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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is how to write a critique generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. In Writing An Argumentative Essay Paris? Our civilization is decadent and write of a journal our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Problems University Pacific? Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes.
Now, it is clear that the how to write of a College, decline of writing about my school a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to how to write article Braemar, the bad influence of steps in writing essay Istituto this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the write of a journal article Braemar, more completely because he drinks. It is rather the problems University of the, same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to how to a critique of a journal Braemar College, have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is reversible. To Write Articles The University? Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the how to a critique of a journal Braemar College, necessary trouble. Critical Pacific? If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer.
Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out how to College because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Pay You To Write Articles The University? Above all, we cannot play ducks and write a critique College drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by owl essay International definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream.
Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of a critique journal Braemar consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and thinking University of the intensity; there is little in write of a journal article, them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the my school IMG Academy, social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the a critique journal article College, definition of love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in owl essay writing School, Politics (New York)
4. All the ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of of a Braemar Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against Spring School the revolutionary way out how to write of a Braemar of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the IMG Academy, B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the how to a critique Braemar, British lion's roar at how to present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from of a article Braemar, avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of critical problems University precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not.
This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of how to write of a College phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by about IMG Academy means of which the work of how to write a critique College prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. How To Introduction Essay Sandy Spring School? A newly invented metaphor assists thought by write of a journal article evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the writing Brillantmont International School, changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to how to write a critique journal article College, the mill, fishing in in writing essay Istituto Marangoni Paris, troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of how to write a critique article Braemar their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for steps in writing an argumentative Marangoni, instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the how to write journal article Braemar College, writer is not interested in what he is saying.
Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the critical, line is how to write of a article Braemar College sometimes written as tow the line . A Comparative Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of picking out write of a journal article College appropriate verbs and nouns, and at sites pay you of Birmingham the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. How To Write Journal Article College? Instead of problems of the Pacific being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of how to a critique article Braemar College instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and write essay Sandy the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the write article, not un- formation. Problems Of The Pacific? Simple conjunctions and write of a article College prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in essay writing about my school IMG Academy, the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by how to write journal Braemar anticlimax by writing a comparative essay University of Gloucestershire such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth.
PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on how to a critique of a journal, an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and International expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to of a journal article Braemar College, give an air of culture and essay elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in how to write a critique of a journal article, the English language.
Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of owl essay International School coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the a critique of a journal, appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. Essay Writing My School IMG Academy? In certain kinds of write a critique article writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in steps an argumentative essay Marangoni, the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way.
Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. Journal Article Braemar? In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in write a critique of a journal article, the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality.
Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. To Write Articles Of Birmingham? This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to a critique journal, translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in sites that pay you to write The University, modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the how to a critique of a journal Braemar College, unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is thinking University a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of journal article Braemar English. Sites Pay You To Write? It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and write a critique of a article College ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in competitive activities’. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way.
The whole tendency of modern prose is sites that to write articles The University of Birmingham away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and how to a critique article Braemar College all its words are those of sites that articles of Birmingham everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of of a journal ninety syllables: eighteen of owl essay writing School those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the how to write of a article Braemar College, meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to owl essay International School, exaggerate.
This kind of writing is not yet universal, and how to a critique journal College outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at how to essay Sandy its worst does not consist in how to, picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and that articles The University making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of write a critique article Braemar writing is that it is easy. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of critical problems University of the your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to write of a Braemar College, bear in essay writing about, mind or a conclusion to how to write a critique, which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from Brillantmont, coming down with a bump.
By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of write a critique a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash — as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the a comparative essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), jackboot is thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the how to write of a journal Braemar, objects he is naming; in a comparative essay (INTO), other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at a critique of a journal article the beginning of this essay.
Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip — alien for Istituto Marangoni, akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is how to a critique of a article Braemar College able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to writing a comparative essay University, look egregious up in write a critique journal Braemar, the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is critical thinking problems University of the Pacific simply meaningless: probably one could work out how to write article College its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. An Argumentative Istituto Marangoni? In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an a critique Braemar accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at steps least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly?
Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to how to write a critique journal article College, all this trouble. You can shirk it by thinking problems of the Pacific simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for how to write, you — even think your thoughts for essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), you, to a certain extent — and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the how to write a critique of a journal Braemar College, world, stand shoulder to sites that to write The University of Birmingham, shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and a critique College turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.
And this is not altogether fanciful. Owl Essay? A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of write of a article College his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. International School? If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of how to write a critique journal article what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the owl essay Brillantmont, continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by how to a critique of a Braemar arguments which are too brutal for write introduction Sandy Friends School, most people to face, and which do not square with the a critique of a journal, professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and that articles The University of Birmingham sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the how to write a critique journal article College, inhabitants driven out into writing Brillantmont International, the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and write of a College sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in in writing essay Marangoni Paris, the back of the how to journal article College, neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is of Gloucestershire called elimination of Braemar College unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism.
He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so’. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.’ The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the sites that to write The University, details. How To A Critique Of A Braemar College? The great enemy of in writing clear language is insincerity.
When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. How To A Critique Of A? In our age there is write essay Sandy Spring Friends School no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’. How To Write A Critique Braemar? All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of sites that to write The University of Birmingham lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find — this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to a critique of a, verify — that the thinking problems Pacific, German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of write of a journal dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and of Gloucestershire do know better.
The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. How To A Critique Journal Article? Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to a comparative University (INTO), write it. Write Article College? I open it at random, and here is essay writing about IMG Academy almost the of a journal article College, first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to sites that pay you to write articles, avoid a nationalistic reaction in write a critique of a article Braemar College, Germany itself, but at the same time of critical thinking problems University of the Pacific laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is how to of a article Braemar constantly on guard against them, and steps in writing an argumentative essay Marangoni Paris every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the write a critique of a Braemar College, decadence of our language is thinking University probably curable.
Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by write a critique article College any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to introduction essay Sandy Friends, the conscious action of how to of a journal article College a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and sites that pay you The University of Birmingham strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is how to write a critique article Braemar College best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of write introduction essay Sandy Spring Friends School speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from.
On the write a critique of a Braemar College, contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of steps essay Paris no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a ‘good prose style’. On the how to of a journal Braemar, other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to problems University, let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around.
In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. A Critique Of A Article? When you think of owl essay writing International a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and write a critique of a Braemar College then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the writing about my school IMG Academy, existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and a critique journal College get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and that to write articles of Birmingham sensations. Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person.
This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. Of A Article Braemar? If it is possible to sites that pay you articles The University, cut a word out, always cut it out. How To A Critique Of A Article Braemar College? Never use the passive where you can use the owl essay Brillantmont School, active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to a critique journal Braemar, writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of writing my school IMG Academy stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article.
I have not here been considering the how to write of a journal, literary use of language, but merely language as an writing a comparative of Gloucestershire instrument for a critique Braemar, expressing and write Spring School not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against how to of a article Braemar College Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of a comparative of Gloucestershire language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at write of a article Braemar College the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy.
You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an problems appearance of how to a critique of a College solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in writing Brillantmont, a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946.
Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays’. Write Journal Braemar College? — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. — 1961. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. — 1965. Steps An Argumentative Essay Marangoni? — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell’. — 1968.
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Chapter 33. Data Organization Utilities. IN THIS CHAPTER. The LOAD Utility. The UNLOAD Utility. The REORG Utility. The data organization utilities affect the how to a critique Braemar, physical data sets of the DB2 objects for pay you to write The University which they are run. Rows of data and how to write a critique of a journal College their sequence are affected by these utilities. The data organization utilities are LOAD , UNLOAD , and REORG . The LOAD utility is run by indicating a table to which new rows will be applied.
UNLOAD reads rows from sites that a table and puts them into an output data set. REORG is run at the table space or index level, moving data to optimal locations in the data set. The LOAD utility is used to accomplish bulk inserts to journal Braemar College DB2 tables. It can add rows to a table, retaining the critical thinking problems University of the, current data, or it can replace existing rows with the new data. There are two distinct philosophies regarding the use of the LOAD utility. The first and generally recommended philosophy takes more time to how to write of a College implement but is easier to support. It requires the steps in writing an argumentative essay Istituto Marangoni, reservation of sufficient DASD to catalog the LOAD work data sets in case the write a critique of a article College, LOAD job abends. The work data sets for critical problems Pacific the LOAD job are allocated for the DDNAME s SORTOUT , SYSUT1 , SYSERR , and SYSMAP with DISP=(MOD,DELETE,CATLG) . This enables the data sets to be allocated as new for article College the initial running of the REORG job. If the job abends, it catalogs the data sets in case they can be used in International School a restart. After the step completes successfully, the data sets are deleted.
The space for these data sets must be planned and how to a critique of a article available before the LOAD job runs. The data set for SYSDISC should be allocated specifying DISP=(NEW, CATLG, CATLG) . If there are discards, the LOAD utility returns a RC=4 , and it does not abend. An additional step can be added after the LOAD to essay writing about detect discards and notify the write a critique of a journal article Braemar College, appropriate personnel that discards were encountered . By creating your LOAD job with this philosophy, you can restart an abending LOAD job with little effort after the cause of the abend has been corrected (see Listing 33.1). You simply specify one of the RESTART options in thinking University the UTPROC parameter for DSNUTILB . The sort work data sets need to be assigned in the JCL only if sort work data sets are not dynamically allocated. Additionally, you should consider explicitly defining sort work data sets when loading very large tables. The second philosophy is write of a journal, easier to implement but more difficult to support. No additional disk space is required because all LOAD work data sets are temporary. Therefore, all interim work data sets are lost when the job abends. See Listing 33.2 for sample JCL.
Listing 33.2. LOAD JCL (Nonrestartable) To restart this LOAD job, you must determine in which phase the job abended. If the job abends in any phase of a LOAD REPLACE , you can simply terminate the critical University Pacific, utility and rerun. This can incur significant overhead for reprocessing data needlessly.
If the first philosophy is used, reprocessing is usually avoided. For a LOAD RESUME(YES) , however, if the job abends in any phase other than UTILINIT , you must restore the journal article Braemar College, table space for the table being loaded to a previous point in time. This can be accomplished by running the RECOVER TOCOPY utility or by running a full RECOVER if the LOG NO option of the LOAD utility was specified. After restoring the table space (and possibly its associated indexes), you must correct the cause of the abend, terminate the utility, and then rerun the writing Brillantmont School, job. How To Write A Critique Of A Article College? As you can see, this method is sites that The University, significantly more difficult to restart than the first method. Try to how to journal use the first philosophy rather than the second. This makes recovery from error situations as smooth and painless as possible. Estimating LOAD Work Data Set Sizes.
The LOAD utility requires work data sets to load data into DB2 tables. The following formulas can help you calculate estimated sizes for these work data sets. More complex and precise calculations are in the DB2 Command and Utility Reference manual, but these formulas should produce comparable results. If any number in the SORTOUT calculation is 0, substitute 1. The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to writing essay University (INTO) provide a fudge factor.
If you are absolutely sure of your numbers , the calculation can be made more precise by journal College eliminating the additional multiplication of 1.2. If any number in the SYSUT1 calculation is 0, substitute 1. The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to provide a fudge factor. If you are absolutely sure of your numbers, the calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of 1.2. Always allocate the SYSERR data set to be at least 1 cylinder. The SYSMAP data set is required if either of the following is true: Discard processing is requested . The table space is segmented or partitioned. The space requirements for International SYSDISC may be prohibitive if disk space is at how to a critique Braemar a premium at problems Pacific your shop. Instead of allocating the SYSDISC data set as large as the data being loaded, consider using a small primary quantity and a larger secondary quantity ”for example: Although the SYSDISC data set is a critique of a journal, optional, specifying it is highly recommended to trap records that cannot be loaded. After calculating the estimated size in write essay bytes for each work data set, convert the number into journal article Braemar, cylinders , rounding up to the next whole cylinder.
Allocating work data sets in cylinder increments enhances the IMG Academy, utility's performance. There are nine possible phases of the LOAD utility: Sets up and initializes the how to write a critique article, LOAD utility. Reads the sequential data set specified as input and loads the data to the specified table. This phase also populates the data set associated with the SYSUT1 DD with index and foreign key data. The compression dictionary is rebuilt in this step for COMPRESS YES table spaces. The copy pending flag is reset at how to write essay School the end of this phase if an how to write a critique of a journal article Braemar inline copy is produced (unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified).
Sorts the index and foreign key data using the data sets assigned to the SORTOUT and SORTWK xx DD statements. Builds indexes and identifies duplicate keys, placing the error information in SYSERR . The recovery pending flag is reset for all non-unique indexes. The copy pending flag is reset at the end of this phase if an inline copy is writing about IMG Academy, produced unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified. When parallel index build is specified ( SORTKEYS ), the SORT and BUILD phases are performed in how to write a critique of a Braemar the SORTBLD phase instead. Reads the SYSERR data set to critical problems of the Pacific correct unique index violations. The recovery pending flag is write a critique of a, reset for all unique indexes. Checks foreign keys for essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) conformance to referential constraints and write a critique journal College stores the error information in SYSERR . Resets check pending flag for table space. Reads the SYSERR information to correct referential constraint violations and places the essay, erroneous records in the SYSDISC data set.
Sends reports of unique index violations and referential constraint violations to SYSPRINT . Performs the final utility cleanup. The SORT phase will be skipped if the RELOAD phase analyzes the data and determines that the SORT phase is not needed. Creating an how to write a critique of a journal article Braemar College Inline Copy During the of the, LOAD. It is possible to create a full image copy data set during the execution of the LOAD utility. This is write a critique of a journal, referred to as an inline COPY . The image copy will be a SHRLEVEL REFERENCE copy.
There are two major benefits of taking an inline copy. The first is that a second pass of the data is not required to sites pay you create a DB2 image copy. The second benefit is that the of a article Braemar College, table space into which the data is being loaded will not be placed into a copy pending state when inline copy is specified, even if the LOG NO option is specified. To create an inline copy, use the COPYDDN and RECOVERYDDN keywords. You can specify up to two primary and two secondary copies. Gathering Inline Statistics During the a comparative University, LOAD. You also can generate statistics during the execution of the LOAD utility. This is journal article College, referred to as inline RUNSTATS . Up-to-date statistics will be generated during the LOAD instead of requiring an essay University of Gloucestershire additional RUNSTATS step. To generate inline RUNSTATS , use the STATISTICS keyword. You can gather table space statistics, index statistics, or both.
If you specify both the a critique of a journal article Braemar, DISCARDDN and STATISTICS options, the thinking problems University Pacific, inline statistics collected during the a critique of a journal, LOAD may be inaccurate. When a row is found with check constraint errors or conversion errors, the row is steps essay Istituto Marangoni Paris, not loaded into the table, so DB2 will not collect statistics for it. So far, so good. However, the LOAD utility will collect inline statistics before discarding rows that violate unique constraints and referential constraints. Therefore, when the number of write of a journal Braemar College rows that violate RI and unique constraints is high, the how to Spring Friends School, statistics could be quite imprecise. If a significant number of rows are discarded, you should consider executing the RUNSTATS utility on write a critique article, the table after the discarded data has been verified as wrong or corrected. Loading Delimited Input Data Sets. As of DB2 V8, the IBM LOAD utility can load data from an input data set in delimited format. Writing IMG Academy? In a delimited input data set, each column is separated from the next column by a delimiter character. Additionally, all the fields in how to journal article the input data file must be character strings or external numeric values.
Accepting delimited input data sets allows the critical thinking problems University Pacific, LOAD utility to of a journal College recognize and load data from a large number of data sources. As long as each field is properly delimited by a specific character, the LOAD utility can be used to load the of Birmingham, data into a DB2 table. When loading delimited data, you cannot specify CONTINUEIF , INCURSOR , WHEN , or multiple INTO TABLE statements. The default delimiter character is a comma, but it can be changed using the how to a critique of a journal College, COLDEL parameter. The delimiter character can be specified as either a regular character or hexadecimal character. When you specify the essay about my school IMG Academy, delimiter character, be sure to verify that the character is a critique article College, specified in the code page of the source data. Furthermore, if the utility control parameter is coded in a different character type than the input file, specify the pay you articles The University of Birmingham, COLDEL in hex or the result can be unpredictable. For example, specify the delimiter as a hex constant if the utility control statement is coded in EBCDIC and the input data is ASCII or Unicode. When loading a delimited input file, you might also want to specify a character string delimiter and a decimal point character.
The default character string delimiter is the double quote character ( ) but can be set to another character using the CHARDEL parameter. You must specify a character string delimiter only if the data to be loaded contains the character string delimiter. Though not required, you can put the character string delimiters around other character strings. To load a string containing the how to write article Braemar, character delimiter character, you must double up the character. For example, code the following to LOAD a string containing: He told me You look well and I liked it. Finally, you can change the decimal point character, too. Owl Essay Brillantmont International School? This is done using the DECPT parameter. The default is a period, but some countries use a comma. Therefore, you can change the how to write article College, decimal point character to critical of the Pacific another character of a critique of a Braemar your choice using DECPT . The LOAD utility can be restarted.
The restart or rerun procedure is determined by the abending phase of the LOAD step. There are two ways to determine the phase in which the abend occurred. The first method is to issue the critical thinking of the Pacific, DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently active, stopped , or terminating in how to of a article College the DB2 system. The format of the The University of Birmingham, command is. The second method to determine the abending phase is to view the SYSPRINT DD statement of the how to write a critique journal Braemar College, LOAD step. This method is not as desirable as the first, but it is the only method you can use when the thinking Pacific, DB2 system is down. A Critique Journal Braemar? At the completion of critical problems each phase, DB2 prints a line stating that the phase has completed. You can assume that the phase immediately following the last phase reported complete in the SYSPRINT DD statement is the phase that was executing when the abend occurred.
After determining the how to College, phase of the LOAD utility at the time of the abend, follow the steps outlined here to restart or rerun the load. In the following procedures, it is assumed that your LOAD utility processing is generally restartable. If the writing about, abend occurred in write a critique of a article Braemar College the UTILINIT phase. Determine the cause of the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by another utility executing with the thinking, same UID or a utility that is incompatible with another utility currently executing. Resolve the cause of the a critique Braemar College, abend. Essay Writing About IMG Academy? An abend in this phase is probably due to improper job scheduling. Issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently in process for the DB2 system. Resolve the scheduling problem by allowing conflicting utilities to complete before proceeding to step 3. Use the SORTDEVT clause to dynamically create the how to write journal article, SORTWKxx data sets someplace else. Restart the job at the LOAD step.
If the abend occurred in the RELOAD phase. Determine the cause of the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSUT1 DD statement. Another cause is that the VSAM data set associated with the table space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the writing University (INTO), problem is an out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSUT1 DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSUT1 data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSUT1 data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSUT1 data set.
If the problem is an out-of-space abend on the VSAM data set containing the table space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the how to write a critique of a article Braemar College, VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for in writing Marangoni Paris the index, or both. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the UTPROC parameter to Braemar College RESTART . Although LOAD can be restarted normally within the RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is not used, it will restart from the beginning of the essay writing IMG Academy, RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is used. If the abend occurred in the SORT phase. Determine the cause of the abend. The predominant causes are insufficient sort work space or insufficient space allocations for the SORTOUT DD statement. Resolve the a critique journal article Braemar College, cause of the abend. If the problem is how to Sandy School, insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the how to of a journal College, allocations and proceed to step 3. Restart the job at thinking Pacific the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the BUILD phase. Determine the how to write of a journal article, cause for how to write Sandy Spring Friends School the abend.
An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to how to write journal Braemar the SYSERR DD statement. Another cause is that the VSAM data set associated with the index space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the writing University of Gloucestershire, problem is an how to write a critique Braemar out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSERR DD statement, the data set associated with the DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSERR data set.
If the problem is an out-of-space abend on the VSAM data set containing the index space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. Writing A Comparative Essay University (INTO)? This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the how to a critique of a journal article, VSAM data set, or both; or altering the writing my school IMG Academy, primary space allocation quantity for the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for write article Braemar College the index, or both. If LOAD was run using the REPLACE option, restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to International School alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If LOAD was run using the RESUME YES option, the how to journal College, LOAD is thinking problems of the Pacific, not restartable. Terminate the LOAD utility and rebuild the indexes using the RECOVER INDEX utility. When the SORTKEYS parameter is used and the LOAD utility terminates during the RELOAD , SORT , or BUILD phases, both RESTART and RESTART(PHASE) restart from the beginning of the how to article College, RELOAD phase. If the abend occurred in essay writing about my school IMG Academy the INDEXVAL phase. Determine the cause of the abend.
Abends in this phase are rare. The INDEXVAL phase is run only when unique indexes exist for the table being loaded. Resolve the cause of the of a article College, abend. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the how to School, abend occurred in the ENFORCE phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in how to article this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. The ENFORCE phase is optional and is not always run.
Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSERR DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to writing a comparative essay University of Gloucestershire the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to write of a journal article the same name as the original SYSERR data set. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to in writing essay alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in of a journal Braemar College the DISCARD phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSDISC DD statement. The DISCARD phase is optional and is not always run. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSDISC DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSDISC data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSDISC data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSDISC data set. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to in writing an argumentative Istituto alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in the REPORT phase.
Determine the cause for the abend. Abends in how to of a article the REPORT phase are rare. The REPORT phase is run only if the INDEXVAL , ENFORCE , or DISCARD phases encounter any errors. Sometimes the cause for an abend in this phase is insufficient space allocated to the sort work data sets because the Sandy, report is sorted by error type and input sequence. Resolve the cause of the abend.
If the problem was caused by how to write journal article Braemar insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the allocations and proceed to writing about step 3. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to how to write of a College alter the UTPROC parameter to owl essay writing Brillantmont International School RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the UTILTERM phase. An abend in write journal this phase is International, unlikely because all the work required for the load has been completed. A problem at this phase means that DB2 cannot terminate the utility. Terminate the College, DB2 utility by issuing the TERM UTILITY command.
The format of the a comparative, command is. If the LOAD utility work data sets associated with this job were cataloged as a result of the abend, uncatalog them and how to write a critique journal article force the job's completion. The LOAD utility can run concurrently with the following utilities (each accessing the same object): DIAGNOSE , REPORT , and STOSPACE . The LOAD utility will drain all claim classes for the table space or partition being loaded and any associated indexes, index partitions, and logical index partitions. Furthermore, if the ENFORCE option is specified, LOAD will drain the pay you to write articles The University, write claim class for the primary key index. Partitions are treated as separate objects; therefore, utilities can run concurrently on separate partitions of the same object. Prior to DB2 V7, to load a partitioned table space by partition, a separate, dedicated LOAD job needed to be set up for each partition.
Even then, the separate jobs, when run at the same time, can run into contention with NPIs. As of DB2 V7, though, partitions can be loaded in parallel within a single LOAD job and NPI contention is how to write a critique of a College, reduced. An additional benefit of parallel loading is that the input data need not be broken out into separate data sets. And the same goes for the error data set and mapping data set. Of course, you can set up your LOAD utility job to load each partition from writing Brillantmont International a separate data set, with a separate discards data set for each partition, too.
This is accomplished using the INDDN and the DISCARDDN keywords to College set up the appropriate data sets. Be aware that the INDDN and an argumentative DISCARDDN options can only be specified if the PART keyword is also specified. They cannot be used with segmented or simple table spaces. The actual number of parallel RELOAD tasks to be run is write a critique journal article College, determined by the number of CPUs, the availability of virtual storage, and the number of available DB2 threads. When the LOAD utility builds indexes in parallel rather than sequentially, overall elapsed time for the LOAD job can be reduced. For LOAD to build indexes in parallel, the first condition, of course, is that there be more than one index defined for the table being loaded. Essay Writing IMG Academy? If that is the case, the SORTKEYS clause must be specified with an estimate for the number of how to a critique journal article Braemar keys, and sort work data sets must be allocated to owl essay writing the LOAD job (either explicitly or dynamically). As of DB2 V7, you can use the LOAD utility with the SHRLEVEL CHANGE parameter to load data into a table while users concurrently access the existing data. This feature is commonly referred to as an online LOAD resume.
Previously, running the LOAD utility made the table data unavailable. Of course, you could always code a program to journal article insert the data, but that is not very efficient or simple. Online loading will work using normal SQL INSERT s. The LOAD will perform normal claim processing and no drains. But all normal SQL processing activities will occur. This means that in this case, LOAD will cause INSERT triggers to sites to write The University be fired and referential constraints to a critique Braemar be checked. When running the a comparative, LOAD utility consider applying the of a journal article, following tips, tricks, and techniques. When index keys are not already in sorted order and indexes exist on the table into University (INTO), which data is being loaded, consider using the SORTKEYS keyword. When SORTKEYS is how to write a critique of a journal article, specified, index keys are sorted in memory, rather than being written to work files. This can improve performance by: Eliminating the expensive I/O operations to disk. Reducing the space requirements for the SYSUT1 and SORTOUT data sets.
Reducing elapsed time from the start of the reload phase to writing the end of the build phase. An estimate of the number of keys to be sorted can be supplied. This is optional, but recommended because the extracted keys will be written to a critique journal article Braemar College a work data set, minimizing the efficiency gains of using the SORTKEYS parameter. To estimate the number of keys to sort, use the thinking of the Pacific, following calculation: If more than one table is being loaded, the preceding calculation must be repeated for each table ”the sum of the results is used. As of DB2 V7, when loading partitions in parallel along with SORTKEYS DB2 supports multiple RELOAD tasks piping their key/RID pairs to the SORT / BUILD subtasks (one per index). The number of of a journal article College tasks that can be supported is roughly equal to the number of in writing an argumentative essay Paris partitions.
But when SORTKEYS is how to a critique of a journal Braemar, specified and some tasks are allocated for reloading, other tasks need to be allocated for thinking problems of the sorting index keys and for building indexes in parallel. Thus the how to write of a College, number of RELOAD tasks may be reduced in order to improve the overall performance of the entire LOAD job. Avoid the LOAD Utility for Tables with Triggers. You may wish to avoid using the essay writing about, LOAD utility to add data to any table on write of a journal Braemar College, which you have defined an INSERT trigger. Triggers do not fire during LOAD , so loading a table this way may cause data integrity problems. Instead, code a program to introduction Sandy School insert the data as needed because INSERT will cause the trigger to fire appropriately. Of course, this caveat does not apply to an online LOAD resume, because the how to of a article Braemar College, LOAD utility will perform normal SQL INSERT s, thereby firing triggers as desired. Consider Serializing Loads for Tables in the Same Database. The LOAD utility is sensitive to concurrent processing. If concurrent loading of tables in writing the same databases takes too long, consider serializing the LOAD jobs for those tables. Typical symptoms involve LOAD jobs that timeout or languish in the UTILINIT phase until the RELOAD phase of other concurrent LOAD jobs is finished.
Consider assigning tables needing to be loaded concurrently to different databases to avoid this problem. Another approach is to assign only one table per how to a critique journal College, database. Use LOAD to Append or Replace Rows. You can use LOAD to replace data in a table by steps an argumentative essay Istituto Paris specifying the REPLACE option. LOAD also can append new data to a table, leaving current data intact, by specifying the RESUME(YES) option. Choose the how to write a critique of a journal Braemar College, appropriate option based on your data loading needs. Use the LOAD utility, specifying an empty input data set (or DD DUMMY ), to delete all rows from a non-segmented table space. This is called a mass delete . LOAD is usually more efficient than DELETE SQL without a WHERE clause.
Specifying the LOG NO option to introduction essay Sandy Spring avoid logging data changes will further enhance the performance of the mass delete. Note, however, the a critique, following considerations: If multiple tables are assigned to a simple table space, the LOAD utility deletes all rows for all tables in that table space. Consider loading a DUMMY data set even for segmented table spaces if a large amount of data must be deleted. Because DB2 logging can be avoided during a LOAD , the LOAD utility can be substantially faster than the improved mass delete algorithms used by segmented table spaces. To enhance the performance of the owl essay writing Brillantmont, LOAD utility, use a fixed blocked input data set rather than a variable blocked data set. Buffer the Work Data Sets Appropriately. For large loads, set the BUFNO parameter in the JCL for write a critique of a journal College the SYSUT1 DD statement to a number greater than 20. A BUFNO of approximately 20 is recommended for medium- sized indexes, and a BUFNO between 50 and 100 is recommended for larger tables. The BUFNO parameter creates read and critical thinking University write buffers in main storage for the data set, thereby enhancing the performance of the LOAD utility. The default for BUFNO is 8 for DB2 V3 and 20 for DB2 V4.
Ensure that sufficient memory (real or expanded) is available, however, before increasing the BUFNO specification for your LOAD utility data sets. Enforce RI During Table Loading When Possible. Favor using the ENFORCE option of the how to write, LOAD utility to enforce referential constraints instead of running CHECK DATA after the LOAD completes. It is usually more efficient to process the loaded data once, as it is loaded, than to process the data twice, once to load it and once to check it. If LOAD with the RESUME(YES) option was executed, new data has been added to the table. However, if ENFORCE was not specified and a subsequent CHECK DATA is run, CHECK DATA will check the entire table, not just the new data. Ensure That LOAD Input Data Sets Are in Key Sequence.
Favor sorting the LOAD input data set into sequence by critical thinking of the the columns designated in the clustering index. Be sure to sort the data in how to a critique of a journal article the appropriate sequence, either ascending or descending, depending on critical thinking problems University, how the index was defined. Of A Journal? Otherwise, the LOAD utility does not load data in clustering order, and the table space and indexes will be inefficiently organized. When the index key is null, it should be treated as high values for sorting purposes. If you use DFSORT to sort the critical thinking problems University, input data before loading, consider invoking the how to a critique of a journal, SORT DEDUPE option. How To Write Introduction Essay Sandy Spring Friends? Doing so not only how to a critique of a journal article College, can decrease the size of the file passed to the LOAD step, but it can minimize or eliminate LOAD discard processing. Removing duplicates in DFSORT can improve performance because of the different ways that DFSORT and essay writing my school the LOAD utility handle duplicates.
When DFSORT encounters duplicates, it sends one of the write of a journal article Braemar, values to the output file then discards the remaining duplicates. When the LOAD utility encounters duplicates in the input file, it sends all of the duplicates to critical problems of the the discard file. Consider the write journal College, following code for DFSORT : This code indicates that DFSORT is to sort on three fields. Essay Writing IMG Academy? The first starts in position 1 for 4 bytes, the second starts in position 5 for 4 bytes, and write of a article Braemar the third starts in position 9 for essay 12 bytes. How To Write Article College? The first two fields are unsigned binary and the third is character. And the sites that articles, sort is to be ascending for each field. Finally, the SUM FIELDS=NONE statement indicates that DFSORT is to eliminate records with duplicate keys. Additionally, you can improve performance by removing unneeded records during the DFSORT step, instead of how to write article Braemar College using a WHEN clause on the LOAD utility. Doing so can decrease the writing Brillantmont, size of the file passed to the LOAD step and the DFSORT INCLUDE is more efficient than LOAD WHEN . Consider the following sample DFSORT code: This code indicates that DFSORT is to how to a critique article Braemar start in position 9 and drop the record when the next four bytes equal 'CDBD'.
More details on how to use DFSORT can be found in the IBM manual number SC33-4035, DFSORT Application Programming Guide . REORG After Loading When the Input Is Not Sorted. If data is thinking University, not loaded in how to write a critique of a journal article clustering sequence, consider following the LOAD with a table space reorganization. This can be performed all the time, which is not recommended, or based on the value of CLUSTER RATIO stored in the DB2 Catalog for the table space and its clustering index. If CLUSTER RATIO is not 100% for a newly loaded table, the REORG utility should be used to cluster and writing essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) organize the application data. If LOAD is run specifying RESUME(YES) then even if the input is in clustering sequence, the result can be a CLUSTER RATIO less than 100%. It is best to avoid sorting the input in this case. Instead, run the load, and then run the REORG utility to cluster and organize the data. Use the how to write journal article Braemar, LOG NO option unless the table to essay Sandy Friends School be loaded is very small. Doing so avoids the how to a critique journal article, overhead of logging the loaded data and speeds load processing. If data is writing essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), loaded without being logged, however, follow the LOAD utility with a full image copy.
Specify KEEPDICTIONARY for Performance. The LOAD utility will rebuild the how to write journal article, compression dictionary for table spaces defined with the COMPRESS YES parameter. Specifying the KEEPDICTIONARY parameter causes the LOAD utility to bypass dictionary rebuilding. The LOAD REPLACE option must be specified to build the compression dictionary. This will improve the overall performance of the LOAD utility because the CPU cycles used to build the dictionary can be avoided.
However, this option should be utilized only when you are sure that the same basic type of data is being loaded into the table. Writing A Comparative Essay (INTO)? If the type of data differs substantially, allowing the LOAD utility to rebuild the compression dictionary will provide for more optimal data compression. Keeping the compression dictionary can increase work space requirements for the REORG utility. When the compression rate deteriorates, the REORG utility will send longer rows to the SYSREC DD statement. Avoid Nullable Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Loading tables with nullable columns can degrade the LOAD utility's performance.
If a table will be loaded frequently (daily, for example), consider reducing or eliminating the number of nullable columns defined to the table to write of a Braemar increase the write introduction essay Spring School, performance of the LOAD utility. This is not always practical or desirable because many program changes may be required to change columns from nullable to NOT NULL or to NOT NULL WITH DEFAULT . Additionally, nullable columns might make more sense than default values given the specification of the application. Avoid Decimal Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Avoid DECIMAL columns for tables that are loaded frequently. How To Journal Article? Loading DECIMAL columns requires more CPU time than loading the other data types.
The LOAD utility automatically converts similar data types as part of its processing. However, try to a comparative essay (INTO) avoid data conversion, because the LOAD utility requires additional CPU time to process these conversions. The following data conversions are performed automatically by the LOAD utility: Original Data Type. Converted Data Type. Reduce CPU Usage by Explicitly Coding All LOAD Parameters. Explicitly define the input file specifications in the LOAD control cards.
Do this even when the of a, data set to be loaded conforms to all the default lengths specified in Table 33.1. This reduces the LOAD utility's CPU use. Column Data Type. Column's maximum length. Double the column's length. Double the column's maximum length. If the input file specifications are not explicitly identified, the LOAD utility assumes that the input data set is formatted with the defaults specified in Table 33.1. You can use the DSNTIAUL sample program, the UNLOAD utility, or REORG UNLOAD EXTERNAL to build LOAD control cards with explicit definitions.
The PUNCHDDN keyword is used to specify a data set for the control cards. For BLOB , CLOB , and DBCLOB data, you must specify the critical thinking University Pacific, length of the input field in how to article Braemar bytes. This length value is placed in a four-byte binary field at the beginning of the LOB value. The length value must begin in the column specified as START in the POSITION clause. The END specification is not used for LOB s. Consider Using LOAD Parameters to Edit Data Before Loading. You can use the STRIP and TRUNCATE parameters of LOAD to tweak graphic and steps in writing an argumentative essay Istituto Marangoni Paris character data before loading. These parameters can be used in conjunction with CHAR , VARCHAR , GRAPHIC , and VARGRAPHIC columns.
The STRIP parameter indicates that LOAD must remove specified characters from the beginning, the how to of a article Braemar, end, or both ends of the data prior to loading it. LOAD will strip the characters before performing any character code conversion or padding. If a specific character is not coded, the default is to strip blanks. STRIP works the same way as the STRIP function explained in Chapter 3, Using DB2 Functions. The TRUNCATE parameter indicates that the input character string will be truncated from the writing my school, right if it does not fit into the column. LOAD will truncate the data after any required CCSID translation. Create All Indexes Before Loading.
It is usually more efficient to define all indexes before using the LOAD utility. The LOAD utility uses an efficient algorithm to build DB2 indexes. If indexes must be created after the data has been loaded, create the indexes with the how to article College, DEFER YES option and build them later using the REBUILD INDEX utility. To insert initial data into a DB2 table, favor the use of the LOAD utility with the thinking problems University Pacific, REPLACE option over an application program coded to process INSERT s. LOAD should be favored even if the application normally processes INSERT s as part of its design. The initial loading of DB2 table data usually involves the insertion of many more rows than does typical application processing. For the initial population of table data, the LOAD utility is generally more efficient and journal Braemar less error-prone than a corresponding application program, and also maintains free space.
Consider using the LOAD utility with the RESUME(YES) option to writing essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) process a large volume of table insertions. LOAD is a critique article Braemar College, usually more efficient and less error-prone than a corresponding application program that issues a large number of INSERT s. Do Not Load Tables in a Multi-Table Simple Table Space. Avoid loading tables with the REPLACE option when multiple tables have been defined to a simple table space. The LOAD utility with the REPLACE option deletes all rows in all tables in the simple table space, which is not usually the desired result. Gather Statistics When Loading Data. If you are loading data into writing Brillantmont School, a DB2 table specifying RESUME NO and the REPLACE keyword, you also should use the STATISTICS keyword to gather statistics during LOAD processing. How To Write A Critique Of A College? These keywords specify that you are loading a table from scratch and that any previous data will be lost. If you are loading using RESUME YES , execute the RUNSTATS utility immediately after loading a DB2 table. Accurate statistics are necessary to Brillantmont School maintain current information about write journal article Braemar your table data for access path determination. University? Of course, access paths for static SQL will not change unless all packages and plans accessing the table are rebound.
Any dynamic SQL statements will immediately take advantage of the new statistics. Concurrent loading of multiple partitions of a single table space can be achieved using partition independence. This technique is useful for write a critique of a article Braemar reducing the overall elapsed time of loading a table in a partitioned table space. Use Data Contingency Options As Required. The LOAD utility can perform special processing of data depending on the data values in the input load data set. Data contingency processing parameters indicate a field defined in the LOAD parameters or a beginning and ending location of data items to be checked.
The data contingency processing parameters follow: Sets column values to null if a particular character string is found at a particular location ”for example: Sets column values to thinking Pacific a predefined default value if a particular character string is found at a particular location. For example. Limits the loaded data to specific records in the load input data set. For example. Used when there are record types in the input load data set. Specifies that loading will continue, logically concatenating the a critique Braemar College, next record to problems University of the Pacific the previous input record. For example.
NULLIF cannot be used with ROWID columns because a ROWID column cannot be null. Spread the work data sets across different physical devices to reduce contention. Use Caution When Loading ROWID Data. When loading a table with a ROWID column, ensure that the input data is a valid ROWID value. The appropriate way to do this is to load ROWID values that were previously generated by DB2. If the ROWID is a critique of a Braemar College, defined with the GENERATED ALWAYS keyword, you cannot load data into that column. Instead, the ROWID value must be generated by DB2. Loading floating point data into DB2 tables requires that you know the format of the data. Two options are available for loading floating point data: Floating point data is specified in System/390 hexadecimal floating point format. This is the default value.
It is also the format in a comparative University which DB2 stores floating point numbers. Floating point data is specified in IEEE binary floating point format. DB2 expects to find the input numbers in how to of a journal article binary floating point format and will convert the data to hexadecimal floating point format as the data is loaded. If a conversion error occurs while converting from binary floating point format to critical thinking University hexadecimal floating point format, DB2 will place the record in the discard file. Be sure to write a critique of a journal Braemar College optimize the operation of the owl essay, sort utility in use at your shop. For example, you can assign additional resources to DFSORT using the following DD statement: Additionally, consider using the SORTNUM clause to increase the number of dynamically allocated files and use the SORTDEVT clause to assign the disk pool. Be Aware of the Impact of Multi-Level Security on LOAD.
If you use multilevel security to article Braemar control authorization, the user or process must have write-down privilege to The University run a LOAD REPLACE on a table space containing a table that has multilevel security with row-level granularity. How To Of A Journal Braemar? This allows you to specify values for the security label columns. To run a LOAD RESUME , the user or process must have the write-down privilege to specify values for the security label columns. If you run a LOAD RESUME job without having the write-down privilege, DB2 will assign your security label as the value for the security label column for about my school IMG Academy the loaded rows. Understanding DB2: Learning Visually with Examples (2nd Edition)
Database Administration: The Complete Guide to Practices and Procedures.
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Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc Essay. Dr Pepper Snapple group, Inc. is how to a critique article Braemar College, a major integrated brand owner, bottler, and distributer of writing Brillantmont School nonalcoholic beverages in the United States. In 2007 they had net sales of $5.748 billion, 21 manufacturing facilities and approximately 200 distribution centers in the United States. They are the a critique of a Braemar College number one Company in carbonated soft drink products in the United States. Their business strategy is to steps an argumentative essay Istituto Marangoni Paris invest most heavily in their key brands to drive profitable and sustainable growth by how to write a critique of a article strengthening consumer awareness, developing innovative products, and brand extensions to take advantage of writing a comparative essay University (INTO) evolving consumer trends, improving distribution and how to journal College, increasing promotional effectiveness. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. also wants to focus on driving growth in their business with emerging categories, through brand extensions, new product launches, and selective acquisitions of brands and distribution rights. The company has a future goal of significantly increasing the number of branded coolers and other cold drink equipment over the next few years, which is expected to essay University (INTO) provide an attractive return on investment. How To Write Of A Article College? The company also intends to leverage its integrated business model to reduce costs by strategically creating greater geographic manufacturing and distribution coverage and to be more flexible and responsive to the changing needs of large retail customers by coordinating sales, service, distribution, promotions, and product launches. A question came into play of whether or not a profitable market opportunity existed for a new energy beverage brand to be produced, marketed, and distributed by the company in 2008. With the company’s current strengths, business strategy, and positive reputation, it would seem to be a good move. But one must first consider the competition, customer, and if the pay you to write articles The University of Birmingham company itself can successfully introduce a new product to a specific market.
The company has several succinct strengths. They have a strong portfolio of leading consumer- preferred brands. How To Write A Critique Of A Article College? This means that they have a diverse portfolio of bottlers, distributors, and retailers with a wide variety of a comparative (INTO) products and provide a foundation for growth and profitability. Their Snapple brand is also a leading ready to drink tea. Overall, in 2007 more than 75 percent of Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. How To Of A Journal Article Braemar College? volume was generated by brands that hold either the first or second position in their category. The strength of these key supporting brands has served as a platform for lunching innovations and brand extensions in the past such as Accelerade RTD, a ready to drink sports drink that launched in late May 2007.
The company therefore had experience in what it truly meant to create a new branded energy drink which would serve to in writing an argumentative Marangoni Paris be useful, as the strategy would be similar. Entering a new product market. How To Write Journal Braemar? A second strength the company possesses is their Integrated Business Model. An Argumentative Essay Istituto? This provides opportunities for net sales and profit growth through the write of a journal alignment of the economic interest of its brand ownership and its bottling and distribution business. Thirdly, they have strong and long standing customer relationships.
This is Brillantmont, so important for the success of a company. How To Write A Critique Journal Article College? They have a wide range of an argumentative Istituto Marangoni strong relationships from bottlers and distributors, to national retailers, large food service, and convenience store customers. They also have strong relationships with some of the most important U.S. retailers including Walmart, Safeway, Kroger, and Target. Write A Critique Of A Journal Article? Another strength is their attractive positioning within a large, growing, and essay, profitable market. They hold the number three position in the United States, Canada, and Mexico beverage market. The company has a great competitive edge, as they cater to a critique of a article Braemar College the need for convince and the demand for essay my school product with health and wellness benefits more so than any of their competitors. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. also has a broad geographic manufacturing and distribution coverage. How To Journal? They have 21 manufacturing facilities and my school, approximately 200 distribution centers in the United States. The company has strategically laced their warehouse at or near bottling pants and geographically dispersed them across sales regions to ensure company products are available to meet consumer demand. How To Write A Critique Braemar? This enables them to better align their operations with customers, reduce transportation costs, and have greater control over the timing and coordination of new product launches. Another strength is their strong operating margins and significant stable cash flows.
The breadth and strength of the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. product portfolio has enabled the company to generate strong operating margins, which combined with relatively modest capital expenditures, have delivered significant and stable cash flows. This in writing essay of Gloucestershire turn creates stockholder value by how to write article College enabling the writing Brillantmont International School company to consider a variety of alternatives, such as investing in its business, reducing debt and returning capital to article Braemar its stockholders. Lastly, they have an experienced executive management team. They all have an average of more than 20 years of experience in the food and beverage industry. The team has a broad experience in essay writing brand ownership, bottling, distribution, and enjoys strong relations both within the industry and with major customers. They also have diverse skills that support operating strategies, including driving organic growth through target and efficient marketing, reducing operating costs, enhancing distribution efficiencies, aligning manufacturing, bottling, distribution interests, and write of a Braemar, executing strategic acquisitions. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. realized they had a weakness, as they were the only major nonalcoholic beverage company with no energy drink brand of their own. They also recognized an opportunity, no company had yet positioned themselves as an adult energy drink. Going into how to introduction essay Spring School, the Energy beverage market also seemed to correlate with what their future and current goals were. Industry analysts were projecting an average annual growth rate of 10.5 percent from 2007 to 2011.
Also, since their current demographic was more health conscious then the competition, which gives them a competitive competency, they also had another untapped opportunity to market their energy drink by differentiation. Currently, there are five major competitors that dominate the U.S. energy beverage market: Red Bull North America, Hansen Natural Corporation, Pepsi-Cola, Rockstar Inc., and how to write Braemar College, Coca-Cola. Pepsi and Coca-Cola also compete with what Dr Pepper already offers from an industry and market point of view. Sadly, when it comes to advertising funds available, Dr Pepper has some funds available, but not nearly close to how to write Sandy Friends School what Red Bull has. With that being the case, we feel that an journal article Braemar, avoidance of the writing International School competition, by going the route of a product innovation technique by means of of a Braemar College differentiation, would be the best route for Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. to be successful. There are some warning signs in the industry.
The energy beverage market has experienced product proliferation and price erosion in recent years. Proliferation resulted from line extensions new packaging and size, and market segmentation. Existing brands also typically offer regular and sugar free verities which have a sizeable share already in the market. Brand position typically emphasizes an energy boost, metal alertness, refreshment, and taste. This is why our product differentiation positioning is so important for steps in writing an argumentative essay the brand to be truly successful. Several opportunities for product differentiation exist. One of which are the ingredients. Specifically, a new brand could augment the energy and mental alertness benefits by increasing the amount of herbs, vitamins, and natural ingredients. Secondly, no brand has positioned itself as an adult energy drink.
Adults between the ages of 35 to 54 consumed energy beverages at a rate that was only how to write Braemar slightly less than consumers under 24. Thirdly, the packaging. All the energy brands on the market lacked meaningful differentiation. They all looked the thinking of the Pacific same. With the write a critique journal Braemar College product, they felt it would be smart to writing introduce a new drink with a re-sealable lid, something that would stand out in how to a critique journal article Braemar the crowd. The current energy beverage consumer typically consists of males between the ages of that pay you to write 18-24. Energy beverages are most often consumed in write journal article Braemar the afternoon, the owl essay writing School second most popular time of day is morning consumption. How To A Critique Of A Journal College? Convenience stores and supermarkets are the dominant off-premise retail channels for energy beverages.
In general, energy beverage manufactures with a broad product line and an extensive distribution network have had the greatest success in write introduction Spring Friends gaining shelf space in supermarkets and how to a critique of a Braemar, mass merchandisers for their brand. This would correlate with Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc. strength of having great relationships with their vendors. We would recommend that they follow suit with partnerships with the dominate off-premise retail channels, but as a more health conscious beverage. The solution that we came up with for the Dr. Pepper Snapple Group was to incorporate all of these opportunities into a new product called RAM, which stands for Real Alive Micro-Nutrients. The product’s target market will be adults ages 25- 44 both males and females, who are interested in their health.
In specific we are targeting the working middle class. Our average consumer would be someone working long hours that need constant energy throughout the essay about my school IMG Academy day, even after work when they need to go home and take care of their families. They are constantly on the go and busy. Journal College? When developing a new product you must implement the marketing mix. The first being the product, RAM energy drink. Our product is focused on providing the same alert and energized feeling as traditional energy drinks, without including ingredients that have harmful side effects. Other drinks such as Red Bull can lead to dangers such as cardiac arrest, headaches, insomnia, type two diabetes, and many other health issues (Top 10 Energy Drink Dangers).
Our new product RAM, will be replacing ingredients that lead to these dangers with more vitamins. For example our product will not include ingredients such as Carnitine, Guarnana, Ginseng, and Ginko Biloba. All of which are commonly used in energy beverages but there presence is not clearly reflected on their labels. Steps In Writing? Instead they cover it up by listing them as “part of a 5000- mg energy blend” these ingredients can be extremely dangerous (Higgens). Instead, we will have ingredients such as Iron, Biotin, Zinc, Omega -3 fatty acids, antioxidants, Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, C, D. How To Of A Article Braemar? All of these attributes to how to write essay Sandy Friends School healthy energy levels but are a more natural way of doing so. Another detail of how to write Braemar RAM will be lower calories, right now out of the essay writing my school five leading companies in the energy beverage market, not including sugar free products, Monster has the lowest calories being 200 per 16oz can. We want our product RAM to be around 150 calories per bottle, with only write a critique of a about 25 grams of sugar. Compared to introduction essay Monster, which has 54 grams of sugar. RAM will also only how to of a journal College be made up of natural flavors with no added artificial flavors or colors added, whereas the other lead competitors all ad coloring and sites that to write articles, most admit to how to write of a adding artificial flavoring when some do not list the writing about specification, which usually means they are trying to how to write article Braemar hide something. We want our customers to know every little ingredient that makes up RAM and in writing an argumentative Istituto Marangoni Paris, hopefully this will build trust and write a critique of a journal article, relationships in return. Many people are just now starting to steps an argumentative Istituto Paris notice all of the potential dangers that energy drinks contain, which is write journal Braemar College, why our product will stand out as a healthier choice that offers the steps in writing an argumentative Istituto Paris same benefits.
The look of our product will be completely unlike any other energy drink, which are usually un-sealable cans. RAM will be sold in a 17 ounce recyclable cardboard bottle with a re-sealable screw on cap, similar to those that Vita Coco coconut water uses. This type of bottling will fit better with the target market’s lifestyle because the container will be easier to a critique of a bring on the go with no spills or messes. They are also able to drink some now and a comparative, easily save the write a critique of a rest for later. When designing the prototype of the bottle we choose the colors dark blue and black so that they would be gender neutral and attract the that to write articles The University of Birmingham more mature market. The label is also clear and easy to read. How To Write Article? We suggest that RAM only starts off introducing two flavors and see how they perform and introducing a new flavor within the next 8 months of the campaign. The two flavors to start with might be RAM berry and citrus, because they are common and consumers might be more willing to writing about my school try. How To Write Journal? From there they can extend the product line even further by offering a sugar-free option and even being sold in packs of four or large cases. The next aspect of the marketing mix to look at with RAM is pricing.
We think that it is best to price themselves competitively at writing a comparative of Gloucestershire (INTO) about $2.15 a bottle. Which is only a few cents cheaper than drinks such as Monster and Amp depending on the location. The third part of the marketing mix is place. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. has a wide range of strong relationships from bottlers and distributors, to national retailers, large food service, and convenience stores, such as 7-11, and their customers. They also have strong relationships with some of the most important U.S. retailers including Walmart, Safeway, Kroger, and Target. Building on how to journal article Braemar their current strength of market channels, we felt that off premise retailers would represent the best choice for the product to be carried. Sites Pay You Articles The University? Lastly, we have to figure out the promotion that will be used for RAM. Since our funds are low compared to competitors, and how to Braemar College, we are going to critical Pacific avoid any conflict, we will be focusing on giving out samples while the write a critique of a journal article Braemar product is being first introduced.
We recommend the company hires sales reps to go to thinking problems University Pacific local grocery stores, with whom they already are doing business with, to give out samples to customers for them to try the new drink. It would also be a good idea to promote the new brand at how to a critique journal article events such races, athletic games, and essay writing IMG Academy, concerts that our target market would be attending. How To Write A Critique Of A Journal Article Braemar? This can be as simple as setting up a tent offering free samples and steps in writing an argumentative Marangoni Paris, coupons. We also recommend using social media as a platform because it is extremely cost efficient and how to of a journal, we can easily select our target. By means of analyzing the company’s strengths, tactics, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats, we were able to come up with a product that would be successful. Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. vision statement says, “It is our vision to be the best beverage business in to write of Birmingham the Americas. Our brands have been synonymous with refreshment, fun, and flavor for generations, and our sales are poised to keep growing into the future.” We feel that by building on their current strengths and marketing a product by means of differentiation through its ingredients, demographic, unisex packaging, and partnerships with loyal vendors, we will have a success with RAM. Real, Alive, Micro-nutrients. Higgens, John. “Energy Beverage: Content and how to article Braemar College, Safety.” (2011). Print.
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