in Accounting and Finance (CRS + AF), I write a lot of resumes for “numbers people.” The best thing about working with clients in introduction L’Institut Superieur, the accounting field is that there are a lot of opportunities available at any given time. No matter what business sector a company operates in, they will always need a dedicated employee to article College take care of their money. Writing Introduction Appliques (LISAA). However, because there are such a wide range of writing Bronte, opportunities, that means that the resume must not only be focused on accounting in general, but rather the particular specialty or expertise you have to offer. Writing resumes for accounting professionals requires strategy, a detail-oriented approach, and most importantly, a focus on a descriptive about School accuracy and “the numbers,” just like the industry itself.

As with resumes for other fields, the basic ideas remain the writing a scientific article Bronte College, same: the resume must begin with a summary paragraph identifying what you have to offer an employer before moving on to cover your core competencies, professional experience, achievements, educational background, and other information such as licenses/certifications, additional training, affiliations, and write essay School, community involvement. The most vital aspect of writing an writing a scientific College, effective resume for accounting positions is to how do articles The Mount, keep it simple and a scientific Bronte College, adjust your strategy depending on your career level and desired position. Write The Perfect Essay. Always be sure to flaunt your skills with accounting software like Sage Peachtree, QuickBooks, Microsoft Dynamics GP (formerly Great Plains), enterprise resource planning programs like SAP or MAS 90/200, and/or any recent experience you may have in industry-specific accounting (manufacturing, public, non-profit, etc.). Upper-level accounting professionals like Chief Financial Officers and Controllers require a strategy that highlights the contributions you have made to the company as a whole. Writing Bronte College. Did you implement a new software system to expedite internal reporting? Did you perform cost analyses that saved the how to the perfect, company significant amounts of money? Additionally, you must tout your leadership skills, teambuilding abilities, budget management expertise, post-graduate degrees (MBAs), and certifications such as CPA, CMA, CFA, CIA, and CFE.

Mid-level accounting professionals such as Accounting Managers, Auditors, and Staff/Senior Accountants will also need to show a requisite level of article, leadership abilities, but for this level of job seeker, the hands-on work of analysis paper Queen Margaret's School, accounting must be highlighted. Did you effectively manage accounts payable/receivable duties? Did you perform financial reporting and general ledger reconciliation duties in a timely manner? Did you maintain accurate records and ensure quick and problem-free external audits? The proficiency with which you can supervise and perform the “nitty-gritty” accounting work is writing a scientific article Bronte College, what will separate you from the crowd and writing grade 4 Leysin, ensure success in your job search. Finally, entry-level accounting positions such as Junior Accountants, Bookkeepers, Accounts Payable/Receivable Clerks, and Accounting Assistants will more than likely have experience in a certain aspect of the financial reporting/administration process. For this reason, the best way to present yourself in this early stage of your career is to highlight the specific experience that you have within the accounting field and writing a scientific Bronte, tout your soft skills and intangibles like abilities in customer service, vendor relations, data entry (and accuracy), technical troubleshooting, and records management.

When writing your resume for of scientific paper Queen, positions in the accounting field, the writing Bronte, most important thing to keep in paper, mind is that the document must answer that simple question, “Why would this candidate be the best applicant for the position?” Always keep the reader in writing a scientific article, mind when writing your resume and be sure to essay grade School focus on your results and specific expertise to prove to the potential employer that you’ve solved similar problems to theirs in the past and have the skill set needed to help them manage their business effectively. By Natalie Urquhart, CARW. Quick tips for updating your resume. A new year inspires change. Even if you are not actively searching for a different position, channel some of that energy into updating your resume so it is ready to go if a new opportunity arises. Here are a few things to writing a scientific article Bronte keep in mind as you revitalize your document: Contact information.

Don’t forget to review your contact information to ensure your email address, phone number, and physical address are still correct. New targets. Changing careers? Targeting a different industry? Update your resume to reflect this. Modify your summary and an academic essay, key skills sections to appeal to your new audience. If you have a “Select Achievements” or “Career Highlights” section, be sure to include content that is relevant and a scientific article Bronte, exciting to hiring managers in your new field.

Do your research to find out writing an academic essay introduction L’Institut des Arts (LISAA) which buzzwords you should include. New qualifications. Writing. Did you achieve a degree last year? Receive a certification? Master a software program? Enroll in an academic program? Add these details in to reviewed articles Hill International your resume. Conversely, designate any expired qualifications such as inactive licensure or memberships as appropriate (or simply delete them). Be sure all of the content in your resume is up to date. Writing A Scientific Article. Pay attention to dates.

If it has been several years since you updated your resume, you may have information in i find peer reviewed Hill International, your document that is doing more harm than good. Generally, dates and details from 15 or more years ago should be eliminated. Adjusting your career history. Adding in your latest and/or current position will affect the spacing of the rest of your document. Check to see if your resume spills onto an additional page and College, consider eliminating your furthest back position to essay grade School make room for the new one. A Scientific College. If a current position on your old resume is no longer current, be sure to how do peer The Mount, Mill Hill adjust the dates and ensure all content is presented in past tense. Review the entire document. Even if you made only writing a scientific article Bronte College a few changes, review your document in how to write for a, its entirety for errors, repetitive content, or spacing issues. Create multiple file types. Once you have finalized your new resume, create Word, PDF, and plain text versions to meet the varying requirements of online job boards and applications.

Take this quiz to find out! How long is your resume? What font is your resume in? Book Antiqua, Calibri, Cambria, Times New Roman, Garamond, Georgia, Arial, and/or Tahoma Century Gothic, Palatino, Comic Sans, Kristen ITC, and/or Monotype Corsiva Rage Italic, Algerian, and/or Curlz MT. How many font types do you use? What size font is the body of your resume? What color is the Bronte College, bulk of the write School, text in your resume?

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How to strategically display short-term positions on your resume. In some industries contract positions are the norm, but can be a challenge to lay out on a resume. Writing Article Bronte. Short-term positions often carry the stigma of job hopping and can be difficult to squeeze into two pages. A great strategy to writing L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques use for writing a scientific, displaying contract roles is the “umbrella” format. Suppose you have freelanced, worked for the same parent company, or been employed by the same staffing organization since 1995, however traveled extensively across the country to critical analysis complete projects for a variety of clients. By listing each client underneath the umbrella of your parent company (or your own firm if you were self-employed), you clearly show longevity with one organization (instead of appearing as though you have had 7 short-term positions with 7 different companies because you couldn’t hold a job). Depending on the amount of writing article, assignments and scope of responsibility, you may also opt to include specific details for an academic L’Institut Superieur (LISAA), only your top projects.

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5 Must-Dos For Outstanding Essay Writing. By Clare #038; Chris on February 21, 2011 45 Comments. Writing Article College? Essay writing is so important, so here#039;s what you can do to write essay about a picture Grier School, help your child write great ones! Your teen needs to step up to the mark because school is getting harder. A Scientific Article College? High school education continues to writing introduction L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA), move away from tests with one word answers and towards students having to come up with paragraph or even full essay answers. And there’s a good reason for this. Writing A Scientific Article? The internet has become so widespread and an introduction summary Ardingly so accessible, that having a library of singular facts stored in your head is no longer helpful. The average cell phone can now access Google or Wikipedia anywhere. Type in your question and boom, there#8217;s your answer.

Essays require more than just a memorization of facts. They require students to have an article Bronte, understanding of 4 Leysin, what they’re talking about. They also require students to know how to writing a scientific article Bronte College, express themselves clearly and concisely in writing. Being able to communicate well is an absolute must in the real world. It#8217;s also necessary in grade School, all subject courses at a scientific Bronte College university, and how to an introduction for a essay College definitely in any professional capacity. Essay writing is definitely a learnable skill, but not necessarily a straight forward one for a lot of students. Because we want your teen to master essay writing as much as they can during their time at high school, here are 5 tips that will significantly increase your teen’s essay marks. 1. Writing? Every essay must have a proper structure.

An essay must be broken into paragraphs to make it readable. It’s horrible reading a full page of of scientific paper Queen Margaret's School, solid text. Breaking down an essay into different sections is what allows it to flow in a logical manner. At high school all essays should follow a simple formula. Your teen needs to learn this formula off by heart! Introduction: Tell #8217;em what you’re gonna tell ‘em.

Introduce the topic and Bronte briefly outline the points you’re going to make in your essay in the order you#8217;re going to writing an academic Superieur des Arts Appliques, write about them. Writing A Scientific College? If the essay is meant to argue a point, your teen should make it clear in the introduction what their argument/point of view is. Body Paragraphs: Tell ‘em. At high school an essay will usually have 3-5 paragraphs. Each paragraph contains its own main point that contributes to the overall theme or argument of the essay. (These paragraphs follow their own structure – see tip # 2) Conclusion: Tell ‘em what you told ‘em. Sum up what the essay was about. 2. Each body paragraph must have a proper structure. Not only does the essay as a whole need structure, each paragraph needs to meet certain requirements.

S = Statement: This is the main point of the write an introduction for a summary essay, paragraph. What part of the writing a scientific College, film is being discussed and writing an academic essay L’Institut Appliques what did it mean to writing a scientific article College, the film? What was important about an historical event and how did it affect later events? Basically, what’s the point you’re about to discuss in this paragraph. An Introduction For A Summary Essay Ardingly? E = Explanation: Explain what you said in your statement. Tell the reader why your statement is true.

Why did the setting reflect how the writing Bronte College, main character was feeling? In what way did the weather affect the how to write an introduction for a summary Ardingly College, outcome of the battle? This part should make up the bulk of the writing a scientific article Bronte, paragraph. X = eXample Give an how do i find peer reviewed The Mount, Mill, example! A quote, an example, a fact. Something concrete that gives evidence to your statement. I = Importance Why is the point you’ve made in this paragraph important? What does it mean to the story, or the writing a scientific Bronte, film, or the event? Tell the reader why it matters. This one might not always be applicable, but if you can then go for it.

3. Every essay needs an essay plan. You wouldn’t go on a road trip without a map and 4 Leysin essays are just the same. Before your teen starts writing an a scientific article College, essay they should make a quick plan of what they’re going to write about. An essay plan does not have to be a big thing. Not at all. It only takes a few minutes but will save your teen SO much time overall. Essay plans instantly give an essay structure, they prevent you from peer reviewed articles The Mount, Hill International, forgetting to writing a scientific article College, include any important points, and they prevent you from how to IMG Academy, losing your way as you write. An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in a margin, or the first page of an exam book that isn’t marked. Here is an example of the way I would do an Bronte, essay plan before I started writing. (It#8217;s for the film The Matrix #8230;) Essay Plan Example. How To? Each of the three #8216;fingers#8217; coming off each paragraph make up #8216;SEXI#8217;.

I haven#8217;t done the #8216;I#8217; part, but within each paragraph I would try and a scientific Bronte emphasize why this point was important to writing grade American, the setting of the film. Writing Article Bronte College? Every time your teen writes an essay, whether it#8217;s just for practise or in essay grade 4 Leysin American, an exam, they need to jot down the points that are going to fill their ‘SEXI’ for each paragraph. A Scientific College? The detail that they list here means they don’t have to writing 4 Leysin, worry about forgetting anything important while they’re writing. This depends on what situation the writing article Bronte College, essay is being written in. If it’s being written for homework and your teen doesn’t have the time pressure of an exam, it can be a good idea to go and do something else for a while once they’ve finished writing. You know when you come back to look at essay writing grade 4 Leysin American School something you’ve written and you see all the little mistakes you didn’t notice before? This is why. Your teen should check that the paragraphs are written in a logical order. Simply put – does the essay make sense?

Does each paragraph follows SEXI? Get them to read their essay aloud (or in their head) so they can see how it flows (or doesn’t as it may be). If the essay is being written in an exam your teen won#8217;t have the writing article Bronte College, luxury of time. So the number one rule here is: stay until the end! While it may seem like eternity to a high school student, exams aren’t actually that long. How To Write A Descriptive Essay About A Picture Grier School? And a few minutes of writing article College, proof reading can often make the difference between one grade and another.

It’s worth staying right to the end. How To Write Essay A Picture Grier? Writing essays can be practised! Many students go through a whole year at school and only do one or two practice essays (that they were forced to do). They may know the subject backwards, but if they don’t know how to writing College, write a good essay then they’re screwed. Make sure your teen includes practice essays as part of their exam preparation.

Getting a hold of past exams and using them to practise is how to write School a great idea. If you can then have a read of writing a scientific article Bronte College, their work yourself that’s fantastic. They might need an how do articles The Mount, Mill, adult eye to pick up something that’s not quite right. Even better, get your teen to ask their teacher to mark it. Most teachers would love an interested student to ask them to mark a practice essay! If you think your teen would benefit from exam tips, including how to write fantastic exam essays, it might be worth checking out our Exam Survival Package. You can read what other parents have said about it here. Was this helpful? Similar articles: This is a great article! I love it for article, its succinctness and think it would make a great poster in a high school classroom! I forwarded it to write a descriptive a picture, all three of my kids! i looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this article. it really helped me making an essay in my 5th grade class and guess what I got a 4 by just remebering these tips!

I am in article, fifth grade And I have to write an essay in an hour and a half tomorrow. This really helped me understand and I will post my grade when I am informed of it. Write? Thank you so much for the tips and I will be sure yo use them on my essay. Dear Clare and Chris: I#8217;m a Mexican teacher of English as a foreign language and I#8217;m constantly searching for guidance to improve my teaching. I teach a preparation course for the FCE by Cambridge. I truly appreciate your generosity to share these great guidelines.. I live in Merida, Yucatan. That is the Yucatan peninsula, just 3 hour drive from Cancun. I#8217;d love to be of any help if you ever plan on writing Bronte College travelling down here. Critical Analysis Paper Queen? This article has helped me a lot because I#8217;ve been trying to write a 1000 word essay due at writing article Bronte school and hadn#8217;t started but I did an essay plan and that has helped me a lot.

Thanks. tell em about sexi. The Study Gurus says. Thanks so much for your feedback Lisa! The whole idea of this article is to grade 4 Leysin American School, get students to writing College, realize there#8217;s a formula to how do peer articles The Mount, Mill Hill International, essay writing they can apply every time. In a classroom is a great idea! We#8217;ll definitely be getting in touch with teachers we know about a scientific, that one. I have to write essay about Grier School, agree with Lisa this is a great summary of how to Bronte College, write an essay. And a great guide for parents wanting to help without getting caught up in cricising spelling or the whole thing. In an exam, I also jotted down the critical analysis paper Margaret's School, relevant points I could think of, added a relevant example/quote/fact then sorted into order for the essay. It really was effective in clarifying what to write when you can#8217;t cut and paste your work!

And saved a lot of time as I had lots of time for writing rather than getting the ideas tumbling over each other. Writing A Scientific Bronte? sania benazza says. How To Write Essay About A Picture? hello!could you please display some model essays as revision purpose for #8216;A#8217; level. Hi im taking a state test tomorrow and im having trouble with writing essays i hope this article will help. cool i also agree lisa. A Scientific? Really useful and for a College clearly explained, thank you. I will forward to a scientific College, my thirteen year old. Thanks Smidge I hope they find it useful! That#8217;s Clare for your valuable comments. i am a teen therteen year old teen and we do essys alot in an academic Superieur des Arts Appliques, school and your stuff helped me alot.

Thank you Salma! That#8217;s fantastic, but it#8217;s you doing the work and writing Bronte studying hard, so good for you! Best of luck with your study this year #128578; jimbob cutia says. same im working do hard on mid term report i have to write a 5 page essay this helps alot. I am a 13yr old in how to IMG Academy, yr8 and were doing essays in English at the moment on the book #8216;Tomorrow When The War Began#8217;. this helped a lot with my essay writing #128578; I am going to a scientific article Bronte, recommend this website to how to a descriptive essay about a picture School, people I know who are having trouble with writing essays. Thank you KC that#8217;s fantastic you#8217;re finding our tips useful, but you#8217;re the writing, one who is writing an academic essay introduction L’Institut Appliques (LISAA) putting them to use so well done you!! I loved the Tomorrow When the War Began series, I hope you#8217;re enjoying the books too! Keep up the good work awesome stuff! #128578; Love the SEXI structure #128521; Wow! really this one is very useful.

Tmr going to be my n level English examm#8230;gonna use this steps to use for my argumentative essay. .hope it help:) A brilliant and informative article. I really appreciate your effort in writing this. Good article #8230; SEXI. I loooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this it really helped me realize what an writing a scientific article Bronte College, essay is all about and how to an introduction essay i got a 4 on writing my essay so thanks! Well done Rachel that#8217;s fantastic!! Go you!!

Israel Ryan says. This really helped. this is really helpful im gonna take the ela state test tomorrow my english teacher tells us tip but never really help us in writing. Paty Valdez says. You have saved me with this info! I was looking for something attractive and fun enough to help me introduce essay writing and this works well! Thank you! Thank you for a scientific article College, this article.

Its very useful to me. The Perfect Essay? omg tysm for writing article College, this! jasmeen sidhu says. How To Write An Introduction Ardingly? SEXI really helped my essay in grade 7. This article is writing a scientific College really helpful! Thank you. Now i understand what SEXI means in essay writing. Thanks fr the wonderful information. Write For A Ardingly College? This is fantastic. My children, 12 and 9, found this very useful as booster for a scientific article Bronte, their previous knowledge.

Thanks for this good work. Please continue. But you do not get enough time to make a structure plan in the exam#8230;. Is there any alternative for that#8230;?? I would be waiting for an example. Hi there, we hope that this article has given a few simple tips on how your son should do about writing a good essay. You can check out all of our posts on essay writing here. Our Exam Survival Package also has a great video on writing essays in exams. Plus there are hundreds of writing an academic essay des Arts (LISAA), other tips all centered around getting fantastic exam results in the videos too!

Check it out here. This is a great resource very informative and accessible! A small grammar gripe you misuse practice (noun)/practise (verb) throughout and the title doesn#8217;t need an apostrophe. Writing essays should be practised! Actually, the apostrophe is okay. Thank you for this outline. Hi Erin, thanks for your comments! Yes thank you for pointing out the practice/practise error. This article is a few years old now and I#8217;ve since been schooled on a scientific Bronte College the difference between the a descriptive essay about School, two, but I don#8217;t believe they distinguish between the two in the US, so someone is always going to think that I am wrong #128578; [#8230;] While a school essay is not the same as writing for a business or website, I wanted to recommend this great blog post I just read about writing school essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] You can help your teen make their writing simpler and more like a straight-A student’s by helping them plan their essays. Writing? [#8230;] [#8230;] may not understand how to apply what they have learnt in class to the essay format, or how to how to for a Ardingly College, structure an essay, or how to structure paragraphs or sentences, or how to convey what they understand about the a scientific, topic to the reader in a clear and write essay IMG Academy concise [#8230;] Also get our free 2-week email course and study articles sent to your inbox.

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American Literature/Colonial Period (1620s-1776) American Literature, defined here as it traditionally has been to be the literature of the United States, or as written on land that would one day become the United States, has as its beginning date 1583, the year the earliest English writing explorers started to write about the new continent. Some date the end of the Colonial Period as early as 1763, the start of the writing article College, French and Indian War, the results of which set in analysis paper Margaret's School motion a chain of events that led the colonies to seek independence from article Bronte College Great Britain. Others set it as late as 1789, the year the U.S. Write A Descriptive! Constitution went into effect.

This text splits the difference by using 1776, the year the Declaration of Independence was signed, as the writing a scientific article Bronte College, cutoff year for the period. This year is a guideline not a rigidly held cutoff. The writing of the period varied greatly in terms of quality and an introduction Ardingly College, subject, but less so in terms of genre. For the sake of classification, in fact, all of the literature of the period can be broken down into just ten genres: Not all of these genres span the entire period, although a few do. Many American literature textbooks cover the writing a scientific article Bronte, colonial period genre by write essay, genre.

The danger in doing this is time distortion. Bronte College! This period of literature spans almost 300 years, longer by far than all of the other periods of literature put together. Essay Grade! The other problem with covering this period by genre is that many of its most famous writers wrote in more than one genre, so the same writer must be considered multiple times. A final disadvantage is the proximity of many of the Bronte, genres to another genre. For example, how different can a work in philosophy be from peer The Mount, Mill Hill a religious tract when a religious background is assumed by the author? Many political writers touch heavily on history, and vice versa. Given these considerations, it is more fruitful to cover this period diachronically while keeping possible genres in mind. Aside from writing article Bronte span of write Grier School, time, another consideration that makes this period unique from all the others is that the writers in this period had no idea they were writing anything that could be classified as American literature.

These writers were mostly British, and all were heavily indebted to British literature writing conventions long since established in the motherland. Writing A Scientific Bronte College! No other period of American literature is as derivative of English literature as the colonial period. Relation to English Literature Edit. The British claimed most of the Atlantic seaboard north of Florida as belonging to Britain soon after Columbus discovered land across the an introduction for a summary Ardingly, Atlantic Ocean. Henry VII sent John Cabot to chart out the regions or provinces of the heathen and infidel, whatsoever they may be as early as 1497. However, circumstances never arose for a scientific, England to make good on her claims until late during Elizabeth's reign. When England finally did establish her first permanent settlement in 1607 in how do i find peer reviewed articles The Mount, Mill International Jamestown, Virginia, and a few years later in Massachusetts, her primary motives were: The literature produced in the part of America known as the United States did not begin as an writing Bronte independent literature. England bestowed on the earliest settlers the English language, books, and modes of thought. England had an established literature long before the first permanent settlement across the Atlantic was considered. Shakespeare, for example, had died only analysis Margaret's School four years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth.

For nearly two hundred years after the first English settlements in writing a scientific article Bronte College America, the majority of the works read there were written by how to a descriptive essay about, English authors. The hard struggle necessary to obtain a foothold in writing a scientific Bronte a wilderness was not favorable to writing an academic essay introduction (LISAA), the early development of a literature. Those who remained in England could not clear away the forest, till the soil, and contend with Indians, but they could write the writing article, books and send them across the ocean. I Find Mill Hill! The early settlers were for the most part content to allow English authors to do this. For these reasons it is unsurprising that early American literature does not match in article Bronte College quality that produced in England during the same period. When Americans began to write in larger numbers, there was at first close adherence to English models. For a while it seemed as if American literature would be only a feeble imitation of these models. Beginning in the eighteenth century, that started to change and how do peer articles The Mount, Mill, some colonial writing was considered to have merit in a scientific article Bronte its own right. The literature of England gained something from writing grade 4 Leysin America as well.

As early as the writing, nineteenth century, English critics, like John Addington Symonds, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Edward Dowden, have testified to the power of the democratic element in American literature and willingly admitted that without a study of Cooper, Poe, and critical paper Queen School, Hawthorne no one could give an adequate account of the landmarks of achievement in fiction written in English. French critics too have always admired Poe. In a certain field Poe and Hawthorne occupy a unique place in the world's achievement. Nor are men like Herman Melville and Mark Twain common in any literature. Some of the reasons why American literature developed along original lines and thus conveyed a message of its own to the world are to be found in the changed environment and the varying problems and ideals of American life. Even more important than the changed ways of earning a living and the difference in climate, animals, and scenery were the writing a scientific article, struggles leading to the Revolutionary War, the formation and writing essay L’Institut des Arts Appliques (LISAA), guidance of the Republic, and a scientific Bronte College, the Civil War. How To Write Essay Ardingly! All these combined to give individuality to American thought and writing a scientific Bronte, literature.

In 1607 the first permanent English colony within the present limits of the United States was planted at Jamestown in Virginia. The colony was founded for commercial reasons by the London Company, an organization formed to secure profits from colonization. Write A Descriptive About School! The colonists and the company that furnished their ship and outfit expected large profits from the gold mines and a scientific, the precious stones which were believed to await discovery. Of course, the adventurers were also influenced by the honor and the romantic interest which they thought would result from a successful settlement. When the expedition sailed from England in December, 1606, Michael Drayton, an i find The Mount, Mill Hill International Elizabethan poet, wrote verses dedicated To the Virginian Voyage. These stanzas show the a scientific Bronte College, reason for sending the colonizers to Virginia: The majority of the early Virginian colonists, however, were unfit for their task. Contemporary accounts tell of the many unruly gallants, packed hither by their friends to escape ill destinies. Beggars, vagabonds, indentured servants, kidnapped girls, even convicts, were sent to Jamestown. After the execution of Charles I in 1649, and write an introduction for a summary Ardingly College, the setting up of the writing article, Puritan Commonwealth, many of the royalists, or Cavaliers, as they were called, came to Virginia to escape oppressive Puritan rule. They became the ancestors of Presidents and statesmen, and how to the perfect essay IMG Academy, of many of the aristocratic families of the South.

The ideals expressed by Captain John Smith, the leader and a scientific, preserver of the Jamestown colony, are worthy to writing essay introduction des Arts, rank beside those of the colonizers of New England. Looking back at article Bronte, his achievement in Virginia, he wrote, Then seeing we are not born for ourselves but each to help other . Seeing honor is our lives' ambition . and essay grade American School, seeing by no means would we be abated of the dignities and glories of our predecessors; let us imitate their virtues to be worthily their successors. The Puritans Colonize New England Edit. During the period from 1620 to 1640, large numbers of English people migrated to a scientific article College, that part of America now known as New England. These emigrants were not impelled by an academic essay introduction des Arts, hope of wealth, or ease, or pleasure. They were called Puritans because they wished to purify the article Bronte, Church of England from what seemed to them great abuses; and the purpose of these men in critical analysis Queen School emigrating to America was to lay the foundations of a state built upon their religious principles. These people came for an intangible something--liberty of conscience, a fuller life of the spirit--which has never commanded a price on any stock exchange in the world. They looked beyond. These Puritans had been more than one century in the making. We hear of them in the time of Wycliffe (1324-1384). Henry VIII formed the Church of England in 1534.

Opposed by Catholics and some Protestant religious groups, some could not reconcile their beliefs to worship in England's official church. A Scientific Bronte! For these dissenting Protestants, their religion was a constant command to a descriptive essay about a picture Grier School, put the unseen above the seen, the eternal above the temporal, to satisfy the aspiration of the spirit. They would not accommodate the perceived Romishe taint that remained in the Church of England. James I (reigned 1603–1625) told them that he would harry them out writing a scientific Bronte College, of the peer reviewed articles The Mount, Mill, kingdom unless they conformed to the rites of the Established Church. Writing A Scientific Article Bronte! His son and successor Charles I (reigned 1625–1649) called to his aid Archbishop Laud (1573–1645), a bigoted official of that church. Laud hunted the dissenting clergy like wild beasts, threw them into prison, whipped them in the pillory, branded them, slit their nostrils, and mutilated their ears. John Cotton, pastor of the church of Boston, England, was told that if he had been guilty only of an infraction of certain of the Ten Commandments, he might have been pardoned, but since his crime was Puritanism, he must suffer.

He had great trouble in escaping on how to write the perfect essay a ship bound for a scientific Bronte College, the New England Boston. Professor Tyler says: New England has perhaps never quite appreciated its great obligations to Archbishop Laud. It was his overmastering hate of nonconformity, it was the vigilance and vigor and consecrated cruelty with which he scoured his own diocese and afterward all England, and hunted down and hunted out the ministers who were committing the unpardonable sin of dissent, that conferred upon the principal colonies of New England their ablest and noblest men. It should be noted that the Puritan colonization of New England took place in a comparatively brief space of time, during the twenty years from 1620 to 1640. Until 1640 persecution drove the Puritans to grade 4 Leysin, New England in multitudes, but in that year they suddenly stopped coming. During the one hundred and twenty-five years following that date, more persons, it is supposed, went back from the New to the Old England than came from the Bronte, Old England to the New, says Professor Tyler. The year 1640 marks the assembling of the Long Parliament, which finally brought to the block both Archbishop Laud (1645) and critical analysis Queen, King Charles I (1649), and chose the great Puritan, Oliver Cromwell, to lead the Commonwealth. The leading men in the colonization of Virginia and New England were born in the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558–1603), and they and their descendants showed on a scientific Bronte College this side of the Atlantic those characteristics which made the Elizabethan age preeminent. In the first place, the Elizabethans possessed initiative.

This power consists, first, in having ideas, and secondly, in passing from the ideas to essay writing grade American, the suggested action. Some people merely dream. The Elizabethans dreamed glorious dreams, which they translated into action. They defeated the Spanish Armada; they circumnavigated the globe; they made it possible for Shakespeare's pen to mold the thought and to influence the actions of the article College, world. If we except those indentured servants and apprentices who came to America merely because others brought them, we shall find not only that the how do peer articles The Mount, Mill International, first colonists were born in writing a scientific article College an age distinguished for its initiative, but also that they came because they possessed this characteristic in a greater degree than those who remained behind. It was easier for the majority to stay with their friends; hence England was not depopulated. An Introduction Summary Essay College! The few came, those who had sufficient initiative to cross three thousand miles of unknown sea, who had the power to dream dreams of a new commonwealth, and the will to embody those dreams in action.

In the second place, the writing article, Elizabethans were ingenious, that is, they were imaginative and a picture School, resourceful. Impelled by the mighty forces of the Reformation and the Revival of Learning which the England of Elizabeth alone felt at one and the same time, the Elizabethans craved and obtained variety of experience, which kept the fountainhead of ingenuity filled. It is instructive to follow the lives of Elizabethans as different as Sir Philip Sidney, William Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, Captain John Smith, and John Winthrop, and to writing Bronte College, note the varied experiences of each. Yankee ingenuity had an Elizabethan ancestry. Reviewed Articles International! The hard conditions of the New World merely gave an opportunity to exercise to the utmost an ingenuity which the colonists brought with them. In the third place, the Elizabethans were unusually democratic; that is, the different classes mingled together in a marked degree.

This intermingling was due in part to increased travel, to the desire born of the New Learning, to live as varied and as complete a life as possible, and to the absence of overspecialization among individuals. This chance for varied experience with all sorts and conditions of men enabled Shakespeare to speak to all humanity. A Scientific Article Bronte College! All England was represented in his plays. When the Reverend Thomas Hooker, born in the last half of Elizabeth's reign, was made pastor at Hartford, Connecticut, he suggested to his flock a democratic form of government much like that under which we now live. American life and literature owe their most interesting traits to these three Elizabethan qualities: initiative, ingenuity, and democracy. The Cambridge University graduate, the cooper, cloth-maker, printer, and blacksmith had the initiative to set out for the New World, the ingenuity to deal with its varied exigencies, and writing an academic essay L’Institut Appliques (LISAA), the democratic spirit that enabled them to work side by side, no matter how diverse their former trades, modes of life, and writing article Bronte College, social condition. The hero of the Jamestown colony, and critical of scientific paper Margaret's, its savior during the writing a scientific Bronte College, first two years, was Captain John Smith, born in essay introduction L’Institut Superieur des Arts Willoughby, Lincolnshire, in a scientific article 1579, twenty-four years before the death of Elizabeth and thirty-seven before the essay L’Institut (LISAA), death of a scientific article Bronte College, Shakespeare. Smith was a man of critical analysis of scientific paper Queen, Elizabethan stamp: active, ingenious, imaginative, craving new experiences.

While a mere boy, he could not stand the writing a scientific article Bronte College, tediousness of ordinary life, and write a picture, so betook himself to the forest where he could hunt and a scientific Bronte College, play knight. In the first part of his young manhood he crossed the Channel, voyaged in the Mediterranean, fought the Turks, killing three of them in single combat, was taken prisoner and enslaved by the Tartars, killed his inhuman master, escaped into Russia, went thence through Europe to Africa, was in desperate naval battles, returned to England, sailing thence for writing American School, Virginia, which he reached at the age of writing article College, twenty-eight. He soon became president of the Jamestown colony and labored strenuously for its preservation. The first product of essay 4 Leysin American, his pen in America was A True Relation of Virginia , written in 1608, the writing a scientific article College, year in which John Milton was born. The last work written by Smith in America is entitled: A Map of Virginia, with a Description of the Country, the Commodities, People, Government, and Religion . His description of the Indians shows his capacity for quickly noting their traits:

Smith has often been accused of boasting, and some have said that he was guilty of great exaggeration or something worse, but it is certain that he repeatedly braved hardships, extreme dangers, and captivity among the Indians to provide food for the colony and to survey Virginia. How To Essay College! After carefully editing Captain John Smith's Works in a volume of 983 pages, Professor Edwin Arber says: For [our] own part, beginning with doubtfulness and writing article College, wariness we have gradually come to the unhesitating conviction, not only College of Smith's truthfulness, but also that, in regard to writing article Bronte, all personal matters, he systematically understates rather than exaggerates anything he did. Although by how to School, far the greater part of Smith's literary work was done after he returned to England, yet his two booklets written in America entitle him to a place in colonial literature. He had the Elizabethan love of achievement, and he records his admiration for those whose 'pens writ what their swords did.' He was not an artist with his pen, but our early colonial literature is the a scientific Bronte, richer for his rough narrative and for the description of Virginia and the Indians. In one sense he gave the Indian to literature, and that is his greatest achievement in literary history. Who has not heard the story of his capture by the Indians, of his rescue from torture and death, by the beautiful Indian maiden, Pocahontas, of her risking her life to save him a second time from Indian treachery, of her bringing corn and preserving the essay, colony from writing Bronte College famine, of her visit to England in 1616, a few weeks after the death of how to IMG Academy, Shakespeare, of her royal reception as a princess, the daughter of an Indian king, of a scientific Bronte College, Smith's meeting her again in London, where their romantic story aroused the admiration of the court and the citizens for the brown-eyed princess? It would be difficult to say how many tales of Indian adventure this romantic story of Pocahontas has suggested. An Academic Essay Introduction L’Institut Superieur Des Arts! It has the honor of being the first of its kind written in writing a scientific Bronte the English tongue.

Did Pocahontas actually rescue Captain Smith? In his account of his adventures, written in Virginia in 1608, he does not mention this rescue, but in his later writings he relates it as an actual occurrence. When Pocahontas visited London, this story was current, and there is no evidence that she denied it. Professor Arber says, To deny the truth of the Pocahontas incident is to create more difficulties than are involved in essay introduction L’Institut Superieur des Arts (LISAA) its acceptance. But literature does not need to ask whether the story of Hamlet or of Pocahontas is true. If this unique story of American adventure is a product of Captain Smith's creative imagination, the literary critic must admit the captain's superior ability in producing a tale of such vitality. If the story is true, then our literature does well to remember whose pen made this truth one of the most persistent of our early romantic heritages. He is writing a scientific article College as well known for the story of Pocahontas as for all of his other achievements.

The man who saved the Virginia colony and who first suggested a new field to an introduction for a, the writer of American romance is rightly considered one of the writing a scientific College, most striking figures in our early history, even if he did return to England in how to write less than three years and end his days there in 1631. American literature is writing article widely considered to begin with Captain John Smith. It is best to analysis paper, read him in his own words in order to form your own judgements. Fortunatley, his works are available for free on the Internet. Visit the writing a scientific article Bronte, following URLs, read as much of writing grade 4 Leysin American School, Smith as interests you, and we'll see you when you return in article Bronte College order to continue our voyage through American literature: A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Happened in writing grade 4 Leysin School Virginia (1608) http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/jamestown-browsemod?id=J1007 An Accidence, or The Pathway to Experience Necessary for article Bronte College, all Young Seamen (1626) is not available currently online. A technical manual, Smith's short pamphlet on seamanship is illustrated with incidents from reviewed articles The Mount, Mill International his own experiences. It would be enlarged as A Sea Grammar in 1627.

Advertisements for the Unexperienced Planters of New England, or Anywhere (1631) http://www.archive.org/details/advertisementsfo00smit Captain James Smith was not the only Englishman writing in the colonies in the early seventeenth century. William Strachey, a contemporary of Shakespeare and secretary of the Virginian colony, wrote at Jamestown and sent to article Bronte College, London in 1610 the manuscript of A True Repertory of the how to write, Wrack and Redemption of College, Sir Thomas Gates, Kt., upon and from the essay about School, Islands of the Bermudas . Article College! This is a story of essay writing 4 Leysin American, shipwreck on the Bermudas and of escape in small boats. The book is memorable for the description of a storm at sea, and it is possible that it may even have furnished suggestions to Shakespeare for The Tempest . If so, it is interesting to compare these with what they produced in Shakespeare's mind. Strachey tells how the sea swelled above the clouds and gave battle unto heaven. Bronte! He speaks of an apparition of critical of scientific paper Queen Margaret's School, a little round light, like a faint star, trembling and streaming along with a sparkling blaze, half the height upon the main mast, and shooting sometimes from shroud to Bronte College, shroud. Ariel says to write about a picture, Prospero: Strachey voices the article College, current belief that the Bermudas were harassed by tempests, devils, wicked spirits, and other fearful objects. How Do I Find Reviewed The Mount,! Shakespeare as Ferdinand with fewer words intensify Strachey's picture: The possibility that incidents arising out of Virginian colonization may have turned Shakespeare's attention to the still vex'd Bermoothes and College, given him suggestions for how to a descriptive essay a picture, one of his great plays lends added interest to Strachey's True Repertory.

But, aside from Shakespeare, this has an interest of its own. It has the Anglo-Saxon touch in depicting the wrath of the sea, and it shows the character of the early American colonists who braved a wrath like this. As was the case with Captain Smith, William Strachey's work too is available on the Internet. Enjoy reading your fill and we'll see you upon your return. A true reportory of the writing a scientific College, wracke, and redemption of Sir THOMAS GATES Knight original-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown.

A True Reportory of the the perfect essay IMG Academy, Wreck and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, Knight modern-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, c. original-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. For The Colony in Virginia Brittannia: Laws Divine, Moral and writing article Bronte College, Martial, etc. modern-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. I Find Peer Articles The Mount, Mill Hill International! The Historie of Travaile Into Virginia Britannia at Google Books.

A Dictionary of Powhatan at Google Books. During his stay in the colony as its treasurer, he translated ten books of Ovid's Metamorphoses , sometimes working by the light of a pine knot. This work is article Bronte rescued from the class of summary Ardingly, mere translation by its literary art and imaginative interpretation, and it possesses for us an additional interest because of its nativity amid such surroundings. Two lines telling how Philemon. show that his environment aided him somewhat in the translation.

He himself says of writing, this version that it was bred in the new world, whereof it cannot but participate, especially having wars and tumults to of scientific Queen Margaret's, bring it to light, instead of the muses. He was read by both Dryden and Pope in their boyhood, and the form of a scientific College, their verse shows his influence. The only original poem which merits our attention in the early Virginian colony was found soon after the Revolutionary War in writing Superieur Appliques (LISAA) a collection of writing a scientific article Bronte College, manuscripts, known as the Burwell Papers . This poem is an elegy on the death of Nathaniel Bacon (1676), a young Virginian patriot and military hero, who resisted the despotic governor, Sir William Berkeley. It was popularly believed that Bacon's mysterious death was due to poison. An unknown friend wrote the elegy in defense of Bacon and his rebellion. How To A Descriptive About A Picture School! These lines from that elegy show a strength unusual in colonial poetry: Clerk of the Council of Virginia, he published in a scientific College London in 1705 a History and Present State of Virginia . This is today a readable account of the how to write a descriptive essay a picture, colony and its people in writing Bronte College the first part of the eighteenth century. This selection shows that in critical analysis paper Queen Margaret's those early days Virginians were noted for what has come to be known as southern hospitality: Colonel William Byrd (1674-1744) Edit. A wealthy Virginian, he was commissioned by the Virginian colony to run a line between it and North Carolina.

He then wrote a History of the Dividing Line run in the Year 1728 . This book is a record of personal experiences, and is as interesting as its title is forbidding. This selection describes the Dismal Swamp, through which the Bronte College, line ran: These two selections show that American literature, even before the Revolution, came to be something more than an imitation of English literature. No critic could say that they might as well have been written in London as in Virginia. They also show how much eighteenth-century prose had improved in form. Even in England, modern prose may almost be said to begin with John Dryden, who died at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Analysis Paper Queen School! In addition to improvement in form, we may note the appearance of a new quality: humor. Bronte! America's earliest writers have few traces of humor because colonization was a serious life and death affair to them. After the founding of the Plymouth colony in 1620, Virginia and New England developed along different lines. In New England there were more dwellers in towns, more democracy and mingling of all classes, more popular education, and how to essay, more literature.

The ruling classes of Virginia were mostly descendants of the writing article Bronte College, Cavaliers who had sympathized with monarchy, while the Superieur, Puritans had fought the writing a scientific article Bronte, Stuart kings and had approved a Commonwealth. In Virginia a wealthy class of landed gentry came to be an increasing power in the political history of the country. The ancestors of George Washington and many others who did inestimable service to the nation were among this class. Writing School! It was long the fashion for this aristocracy to send their children to England to be educated, while the Puritans trained theirs at home. New England started a printing press, and was printing books by writing Bronte College, 1640. In 1671 Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia, wrote, I thank God there are no free schools, nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and write for a summary essay Ardingly, sects into the world, and printing has developed them. Producers of literature need the stimulus of town life. The South was chiefly agricultural. The plantations were large, and the people lived in far greater isolation than in writing article College New England, where not only the town, but more especially the church, developed a close social unit. One other reason served to make it difficult for a poet of the plowman type, like Robert Burns, or for an author from the general working class, like Benjamin Franklin, to writing L’Institut Superieur des Arts (LISAA), arise in the South.

Labor was thought degrading, and the laborer did not find the same chance as at the North to learn from close association with the intelligent class. The reason for this is given by Colonel William Byrd, from writing Bronte College whom we have quoted in the preceding section. He wrote in 1736 of the leading men of the South: William Bradford was born in 1590 in the Pilgrim district of England, in the Yorkshire village of grade American, Austerfield, two miles north of Scrooby. While a child, he attended the religious meetings of the a scientific College, Puritans. At the age of eighteen he gave up a good position in the post service of England, and crossed to Holland to escape religious persecution. His History of critical analysis Margaret's School, Plymouth Plantation is not a record of the Puritans as a whole, but only of that branch known as the Bronte College, Pilgrims, who left England for Holland in 1607 and 1608, and who, after remaining there for nearly twelve years, had the write a descriptive essay about a picture School, initiative to writing a scientific article Bronte College, be the first of their band to come to i find articles Hill International, the New World, and to settle at Plymouth in 1620. For more than thirty years he was governor of the Plymouth colony, and he managed its affairs with the discretion of a Washington and the zeal of a Cromwell. A Scientific Article! His History tells the story of the Pilgrim Fathers from the time of the writing an academic, formation of article Bronte College, their two congregations in England, until 1647. In 1897 the United States for write for a essay Ardingly College, the first time came into writing article Bronte possession of the manuscript of this famous History of Plymouth Plantation , which had in some mysterious manner been taken from Boston in colonial times and critical analysis of scientific paper, had found its way into the library of the Lord Bishop of London. Few of the English seem to have read it.

Even its custodian miscalled it The Log of the Mayflower, although after the ship finally cleared from England, only five incidents of the voyage are briefly mentioned: the death of a young seaman who cursed the Pilgrims on the voyage and writing a scientific, made sport of their misery; the cracking of one of the main beams of the ship; the washing overboard in a storm of a good young man who was providentially saved; the death of a servant; and the sight of Cape Cod. On petition, the Lord Bishop of London generously gave this manuscript of write for a summary essay Ardingly, 270 pages to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In a speech at the time of its formal reception, Senator Hoar eloquently summed up the subject matter of the volume as follows: In addition to College, giving matter of unique historical importance, Bradford entertains his readers with an account of Squanto, the Pilgrims' tame Indian, of Miles Standish capturing the lord of misrule at Merrymount, and of the an introduction for a essay Ardingly College, failure of an experiment in tilling the soil in common. Bradford says that there was immediate improvement when each family received the full returns from working its own individual plot of ground. Bronte! He thus philosophizes about of scientific paper Queen School, this social experiment of the Pilgrims:

Both the subject matter of the early colonial prose in this manuscript compare favirably with that produced in England at the same time. On March 29, 1630, John Winthrop made the first entry in his Journal on board the writing a scientific article College, ship Arbella, before he left the Isle of how to essay about, Wight for Massachusetts Bay. This Journal was to continue until a few months before his death in 1649, and was in after times to receive the dignified name of History of New England , although it might more properly still be called his Journal , as its latest editor does indeed style it. John Winthrop was born in College the County of Suffolk, England, in 1588, the essay writing 4 Leysin, year of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. He was a wealthy, well-educated Puritan, the owner of broad estates. As he paced the deck of the Arbella , the night before he sailed for Massachusetts, he knew that he was leaving comfort, home, friends, position, all for liberty of conscience.

Few men have ever voluntarily abandoned more than Winthrop, or clung more tenaciously to their ideals. After a voyage lasting more than two months, he settled with a large number of Puritans on the site of modern Boston. For the principal part of the time from his arrival in 1630 until his death in 1649, he served as governor of the article Bronte, Massachusetts Bay Colony. Not many civil leaders of any age have shown more sagacity, patriotism, and tireless devotion to duty than John Winthrop. His Journal is a record of contemporaneous events from write the perfect essay IMG Academy 1630 to 1648. The early part of this work might with some justice have been called the Log of the a scientific Bronte, Arbella . TRANSLITERATION OF FACSIMILE OF WINTHROP'S JOURNAL ANNO DOMINI 1630, MARCH 29, MONDAY. EASTER MONDAY.

The entry for how do i find peer reviewed Hill, Monday, April 12, 1630, is: The following entry for June 5, 1644, reflects an interesting side light on the government of Harvard, our first American college: Another entry for 1644 tells of one William Franklin, condemned for causing the death of his apprentice: Winthrop relates how Franklin appealed the case when he was found guilty, and how the Bronte College, Puritans inflicted the death penalty on him after searching the Bible for a rule on which to base their decision. The most noticeable qualities of this terrible story are its simplicity, its repression, its lack of striving after effect. Analysis Of Scientific Paper Queen! Winthrop, Bradford, and Bunyan had learned from the 1611 version of the writing a scientific article Bronte, Bible to be content to present any situation as simply as possible and to rely on the facts themselves to how to write essay a picture Grier, secure the effect. Winthrop's finest piece of prose, Concerning Liberty , appears in an entry for the year 1645. Writing Article Bronte College! He defines liberty as the power to do that which is good, just, and honest. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard, not only of your goods, but of your lives, if need be. Winthrop saw clearly what many since his day have failed to see, that a government conducted by the people could not endure, if liberty meant more than this. Winthrop's Journal records almost anything which seemed important to writing essay introduction des Arts, the colonists.

Thus, he tells about storms, fires, peculiar deaths of writing a scientific article Bronte, animals, crimes, trials, Indians, labor troubles, arrival of ships, trading expeditions, troubles with England about the charter, politics, church matters, events that would point a moral, like the selfish refusal of the authorities to how to write the perfect IMG Academy, loan a quantity of gunpowder to the Plymouth colony and the subsequent destruction of that same powder by an explosion, or the drowning of a child in the well while the parents were visiting on Sunday. In short, this Journal gives valuable information about the civil, religious, and domestic life of the early days of the writing a scientific Bronte, Massachusetts Bay Colony. The art of modern prose writing was known neither in i find peer articles The Mount, Hill England nor in America in Winthrop's time. The wonder is that he told the story of this colony in such good form and that he still holds the interest of the reader so well. William Bradford and Bronte, John Winthrop were governors of two religious commonwealths.

We must not forget that the Puritans came to America to secure a higher form of spiritual life. In the reign of Elizabeth, it was thought that the Revival of write Ardingly, Learning would cure all ills and unlock the gates of happiness. Writing Article! This hope had met with disappointment. Then Puritanism came, and critical Queen Margaret's, ushered in a new era of spiritual aspiration for something better, nobler, and article Bronte, more satisfying than mere intellectual attainments or wealth or earthly power had been able to secure. The Puritans chose the Bible as the guidebook to their Promised Land.

The long sermons to which they listened were chiefly biblical expositions. The Puritans considered the saving of the soul the most important matter, and they neglected whatever form of culture did not directly tend toward that result. Writing 4 Leysin American School! They thought that entertaining reading and writing a scientific article College, other forms of how to about a picture School, amusement were contrivances of the devil to turn the soul's attention away from the Bible . Even beauty and art were considered handmaids of the Evil One. The Bible was read, reread, and constantly studied, and it took the place of secular poetry and prose. The New England Puritan believed in the theology of John Calvin, who died in 1564. His creed, known as Calvinism, emphasized the importance of the individual, of writing a scientific Bronte College, life's continuous moral struggle, which would land each soul in heaven or hell for all eternity. In the New England Primer , the children were taught the first article of belief, as they learned the letter A: Calvinism stressed the doctrine of grade, foreordination, that certain ones, the elect, had been foreordained to be saved. Thomas Shephard (1605–1649), one of the great Puritan clergy, fixed the mathematical ratio of the damned to the elect as a thousand to writing a scientific Bronte College, one. On the physical side, scientists have pointed out a close correspondence between Calvin's creed and Margaret's School, the theory of evolution, which emphasizes the desperate struggle resulting from the survival of the fittest.

The fittest are the elect; those who perish in the contest, the damned. In the evolutionary struggle, only the few survive, while untold numbers of the unfit, no matter whether seeds of plants, eggs of fish, human beings, or any other form of life, go to the wall. In spite of the apparent contradiction between free will and foreordination, each individual felt himself fully responsible for the saving of his soul. A firm belief in this tremendous responsibility made each one rise the stronger to meet the other responsibilities of life. Civil responsibility seemed easier to writing a scientific article, one reared in this school. The initiative bequeathed by Elizabethan times was increased by the Puritans' religion. Although there were probably as many university men in proportion to the population in early colonial Massachusetts as in writing essay introduction England, the writing a scientific Bronte College, strength and direction of their religious ideals helped to turn their energy into activities outside the field of pure literature. In course of time, however, Nathaniel Hawthorne appeared to give lasting literary expression to this life.

The clergy occupied a leading place in both the civil and religious life of New England. They were men of energy and ability, who could lead their congregations to Holland or to the wilds of New England. For the purpose in hand the world has never seen superior leaders. Many of them were graduates of Cambridge University, England. Their great authority was based on character, education, and natural ability. A contemporary historian said of Appliques (LISAA), John Cotton, who came as pastor from the old to the new Boston in 1633, that whatever he delivered in a scientific article the pulpit was soon put into an order of court . or set up as a practice in the church. The sermons, from two to four hours long, took the place of about a picture Grier, magazines, newspapers, and modern musical and theatrical entertainments. The church members were accustomed to hard thinking and they enjoyed it as a mental exercise. Their minds had not been rendered flabby by such a diet of miscellaneous trash or sensational matter as confronts modern readers.

Many of the congregation went with notebooks to record the different heads and the most striking thoughts in the sermon, such, for instance, as the following on the dangers of idleness: The sermons were often doctrinal, metaphysical, and extremely dry, but it is a mistake to writing a scientific article Bronte College, conclude that the clergy did not speak on topics of current interest. Winthrop in of scientific Queen his Journal for 1639 relates how the Rev. Writing! John Cotton discussed whether a certain shopkeeper, who had been arraigned before the court for extortion, for having taken in some small things, above two for one, was guilty of how to essay IMG Academy, sin and should be excommunicated from the church, or only publicly admonished. Cotton prescribed admonition and he laid down a code of ethics for the guidance of sellers. With the exception of Roger Williams (1604?-1683), who had the modern point of view in insisting on complete soul liberty, on the right of every man to think as he pleased on matters of article College, religion, the Puritan clergy were not tolerant of other forms of worship. They said that they came to New England in for a essay order to worship God as they pleased. They never made the slightest pretense of establishing a commonwealth where another could worship as he pleased, because they feared that such a privilege might lead to a return of the persecution from which they had fled. If those came who thought differently about religion, they were told that there was sufficient room elsewhere, in Rhode Island, for instance, whither Roger Williams went after he was banished from Salem. The history of the Puritan clergy would have been more pleasing had they been more tolerant, less narrow, more modern, like Roger Williams.

Yet perhaps it is best not to complain overmuch of the strange and somewhat repellent architecture of the bridge which bore us over the stream dividing the a scientific Bronte, desert of royal and ecclesiastical tyranny from the how do i find peer reviewed The Mount, Hill, Promised Land of our Republic. A Scientific! Let us not forget that the clergy insisted on popular education; that wherever there was a clergyman, there was almost certain to be a school, even if he had to teach it himself, and that the clergy generally spoke and acted as if they would rather be free among the dead than slaves among the living. The trend of Puritan theology and the hard conditions of life did not encourage the how do articles The Mount, Mill Hill International, production of poetry. The Puritans even wondered if singing in church was not an exercise which turned the mind from God. The Reverend John Cotton investigated the question carefully under four main heads and six subheads, and a scientific College, he cited scriptural authority to show that Paul and Silas ( Acts , xvi., 25) had sung a Psalm in the prison.

Cotton therefore concluded that the Psalms might be sung in church. The divines in American the country joined to translate into College English metre the whole book of Psalms from the original Hebrew, and an academic essay introduction, they probably made the worst metrical translation in writing existence. In their preface to this work, known as the Bay Psalm Book (1640), the critical analysis School, first book of verse printed in a scientific article College the British American colonies, they explained that they did not strive for introduction L’Institut Appliques (LISAA), a more poetic translation because God's altar needs not our polishings. Writing A Scientific! The following verses from Psalm 87 are a sample of the so-called metrical translation which the Puritans sang: This Harvard graduate and Puritan preacher published in 1662 a poem setting forth some of the writing essay Appliques, tenets of Calvinistic theology. This poem, entitled The Day of Doom, or a Poetical Description of the Great and Last Judgment , had the College, largest circulation of any colonial poem. Critical Analysis Of Scientific! The following lines represent a throng of infants at the left hand of the final Judge, pleading against the sentence of infant damnation: Wigglesworth represents the Almighty as replying: When we read verse like this, we realize how fortunate the Puritanism of Old England was to Bronte, have one great poet schooled in the love of both morality and beauty.

John Milton's poetry shows not only his sublimity and high ideals, but also his admiration for beauty, music, and art. Wigglesworth's verse is inferior to much of the ballad doggerel, but it has a swing and a directness fitted to catch the the perfect, popular ear and to lodge in Bronte College the memory. While some of his work seems humorous to us, it would not have made that impression on the early Puritans. At the same time, we must not rely on verse like this for our understanding of their outlook on critical Queen Margaret's School life and writing a scientific, death. Beside Wigglesworth's lines we should place the how to write IMG Academy, epitaph, Reserved for a Glorious Resurrection, composed by the great orthodox Puritan clergyman, Cotton Mather (p. 46), for his own infant, which died unbaptized when four days old. It is well to remember that both the Puritans and their clergy had a quiet way of believing that God had reserved to himself the final interpretation of his own word. Colonial New England's best poet, or The Tenth Muse, as she was called by her friends, was a daughter of the Puritan governor, Thomas Dudley, and became the wife of another Puritan governor, Simon Bradstreet, with whom she came to New England in 1630. Although she was born before the death of Shakespeare, she seems never to have studied the writing Bronte College, works of that great dramatist. Her models were what Milton called the fantastics, a school of poets who mistook for how do reviewed The Mount,, manifestations of poetic power, far-fetched and strained metaphors, oddities of expression, remote comparisons, conceits, and strange groupings of thought. She had especially studied Sylvester's paraphrase of The Divine Weeks and Works of the French poet Du Bartas, and probably also the works of poets like George Herbert (1593–1633), of the English fantastic school.

This paraphrase of Du Bartas was published in a folio of 1215 pages, a few years before Mrs. Bradstreet came to writing a scientific, America. This book shows the essay writing 4 Leysin School, taste which prevailed in article Bronte College England in the latter part of the first third of the seventeenth century, before Milton came into the ascendancy. The fantastic comparison between the Spirit Eternal, brooding upon chaos, and a hen, is shown in these lines from Du Bartas: A contemporary critic thought that he was giving her early work high praise when he called her a right Du Bartas girl. For A Summary! One of her early poems is The Four Elements , where Fire, Air, Earth, and Water. Such a debate could never be decided, but the a scientific article Bronte College, subject was well suited to he fantastic school of of scientific Queen, poets because it afforded an opportunity for much ingenuity of argument and for far-fetched comparisons, which led nowhere. Late in life, in her poem, Contemplations , she wrote some genuine poetry, little marred by imitation of the fantastic school. Spenser seems to have become her master in later years.

No one without genuine poetic ability could have written such lines as: These lines show both poetic ease and power: The comparative excellence of her work in such an atmosphere and amid the domestic cares incident to rearing eight children is a scientific remarkable. In 1647, Nathaniel Ward, who had been educated for the law, but who afterward became a clergyman, published a strange work known as The Simple Cobbler of Agawam, in America willing, as the sub-title continues, to help mend his native country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper leather and essay American, sole, with all the honest stitches he can take. He had been assistant pastor at Agawam (Ipswich) until ill health caused him to resign. He then busied himself in compiling a code of laws and in other writing before he returned to England in writing article College 1647. The following two sentences from his unique book show two points of the religious faith of the Puritans: (1) the how to essay IMG Academy, belief in a personal devil always actively seeking the destruction of mankind, and (2) the assumption that the vitals of the elect are safe from the mortal sting of a scientific, sin.

He is often a bitter satirist, a sort of colonial Carlyle, as this attack on woman shows: He does not hesitate to coin a word. The preceding short selection introduces us to nugiperous and paper Queen Margaret's, nudiustertian. Next, he calls the women's tailor-made gowns the very pettitoes of infirmity, the giblets of article Bronte, perquisquilian toys. The spirit of a reformer always sees work to be done, and Ward emphasized three remedies for mid-seventeenth-century ills: (1) Stop toleration of departure from religious truth; (2) banish the frivolities of women and men; and (3) bring the civil war in England to a just end. Write The Perfect Essay! In proportion to the population, his Simple Cobbler , designed to writing a scientific article, mend human ways, was probably as widely read as Carlyle's Sartor Resartus in write a descriptive a picture School later days. In criticism, Ward deserves to be remembered for these two lines: There was born in 1652 at Bishopstoke, Hampshire, England, a boy who sailed for New England when he was nine years old, and who became our greatest colonial diarist.

This was Samuel Sewall, who graduated from Harvard in 1671 and finally became chief justice of Massachusetts. His Diary runs with some breaks from 1673 to 1729, the year before his death. Good diaries are scarce in a scientific any literature. Those who keep them seldom commit to writing many of the most interesting events and secrets of their lives. This failing makes the majority of diaries and memoirs very dry, but this fault cannot be found with Samuel Sewall. His Diary will more and more prove a mine of wealth to the future writers of our literature, to our dramatists, novelists, poets, as well as to of scientific Queen Margaret's School, our historians. The early chronicles and stories on article Bronte College which Shakespeare founded many of his plays were no more serviceable to him than this Diary may prove to a coming American writer with a genius like Hawthorne's. In Sewall's Diary we at once feel that we are close to life. Essay 4 Leysin! The following entry brings us face to face with the children in a Puritan household:

Sewall was one of the seven judges who sentenced nineteen persons to be put to death for witchcraft at Salem. After this terrible delusion had passed, he had the manliness to rise in article Bronte College church before all the members, and after acknowledging the blame and shame of his decision, call for write a picture Grier, prayers that God who has an unlimited authority would pardon that sin. Sewall's Diary is best known for its faithful chronicle of his courtship of Mrs. Catharine Winthrop. Both had been married twice before, and a scientific article Bronte College, both had grown children. He was sixty-nine and she fifty-six. No record of any other Puritan courtship so unique as this has been given to the world.

He began his formal courtship of how to write, Mrs. Winthrop, October 1, 1720. His Diary contains records of each visit, of what they said to each other, of the Sermons, cake, and gingerbread that he gave her, of the writing a scientific College, healths that he drank to her, the lump of sugar that she gave him, of how they went into the best room, and clos'd the shutters. Acute men have written essays to account for the aristocratic Mrs. Winthrop's refusal of Chief-Justice Sewall. Some have said that it was due to his aversion to slavery and to his refusal to how to an introduction for a summary essay College, allow her to keep her slaves.

This episode is only a small part of a rich storehouse. The greater part of the Diary contains only the raw materials of literature, yet some of it is a scientific Bronte College real literature, and it ranks among the great diaries of the world. LIFE AND PERSONALITY. Cotton Mather, grandson of the Reverend John Cotton (p. 14), and how do i find reviewed Mill, the most distinguished of the old type of Puritan clergymen, was born in Boston and died in his native city, without ever having traveled a hundred miles from it.

He entered Harvard at the age of eleven, and took the bachelor's degree at fifteen. Writing A Scientific Bronte College! His life shows such an writing 4 Leysin American School overemphasis of certain Puritan traits as almost to presage the coming decline of clerical influence. He says that at the age of only seven or eight he not only a scientific composed forms of prayer for his schoolmates, but also obliged them to pray, although some of them cuffed him for his pains. At fourteen he began a series of fasts to crucify the flesh, increase his holiness, and bring him nearer to God. He endeavored never to waste a minute. In his study, where he often worked sixteen hours a day, he had in large letters the sign, BE SHORT, to greet the eyes of visitors.

The amount of writing which he did almost baffles belief. His published works, numbering about four hundred, include sermons, essays, and books. During all of analysis of scientific paper School, his adult life, he also preached in the North Church of Boston. He was a religious fantastic, that is, he made far-fetched applications of religious truth. A tall man suggested to him high attainments in Christianity; washing his hands, the desirability of a clean heart. Although Cotton Mather became the most famous clergyman of colonial New England, he was disappointed in two of his life's ambitions. He failed to become president of Harvard and to writing article College, bring New England back in religious matters to the first halcyon days of the colony. On the contrary, he lived to writing essay Superieur Appliques, see Puritan theocracy suffer a great decline. His fantastic and strained application of religious truth, his overemphasis of many things, and especially his conduct in zealously aiding and abetting the Salem witchcraft murders, were no mean factors in causing that decline. His intentions were certainly good. He was an apostle of writing a scientific Bronte, altruism, and he tried to improve each opportunity for doing good in everyday life.

He trained his children to do acts of how do i find peer articles Mill International, kindness for other children. His Essays to Do Good were a powerful influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin. Cotton Mather would not have lived in vain if he had done nothing else except to help mold Franklin for the service of his country; but this is only one of Mather's achievements. We must next pass to his great work in writing a scientific College literature. This prose epic of New England Puritanism, the most famous of grade American, Mather's many works, is a large folio volume entitled Magnalia Christi Americana: or the Ecclesiastical History of New England . It was published in London in 1702, two years after Dryden's death. The book is a remarkable compound of whatever seemed to the author most striking in early New England history.

His point of writing Bronte College, view was of course religious. The work contains a rich store of biography of the early clergy, magistrates, and governors, of the lives of eleven of the clerical graduates of how do peer articles Hill International, Harvard, of the faith, discipline, and government of the New England churches, of remarkable manifestations of the divine providence, and of the Way of the Lord among the churches and the Indians. We may today turn to the Magnalia for vivid accounts of early New England life. Mather has a way of selecting and expressing facts in such a way as to cause them to lodge in the memory. These two facts about John Cotton give us a vivid impression of the influence of the early clergy: We read that the daily vocation of Thomas Shepard, the first pastor at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was, to quote Mather's noble phrase, A Trembling Walk with God.

He speaks of the choleric disposition of Thomas Hooker, the great Hartford clergyman, and says it was useful unto him, because he had ordinarily as much government of his choler as a man has of a mastiff dog in a chain; he 'could let out his dog, and writing article Bronte College, pull in his dog, as he pleased.' Some of Mather's prose causes modern readers to wonder if he was not a humorist. He says that a fire in the college buildings in peer articles The Mount, Hill some mysterious way influenced the President of Harvard to shorten one of his long prayers, and gravely adds, that if the devotions had held three minutes longer, the Colledge had been irrecoverably laid in a scientific ashes. One does not feel sure that Mather saw the critical paper School, humor in this demonstration of practical religion. It is also doubtful whether he is intentionally humorous in his most fantastic prose, such, for a scientific College, instance, as his likening the Reverend Mr. Partridge to write essay, the bird of that name, who, because he had no defence neither of beak nor claw, took a flight over the ocean to escape his ecclesiastical hunters, and finally took wing to writing a scientific article Bronte, become a bird of writing essay Superieur, paradise, along with the winged seraphim of writing a scientific, heaven. Such fantastic conceits, which for a period blighted the literature of the how do peer The Mount, Mill Hill International, leading European nations, had their last great exponent in a scientific article College Cotton Mather. Minor writers still indulge in essay writing grade 4 Leysin American these conceits, and find willing readers among the uneducated, the tired, and those who are bored when they are required to do more than skim the surface of things. John Seccomb, a Harvard graduate of 1728, the year in which Mather died, then gained fame from such lines as: but the best prose and poetry have for a long time won their readers for other qualities. Even the a scientific article College, taste of the how do peer reviewed articles Mill, next generation showed a change, for Cotton Mather's son, Samuel, noted as a blemish his father's straining for far-fetched and dear-bought hints. Cotton Mather's most repellent habit to modern readers is his overloading his pages with quotations in foreign languages, especially in article Bronte College Latin.

He thus makes a pedantic display of his wide reading. He is not always accurate in his presentation of historical or biographical matter, but in how to write a descriptive essay spite of all that can be said against the Magnalia , it is a vigorous presentation of much that we should not willingly let die. In fact, when we read the early history of New England, we are frequently getting from the Magnalia many things in writing article Bronte changed form without ever suspecting the source. LIFE AND WRITINGS. Jonathan Edwards, who ranks among the world's greatest theologians and metaphysicians, was born in 1703 in East Windsor, Connecticut.

Like Cotton Mather, Edwards was precocious, entering Yale before he was thirteen. The year previous to his going to college, he wrote a paper on spiders, showing careful scientific observation and essay, argument. This paper has been called one of the rarest specimens of precocious scientific genius on writing a scientific College record. At fourteen, he read Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding , receiving from it, he says, higher pleasure than the most greedy miser finds when gathering up handfuls of silver and gold from some newly discovered treasure. Before he was seventeen, he had graduated from Yale, and he had become a tutor there before he was twenty-one. Like Dante, he had a Beatrice. Thinking of her, he wrote this prose hymn of a maiden's love for the Divine Power:

Jonathan Edwards thus places before us Sarah Pierrepont, a New England Puritan maiden. To note the similarity of thought between the Old Puritan England and the New, let us turn to the maiden in essay introduction L’Institut Superieur des Arts Milton's Comus: Unlike Dante, Edwards married his Beatrice at the age of seventeen. In 1727, the year of his marriage, he became pastor of the church in Northampton, Massachusetts. With the aid of writing article, his wife, he inaugurated the writing an academic essay introduction Superieur (LISAA), greatest religious revival of the century, known as the Great Awakening, which spread to a scientific, other colonial churches, crossed the ocean, and stimulated Wesley to call sinners to repentance. Early in life, Edwards formed a series of resolutions, three of which are:

To live with all my might, while I do live. Never to do anything, which, if I should see in another, I should count a just occasion to despise him for, or to think any way the more meanly of him. Never, henceforward, till I die, to act as if I were any way my own, but entirely and essay writing grade 4 Leysin American School, altogether God's. He earnestly tried to keep these resolutions until the writing a scientific article Bronte College, end. After a successful pastorate of twenty-three years at essay American, Northampton, the church dismissed him for no fault of his own. Like Dante, he was driven into exile, and he went from Northampton to the frontier town of Stockbridge, where he remained for seven years as a missionary to writing a scientific, the Indians. His wife and daughters did their utmost to add to the family income, and some contributions were sent him from Scotland, but he was so poor that he wrote his books on the backs of letters and on the blank margins cut from newspapers. His fame was not swallowed up in the wilderness. Princeton College called him to its presidency in 1757. He died in that office in 1758, after less than three months' service in his new position. His wife was still in Stockbridge when he passed away.

Tell her, he said to his daughter, that the uncommon union which has so long subsisted between us has been of such a nature as I trust is essay spiritual, and a scientific Bronte College, therefore will continue forever. An Academic Introduction L’Institut Des Arts (LISAA)! In September of the same year she came to lie beside him in the graveyard at Princeton. In 1900, the church that had dismissed him one hundred and fifty years before placed on its walls a bronze tablet in his memory, with the noble inscription from Malachi ii, 6. As a writer, Jonathan Edwards won fame in three fields. He is (1) America's greatest metaphysician, (2) her greatest theologian, and (3) a unique poetic interpreter of the universe as a manifestation of the divine love. His best known metaphysical work is The Freedom of the Will (1754).

The central point of this work is that the will is determined by the strongest motive, that it is repugnant to writing article Bronte College, reason that one act of the will should come into existence without a cause. He boldly says that God is free to do only what is right. Edwards emphasizes the higher freedom, gained through repeated acts of the right kind, until both the inclination and the power to do wrong disappear. As a theologian, America has not yet produced his superior. His Treatise concerning the Religious Affections , his account of the how do Mill Hill, Great Awakening, called Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God , and Thoughts on the Revival , as well as his more distinctly technical theological works, show his ability in this field.

Unfortunately, he did not rise superior to the Puritan custom of preaching about writing College, hellfire. He delivered on that subject a sermon which causes modern readers to shudder; but this, although the most often quoted, is the least typical of the man and his writings. Those in grade 4 Leysin School search of really typical statements of his theology will find them in writing a scientific article such specimens as, God and real existence is the same. God is and there is nothing else. He was a theological idealist, believing that all the varied phenomena of the universe are constantly proceeding from God, as light from the sun. Such statements suggest Shelley's lines, which tell how. Dr. Allen, Edwards's biographer and critic, and a careful student of his unpublished, as well as of his published, writings, says, He was at his best and greatest, most original and how to write an introduction summary College, creative, when he described the divine love. Such passages as the following show this quality:

His favorite text was, I am the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the valleys, and a scientific article Bronte, his favorite words were sweet and bright. The great English writers between the colonization of Jamestown in for a essay Ardingly College 1607 and the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754 are John Milton, John Bunyan, John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, and a scientific article Bronte College, Henry Fielding. The colonial literature of this period was influenced only in how to write essay a picture Grier School a very minor degree by the work of these men, for a generation usually passed before the influence of contemporary English authors appeared in American literature. In the next section, we shall see evidences of the influence of Pope. Writing A Scientific Article Bronte! Benjamin Franklin will tell us how Bunyan and Addison were his teachers, and the early fiction will show its indebtedness to essay Grier School, the work of Samuel Richardson.

Virginia and article, Massachusetts produced the bulk of American colonial literature. There were, however, thirteen colonies stretched along the seaboard from Georgia (1733), the American School, last to writing a scientific article, be founded, to Canada. Although these colonies were established under different grants or charters, and analysis of scientific Margaret's, although some had more liberty and suffered less from the interference of England than others, it is nevertheless true that every colony was a school for a self-governing democracy. No colonies elsewhere in the world had the same amount of liberty. We must not suppose that there was complete liberty in those days. The early government of Virginia was largely aristocratic; that of Massachusetts, theocratic. Virginia persecuted the Puritans. Writing A Scientific! The early settlers of Massachusetts drove out Roger Williams and hanged Quakers. New York persecuted those who did not join the Church of England. However, it is how do still nevertheless true that these thirteen colonies were making the greatest of all world experiments in democracy and liberty.

The important colony of New Netherland (New York) was settled by the Dutch early in the seventeenth century. They established an aristocracy with great landed estates along the Hudson. A Scientific Article Bronte College! The student of literature is specially interested in this colony because Washington Irving has invested it with a halo of romance. Essay! He shows us the sturdy Knickerbockers, the Van Cortlands, the Van Dycks, the Van Wycks, and other chivalrous Dutch burghers, sitting in perfect silence, puffing their pipes, and thinking of nothing for hours together in those days of simplicity and sunshine. For literary reasons it is writing a scientific College well that this was not made an English colony until the Duke of York took possession of it in 1664. At the essay writing grade, beginning of the eighteenth century, the colonists in the middle and northern part of the writing a scientific article College, country divided their energies almost equally between trade and agriculture. Writing Essay Introduction L’Institut Superieur Des Arts Appliques! At the South, agriculture was the chief occupation and tobacco and writing a scientific Bronte College, rice were the two leading staples. These were produced principally by the labor of negro slaves. There were also many indentured servants at the South, where the writing American School, dividing lines between the different classes were most strongly marked. Up to 1700 the history of each colony is writing practically that of a separate unit. Almost all the colonies had trouble with Indians and royal governors.

Pirates, rapacious politicians, religious matters, or witchcraft were sometimes sources of how to essay Ardingly College, disturbance. Article College! All knew the hard labor and the privations involved in subduing the wilderness and making permanent settlements in a new land. History tells of the abandonment of many other colonies and of the critical analysis Queen Margaret's, subjugation of many other races, but no difficulty and no foe daunted this Anglo-Saxon stock. In 1700 the population of article Bronte College, New England was estimated at The Mount, Mill Hill International, about one hundred and writing a scientific, ten thousand. In 1754, the beginning of the French and Indian War, Connecticut alone had that number, while all New England probably had at this time nearly four hundred thousand. The middle colonies began the eighteenth century with about fifty-nine thousand and grew by the middle of the century to about three hundred and fifty-five thousand.

During the same period, the southern group increased from about ninety thousand to six hundred thousand. By 1750 the thirteen colonies probably had a total population of nearly fourteen hundred thousand. Since no census was taken until 1790, these figures are only approximately correct. Such development serves to show the trend of coming events. This remarkable increase in population soon caused numbers to go farther west. How To! This movement resulted in collision with the French, who were at this time holding the central part of the country, from the Gulf into Canada. One other result followed.

The colonies began to seem valuable to England because they furnished a market for writing a scientific article Bronte, English manufactures and a carrying trade for English ships. The previous comparative insignificance of the colonies and i find peer reviewed articles Mill Hill International, the trouble in England had served to protect them, but their trade had now assumed a proportion that made the mother country realize what a valuable commercial asset she would have if she regulated the colonies in her own interest. In this section we have traced the history of American colonial literature from the foundation of the a scientific Bronte College, Jamestown Colony until 1754. Before 1607 Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare had written, and before 1620 the King James version of the Bible had been produced. England had, therefore, a wonderful literature before her colonies came to America. They were the heirs of all that the English race had previously accomplished; and they brought to these shores an Elizabethan initiative, ingenuity, and democratic spirit.

The Virginia colony was founded, as colonies usually are, for a commercial reason. I Find Reviewed Mill Hill! The Virginians and the other southern colonists lived more by agriculture, were more widely scattered, had fewer schools, more slaves, and less town life than the New Englanders. Under the influence of a commanding clergy, common schools, and the stimulus of writing a scientific College, town life, the essay College, New England colony produced more literature. The chief early writers of Virginia are: (1) Captain John Smith, who described the country and the Indians, and gave to writing a scientific article, literature the grade American, story of Pocahontas, thereby disclosing a new world to writing Bronte College, the imagination of writers; (2) William Strachey, who outranks contemporary colonial writers in describing the wrath of the sea, and who may even have furnished a suggestion to Shakespeare for peer The Mount, Mill Hill, The Tempest ; (3) two poets, (a) George Sandys, who translated part of writing College, Ovid, and (b) the unknown author of the elegy on Nathaniel Bacon; and (4) Robert Beverly and William Byrd, who gave interesting descriptions of early Virginia. The chief colonial writers of New England are: (1) William Bradford, whose History of Plymouth Plantation tells the story of the first Pilgrim colony; (2) John Winthrop, who wrote in write a descriptive essay about a picture School his Journal the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; (3) the poets, including (a) the translators of the Bay Psalm Book , the first volume of so-called verse printed in writing article Bronte College the British American colonies, (b) Wigglesworth, whose Day of an introduction summary, Doom , was a poetic exposition of Calvinistic theology, (c) Anne Bradstreet, who wrote a small amount of genuine poetry, after she had passed from the influence of the fantastic school of poets; (4) Nathaniel Ward, the author of The Simple Cobbler of Agawam , an attempt to a scientific Bronte, mend human ways; (5) Samuel Sewall, New England's greatest colonial diarist; (6) Cotton Mather, the an academic essay L’Institut, most famous clerical writer, whose Magnalia is a scientific article a compound of early colonial history and biography, sometimes written in a fantastic style; (7) Jonathan Edwards, America's greatest metaphysician and theologian, who maintained that the action of the human will is determined by the strongest motive, that the substance of this universe is critical Queen Margaret's School nothing but the divine Idea, communicated to human consciousness, and writing article Bronte, who could invest spiritual truth with the beauty of the how to write about Grier, Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the valleys. The New England colonist came to America because of religious feeling. His religion was to him a matter of eternal life or eternal death. From the modern point of view, this religion may seem too inflexibly stern, too little illumined by article Bronte, the spirit of love, too much darkened by the shadow of eternal punishment, but unless that religion had communicated something of essay a picture Grier, its own dominating inflexibility to the colonist, he would never have braved the ocean, the wilderness, the Indians; he would never have flung the gauntlet down to tyranny at Lexington and Concord.

The greatest lesson taught by colonial literature, by article College, men like Bradford, Winthrop, Edwards, and the New England clergy in write an introduction summary College general, is moral heroism, the determination to follow the shining path of the Eternal over the wave and through the forest to a new temple of human liberty. Their aspiration, endeavor, suffering, accomplishment, should strengthen our faith in the worth of those spiritual realities which are not quoted in a scientific article Bronte the markets of the world, but which alone possess imperishable value. In either Gardiner's Students' History of England , Walker's Essentials in critical paper School English History , Andrews's History of England , or Cheney's Short History of England , read the writing article College, chapters dealing with the time of Elizabeth, James I, Charles I, the Commonwealth, Charles II, James II, William and an introduction for a essay, Mary, Anne, George I and II. A work like Halleck's History of a scientific article Bronte, English Literature covering these periods, should be read. Read the account from the earliest times to the outbreak of the French and Indian War in any of the following: Thwaites's The Colonists , 1492-1750. Fisher's Colonial Era . Lodge's A Short History of the English Colonies in America . Doyle's The English in a descriptive Grier America . Writing! Hart's Essentials in American History . Channing's A Students' History of the United States . Eggleston's A Larger History of the essay writing American School, United States of America . James and Sanford's American History . For an account of special colonies, consult the writing article, volumes in American Commonwealths series, and also, Fiske's Beginnings of New England , The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America , Old Virginia and Her Neighbors . Tyler's A History of American Literature during the Colonial Time , 2 vols. Otis's American Verse , 1625-1807. Richardson's American Literature , 2 vols.

Trent's A History of American Literature , 1607-1865. Wendell's History of Literature in America'_. Narratives of Early Virginia , edited by Tyler. Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation . New edition, edited by Davis. (Scribner, 1908.) Winthrop's Journal (History of New England). New edition, edited by how to write for a summary essay College, Hosmer, 2 vols., (Scribner, 1908.) Chamberlain's Samuel Sewall and the World He Lived in . Lodge's A Puritan Pepys (Sewall) in Studies in History . Campbell's Anne Bradstreet and her Time . Twichell's John Winthrop . Walker's Thomas Hooker . Wendell's Life of Cotton Mather . Allen's Life of article, Jonathan Edwards . Gardiner's Jonathan Edwards, a Retrospect . The following volumes of selections from American Literature will be referred to write summary College, either by the last name of the author, or, if there are more authors than one, by the initials of the last names: Cairns's Selections from Early American Writers , 1607-1800. (Macmillan.) Trent and Wells's Colonial Prose and Poetry , 3 vols., 1607-1775. (Crowell.) Stedman and Hutchinson's A Library of American Literature , 1608–1890, 11 vols. (Benjamin.) Carpenter's American Prose Selections . Article College! (Macmillan.) Trent's Southern Writers: Selections in Prose and Verse . (Macmillan.) JOHN SMITH The Beginnings of Jamestown (from A True Relation of Virginia , 1608); The Religious Observances of the Indians (from A Map of Virginia , published in 1612), Cairns, pp. 2–4, 10-14; The Romance of Pocahontas (from The General History of Virginia , 1624), S. H., Vol.

I., pp. Critical Paper Queen Margaret's School! 10–17; T. W., Vol. I., pp. 12–22. WILLIAM STRACHEY Read the writing a scientific article College, selection from how to the perfect essay A True Repertory of the Wrack and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates , in a scientific Cairns, 19-26.

POETRY IN THE VIRGINIA COLONY. For George Sandys, see pp. 51–58 in critical analysis paper Queen School Vol. I. of Tyler's A History of American Literature during the Colonial Time . For the elegy on the death of Nathaniel Bacon, see Tyler, Vol. Article Bronte College! I., 78, 79; Cairns, 185-188; T. W., II., 166-169; S. Essay! H., I., 456-458; Trent, 12-14. DESCRIPTIONS OF VIRGINIA The best selection from Beverly's History and Present State of Virginia may be found in T. Bronte! W., II., 354-360. See also Trent, 16-18; S. H., II., 270-272. For selections from Byrd's History of the Dividing Line , see Cairns, passim , 259-272; Trent, 19-22; T. W., III., 23-32; S. H., II., 302-305. WILLIAM BRADFORD The Voyage of the how to essay, Mayflower, Cairns, 31-35; Early Difficulties of the Pilgrim Fathers, T. W., I., 42-45; The Communal System Abandoned, T. W., I., 46-49; The Landing of the Pilgrims and a scientific article College, their Settlement at Plymouth, S. H., L, 124-130.

JOHN WINTHROP Twenty-five entries from his Journal or History of an academic introduction des Arts Appliques (LISAA), New England are given in Cairns, 44-48, and fourteen in T. W., I., 99-105. His famous speech on Liberty may be found in T. W., I., 106-116; in S. H., I., 302-303; and in Cairns, 50-53. EARLY NEW ENGLAND VERSE The selection given earlier from the Bay Psalm Book is sufficient. For Wigglesworth's Day of Doom , see Cairns, 166-177; T. W., II., 54-60; S. H., passim , II., 3-16. Anne Bradstreet's best poem, Contemplations , may be found in Cairns, 154-162; T. W., I., 280-283; S. H., I., 314, 315.

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Selections from writing a scientific College his Freedom of the Will are given in Cairns. 291-294; T. W., III., 185-187; and S. H., II., 404-407 (the best). 1. Is Captain John Smith more remarkable for chronicling what passed before his senses or for writing L’Institut Superieur Appliques, explaining what he saw? How does his account of the Indians compare with modern understanding? Is Smith apparently a novice, or somewhat skilled in writing prose? Does he seem to writing article College, you to be a romancer or a narrator of how to write summary, a plain unvarnished tale? 2. Compare Strachey's storm at sea with Act I of a scientific Bronte, Shakespeare's Tempest . In what part of this Act and grade 4 Leysin American, under what circumstances does he mention the still-vex'd Bermoothes? 3. Compare the ability of the three great early colonizers, Smith, Bradford, and Winthrop, in writing narrative prose. Writing Bronte College! Smith's story of Pocahontas is easily accessible. Those who can find the complete works of Bradford and Winthrop may select from Bradford for comparison his story of Squanto, the Pilgrims' tame Indian. Winthrop's Journal contains many specimens of brief narrative, such as the story of the voyage across the Atlantic from March 29 to June 14, 1630; of Winthrop's losing himself in the wood, October 11, 1631; of shipwreck on the Isle of writing an academic Superieur des Arts (LISAA), Shoals, August 16, 1635; of an indentured servant, March 8, 1636; of an adventure with Indians, July 20–30, August 24, and October 8, 1636.

Those without opportunity to consult the works of Bradford and Winthrop will find in the books of selections sufficient material for comparison. 4. Is brevity or prolixity a quality of these early narrators? Was English prose written before 1640 superior to the work of these three men? What advance in prose narrative do you find in Beverly and Byrd? 5. What characteristic of a famous English prose writer of the nineteenth century is noticeable in Ward's essay on fashions? 6. Why could fine poetry not be reasonably expected in early Virginia and New England? What are some of the a scientific article College, Calvinistic tenets expounded in Wigglesworth's Day of Doom ? Choose the essay L’Institut des Arts (LISAA), best two short selections of colonial poetry. 7. What are some of the qualifications of a good diarist? Which of article Bronte College, these do you find in the Diary of Samuel Sewall? 8. Point out how to write for a Ardingly College, some of the fantastic prose expressions of Cotton Mather. Compare his narrative of Captain Phips with the work of Smith, Bradford, and Winthrop, on the one hand, and of Beverly and Byrd, on the other.

9. Compare the theology in Edwards's Rose of Sharon selection with that in Wigglesworth's Day of writing a scientific article College, Doom . Why may this selection from Edwards be called a poetic exposition of the divine love? What is his view of the freedom of the analysis Queen, will?

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