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A friend is someone your NEVER embarrassed to be around, you accept them for who they are. There is always a mutual understanding between. 2006 singles , 2008 singles , Friendship 995 Words | 3 Pages. FRIENDS : friend or foe? Friends are extremely important and friendship is a major part of our lives. If there’s . one thing we can all agree on, it’s that friends are awesome.
Having friends is how to write School, similar to Bosworth having family. During the good times and the bad, through thick and thin, your best friends are there for you. They are the people that you can count on in your greatest time of need. They can help you in times of trouble, and be there to enjoy and how to college level essays NEOMA Business School share the great parts of your life too. Our friends.
Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 814 Words | 3 Pages. Facebook friends are not real friends. Today I'd like to explore why social networking in general has touched a collective nerve. Learn University! Do sites like Facebook stand as viable communities, and are the how to write college essays NEOMA Business, . people on your home page real friends ? Many of thinking you say no. It's the brick and mortar, sit-face-to-face-and-talk that counts.
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What group do you put them in? Like almost everyone else, we tend to . group our friends from the closest to compare and contrast Abbey College us to friends that were barely know and just wave Hi to. College Essays NEOMA School! Whatever group we categorize them into, they are a part of our life that makes us feel complete and allow us to be socializing. Without these types of friends we group them in, we will be friendless and unentertained. Similarly to what Winik have mention, I also have friends that. 2006 albums , A New Beginning , Best Friends 973 Words | 3 Pages. you need to spend time to know that other side very quit, so friendship require time and energy for creative thinking Sevenoaks two reason. First reason is that some . friends are friend for life second is that people cannot live alone. College Business! The first reason why friendship worth time and energy is that some friends are friend for life .According to the reading, some of your friends are friends for life .Because when you meet them and spend time with them and share everything with them you will become too close with them also you. Articles University! Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1068 Words | 3 Pages. broadcast their show on, and how to write level Business School each show has a different showrunner.
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A friend is a person one knows well, and is also . someone who will listen to a persons problems and give advice. Being a friend is books, just as important as having a friend . There are different kinds of friends : the best friend , the associate, and the friend of convenience. A person can have more than one best friend . Many people think of their best friends as part of write essays Business their own family. A best friend is someone. College! Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Virtue 487 Words | 2 Pages.
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I actually have a policy about Bosworth Independent College, Facebook friend requests. . College Essays NEOMA Business School! In order to accept one or send one, I require that I have either met you in person once in my life, or have had several email conversations with you. I don’t accept random friend requests from thinking books, people I don’t know. These people include; People who friend me randomly in the hopes of beefing up their ‘ friend ’ lists Weird dudes who go through all my pictures and then. Facebook , Friends , Friendship 1704 Words | 5 Pages. meaning of friendship, you really haven't learned anything. . A friend should be one in whose understanding and virtue we can equally . confide, and whose opinion we can value at once for college its justness and to write articles of Southampton its sincerity. A friendship can weather most things and how to write level essays Business School thrive in thin soil; but it needs a little mulch of writing letters and phone calls and small, silly presents every so often - just to save it from drying out how to write level NEOMA Business School, completely. A true friend never gets in your way unless you happen to be going down.
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is Friendship Day? Celebrate Friendship Day 2013 on August 4, Sunday Human beings are social creatures and have always valued the importance of . friends in their lives. To celebrate this noble feeling it was deemed fit to have a day dedicated to friends and friendship. College Essays Business School! Accordingly, first Sunday of thinking skill Sevenoaks School August was declared as a holiday in US in honor of friends by how to write college level NEOMA a Proclamation made by US Congress in thinking Concord, 1935. Since then, World Friendship Day is being celebrated every year on the first Sunday in write college essays NEOMA Business School, the month. Celebration , Friendship , International Friendship Day 830 Words | 3 Pages. A Best Friend is. “Some people come into our lives and how to scholarship quickly go. Some stay for a while and leave footprints on our hearts.
And we . Write Level Essays NEOMA Business School! are never ever the same” (Unknown). What is a “best friend ”? Almost everyone has one, and scholarship essay College almost everyone is one. How To Level School! There’s something about a best friend that cannot be duplicated. Everyone has their own definition of what their own best friend is like and introduction paragraph Niagara what an impact he or she has made in their life. In this essay I would like to take a better. 2007 singles , Best Friends , Emotion 1066 Words | 3 Pages. How To College Level NEOMA Business School! Friends are biggest value in people’s lives. Sevenoaks! I have many friends . Most of them are my neighbors, but also I have schoolmates. Level Essays Business School! I . can go out somewhere with them and feel comfortable. I know that friends of mine will help me anytime and anywhere. I can trust them.
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Friends are people whom we turn to when our spirits need a lift. They are always by our side through thick and thin. They stand beside us even . when our disposition is not perfectly right and will fight for level essays NEOMA Business School us if we are oppressed. Therefore, it is clear that friends play a vital role in shaping who we are today. To Write Articles University! But what qualities exactly do we need to look for in a friend ? That is why I have decided to write an how to write college essays NEOMA School, essay about The New Girl. To Write Articles University! This story circles around five friends Amy, Bella, Chloe, Daisy.
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How Burrowing Owls Lead To Vomiting Anarchists (Or SF’s Housing Crisis Explained) The Santa Clara Valley was some of the write level essays NEOMA most valuable agricultural land in write St. Clair, the entire world, but it was paved over to create today’s Silicon Valley. Write College Essays NEOMA School? This was simply the result of bad planning and Concord College layers of how to college Business School leadership failure — nobody thinks farms literally needed to be destroyed to create the technology industry’s success. Today, the tech industry is apparently on track to destroy one of the world’s most valuable cultural treasures, San Francisco, by skill Sevenoaks pushing out the diverse people who have helped create it. How To NEOMA? At least that’s the story you’ve read in hundreds of articles lately. It doesn’t have to be this way. But everyone who lives in Bosworth Independent, the Bay Area today needs to accept responsibility for making changes where they live so that everyone who wants to be here, can. The alternative — inaction and self-absorption — very well could create the cynical elite paradise and middle-class dystopia that many fear.
I’ve spent time looking into how to Business the city’s historical housing and development policies. With the protests escalating again, I am pretty tired of seeing the city’s young and disenfranchised fight each other amid an extreme housing shortage created by 30 to 40 years of NIMBYism (or “Not-In-My-Backyard-ism”) from the old wealth of the how to write paragraph Niagara College city and down from the college level NEOMA Business School peninsula suburbs. Here is a very long explainer. Sorry, this isn’t a shorter post or that I didn’t break it into 20 pieces. To Write Of Southampton? If you’re wondering why people are protesting you, how we got to this housing crisis, why rent control exists or why tech is even shifting to San Francisco in the first place, this is meant to provide some common points of understanding. This is a complex problem, and I’m not going to distill it into young, rich tech douchebags-versus-helpless old ladies facing eviction. There are many other places where you can read that story. It does us all no justice.
Homeowners have a strong economic incentive to restrict supply because it supports price appreciation of write college level NEOMA Business School their own homes. It’s understandable. Many of them have put the bulk of their net worth into their homes and argument they don’t want to how to level NEOMA, lose that. So they engage in NIMBYism under the how to write an essay introduction Niagara name of preservationism or environmentalism, even though denying in-fill development here creates pressures for sprawl elsewhere. They do this through hundreds of politically powerful neighborhood groups throughout San Francisco like the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. Then the how to Business School rent-controlled tenants care far more about eviction protections than increasing supply. That’s because their most vulnerable constituents are paying rents that are so far below market-rate, that only an ungodly amount of composition Bosworth construction could possibly help them. Level School? Plus, that construction wouldn’t happen fast enough — especially for elderly tenants. So we’re looking at as much as 80 percent of the an essay Niagara College city that isn’t naturally oriented to add to the housing stock. Oh, and tech?
The industry is how to college level essays School, about 8 percent of San Francisco’s workforce. Then if you look at the cities down on the peninsula and in the traditional heart of Silicon Valley, where home-ownership rates are higher, it’s even worse. The true culprit behind our housing problems: let us deflect blame to Mountain View’s burrowing owl! (Photo: Wikimedia Commons user Dori under a CC-by-SA 3.0 license) So the wealthy voting classes of the peninsula are also strangling themselves of write an essay introduction Niagara College housing too. Write Essays School? The median rent in Mountain View is $2,700 compared to College, $3,400 in San Francisco, according to Zillow. Once you factor in the cost of owning a car — estimated at how to college level essays, slightly more than $9,000 a year by the AAA — it’s not that much cheaper. If you look even closer to the Caltrain stations, rents go way up. The newly-opened Madera complex in downtown Mountain View rents out 1-bedroom units starting at $3,299 all the way up to 2-bedroom apartments at $8,000 per thinking skill School, month. So one contributor to the tech industry’s spread into San Francisco is that the peninsula cities are more than happy to vote for jobs, just not homes. 2) Why is the tech industry migrating to cities anyway? This is a demographic shift that is write college level essays, much larger than the technology industry itself — although there are some tech-specific reasons that have fueled a migration north from the historic heart of Silicon Valley over the last 10 years.
This is what urbanist Alan Ehrenhalt calls “The Great Inversion,” a major shift where cities and suburbs have traded places over the last 30 to 40 years. As people marry later and employment becomes more temporal, young adults and affluent retirees are moving into the urban core, while immigrants and the less affluent are moving out. San Francisco’s population hit a trough around 1980, after steadily declining since the 1950s as the city’s socially conservative white and essay Irish-Catholic population left for the suburbs. Into the vacuum of how to college essays NEOMA School relatively cheaper rents they left behind, came the misfits, hippies and immigrants that fomented so many of San Francisco’s beautifully weird cultural and sexual revolutions. But that out-migration reversed around 1980, and the city’s population has been steadily rising for thinking Concord, the last 30 years. This is a phenomenon that’s happening to cities all over the United States. It’s happening in write level essays NEOMA Business School, Seattle, Atlanta, New York City, Boston and Washington.
D.C.: Its rapacious speed may even be accelerating. Witness hyper-gentrification in Brooklyn and Manhattan, or the “Shoreditch-ification” of London. People are getting married later and write an essay College are living longer. Nearly 50 percent of Americans, or more than 100 million people are unmarried today, up from how to college essays Business around 22 percent in write St. Clair College, 1950. The job market has changed as well. In 1978, the U.S.’s manufacturing employment peaked and the noise and grit of the blue-collar factories that once fueled the flight of the upper-middle-class disappeared. These vacant manufacturing warehouses turned into the live-work spaces and lofts that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s in cities like New York and San Francisco.
The concept of write college level essays Business School lifetime employment also faded. Today, San Francisco’s younger workers derive their job security not from any single employer but instead from a large network of weak ties that lasts from one company to the next. The density of cities favors this job-hopping behavior more than the relative isolation of suburbia. There are also some tech industry-specific reasons too. The capital costs required to articles University of Southampton, found a company and launch a minimum viable product are much lower than a decade ago.
Startups also need fewer people, especially with the low distribution costs provided by how to college level essays NEOMA platforms like Apple’s iOS app store or Facebook. And Contrast Writing College Manchester? So it’s easier for lots of small companies to find pockets of commercial real estate in the city for new offices. It’s also easier for VCs to fund an order of how to write college Business School magnitude more experiments, even if the same proportion of write scholarship them fails. The products that technology companies are making today are also different. In the 1970s, “Silicon Valley” literally meant making semiconductors in large fabs that required expensive equipment and clean rooms. But the big wave of the how to write level essays last decade has been social networking. And every notable consumer web or mobile product of this wave has been seeded through critical mass in the “analog” world. How To College? Facebook had university campuses. Snapchat had Southern California high schools. Foursquare had Lower Manhattan. Essays Business School? Twitter had San Francisco.
These products favor social density. An even newer generation of startups addresses distinctly urban questions. Compare And Contrast College Manchester? Airbnb exists because in 2007, San Francisco didn’t have enough hotel capacity to house visitors in how to college level essays Business, town for skill Sevenoaks, an industrial design conference. Uber exists because the city’s taxi market was under-supplied with drivers and smartphones offered a new way of summoning transportation on demand. Then there are very young startups like Campus, which is like a venture-backed communal living movement, Leap Transit, which is trying to shake up scheduled transport, or any of the companies out of Tumml, an urban ventures incubator.
As tech workers have moved into cities, the industry has changed San Francisco’s culture and San Francisco has changed the technology industry. Nevertheless, while tech is fueling San Francisco’s current boom and has helped cut the city’s unemployment rate by how to college level essays NEOMA Business about half since 2010, this gentrification wave has been going on for decades longer than the word “dot-com” has existed. And it’s happening all over the country. So a great question of our time is compare and contrast essay, how American cities handle this shift. College Level NEOMA School? They have to creative skill School, do this in the face of how to write college essays global economic changes that are dividing our workforce into argument College highly-skilled knowledge workers who are disproportionately benefiting from growth and college level School lower-skilled service workers that are not seeing their wages rise at all. 3) OK, let’s build more housing! Y Combinator partner Garry Tan tweeted out a map the other week: Want to see why SF housing is so expensive? This is a map of allowed building height. Yellow = 4 stories max. Thinking Books Concord? http://t.co/OgQ6JCId8I. Wouldn’t that be simple?
But it’s not that easy. While the real estate market is hot, developers are currently building 6,000 units. To go beyond that, you have to build political will. You have to win hearts and minds. You have to make sure that people don’t get pushed out or left behind. Origins of SF’s cautious approach to college level NEOMA, growth are rooted in compare Abbey College Manchester, the freeway revolt and urban renewal struggles of the 1950s and 1960s. San Francisco’s orientation towards growth control has 50 years of history behind it and more than 80 percent of the city’s housing stock is essays NEOMA Business, either owner-occupied or rent controlled. The city’s height limits, its rent control and its formidable permitting process are all products of tenant, environmental and argument composition Independent preservationist movements that have arisen and fallen over decades.
To this day, there’s distrust and write Business fear that the Concord College same thing will happen again, especially if it’s carried out by private developers. How To Write NEOMA? Advocacy group Causa Justa has been documenting this displacement through Census data, noting that the Mission has lost 1,400 Latino households while adding 2,900 white households between 1990 and 2011. Thinking College? In the same time period, Oakland lost 40 percent of its black residents. Anti-tech sentiment during the how to college level Business School first dot-com boom. (From FoundSF) During the first tech boom, there was the Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition, which pushed for how to write essay St. Clair, a moratorium on how to write college essays NEOMA Business new market-rate housing and live-work lofts in the neighborhood. There were also more violent movements like The Yuppie Eradication Project, which slashed tires, keyed cars and broke windows. Throughout the argument College years, these movements have found alliances with other neighborhood organizations, preservationist and environmental interests. To this day, 1972’s Transamerica Pyramid remains San Francisco’s tallest building.
It’s only in write college level essays School, 2017 that a taller 1,070-foot tower anchored by College Salesforce will open. As political scientist and longtime San Francisco observer Richard DeLeon puts it: San Francisco has emerged as a “semi-sovereign city” — a city that imposes as many limits on college essays NEOMA School capital as capital imposes on it. Learn To Write Of Southampton? Mislabeled by some detractors as socialist or radical in the Marxist tradition, San Francisco’s progressivism is concerned with consumption more than production, residence more than workplace, meaning more than materialism, community empowerment more than class struggle. College Level Essays School? Its first priority is not revolution but protection — protection of the city’s environment, architectural heritage, neighborhoods, diversity, and overall quality of life from the radical transformations of turbulent American capitalism.
While we have to thank these movements for preserving so much of the land surrounding San Francisco and the city’s beautiful Victorians, one side effect is that the city has added an average of 1,500 units per year for the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the U.S. Census estimates that the city’s population grew by 32,000 people from 2010 to 2013 alone. Even today, you can see these factions engaging in how to write, behavior that might seem absurd in the context of a housing shortage. Exhibit A: Rich, Non-Tech People Trying To Downzone The Waterfront Amid An Acute Housing Crisis. On the ballot this June, is an how to college level essays NEOMA Business School, initiative that will require voters to individually approve height limit exemptions for developments on the city’s waterfront. It jeopardizes three major projects including the Warriors stadium (pictured below) and how to introduction Niagara a plan to turn Pier 70 into a mixed-use development with office space and how to write apartments. Those developments are slated to deliver as much as 3,690 housing units and thinking Concord $124 million in affordable housing fees, according to a memo written by John Arntz, the director of the city’s department of elections. This initiative is funded overwhelmingly by a non-tech couple named Barbara and write level NEOMA Richard Stewart, who gave $75,000. Argument Composition Bosworth? (They did not reply to level Business, requests for argument composition Bosworth College, comment.) It is overwhelmingly expected to how to college essays School, pass, so even the mayor isn’t taking a position on it. “Would you like free ice cream San Francisco? ‘Why yes I would,’ ” is how one political consultant summed up Prop.
B’s voter appeal to John Cote at the San Francisco Chronicle. “Why stand up against writing Abbey College Manchester, something where 60 to 70 percent are going to vote with the other side?” No. This is not free ice cream! The proposed Warriors stadium, which is in jeopardy along with 3,690 housing units because of how to level NEOMA Business a Waterfront Height Limits ballot initiative this summer. (From the NBA) Exhibit B: Protests Against New Housing Developments That Don’t Get Rid Of Any Existing Housing. You’ll also end up seeing demonstrations like this one at 16th and Mission, which protest a proposed 351-unit condominium development that replaces a Walgreens and a Burger King. It does not remove any existing housing or directly displace anyone.
A coalition of Mission-based non-profits and activists demonstrating against a proposed 351-unit condominium development at to write articles University, 16th and Mission. (From the how to write college Business Plaza16 Coalicion Facebook Page.) At face value, this might not make sense. But there are a couple reasons that this happens. One is that gentrification raises the gap between market-rate rents and rent-controlled rents, strengthening the financial incentive for landlords to evict longtime tenants. Unlike the wealthy waterfront NIMBYists, these communities are at risk of an essay Niagara being displaced. If they don’t speak up for themselves, who will? Look at Vida on Mission Street, which is a fancy new mixed-use building slated to open up next January (pictured below). The Vida project, which got green-lighted quickly through lots of collaboration with local Mission-based neighborhood groups. As Lauren Smiley wrote in San Francisco magazine last month, when developer Dean Givas wanted to how to college level essays, build luxury condos in the heart of the Mission District, he bent over backward for argument Bosworth, local community groups to get the project quickly green-lighted. Over two years of negotiations with community groups, Givas agreed to buy a plot on nearby Shotwell Street for the city to how to write level Business School, develop 40 units of affordable housing, dwarfing the 14 units that would have been required within the how to introduction paragraph Niagara Vida building.
He was already on write college level essays Business the hook to pay $1.4 million in city-mandated impact fees, yet the thinking books Concord College community got him to how to write college NEOMA School, agree to much more. He donated $150,000 to a fund to help mom-and-pop Mission businesses—to be buoyed with a sales tax on compare essay writing College Manchester future condo sales. Then, in what the project’s attorney called an unprecedented move by a developer in the Mission, he donated $650,000 to 23 community groups, a strategy that drew sellout criticisms from purists in the nonprofit community and shakedown charges from pro-development forces worried that his philanthropic palm greasing would set a precedent. Next, Givas donated $1 million for the Texas-based Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain to renovate the long-shuttered New Mission Theater next door into how to write School a five-screen dinner-and-a-movie cineplex. The Texans agreed to hire 50 percent of its staff from the how to Niagara neighborhood and to let nonprofits host at-cost benefits at the facility. In principle, it’s fine to use the levers of urban politics to redistribute the wealth an economic boom creates in San Francisco. But these concessions are being negotiated housing development by housing development, which slows the city’s ability to produce housing — both market-rate and affordable — at scale. It’s a good first step, but…. 4) SF’s planning process is deliberately bureaucratic (or highly participatory!) for political reasons:
San Francisco’s construction permitting process (non-ironically written in Comic Sans). One of the things that makes housing development different in San Francisco compared to other major U.S. cities is that building permits are discretionary rather than as-of-right. How To Write College Business School? In other cities, if a developer already matches the creative thinking School existing zoning and height restrictions of the city plan, they can get issued a permit relatively quickly. But for how to college level essays Business, new housing developments in argument composition College, San Francisco, there’s a preliminary review, which takes six months. Then there are also chances for your neighbors to appeal your permit on how to essays NEOMA either an entitlement or environmental basis.
The city also requires extensive public notice of books College proposed projects even if they already meet neighborhood plans, which have taken several years of deliberation to how to college level essays Business School, produce. Neighbors can appeal your project for something as insignificant as the shade of paint, although the city’s planning department and commission tries to get through minor appeals quickly. If those fail, neighborhood groups can also file a CEQA or environmental lawsuit under California state law, challenging the environment impact of the to write of Southampton project. Perversely, CEQA lawsuits have been used to challenge a city plan to add 34 miles of bike lanes. Then if that fails, opponents can put a development directly on a citywide ballot with enough signatures. (Thanks, Hiram Johnson?) That’s what happened with the controversial 8 Washington luxury condo project last November even though it had already gone through eight years of essays NEOMA Business School deliberation. These barriers add unpredictable costs and years of argument Bosworth College delays for every developer, which are ultimately passed onto buyers and write level Business renters. How To Introduction Paragraph Niagara College? It also means that developers have problems attracting capital financing in weaker economic years because of the political uncertainty around getting a project passed. The sophistication with which neighborhood groups wield San Francisco’s arcane land-use and how to zoning regulations for activist purposes is one of the very unique things about the city’s politics. But the city’s political leadership doesn’t want to change it, because it fears backlash from powerful neighborhood groups, which actually deliver votes. 5) Also, parts of the progressive community do not believe in supply and demand. Yeah, I was surprised by thinking this.
“We can’t build our way to affordability,” is a common refrain. Tim Redmond, who used to edit the San Francisco Bay Guardian, even suggested today that the government should take 60 percent of the city’s housing off the private market over the next 20 years. (I have no idea how you would fund this.) Why the private market can never solve SF’s housing crisis http://t.co/7vI2VPoV2r. Several activists also sent me this paper, authored by Calvin Welch, of the Council of Community Housing Organizations. Admirably, Welch has been fighting for affordable housing in San Francisco for the last forty years and is part of the politically powerful Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, which has seen that neighborhood through, well, everything. But this paper conflates correlation with causation. He argues that when there is a decline in how to level, new housing units, there is also a decline in price. Namely, he points to 2001 and 2002, while brushing off the mega-gigantic-enormous confounding variable of the dot-com bust and a regional recession. 6) OK, clarification: Affordable housing advocates would support development if it had a meaningful share of below-market-rate units. So I met Welch and he made good points. Skill Sevenoaks School? (He’s been working on write college level essays NEOMA this for nearly forty years.)
His organization, the Council of Community Housing Organizations, argues that raw, additional construction will not make housing more affordable to working-class or lower-income San Franciscans. Left to its own devices, the market will only how to, produce housing that chases the very richest buyers. In a time of rising inequality, those market-rate units are increasingly out of reach, even for middle-class San Franciscans. He points to tables like this one, which shows San Francisco’s residential housing pipeline for the last quarter of essays Business School 2013. Under state mandate, each city has a ‘Regional Housing Need’ allocation or RHNA. In San Francisco, the market is thinking Concord College, producing almost double the number of housing units for people with ‘Above Moderate’ incomes, or 120 percent of the area’s median income, as the how to write essays NEOMA School RHNA says it needs to build. So affordable housing advocates say that developers should be required to have a higher percentage of below-market-rate units built. The issue with inclusionary housing is books Concord College, that construction costs are so high in San Francisco — calculated here to how to level essays NEOMA Business, be nearly $500,000 for an 800-foot square unit — that affordable housing requires generous public subsidies.
The Mayor’s Office of Housing and College Community Development says there are 1,759 units of affordable housing that are currently being built or preserved at a cost of $824.5 million. About $274.1 million of that funding is NEOMA Business, coming from the city, and the remaining $550.3 million has to come from somewhere else. The federal and state government used to help with this, but their assistance has dropped off dramatically since the 1980s. (Cuts to the federal Housing and Urban Development department budget under the books Concord College Reagan administration coincided with the rise of urban homelessness in San Francisco.) 2,800 people applied to live in this 60-unit affordable housing building at 474 Natoma. Also, inclusionary housing has its own trade-offs. It can pass on the costs of building below-market-rate units to market-rate buyers, cutting out how to write level Business, units that would be affordable to middle-class buyers. Creative Sevenoaks? Hence, another reason for the disappearance of the San Francisco’s middle-class. You’ll see in the table above that the essays NEOMA Business market is mostly producing housing for argument composition, ‘above moderate’ incomes, then some ‘low income’ housing units, but hardly anything for write college level School, ‘moderate incomes.’ The lack of options for middle-class San Franciscans in argument composition Bosworth Independent, turn feeds the two-tier systems that we’re seeing in transportation with MUNI-versus-Uber and in write essays School, education, where 30 percent of the city’s students go to private schools at $30,000 per how to scholarship St. Clair College, year while the public school system will see almost all of its enrollment growth coming from public housing over the next three decades. The magic ratio is hard to find and it constantly shifts, depending on how to write essays Business School the state of the housing market and construction costs. 7) Yet we’re arguing over compare writing Manchester shades of gray. Sorry, supply and how to college level NEOMA Business School demand still totally matter.
More construction probably won’t make prices go down , but it will prevent them from skyrocketing as much as they would otherwise. If you look at this Trulia study examining housing production since 1990 and prices in 10 of the U.S.’s biggest tech hubs, you’ll see that San Francisco had the highest median prices per learn articles, square foot and had the write college level NEOMA Business School lowest number of new construction permits per how to scholarship St. Clair, 1,000 units between 1990 and 2013. There are also many long-term studies like this one or this one or this one from write level essays NEOMA Business School economists like Edward Glaeser of Harvard University and Joseph Gyourko at how to, the University of Pennsylvania examining the impact of land-use restrictions and zoning on write college Business School U.S. home prices in desirable areas like Boston, New York and Coastal California since 1950. But in places where zoning regulations create artificial limits on thinking home production, the final prices to home buyers jump far above construction costs. In the how to college essays NEOMA School 1980s and 1990s, they found that virtually all of San Francisco’s home prices were at least 140 percent above base construction costs. You can also look at historical housing production levels in compare essay writing Abbey, New York City and California. Manhattan was permitting more than 11,000 units each year during the postwar boom years between 1955 and how to write level essays NEOMA Business School 1964.
But between 1980 and 1999, the New York City borough was permitting just an articles University, average of 3,120 units per year. Between 1970 and 2000, the college level NEOMA Business median price of a Manhattan housing unit increased by 284 percent in constant dollars. Similarly, California once accounted for one of every five building permits issued in the U.S. during the 1960s. How To Write Scholarship St. Clair College? That construction rate slowed down, and write level Business School real housing prices in the state have increased by 385 percent from 1970 to 2010. Here’s a similar historical chart for San Francisco housing production. It’s as if both cities reacted 10 or 20 years late — long after the and contrast writing Abbey Manchester Great Inversion started and before anybody had any idea about how big or transformative this suburban-urban migration would become. This issue is profound.
Regional economic booms normally benefit all workers by creating more jobs throughout the economy — supporting locally-owned businesses and bringing in more tax revenue for public services. College Essays NEOMA Business? Even if most people don’t have tech jobs in the Bay Area, they would get many more opportunities than if there was, say, no economic growth. The point is to write articles University of Southampton, that if the entire Bay Area had a more elastic housing supply, it would not only make living affordable for write level essays, most people, it would allow a far larger portion of the population to find jobs and do things like save or spend money instead of moving somewhere distant and essay writing spending their money on driving, or even being unemployed. But in San Francisco, that spillover effect is much smaller. This is in no small part because so much of our incomes end up going toward housing costs.
The city’s economist Ted Egan estimates that each San Francisco tech job likely creates somewhere slightly north of two extra jobs, not five. San Francisco’s city economist, Ted Egan, argues above that the tech industry and its spillover effects have been responsible for write level essays NEOMA Business, virtually all of the learn city’s job growth since 2010. Still, the multiplier effect in how to write college Business School, San Francisco at slightly more than 2 jobs created for every single tech job, is much lower than the 5-to-1 ratio UC Berkeley economist Enrico Moretti calculated nationwide. Compare College? Housing costs dampen the spillovers since people end up spending so much more on rent and mortgages. However, it’s hard to have even basic debates over modest increases in the housing supply here because of how to write college Business this ideological dispute. 8) 1978 and 1979: Proposition 13 and Rent Control. I keep coming back to the late 1970s because both the city of how to essay St. Clair San Francisco and the state of California made choices that have had enduring impacts on housing to this day.
If San Francisco seems torn apart by class war today, the city was in profound agony in 1978. A charismatic, religious leader named Jim Jones had won the favor of city’s political elite and helped deliver the mayorship to George Moscone. Amid emerging allegations of physical abuse, Jones and hundreds of his followers defected from San Francisco to Guyana, where he sought to build a utopia. Instead, he convinced more than 900 of write NEOMA School his followers, including mothers and infants, to ingest cyanide mixed with punch in a mass suicide. It was an enormous tragedy for the city; nearly every family in the black Fillmore district knew someone they had lost in Jonestown. Then, just nine days later, there was a double blow. Supervisor Dan White murdered mayor Moscone and gay political icon Harvey Milk in compare and contrast essay writing Abbey College Manchester, the heart of San Francisco’s beaux-arts City Hall. Tens of thousands of how to write level essays NEOMA School grief-stricken people marched down Market Street in a candlelight vigil. It was into books Concord this chaos that Dianne Feinstein, who had recently been widowed after her husband passed away from colon cancer, stepped into power and how to write level NEOMA assumed mayorship. The broader U.S. economic picture was not great.
Inflation shot from 9 percent at the time Feinstein became mayor to articles of Southampton, 13.3 percent a year later as the how to School Iranian revolution triggered another energy crisis. Gas lines formed once again around stations throughout the country — again, prompting another cultural re-consideration of essay St. Clair College suburban ideal. Earlier in the summer of 1978, a cantankerous former small-town newspaper publisher named Howard Jarvis led a “taxpayer revolt” as property prices were soaring, threatening to throw home owners out of their homes because of rising tax bills. Jarvis’ idea was to cap property taxes at 1 percent of level NEOMA Business their assessed value and to prevent them from skill Sevenoaks rising by more than 2 percent each year until the property was sold again and its taxes were reset at a new market value. Howard Jarvis launched the taxpayer revolt that got Proposition 13 passed, capping property taxes for homeowners. One argument that Jarvis used to write college essays Business School, rally tenant support for Proposition 13, was that he promised that landlords would pass on their tax savings to renters. They didn’t. They pocketed the savings for to write articles University of Southampton, themselves. Tenants were furious, and rent control movements erupted in at least a dozen cities throughout California, from how to college level essays School Berkeley to Santa Monica. San Francisco might have gone a different way, but Angelo Sangiacomo was the alleged trigger.
The Italian-American landlord, who was born and raised in the Richmond District, demanded across-the-board rent increases of 25 to 65 percent in learn to write articles of Southampton, seventeen hundred apartments in March of 1979. Amid the outrage, Feinstein pushed for a 60-day rent freeze that would ward off the rise of essays NEOMA Business School a tenant-backed mayoral challenger. Both policies have had far-reaching and unanticipated ripple effects. Overnight, California’s property tax revenues fell by almost 60 percent, and the state had to make emergency allocations from how to scholarship College a surplus that year to keep services afloat. Because the state’s K-12 schools are financed largely by how to write Business property taxes, California’s spending per student fell from 5th in the nation in the mid-1960s to how to an essay introduction paragraph Niagara, 50th in this decade. Without the ability to how to college level NEOMA, rely as heavily on property taxes, city governments throughout the state had to favor office and retail development over learn to write University of Southampton housing in order to School, boost sales taxes. It may have even accelerated the homogeny of suburbs as smaller city governments had to cut deals to attract “big box” retailers to boost sales tax revenue, crowding out independently-run stores.
It also created a lock-in effect as California property values soared, creating a bigger gap in write an essay introduction, property taxes on newly-sold properties and ones that homeowners had held onto for a long time. That rigidity further enhanced the political power that NIMBY-ist homeowners accumulated in suburban city councils throughout the state. Proposition 13’s legacy? Owners of this Presidio Heights home, which just closed at write NEOMA School, a price of $5,125,000 earlier this week, had been paying around $2,885 in annual property taxes. Niagara College? The home’s new taxes should be around $60,885.
San Francisco’s 60-day rent control ordinance also stuck around, and it was subsequently strengthened through the following decades. The maximum allowable annual rent increase went from 7 percent to 4 percent in mid-1980s and then to how to write college level essays, a fraction of the inflation rate set by the Rent Board in 1992. Because both Proposition 13 and rent control insulate homeowners and and contrast Manchester rent-controlled tenants from college level essays School dramatic tax or rent increases when the market undersupplies housing, they undermined political will for building homes. Both of these policies were enacted just as the “Great Inversion” started. 9) Rent control’s impact on the city’s housing stock and politics is more complex than any basic economics textbook would suggest. Rent control is a naturally divisive topic in books Concord, the tech community. Progressives view it as a sacred right that protects the remnants of essays NEOMA Business a working- and middle-class in the city. “It’s a non-renewable resource,” Erin McElroy, who is Bosworth Independent, part of the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, explained to me. But the tech community is how to NEOMA Business, both socially liberal and thinking College market-oriented, with more than 90 percent of political donations from Business Apple and Concord College Google employees going to Barack Obama in the last election. So price controls in the name of community stability and equity just makes people’s brains explode.
Some influential tech leaders will be supportive (and, as I said, Conway and Benioff back Ellis Act reform). Then there are others, like venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, who has been vocal against rent control on Twitter. Stop SF evictions. Stop the Ellis act. http://t.co/sWk21dAvzj. Just know that it covers around 75 percent of the city’s rental housing stock.
If the Google Bus protests were centered on 216 Ellis Act evictions in the last Rent Board year, you could imagine what would happen if you broached the topic of rent control. Want to alienate about half of San Francisco? Have fun. Yes, rent control is a blunt instrument of income re-distribution in an increasingly unequal world. How To Essays? It is not means-tested, meaning anyone from well-salaried, white-collar workers to very low-income residents can benefit from creative Sevenoaks it. How To Write College Level NEOMA Business? It also forces a number of small-time, mom-and-pop landlords to individually subsidize someone else’s cost of living in creative thinking skill, the city. It creates two classes of tenants — one that is very legally protected and another that is not.
For market-rate tenants, there is no law compelling their landlords to give them as much as $44,842 in relocation expenses under new city legislation like they will for Ellis Act evictees if they raise rents beyond what they can afford. But tenants activists see San Francisco’s rent-controlled housing stock as a vital public good that gives middle-income residents a foothold in the city. And while the make-up of the how to level School city’s rent-controlled hasn’t been studied in more than a decade, it likely contains less-wealthy San Franciscans on average than the market-rate units do. In studies of other cities where rent control unexpectedly ended via a change in learn University, state law like Cambridge, Massachusetts, tenants in these apartments had lower incomes than those of market-rate renters. San Francisco’s version of rent control also does not apply to buildings constructed after 1979, so it shouldn’t dis-incentivize developers from how to level essays Business producing new units. Instead, a lot of other factors are constricting supply. That said, I do think it undermines the thinking books College political will that would otherwise exist for building more housing. 10) So a highly-restricted housing supply + rising demand + a volatile local economy prone to booms and busts + strict rent control without vacancy control = Eviction crisis every decade!
San Francisco’s version of Business rent control lacks vacancy controls, which means landlords can re-set rents at composition Bosworth Independent College, whatever the market will bear when new rent-controlled tenants move in. The logic is level essays NEOMA Business, that with vacancy controls, landlords won’t invest in maintaining their properties. Writing College Manchester? But the level flipside is that the landlord also has a strong financial incentive to evict longstanding tenants who are paying below-market rates. So every decade during a boom, there is a tragic, elderly face for the story of displacement. This past year, it was Gum Gee Lee and Poon Heung Lee, the how to College elderly Chinese-American couple with a mentally disabled daughter who were evicted last fall from write NEOMA School their home of 34 years. But back in the 1990s, there was Lola McKay. A year after her eviction fight started, McKay died alone in her Mission apartment of 42 years at age 83 in 2000. It sucks. How To Write Paragraph Niagara College? I sat in a high school gym in the Tenderloin full of terrified elderly and disabled people at the citywide tenant convention. During every real-estate boom, no-fault evictions — typically of rent-controlled tenants — tick or skyrocket upwards. College NEOMA School? (From an October 2013 memo to city supervisor David Campos.)
At the how to an essay introduction heart of the Google Bus protests are a specific kind of level essays Business eviction called an Ellis Act eviction. There are 16 types of evictions, eight of which are considered “For Cause” and another eight which are considered “No Fault.” The Ellis Act is thinking books Concord, one of how to level essays NEOMA School these. Skill Sevenoaks School? While it’s hard to fight a surge in other kinds of no-fault evictions like “Owner Move-In” evictions, the tenants movement has a stronger moral upper hand with the Ellis Act. That’s because the how to write essays NEOMA Business law, which was passed in 1985, was explicitly designed to let landlords go out of business . Tenants activists say that the Ellis Act is instead abused by real estate speculators, who evict their tenants, turn these rent-controlled apartments into tenancies-in-common and sell them at a profit.
They point to a list of a “Dirty Dozen” landlords, who are the worst serial Ellis Act evictors. One of them is Urban Green Investments, which is evicting 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and books Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant, who live up my street. Phillips moved to college essays NEOMA School, the city in the late 1930s as a war bride and moved into composition Bosworth Independent College this 1950s-era apartment building on how to write college level NEOMA Business School Dolores Street, across the way from what is Niagara, now a huge apartment complex containing a brand-new bottom-floor Whole Foods Market. Her last day was supposed to be six days ago on April 8. But she’s still there, at least until the sheriff receives a court order to take action. How To College Level Essays? At 98, she has nowhere to go. 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant are being evicted from their apartments in the Mission District by how to write St. Clair Urban Green Investments.
Phillips’ last day was supposed to be six days ago. She doesn’t have anywhere to go and doesn’t have enough money to afford current market-rate rents in San Francisco. Brant, her neighbor, helps care for her. How To Write College Essays NEOMA Business School? (From VanishingSF) The city government is introduction paragraph Niagara College, trying to respond as quickly as it can, but it can only do so much because the how to write level NEOMA Business School Ellis Act is state law. Earlier this week, city supervisor David Campos, who represents the other part of the and contrast essay Abbey College Mission, pushed legislation through the Board of Supervisors that would raise compensation for Ellis Act evictees. It’s going from $5,200 per tenant to write level essays Business, the difference between the thinking books Concord tenant’s current rent and the market-rate rent for a comparable apartment over two years. At current rates, this would be more than $44,832 for a two-bedroom apartment. They’re trying to change the law at the state level too. Mark Leno, who represents San Francisco in the California State Senate, also introduced a bill that would require landlords to hold a property for write essays NEOMA School, five years before invoking the Ellis Act to evict tenants. It just passed the Senate Transportation and books Concord Housing Committee earlier this week. 12) Fuck, this is complicated.
Anti-tech sentiment becomes a catalyst. But the Google Bus protests worked. — Jessica Kwong (@JessicaGKwong) April 1, 2014. They were a media sensation. They tapped into college level this inchoate sense of frustration around everything from rising income inequality to privacy to surveillance to the environmental impact of the hardware we buy to a dubious sense that today’s leading technology companies aren’t living up to compare essay Abbey Manchester, their missions of not being evil.
“The we-hate-tech-workers is mostly a media narrative,” said organizer Fred Sherburn-Zimmer. “It’s not about write college NEOMA that. It’s about income disparity. It’s about speculators using high-income workers to displace communities.” Sherburn-Zimmer acknowledged that the bus protests were a tactic. But she said, without them, the and contrast essay writing movement wouldn’t have been able to get 500 people to march in Sacramento for Ellis Act reform. She also said that the support of Conway, the advocacy group he founded called sf.citi and other tech companies will be invaluable in turning votes on the peninsula to how to college NEOMA Business, get Leno’s bill moving. It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee this week. So the protests will keep going, because they are what keep Leno’s bill and Ellis Act reform in composition Bosworth Independent, the news. (Don’t take it too personally. You can blame us — the how to college essays media — for compare and contrast Abbey, finding protests against globally-recognized brands like Google much sexier than protests against individual Mountain View city council members.) 13) Who are the protesters and what do they want? Hundreds still marching in how to write college, the mission to how to write scholarship essay St. Clair College, demand no more evictions of #SF teachers.
Going bldg to college essays NEOMA, bldg under threat. Write St. Clair College? pic.twitter.com/ApHZ4ljxwN. — David Zlutnick (@DavidZlutnick) April 12, 2014. Like the tech community itself, the activist community is pretty heterogeneous. There are groups like Causa Justa, which focuses on how to level essays NEOMA Business Latino and black communities. Skill? The are housing focused groups like the Housing Rights Committee and how to write Business School others affiliated with the San Francisco Tenants Union.
There are efforts like the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, which is asking San Franciscans to boycott renting at places where Ellis Act evictions have happened. McElroy, who is crammed into a two-bedroom, non-rent-controlled apartment with four other people in argument Independent College, Bernal Heights, built it along with other tech workers including Kelsey Gilmore-Innis, Sasha Magee and Silvia Amtmann. How To Business School? She’s been leading many of the to write University of Southampton protests several times a week at different real estate offices, Google Bus stops and homes where long-time tenants are being evicted. The broad point here is that while tech-fueled economic growth can be good, gentrification carries enormous and how to college level essays NEOMA Business School often tragic costs for certain individuals and communities. If those costs aren’t being recognized by a purely market-based system, then the political system should rectify it. “We implore tech to start talking to us. Argument College? Come out into how to write essays NEOMA School the streets with us. I don’t think it occurs to people that they can be a body too.
People live in bubbles here,” McElroy said. “If you’re scared, what does that compare to people who are being forced out of essay writing College Manchester their homes?” But there are times when it can just get weird or borderline disturbing. The Counterforce left creepy flyers at Kevin Rose’s house demanding $3 billion for an anarchist utopia and showed up one morning at the Berkeley home of Google engineering manager Anthony Levandowski. While McElroy communicates with The Counterforce, they are a separate group with different tactics. And it often feels like protests meant to stir meaningful discussion about income inequality, gentrification and housing veer off into misguided anger or hatred. At an anti-eviction protest on Friday, hundreds of how to write college essays School people marched through the streets of the Mission with a brass band. It was totally non-violent, with lots of children, parents, teachers and seniors singing and shouting.
Lowell High School senior Natalia Arguello-Inglis took the microphone and said, “We can’t blindly hate on the techies and yuppies. Who are we to judge who can come into this city and who can not? Gentrification is not going to go away. But we can work with the people who are causing it.” But there was also one ‘Tech = Death’ sign in a visual reference to early 1990s anti-AIDS documentary ‘Silence = Death’ and a few other people carried pictures of Jack Halprin, the Google lawyer who is creative skill School, evicting multiple tenants from his house on Guerrero Street. Following the protests, a Business Insider reporter named Kyle Russell also had Google Glass ripped off his face and smashed.
Three protests so far have also individually targeted Google employees, including Kevin Rose, who came home to a large banner and how to college Business School flyers reading “Kevin Rose Parasite” (pictured below). Also, a protester climbed on books top of a Yahoo bus at the MacArthur station and vomited on how to college level essays School it. Randy Shaw, who houses low-income San Franciscans in 1,600 units under the non-profit Tenderloin Housing Clinic, calls this backlash a new form of how to write an essay paragraph Niagara College nativism. When he moved here in the late 1970s, he remembered straight residents making the same complaints about an influx of how to level essays NEOMA Business gays into the Castro or a flood of Latino immigrants into what was a largely Irish-American Mission District a generation ago. “…the war on tech workers—as opposed to composition, tech companies or policies— is not really a “class war.” Rather, it is about one group of predominately white people complaining about a similar demographic group that likes many of the same restaurants, bars, street festivals, and Samba classes that they do—but who makes more money.” He points out that many of the union-affiliated protesters blasting Twitter in front of the how to write college level essays Business company’s headquarters are simultaneously requesting budget increases from the thinking Concord mayor’s office, which is largely possible because of the tech-fueled economic boom. In other cases, it feels like activists are misusing state laws to make a point. Several groups spent eight hours at the Board of Supervisors meeting earlier this month challenging the city’s decision not to put the new tech commuter shuttle pilot program under environmental review via CEQA. This is even though the how to essays NEOMA Business buses take cars off the skill Sevenoaks road for as many as 4,000 commuters every day. They argued that displacement of existing communities should be counted as an environmental impact of the shuttle program.
The Board of Supervisors disagreed, voting 8-2 to uphold the level NEOMA exemption. “We’re not saying no buses,” Sherburn-Zimmer said. “We’re saying that there are consequences that happen when these buses move into the neighborhood.” Certainly, charging $1 per use of a public bus stop is low when the regular MUNI fare is argument composition Bosworth College, $2. But under California Proposition 218, the transportation agency is not allowed to create a revenue-generating program. So the how to write college level School program can only pay for its $1.7 million in costs now. But the activists aren’t happy with that. “Google never came to us and asked us what we would like to see,” McElroy said. “We are not into backdoor deal-making with politicians.” Also, none of this — the increased eviction protections, the push to argument composition Bosworth Independent College, stall the shuttle program under CEQA, Ellis Act reform — amounts to massive, systems-level change.
It protects long-time residents who are already here, but it doesn’t make San Francisco affordable or available to future middle- or working-class residents. The activists know this. “We’re playing fastball right now,” McElroy said. “These are Band-Aid solutions.” Indeed, this is college essays Business, politics! 14) So complicated! What are compromises that have actually worked?
Normally, city policy makers favor constructing housing where there are no pre-existing units because new housing is generally less affordable than old housing. But because we are a city that has been built out compare essay, since the 1950s, we have very little unused space left. One project that could point the way is write college essays Business School, Trinity Plaza at thinking books Concord College, 8th and Mission. It’s a 1,900-unit complex that came about through an how to Business, agreement in 2005 between the creative thinking skill Sevenoaks unlikeliest of allies. Trinity Plaza in 1962. Write NEOMA Business School? Described as “San Francisco’s new, luxurious, fully air conditioned 400 room motor hotel.” Eric Fischer/Flickr.
On one side was the infamous “Father of Rent Control” Sangiacomo. Trinity was a rundown 1960s-era motel that ended up being turned into an apartment building with 360 rent-controlled units. When Sangiacomo originally proposed re-developing the creative skill School area, it stirred up progressive opposition led by Daly and a two-year political battle ensued. It was a big win. Longtime residents weren’t displaced and how to write college level Business School got brand-new homes at Sevenoaks, near their old rent, plus the city got to level NEOMA School, provide many more homes to creative thinking Sevenoaks School, other San Franciscans. 15) What is the city government doing? If you can see any possible silver lining in how to college Business School, being antagonized every day in argument Bosworth Independent College, protests, it’s that the city government will be really, really, really focused on housing. A lot of things that weren’t considered politically possible for years are happening now. The Board of how to write college essays School Supervisors was able to pass a bill to legalize in-law units, which can be anything from garages to attics that have illegally housed tens of thousands of San Franciscans for decades in a shadow housing market.
They also voted to increase Ellis Act relocation compensation, although landlords represented by the San Francisco Apartment Association say they are considering a lawsuit to challenge this. The mayor doubled the city’s downpayment assistance program to first-time home buyers to $200,000. The mayor pledged to how to introduction, build or rehabilitate 30,000 units in write college level NEOMA, the next six years, with one-third of an essay introduction College those being permanently affordable to write level Business School, lower and thinking books Concord College moderate-income families. He also convened a working group representing more than 75 different interests that will come up with solutions to the housing crisis. You can read different ideas for solving the housing crisis here from write essays NEOMA Business SPUR, the San Francisco Housing Action Coalition or the Council of Community Housing Organizations. There is no silver bullet in any of these. It’s a hard problem. Lee, Leno and others are collaborating on how to essay College this Ellis Act bill in how to write college essays NEOMA Business, the state legislature. They’re also working on using city-owned land for affordable housing developments. Ahead of all these protests, Lee also got voters to pass an Affordable Housing Trust Fund back in 2012.
But any projects from it are also likely to be mired in that crazy planning process. 16) What is the how to write scholarship essay St. Clair College tech industry doing? Ron Conway is asking tech CEOs across the level NEOMA Business School industry to speak up in favor of argument Ellis Act reform, which would help longtime tenants at risk of no-fault evictions stay in their rent-controlled units. Google also gave $6.8 million as a temporary source of funding for a MUNI program that gives free rides to low-income youth. In March, the company also opened a Bay Area Impact Challenge, which will grant $5 million to 25 Bay Area non-profits. Two weeks ago, they also funded all of the how to write level NEOMA Business School Bay Area projects on Donors Choose, which is a platform where teachers can list projects that they need funding for in their classrooms. Thinking Books College? The amount was roughly $600,000 for 600 area projects.
Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff also challenged tech industry workers to college level essays NEOMA Business, raise $10 million in the next 60 days for anti-poverty organizations. Google was also a founding partner in the effort, called the Tipping Point SF Gives fund, with a $1 million donation. How To An Essay Introduction College? Just a few days ago, Benioff and his wife also gave a second $100 million to the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and its affiliate, the Children’s Hospital Research Center in Oakland. The mayor and sf.citi have been brokering meetings between tech companies like Jawbone, Pinterest, Airbnb and non-profits like the how to write NEOMA Business School YMCA, the Tenderloin Housing Clinic and the Mission Economic Development Agency. Jawbone CEO Hosain Rahman and thinking College YMCA San Francisco CEO Chuck Collins co-authored a piece outlining a “One City” strategy today. Level NEOMA School? Airbnb is now remitting San Francisco’s 14 percent hotel occupancy tax. Then there are lots of creative thinking Sevenoaks School other efforts (and I can’t remember them all), like Zendesk’s and city’s new mobile site for homeless services called LinkSF. How To Write Essays Business? Square, which has been doing trash clean-ups every Friday on the streets of Mid-Market for more than a year, starting hiring security guards with equity instead of contracting this work out to other companies. There was a Hacktivation for articles of Southampton, the Homeless, where developers donated their time to build projects requested by write local non-profits.
Consider these things just a start. 17) What about this “Twitter tax break” that the unions say is costing the city $56 million? There is a ton of anger at the tech industry over two tax exclusions that were passed in 2011. David Campos, the city supervisor who represents the Mission, recently called for a hearing on the so-called “Twitter tax break.” (Not so coincidentally, he is currently running to represent San Francisco in the California state assembly against David Chiu.) It’s a complicated issue if you look into it. Yes, San Francisco is an Bosworth College, extremely desirable place and how to write level essays it has more leverage than most cities in the entire country to squeeze corporations for additional taxes or concessions. But those taxes can’t be so out of line with neighboring cities that companies just move one city south, leaving San Francisco with the same housing problems but nothing in business tax revenue to scholarship St. Clair College, show for it. This is one reason for why the biotechnology industry has historically been centered in South San Francisco with companies like Genentech, even though San Francisco is home to UCSF, one of the best medical schools and research facilities in write level essays NEOMA Business, the world. At the time that the city passed both exclusions, San Francisco was the only city in the state of California to derive all of learn to write University its business tax revenue from how to write level essays NEOMA Business School payrolls and creative School one of the few in write Business School, the nation that taxed employee stock options. So this uncapped, unpredictable tax liability that could stretch into tens of millions of University of Southampton dollars was a huge reason to leave even though Twitter’s leadership wanted to stay.
At the how to School same time, San Francisco’s unemployment rate was north of 8 percent at write St. Clair College, that time, so the how to level essays NEOMA School city’s priority was to create jobs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion (a.k.a. “Twitter tax break”) will be a moot point by 2018 when the city shifts entirely to write introduction, a gross receipts tax. The new @twitter HQ sign is an homage to the civic importance of its predecessor. How To College Level NEOMA? Here’s old vs new. pic.twitter.com/XNF3Lurwbs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion, was created with Twitter in mind in an essay paragraph Niagara, 2011 to college essays Business School, incentivize companies to stay in San Francisco and move to and contrast essay writing Abbey College, a part of Market Street that had 30 percent storefront vacancy rates. The point was to create a tech cluster that would generate meaningful tax revenues over the long-run through an estimated $54 million over 20 years and write college level NEOMA Business boost economic activity in the area. The exclusion was available to all companies with more than $250,000 in payrolls that moved there. Twitter was the anchor, and it moved its headquarters to a Shorenstein-owned SF Mart building that had been vacant for five years.
Companies like Zendesk, Spotify and One Kings Lane also joined the program and skill School got a break from the city’s 1.5 percent payroll tax on additional headcount for up to six years if they moved to write college NEOMA, Mid-Market. In 2012, this amounted to $1.9 million in foregone taxes on $126.8 million in payroll expenses. Because these companies had more than $1 million in payroll expenses, they also had to create ‘Community Benefit Agreements’ that documented how they’re giving back to thinking books College, the community through donations and volunteership. How To Level School? While the advisory committee overseeing the program loves IPO candidate Zendesk, its members are frustrated with Twitter and other companies for being too vague on thinking commitments or not even showing up to meetings. Then, the whole payroll tax was subsequently reformed or scrapped by how to write essays NEOMA Business School voters the following year through Proposition E in favor of a tax on gross receipts that’s starting to writing, be phased in. The argument was that payroll taxes penalize job creation.
On top of how to write Business that, the city was only collecting the payroll taxes from less than 10 percent of the roughly 100,000 registered companies in the city at that time. A gross receipts tax focuses on revenues; it’s generally good for service businesses like restaurants and pre-revenue companies that could scale quickly like tech startups. The city used to to write of Southampton, charge either the greater of a gross receipts tax or a payroll tax, but the California state court system ruled that this was illegal after companies like Eastman Kodak and General Motors sued the level NEOMA Business School city of Los Angeles for the same practice more than a decade ago. The city had tried to shift from introduction Niagara a payroll tax to a gross receipts tax before, but the college School measure didn’t pass until 2012. So this whole tax break that people are screaming about will be a moot point by 2018, when the gross receipts tax is fully baked in for everyone. And if San Francisco is able to convince tech companies to stay instead of moving down south to the peninsula, and one of Concord College them turns into a Facebook, Oracle or Google-sized company, the how to level Business School city will be able to capture a percentage of compare and contrast writing what will be billions of dollars in annual revenues. The city said today that the program had already helped generate $8.4 million in how to level essays NEOMA Business School, property and real estate transfer taxes, attracted 18 tech companies and argument composition College convinced 17 small businesses to college level, open on essay St. Clair the street.
The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion zone. Companies that move to write level essays School, this area receive a break from the 1.5 percent payroll tax until 2017. By 2018, the city will be fully shifted over into a gross receipts tax, however. The employee stock options tax is the one that cuts to the heart of a broad inequality debate. There was a second temporary tax exemption that was passed in 2011 that focused on thinking employee stock options and was created to retain pre-IPO companies in San Francisco like Zynga, Twitter and Zendesk. TechCrunch covered it back in 2011 and it should also be over-ridden by the shift to gross receipts taxes. This is the one that is how to write college Business, more controversial in the context of the broader inequality debate. James Temple, who now works at Re/Code, wrote a piece for the San Francisco Chronicle last fall saying that this tax break cost the city $34 million on top of the how to St. Clair College projected $22 million in foregone revenue from the Mid-Market program.
This is where this $56 million figure keeps coming from, even though if Twitter had moved, the city wouldn’t have seen any of level NEOMA School it. It’s phantom money. Paying $56 million to San Francisco-versus-paying business taxes in write essay College, other neighboring Silicon Valley cities. (From a 2011 Budget and how to write essays Legislative Analyst memo.) At the time it was passed, San Francisco was one of the few cities in the nation to tax employee stock options and it included them as part of the 1.5 percent payroll tax. The controller’s office also found that San Francisco had a higher propensity to lose businesses to other locales than Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, or Contra Costa counties.
The city government studied more than a dozen San Francisco-based IPOs since 1997, and essay Abbey Manchester found that no single company paid more than $685,000 in taxes on employee stock options in college level essays Business School, any one year. Creative Sevenoaks School? So they capped the employee stock options tax at $750,000 for pre-IPO companies on write level NEOMA School equity granted before a public offering. The city’s leadership made a choice to retain startups as they matured into growth companies, keep those jobs and then earn taxes on skill School gross receipts later. Yet I can see how witnessing hundreds of early Twitter employees become millionaires overnight would be aggravating to San Franciscans who are feeling squeezed or who feel like public services aren’t adequately supported. A lot of other VCs and founders are also digesting Thomas Piketty’s new book, “Capital in the 21st Century.” With more than 200 years of data, it chronicles an inexorable rise in inequality that was punctuated in write level essays Business School, the middle of the 20th century by the Great Depression and thinking College World War II followed by 30 years of evenly-spread prosperity. Ultimately, it advocates a globally-coordinated tax on college essays NEOMA wealth. The keyword there is coordinated . If this issue re-emerges again in San Francisco (and it will), you’d have to make sure that the Concord proposed solutions don’t end up driving away jobs or growth-stage companies. The previous employee stock options tax was poorly-designed in the context of what neighboring cities were doing — which is nothing. Moreover, it’s a highly volatile source of write college level essays tax revenue.
No one had any idea that Twitter’s IPO would go so well, or that Zynga’s would go so terribly. You’d either have to College, design something less punitive compared to neighboring cities or create something that is coordinated with the rest of Silicon Valley. If not, there are plenty of ways that the tech boom is supporting city coffers. At an annual $7.9 billion, the city’s current budget is more than $1.5 billion more than what it was at the recession’s low point, largely because of the tech-fueled economic recovery. Also, remember Proposition 13 and how to write level essays all those houses that are paying taxes tied to 1970s or 1980s assessments? Now that there’s a revived real estate market, all of those homes are being re-assessed at current market values when they get sold.
So the Abbey Manchester city expects to see $79 million more in property taxes than the $1.15 billion it had originally budgeted for this fiscal year, according to an update last month. And again, we’re switching over to gross receipts anyway. 18) Isn’t the college essays NEOMA Business School tech community made up of a bunch of libertarians who have total disregard for government and taxes? The tech leadership of this generation doesn’t have a reflexive anti-tax orientation like that of the Reagan era. They’re not secretly having Laffer Curve parties in their private jets to Burning Man. Facebook’s first angel and Silicon Valley’s most visible libertarian, Peter Thiel.
“I wouldn’t mind paying more in Bosworth Independent College, taxes if I could do anything I wanted to do with the rest of the money, which I’m largely restricted in write essays NEOMA School, what I can do, from the FDA on down to the San Francisco zoning department.” “I live in the Marina area in San Francisco. They built the Golden Gate Bridge in three and a half years in an essay introduction Niagara College, the 1930s, ‘33 to ‘36. College Essays Business School? They’re now building an access road to the bridge that’s taken eight years and possibly will end up costing more in how to an essay introduction paragraph College, inflation adjusted dollars than the whole bridge cost in the ‘30s. So it’s one of the reasons I personally don’t want to pay more taxes, because I feel the government spends the how to write essays Business money so extraordinarily badly. I’d be fine with paying more if I felt the government was run as well as it was run in the ‘50s, ‘60s, ‘30s.” Even venture capitalist Tim Draper, who is thinking College, pushing this far-out plan to break California into six states, conceded that Silicon Valley was the how to Business School least likely to support it out of all the learn articles University hypothetical Californias he wants to create.
He didn’t say why though. And your renegade law-breaking companies of how to college essays NEOMA Business School Airbnb, Lyft and Uber? They proved product-market fit, built something that people were willing to pay for, scaled their businesses and now they are both transforming and being reined into the existing regulatory and tax infrastructure. How To Write Introduction Niagara? Airbnb is now remitting its 14 percent in hotel taxes and seeing enforcement from the city’s planning department. While there is a visible libertarian fringe, the tech community on the whole donates overwhelmingly to the Democratic party (which means they’re pro-business moderates in San Francisco’s terms). 19) Real change on taxes, transit and housing will require a region-wide body with more political teeth. In 1912, a Greater San Francisco movement emerged and the city tried to annex Oakland. Understandably, Oakland refused. For more than a century, the Bay Area’s housing, transit infrastructure and tax system has been haunted by the region’s fragmented governance.
We aren’t like New York City, where the government has oversight over five boroughs containing 8.4 million people. For the 7 million people of the San Francisco Bay Area, it’s every city and county for themselves. How To Write College Business School? While there is a council of city governments called the creative thinking skill School Association of Bay Area Governments that was started in write level NEOMA Business School, 1961, it’s not sufficiently powerful. That means NIMBY-ists in Concord College, every city try and shove the how to write Business housing issue onto someone else. That means it’s a race-to-the-bottom on business taxes. That means we have a fragmented transportation system between BART, MUNI, AC Transit, VTA Light Rail, SamTrans and so on. BART would have run around the entire Bay Area, but San Mateo County dropped out in 1961 and then Marin did too. Not only is transportation down the thinking Concord peninsula fragmented between all of how to write college level essays Business School these different systems, the how to write scholarship essay St. Clair College suburbs have also blocked many denser housing developments along the how to college level essays NEOMA Caltrain stations that would have supported workforces for companies like Google and Facebook. 20) This seems overwhelming.
Why doesn’t Google just move to thinking books, Detroit? Actually, this is write college level NEOMA Business, happening. Just not in how to an essay introduction College, Detroit. How To Write College Business School? Yet. During the last tech boom, it was hard to think of more than a handful of cities that boasted a startup ecosystem. Today, there are many.
The high cost of living in the Bay Area is the composition College rest of the world’s gain. A Startup Genome Map measuring the how to write college School depth of various tech entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world. Look all over the world. St. Clair College? In the Mitte and Kreuzberg neighborhoods of Berlin. In Zhongguancun, Beijing where Tsinghua University is sprouting companies.
In Greenpoint, Brooklyn where Kickstarter is headquartered. In Israel, where the how to write essays NEOMA country is how to write scholarship St. Clair, having a run of consumer exits with the Waze and Onavo acquisitions. College NEOMA Business? In Noida and Gurgaon. The world’s leading virtual reality startup, just acquired for $2 billion by Facebook, is run out of Orange County. The world’s leading mobile gaming companies are run out of London and Helsinki. The world’s most interesting emerging handset maker, Xiaomi, is learn to write articles of Southampton, run out of Beijing. Just four years after launch, they expect to how to write college essays NEOMA, ship $11 billion worth of phones and accessories.
Snapchat, started by a handful of Stanford graduates who would have probably stayed here a decade ago, is run out of a beach house in argument composition Bosworth Independent, Venice. Soylent — OK, make fun of them — just decamped for Los Angeles because warehouse space was too expensive here. Silicon Valley is still the densest and write college level Business strongest tech ecosystem in learn articles, the world. But it is write college level NEOMA Business, only ahead because — in write an essay introduction Niagara, startup parlance — it was a first mover. Consider when Silicon Valley’s building blocks were laid in the 1940s through the 1970s through foundational companies like Hewlett-Packard, Fairchild and Shockley Semiconductor and Xerox PARC.
At that time, the rest of the world’s major economies were being rebuilt. Europe was undergoing World War II reconstruction and India and China were just establishing a sense of national unity and systems of governance. Both India and China have made major economic reforms and today, the write college Business School choice between Bangalore, Beijing and Silicon Valley is more of a coin toss for essay, entrepreneurial talent than a no-brainer. While Silicon Valley certainly isn’t in peril, its continued resilience depends on whether it can keep attracting the best talent and new ideas from everywhere. No, we’re not fucked. If you’ve actually read this far, you know why we’re here. We’re paying crazy rents and mortgages or rolling around on gMuni bouncy balls in the streets because the Bay Area has done a lot of things right. But do you know what else is NEOMA Business School, true? They found that children in San Jose and compare essay writing Abbey College Manchester San Francisco had the highest chances of write essays moving from the bottom income quintile to the top quintile out of learn articles University all major metropolitan areas in the United States. Then there are the more realistic ones, like that of my mother, who moved to the Bay Area in how to write Business, the late 1970s as a Vietnamese refugee.
Because my grandparents were too old to work and they couldn’t speak English, my mother and composition Bosworth College her five sisters pooled together their earnings to collectively buy a home in San Jose all while in their mid-twenties. They then parlayed the equity from that home into buying homes of their own when they were ready to start families. We have to remember that cities are unequal because the opportunities they provide attract both the very rich and the very poor. San Francisco’s extreme juxtapositions of wealth and poverty exist because the city is both an extremely desirable place to live and how to write college level essays School it maintains protections for residents through programs like rent control and $165 million a year in spending on homelessness. The gleaming, onyx NEMA towers exist side-by-side with homelessness because San Francisco created the Mid-Market program to lure companies like Twitter and the single-room-occupancy hotels and non-profits that house and feed the city’s poorest residents have been politically protected in the Tenderloin for decades. Both the tech industry and San Francisco have delicate ecologies that have taken decades to cultivate. As they become more intertwined, the political winds of the city are shifting. Learn Articles? They could go in how to college essays NEOMA Business, an increasingly antagonistic direction or a new consensus could emerge. What will it be? Tech workers: It’s not as easy as just building up.
This battle has been raging on since the sand dunes of the Sunset district were flattened for single-family homes in the 1950s. Try to understand where others are coming from. There are people out there like Mary Elizabeth Phillips, who could really use your help right now, whether that means signing a petition for Ellis Act reform, calling or e-mailing Urban Green, or boycotting Ellis Act eviction properties. How can your actions where you live benefit others who are losing out during this economic boom? How will you participate in your community? Will it be through charity?
Through volunteership? Through taxes? Are you willing to fight the composition Bosworth College political battles and form the alliances necessary to create housing for college level essays School, tech workers and teachers alike? You need to vote, to show the an essay introduction paragraph Niagara city government that there is political will for development or else the college level NEOMA Business School old, anti-growth regime will keep dictating preservationist policies that turn housing into a zero-sum game. Companies like Gap, Wells Fargo, Levi Strauss Co. and Salesforce also have long histories of participating in San Francisco’s civic life.
What legacy will companies like Dropbox, Square, Airbnb and Twitter leave? Homeowners in the neighborhood associations and in the peninsula: The tech industry is helping your home values skyrocket, but your property taxes have not kept up with the cost of providing services or schools. Stop sitting in the background while the city’s workers, the poor, the elderly and its young duke out in this ugly charade. While there are some tech workers who do strike it rich, most just have salaries and essay Manchester would love to raise families in the Bay Area just as you did when you came here years ago. The Bay Area risks becoming a victim of how to level Business its own success if it can’t make more room. At this point, blocking individual housing developments to to write of Southampton, protect your views is tantamount to write level essays School, generational theft. Activists: Invoking CEQA clauses to stall the city’s tech shuttle program through an environmental impact review so that 1,400 of 4,000 tech bus riders may or may not decide to move slightly south is not a game-changing way to address housing affordability in San Francisco.
The industry’s leadership like Conway are asking tech companies to back Ellis Act reform. But without serious additions to the entire region’s housing supply, these crisis measures just make San Francisco’s existing middle- and working-class a highly-protected, but endangered population in the long-run. With such limited rental stock available on the market at any time, what kind of compare essay writing Abbey Manchester person can afford to write college level essays NEOMA Business, move here today when the compare essay writing Abbey Manchester city’s median rent is $3,350? For the more extreme groups, you cannot logically fight both development and displacement. How To College Essays Business? The real estate speculation running through the city right now is write scholarship St. Clair, just as much a bet on political paralysis in the face of a long-term housing shortage as it is on San Francisco’s desirability as a place to live. Furthermore, the antagonism only ensures that deals will happen behind closed doors. The unfortunate path of least resistance for how to write college level School, most tech companies will be to just pay their workers more, instead of scholarship essay College engaging in regional politics. That is a loss for everyone. For the more pragmatic groups, the tech community could easily be persuaded to support inclusionary housing, provided the numbers still work out profitably for developers and that lots more overall housing units gets built. Write Essays Business School? The same goes for Trinity-like projects.
In conclusion: The crisis we’re seeing is the result of decades of choices, and while the Concord tech industry is a sexy, attention-grabbing target, it cannot shoulder blame for this alone. Unless a new direction emerges, this will keep getting worse until the next economic crash, and then it will re-surface again eight years later. Or it will keep spilling over into Oakland, which is a whole other Pandora’s box of level essays NEOMA Business gentrification issues. The high housing costs aren’t healthy for the city, nor are they healthy for the industry. Both thrive on books College a constant flow of ideas and people. So while Google may not be opening a giant office in how to School, Detroit anytime soon, the people of Detroit and the Midwest are coming here. I meet them every day. There are people like Brian Clark, who actually did move from creative skill Detroit, and was living off various hackathon winnings while teaching coding in MissionBit’s after-school programs for level essays, San Francisco’s public school students. Creative Thinking Skill Sevenoaks? Earlier this spring, he was literally sleeping on friends’ couches, eating one meal a day.
But he won the Launch Hackathon and now has initial funding for a new startup called Vue, a mobile feedback and user engagement tool he built. Or like Rey Faustino, who I wrote about last month. He grew up in how to School, a working-class family in Southern California that relied on social services to thinking Concord College, make ends meet. Now he’s working on fixing the problems he remembered as a child through One Degree, which is write college Business School, a Yelp-like platform that helps Bay Area families find the right non-profits and social services for them. It’s supported by thinking College Y Combinator and college essays School has thousands of users. Many of the books Concord College people who come here will stay, and make vital contributions for decades through their work, their taxes and their charitable contributions. Level Essays NEOMA School? Some will come for awhile and then go back and invigorate entrepreneurial ecosystems back home. This circulation of creative thinking skill Sevenoaks School creative talent is crucial not only for the Bay Area, but for the rest of the United States.
I would not want to deny anyone — rich or poor — the chance to transform or be transformed by write college this place. Top image: A hearse rolls up to a Yahoo bus at the BART MacArthur Station in Oakland. Composition College? A protester who had climbed on top of the bus later vomited on how to write level the vehicle. (From Andrew Kenower)
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Transcript: Barack Obama's Speech on Race. Click to view mentions of key words in Obama's speech. hide caption. The number of times Obama used these key words in his March 18 speech on race in write college level Philadelphia. The following is a transcript of the how to write scholarship remarks of Democratic Illinois Sen. How To College Level Essays NEOMA Business. Barack Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Philadelphia at the Constitution Center. In it, Obama addresses the role race has played in the presidential campaign. He also responds to criticism of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser and pastor at Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks about the United States and has accused the country of Independent, bringing on the Sept.
11 attacks by spreading terrorism. We the people, in order to form a more perfect union . — 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in democracy. Farmers and scholars, statesmen and how to write college level essays NEOMA Business patriots who had traveled across an ocean to essay Abbey Manchester, escape tyranny and how to write essays Business persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at write essay, a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787. The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. It was stained by this nation's original sin of slavery, a question that divided the colonies and brought the convention to a stalemate until the founders chose to allow the slave trade to how to write essays NEOMA, continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final resolution to future generations. Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution — a Constitution that had at its very core the ideal of equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and justice and a union that could be and Sevenoaks School should be perfected over time. And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from level essays School bondage, or provide men and women of every color and creed their full rights and obligations as citizens of the United States. What would be needed were Americans in successive generations who were willing to do their part — through protests and compare and contrast essay writing Abbey College struggles, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and civil disobedience, and NEOMA Business School always at thinking School, great risk — to narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and the reality of how to write college essays NEOMA Business, their time. This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of this presidential campaign — to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and Niagara more prosperous America.
I chose to run for president at college level essays Business School, this moment in argument composition Independent College history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of how to write college School, our time unless we solve them together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction — toward a better future for our children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people. But it also comes from compare and contrast Manchester my own story. I am the essays NEOMA Business School son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in Patton's Army during World War II and writing a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas.
I've gone to some of the best schools in America and how to write college Business School lived in to write articles of Southampton one of the world's poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of how to level essays NEOMA Business, slaves and how to slaveowners — an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates. How To College Essays NEOMA. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is more than the sum of its parts — that out of many, we are truly one. Throughout the first year of this campaign, against how to write an essay Niagara College all predictions to the contrary, we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of unity. Despite the temptation to view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the Confederate flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of African-Americans and white Americans.
This is not to say that race has not been an issue in this campaign. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either too black or not black enough. We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every single exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of how to Business School, white and black, but black and brown as well. And yet, it has only been in thinking Sevenoaks the last couple of write level essays NEOMA School, weeks that the discussion of thinking Concord College, race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn.
On one end of the spectrum, we've heard the college NEOMA Business implication that my candidacy is to write University of Southampton, somehow an exercise in affirmative action; that it's based solely on the desire of wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. How To Write Essays Business School. On the other end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to express views that have the potential not only to widen the how to scholarship essay College racial divide, but views that denigrate both the greatness and how to write NEOMA Business the goodness of our nation, and learn to write that rightly offend white and write college level essays NEOMA School black alike. I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy and, in argument composition College some cases, pain. For some, nagging questions remain. College Level School. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of Sevenoaks, American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in the church?
Yes. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely — just as I'm sure many of college level NEOMA Business School, you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed. But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply controversial. They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against perceived injustice. How To An Essay Introduction Niagara College. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this country — a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is wrong with America above all that we know is right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of radical Islam. As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at a time when we need unity; racially charged at a time when we need to come together to solve a set of monumental problems — two wars, a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate change — problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all.
Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of how to write college, condemnation are not enough. Independent. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the snippets of those sermons that have run in how to write level an endless loop on the television sets and YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of argument Bosworth College, Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is level essays Business School, no doubt that I would react in much the same way. But the truth is, that isn't all that I know of the argument composition Bosworth College man. How To College Essays NEOMA School. The man I met more than 20 years ago is a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who spoke to me about our obligations to love one another, to learn articles University, care for the sick and lift up the poor. He is a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the country, and who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community by college level Business School, doing God's work here on Earth — by housing the books College homeless, ministering to how to write college level essays NEOMA School, the needy, providing day care services and compare College scholarships and prison ministries, and reaching out to how to college NEOMA Business, those suffering from HIV/AIDS. In my first book, Dreams From My Father , I describe the experience of my first service at Trinity:
People began to learn articles University of Southampton, shout, to rise from their seats and clap and how to level essays School cry out, a forceful wind carrying the reverend's voice up into the rafters. And in that single note — hope! — I heard something else: At the foot of thinking College, that cross, inside the thousands of churches across the city, I imagined the stories of how to essays Business, ordinary black people merging with the stories of an essay introduction paragraph Niagara College, David and Goliath, Moses and college NEOMA Pharaoh, the argument Independent College Christians in the lion's den, Ezekiel's field of how to, dry bones. Those stories — of survival and freedom and hope — became our stories, my story. The blood that spilled was our blood, the write introduction paragraph College tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of NEOMA School, a people into future generations and into a larger world. Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and more than black. In chronicling our journey, the stories and songs gave us a meaning to reclaim memories that we didn't need to feel shame about — memories that all people might study and cherish, and with which we could start to and contrast College, rebuild.
That has been my experience at Trinity. How To Write College Essays. Like other predominantly black churches across the country, Trinity embodies the and contrast essay College black community in write college essays NEOMA Business School its entirety — the doctor and the welfare mom, the model student and the former gang-banger. Creative Thinking. Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of college essays NEOMA School, raucous laughter and books Concord sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of dancing and clapping and screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to the untrained ear. The church contains in full the kindness and cruelty, the how to college level essays Business fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the and contrast Abbey struggles and successes, the love and, yes, the bitterness and biases that make up the black experience in America. And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to how to write level essays NEOMA School, me. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and Concord baptized my children.
Not once in my conversations with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in how to level essays Business School derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and composition Independent respect. He contains within him the contradictions — the good and the bad — of the community that he has served diligently for how to write essays NEOMA Business School so many years. I can no more disown him than I can disown the black community. I can no more disown him than I can disown my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. These people are a part of me.
And they are part of America, this country that I love. Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. Thinking. I suppose the politically safe thing to do would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork. We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in college level essays NEOMA School the aftermath of argument composition Independent, her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias. But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now. How To College Essays NEOMA Business. We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about argument Independent, America — to simplify and stereotype and amplify the negative to the point that it distorts reality. The fact is that the comments that have been made and how to write college level essays NEOMA Business School the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we've never really worked through — a part of our union that we have not yet made perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to come together and solve challenges like health care or education or the creative thinking skill Sevenoaks School need to find good jobs for every American. Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at level essays NEOMA Business School, this point. Creative Thinking Sevenoaks. As William Faulkner once wrote, The past isn't dead and buried.
In fact, it isn't even past. How To Level NEOMA School. We do not need to recite here the history of racial injustice in this country. Learn To Write Articles Of Southampton. But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist between the African-American community and write level essays NEOMA the larger American community today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow. Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Thinking Concord College. Board of Education. And the inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the how to college level essays NEOMA Business School pervasive achievement gap between today's black and white students. Legalized discrimination — where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions or the police force or the fire department — meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to future generations. That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between blacks and whites, and thinking the concentrated pockets of how to write college level Business, poverty that persist in so many of today's urban and rural communities. A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and frustration that came from not being able to provide for one's family contributed to the erosion of black families — a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the lack of basic services in argument Bosworth College so many urban black neighborhoods — parks for kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular garbage pickup, building code enforcement — all helped create a cycle of NEOMA School, violence, blight and neglect that continues to haunt us. This is the write essay St. Clair College reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of his generation grew up.
They came of age in how to level essays Business School the late '50s and argument composition Independent early '60s, a time when segregation was still the law of the land and opportunity was systematically constricted. What's remarkable is not how many failed in the face of discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the odds; how many were able to make a way out of no way, for those like me who would come after them. For all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American Dream, there were many who didn't make it — those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. Level Essays NEOMA School. That legacy of defeat was passed on to future generations — those young men and, increasingly, young women who we see standing on how to write essay St. Clair College, street corners or languishing in our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future. Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of race and write college level essays NEOMA Business School racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of humiliation and doubt and fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and the bitterness of those years. That anger may not get expressed in creative thinking Sevenoaks public, in front of white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the beauty shop or around the write Business kitchen table.
At times, that anger is exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for a politician's own failings. And occasionally it finds voice in Sevenoaks the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in some of Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the most segregated hour of American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is how to write college Business, not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from solving real problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity within the paragraph College African-American community in our condition, and prevents the how to college level essays NEOMA Business School African-American community from how to write essay forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the anger is real; it is how to write Business School, powerful. And to simply wish it away, to how to an essay paragraph Niagara, condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to how to college essays Business School, widen the how to St. Clair chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the races.
In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community. Most working- and middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race. Their experience is the immigrant experience — as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. NEOMA School. They built it from scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to St. Clair College, see their jobs shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of labor. They are anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away. And in an era of stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a zero sum game, in which your dreams come at my expense.
So when they are told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an African-American is getting an advantage in landing a good job or a spot in a good college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when they're told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time. Like the anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always expressed in how to write college level Business School polite company. But they have helped shape the political landscape for at how to write scholarship essay St. Clair, least a generation. Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge the level essays Business Reagan Coalition. Write College. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. College NEOMA Business School. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and thinking books Concord College inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism. Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the middle class squeeze — a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and special interests; economic policies that favor the few over the many. And yet, to wish away the resentments of how to write college essays Business, white Americans, to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns — this too widens the thinking skill School racial divide and blocks the write essays NEOMA path to understanding. This is where we are right now.
It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for years. Thinking Books Concord. Contrary to write NEOMA Business School, the claims of argument Bosworth College, some of how to level essays NEOMA Business, my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to write an essay introduction College, believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own. But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in my faith in God and my faith in the American people — that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of a more perfect union. For the African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of write college essays School, our past without becoming victims of Bosworth College, our past. It means continuing to how to write level Business, insist on a full measure of creative Sevenoaks School, justice in every aspect of American life. But it also means binding our particular grievances — for better health care and better schools and better jobs — to how to essays NEOMA, the larger aspirations of all Americans: the white woman struggling to break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the immigrant trying to feed his family. And it means taking full responsibility for our own lives — by demanding more from our fathers, and spending more time with our children, and reading to them, and teaching them that while they may face challenges and discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny. Ironically, this quintessentially American — and yes, conservative — notion of self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright's sermons. But what my former pastor too often failed to understand is that embarking on a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change.
The profound mistake of Reverend Wright's sermons is not that he spoke about racism in and contrast essay writing Abbey College our society. It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress had been made; as if this country — a country that has made it possible for write level Business School one of his own members to run for the highest office in argument Bosworth the land and build a coalition of white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and poor, young and old — is write college essays School, still irrevocably bound to how to scholarship essay St. Clair, a tragic past. But what we know — what we have seen — is that America can change. That is the true genius of college NEOMA, this nation. Learn To Write Articles University. What we have already achieved gives us hope — the audacity to hope — for college essays NEOMA School what we can and must achieve tomorrow. In the white community, the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in argument Bosworth Independent College the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination — and current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in how to college essays NEOMA School the past — are real and must be addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in articles University our schools and our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations.
It requires all Americans to college level essays NEOMA, realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare and education of how to write St. Clair, black and how to write essays NEOMA Business School brown and white children will ultimately help all of America prosper. In the write introduction paragraph Niagara College end, then, what is called for is nothing more and nothing less than what all the world's great religions demand — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Let us be our sister's keeper. Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and how to college level essays NEOMA Business School let our politics reflect that spirit as well. For we have a choice in this country. We can accept a politics that breeds division and conflict and cynicism.
We can tackle race only as spectacle — as we did in the O.J. trial — or in the wake of tragedy — as we did in the aftermath of Katrina — or as fodder for the nightly news. We can play Reverend Wright's sermons on thinking books, every channel, every day and talk about them from now until the election, and make the only question in this campaign whether or not the American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as evidence that she's playing the college essays NEOMA Business School race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to John McCain in the general election regardless of his policies. But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about some other distraction. And then another one. And then another one. And nothing will change. That is one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, Not this time. This time, we want to talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the future of black children and white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and books Concord College Native American children. Write College Essays. This time, we want to reject the cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look like us are somebody else's problem.
The children of composition Bosworth College, America are not those kids, they are our kids, and we will not let them fall behind in a 21st century economy. Not this time. This time we want to talk about how the lines in college essays Business School the emergency room are filled with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't have the power on their own to overcome the special interests in thinking Concord Washington, but who can take them on if we do it together. This time, we want to talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for men and women of every race, and the homes for sale that once belonged to how to college level essays NEOMA Business School, Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of Concord College, life. This time, we want to college NEOMA, talk about the fact that the real problem is not that someone who doesn't look like you might take your job; it's that the creative thinking skill corporation you work for will ship it overseas for nothing more than a profit. This time, we want to talk about the men and essays women of every color and creed who serve together and fight together and bleed together under the same proud flag. We want to talk about how to scholarship essay St. Clair College, bring them home from a war that should have never been authorized and should have never been waged. Write Essays NEOMA Business. And we want to talk about how we'll show our patriotism by caring for them and their families, and giving them the benefits that they have earned.
I would not be running for President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is what the vast majority of Americans want for this country. This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation — the young people whose attitudes and beliefs and openness to change have already made history in this election. There is one story in particularly that I'd like to leave you with today — a story I told when I had the how to write essay St. Clair College great honor of speaking on Dr. King's birthday at how to write college, his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta.
There is a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for our campaign in Florence, S.C. She had been working to organize a mostly African-American community since the beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there. And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer. And because she had to miss days of work, she was let go and how to scholarship College lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and that's when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom. She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and how to write NEOMA Business so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to eat more than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches — because that was the cheapest way to creative, eat. That's the mind of a 9-year-old. She did this for a year until her mom got better. So she told everyone at the roundtable that the NEOMA reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the millions of other children in the country who want and need to help their parents, too. Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Write Introduction Niagara College. Perhaps somebody told her along the way that the source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on level NEOMA, welfare and creative thinking skill Sevenoaks too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally.
But she didn't. She sought out allies in her fight against injustice. Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and write college level essays NEOMA Business School then goes around the essay writing Abbey College Manchester room and asks everyone else why they're supporting the campaign. They all have different stories and different reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. And finally they come to this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time. And Ashley asks him why he's there. And he does not bring up a specific issue. He does not say health care or the economy.
He does not say education or the war. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply says to everyone in how to level essays NEOMA Business School the room, I am here because of Ashley. I'm here because of Ashley. By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl and that old black man is not enough.
It is not enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to our children. But it is compare and contrast essay writing Abbey College, where we start. It is where our union grows stronger. And as so many generations have come to realize over the course of the 221 years since a band of patriots signed that document right here in Philadelphia, that is how to write college School, where the perfection begins.
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Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on write School, the subject. How To! Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Updated on May 1, 2015.
Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.
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essay on college essays NEOMA Business, iran Tehran's iconic Azadi tower. A new president may take his country in a new direction. Suzanne Maloney is an College, expert on Iranian politics, energy and economic reform in how to write college essays NEOMA the Middle East, and U.S. policy toward the region. Prior to her position as a senior fellow with the compare and contrast writing Abbey, Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings, she was a member of the State Department’s policy planning staff; a Middle East advisor at ExxonMobil Corporation; and director of a Council on Foreign Relations task force on America’s Iran policy. Author of Iran’s Long Reach and write contributor to such works as Which Path to Persia? Options for a New American Strategy toward Iran , she is compare and contrast essay writing College, also founder and editor of Iran@Saban, an insightful blog about politics in and policy concerning Iran.
The sycamore trees that line the northern stretches of Vali Asr Avenue in Tehran arch overhead like a canopy. In the winter, their snowy branches frame a view of the Alborz Mountains where Tehranis escape to hike or ski. On a summer day, the how to level NEOMA, leaves filter the how to scholarship essay St. Clair, sun and smog in the affluent northern neighborhoods, and you can watch the temperature rise by ten degrees as you inch your way southward in the city's infamous traffic toward the heart of how to write essays Business School old Tehran. Vali Asr is said to be the longest street in the Middle East; and sometimes it feels like the only straight path in creative skill a nation whose course has been highly unpredictable and intensely complicated ever since the write college level NEOMA Business School, 1979 revolution which ousted the secular, pro-American shah and installed a theocracy led by to write Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It was on Vali Asr, 18 years later, that young Iranians erupted in joy in how to college level NEOMA Business the largest spontaneous public demonstrations the capital had seen since the thinking books College, revolution.
The immediate cause for celebration in 1997 was the national team's World Cup qualification, but for many it was a belated response to the recent election of how to college NEOMA a president who promised reform. Mohammad Khatami's victory represented a moment when the argument Bosworth College, country appeared on the cusp of change again. His promises went largely unfulfilled, however, doomed by the intractability of the defenders of Iran's religious orthodoxy—among them the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Hassan Rouhani is the seventh president of the Islamic Republic of Iran, having assumed that office in write college essays NEOMA Business School August 2013. Born Hassan Fereidoun in thinking books Concord College 1948 in northern Iran, he attended seminary in Qom and how to essays NEOMA the University of Tehran, and later earned a doctorate from Glasgow Caledonian University in learn to write articles University Scotland. Rouhani was active in Iran's Islamic opposition from an early age and by the revolution was part of Ayatollah Khomeini's inner circle. He served five terms in parliament and in write college essays NEOMA Business other senior leadership positions throughout his career, and led Iran's nuclear negotiations until 2005. Thinking Books Concord? His presidential candidacy received the how to write college essays, support of former presidents Khatami and Rafsanjani.
Yet, on the eve of another election in 2009, Iranians returned to Vali Asr in another powerful display of the will of the people. Tens of thousands of Iranians linked arms in argument composition a human chain that stretched the full 12 miles of Vali Asr to express their support of reformist candidate Mir-Hossein Mousavi. Level School? Less than a week later, however, huge crowds gathered there again, this time to denounce the apparently rigged victory of the how to introduction College, incumbent, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a man infamous for his bigotry and provocative policies. The protestors' initial chants of level NEOMA Business School where is my vote? met with police batons and bullets. The violence that ended the demonstrations, and the show trials and other Stalinist tactics that followed, suggested that the theocracy no longer saw the need for even the essay, fig leaf of college level NEOMA Business School semi-orchestrated elections, and instead had devolved to a more naked authoritarianism. With the rapid smashing of the opposition, Iran became more of a pariah state than ever, its streets gone silent. This episode appeared to extinguish the Islamic Republic's copious capacity for reinvention. But something happened along the way to the latest election, in June 2013: Iran's political narrative once again defied expectations. A brief and unprecedentedly outspoken campaign gave voice to criticisms of the regime that might once have landed some of the candidates in jail. In the end, it was the candidate who appealed most forcefully for a new path who won the compare and contrast essay Abbey Manchester, presidency, with a resounding majority. In the aftermath of the vote, throngs of Iranians once again poured onto Vali Asr for spur-of-the-moment street parties.
They celebrated not so much the victor, veteran cleric turned politician Hassan Rouhani, but the possibility that his election signified a pivot away from the regime's disastrous course of recent years. Even if this proves true—even if Tehran is stepping back from the brink of its ruinous battle with much of the rest of the level essays NEOMA, world—there is no guarantee that Rouhani's election will put an end to the uncertainty that has enveloped Iranian politics for more than three decades, or lessen the antagonism between the Iranian leadership and College the West. Rouhani campaigned on how to college essays NEOMA Business School, a slogan of hope and prudence, two commodities that have been in short supply since the School, 1979 revolution. Delivering on that promise may prove the essays Business School, toughest course the Islamic Republic has yet had to navigate. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of Golestan Palace during celebrations of the 25th anniversary of his reign, in 1965.
Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, reviews dignitaries in the great hall of College Golestan Palace during celebrations of the 25th anniversary of essays NEOMA School his reign, in compare and contrast College Manchester 1965. Jack Garofalo/Paris Match via Getty Images. From the Reign of the Shahs to an Enduring Revolution. Vali Asr was constructed after Persia's crumbling Qajar dynasty gave way in write level School 1925 to and contrast Abbey an army-installed monarchy. Its original name, Pahlavi Avenue, honored the new self-proclaimed shah , or king, Reza Shah Pahlavi, who commissioned it. The broad boulevard became the central thoroughfare in Iran's capital, linking the royal palaces and state institutions with the write college level essays NEOMA Business, train station that was the anchor of the how to write an essay paragraph, shah's industrialization effort. Over the next half-century, the country was transformed, both by the rapid modernization program, and by the regime's official embrace of the West. Much of this transformation came under the reign of the second Pahlavi shah, Mohammad Reza, who was heir to his father's ambitions but not his leadership skills. His initial years at the helm of the write level Business, state proved rocky. Creative Skill School? In 1953, the shah briefly abandoned his throne in a showdown with rivals who campaigned to nationalize Iran's oil industry.
The leader of this movement, Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, was ousted in a coup orchestrated by Washington and London, after which the monarchy was reinstated and reinforced. College NEOMA? But for many Iranians, Mossadegh remains a national icon, and resentment over the role played by foreign powers in removing an elected Iranian leader persists to this day. Mohammad Reza Shah eventually found his footing, thanks in part to increasing American support. Washington appreciated the value of a reliable, energy-rich ally as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Middle East, and the shah hungered for validation and argument composition College influence. Write Essays School? But American-Iranian relations were tempestuous from the start—a peculiar stew of writing Abbey College Manchester admiration and resentment on both sides.
Throughout the 1960s and '70s, however, it was a relationship that seemed to serve both countries exceptionally well. Iran in write level School this era became a swaggering state, a country of boundless opportunity. While courting superpowers both east and west, Tehran helped to orchestrate the historic transformation of the thinking books Concord, global oil industry, which transferred control—and profits—of the world's energy resources to level essays School the states that owned them. Fuelled by grandiose ambitions and revulsion toward traditionalism, the scholarship essay St. Clair College, shah channeled his vast oil profits into a mad dash for modernity. Along the way, Iran made much progress. Most important—and often overlooked in the post-revolutionary demonization of the college level essays Business School, monarchy—millions of Iranians achieved a middle-class existence. The country became an international hotspot: Western bankers jostled for Iranian petrodollars; Harvard Business School opened a campus; tourists from to write University, around the world flocked to write college NEOMA Business see the ruins of ancient Persia; diplomats clamored for a Tehran posting. But amid this rapid development, something was lost. Iranian society was in flux: its economy was simultaneously expanding and imploding, its religion and customs were under siege, its traditional channels of influence eroding under the pressure of a state determined to assert its dominance. Intellectuals wrote dark parables about a nation so intoxicated with the West that it had lost its identity.
Even as the composition Independent College, shah was pouring money into his notion of an ideal society, pockets of how to write college level opposition were developing. Eventually, Pahlavi Avenue and Tehran's city center became the Concord, locus of how to write level essays Business another mode of change, this time driven from the streets of Iran rather than from creative Sevenoaks School, its palaces. Over the course of 1978, protestors gathered here in ever-expanding numbers to vent their frustrations with a political system in which power was concentrated in the hands of write college level School a single man. The upheaval on thinking books Concord College, the streets culminated the following year in the shah’s ouster at the hands of an inchoate coalition of leftists, liberals and how to college level NEOMA Shi’a Muslim clerics. Among the essay St. Clair, protestors there was little consensus on what ought to replace the how to Business School, monarchy, but they coalesced around Ruhollah Khomeini, a revered ayatollah who had been exiled in 1964 for protesting the shah’s reforms.
The shah was dumbfounded that his subjects would spurn his magnificent achievements. “The nation I had led to the threshold of progress, power, and learn to write articles University self-confidence lay torn and bleeding,” he wrote in his memoirs, while he himself had been supplanted by a “worn, fanatic old man [who] was repeatedly telling the Iranian people how mean, miserable, and poverty-stricken they were”—a man who represented the write School, very forces of traditionalism he had sought to eliminate. The shah's disbelief was echoed by much of the rest of the world. Religious radicalism is thinking books College, painfully familiar today; in 1979, however, Iran's upheaval scuttled the long-held assumption that economic development led inexorably to secularization and liberalization. The fall of Iran's monarchy proved to be the first of what would be numerous salvos in a worldwide, multi-generational struggle over the rightful role of Islam in level essays political life. Immediately after the thinking College, revolution, Iran's new leaders began re-casting the country to suit their aspirations. Even the street names were not safe. The capital of an Islamic Republic could not host a Roosevelt Avenue or other streets with names lionizing Western allies. And certainly its main drag could not pay tribute to the reviled monarch who had just been overthrown.
Pahlavi Avenue was renamed multiple times, consistent with the shifting fortunes in the skirmish for post-revolutionary authority. The revolutionaries finally settled on write college level NEOMA Business School, Vali Asr, a tribute to the 12th Imam, who disappeared in the ninth century and whose return is awaited as a signal of world salvation. For Shi'a Muslims, the phrase Vali Asr symbolizes hope in a just future; for Iranians, the revolution has brought anything but. The revolutionary state jettisoned many other vestiges of monarchical Iran. Gone were the bars and how to St. Clair the discos, the Western tourists and businessmen, the short skirts and bikinis, and any other hints of secularism. Hijab , or modest Islamic dress, quickly went from fashion statement to fiercely-enforced legal requirement. Anti-American protests, which culminated in how to Business School the November 1979 seizure of the compare Abbey, U.S. Embassy and the 14-month hostage crisis, eviscerated all traces of the pre-revolutionary romance with the West. Dramatic as these changes were, perhaps the most amazing aspect of Iran's post-revolutionary order has been its sheer endurance.
The Islamic Republic has survived every calamity short of the plague: an write college NEOMA Business, invasion and a brutish war; internal insurgencies; the death of compare and contrast essay Abbey College Manchester its charismatic founder; catastrophes both natural and man-made; and how to write college level Business recently an almost wholesale amputation from the how to write introduction, international financial system thanks to economic sanctions. Yet somehow the Islamic Republic is still standing. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against the shah. In Tehran, supporters of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini hold his poster aloft in a January 1979 demonstration against college level NEOMA, the shah. A Ceremonial Presidency Evolves in the Islamic Republic. Out of the College, revolutionary chaos, a new system of how to write college essays NEOMA Business School government evolved. A hastily-organized referendum endorsed the vague notion of an Islamic Republic. In the to write University of Southampton, contentious debate over a new constitution, Ayatollah Khomeini and his partisans pressed to accord ultimate power to how to write college level Business School an unelected supreme leader, a post assumed—naturally—by Khomeini himself. Endowing the head of government with a divine mandate upended centuries of essay College Shi'a theology and unnerved many of Iran's senior clerics. But the imam's thundering insistence overrode every objection. Presidents of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
These transformations might suggest that the revolution changed everything about Iran, but it left much intact as well, including Iran's century-old parliament, an assortment of other elective offices, and a constitution that bears some resemblance to one developed during a proto-democratic uprising 60 years earlier. Many of the monarchy's policies and organizations were simply repurposed with an Islamic bent. The tensions and contradictions that characterize the Islamic Republic today reflect the uneasy bargain negotiated among the disparate interests that joined forces to oust the shah. It seems fitting that the presidency provoked real debate among the framers of the new system from the how to write level Business, start. During the years that followed, as the regime's partisans jostled for power, this office would serve, variously, as the center of gravity for how to scholarship essay College, Iran's democratic aspirations, as a tangible symbol of the how to college level School, revolution's republican intentions and, for the revolutionary elites, as an advantageous perch for influence peddling.
However, during the first decade after the revolution, the presidency remained largely ceremonial. Policy was shaped primarily by Khomeini, along with the composition, parliament and the prime minister. Iran's dominant political and religious authority is the supreme leader, a position designed by the revolution's driving force, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Following Khomeini's 1989 death, mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei was selected to succeed him after serving two terms as president. Like other Iranian leaders, Khamenei was trained in seminaries and how to level essays NEOMA Business School actively opposed the thinking Concord, shah. He was wounded in a 1981 terrorist attack that cost the how to write college level essays Business, use of thinking Concord College his right arm. How To Essays NEOMA School? As supreme leader, he has steadily expanded the authority of the creative thinking skill Sevenoaks School, office. He endorsed Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's disputed re-election of 2009, describing the opposition as seditionists and how to write college essays NEOMA Business School influenced by Western conspiracies. Early occupants of the presidency proved unlucky: Iran's first post-revolutionary president broke with the regime and had to learn to write articles flee for his life; his replacement was killed in how to write level essays NEOMA Business School a terrorist attack. On the books, third try, in August 1981, Iranians elected mid-ranking cleric Ali Khamenei as president.
The position would serve him far better than his predecessors, eventually launching him into the exalted status of supreme leader, successor to how to write level essays Khomeini. Khamenei's two terms as president coincided with a desperate time for the fledgling theocracy, when the country was consumed by the sacred defense it was forced to mount to fend off the September 1980 invasion by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. And Contrast Writing College Manchester? The war presented Tehran with an existential crisis, exacerbated by the country's isolation and by the turmoil and college essays purges that had devastated the military establishment. For all its hazards, however, the conflict had an upside for Khomeini. An economy disrupted by thinking Concord College revolution experienced a short-term boost thanks to NEOMA School the demands of wartime production, and Iranians rallied around a regime that for argument, many bore little resemblance to their revolutionary aspirations.
Amid the sufferings of war, the new state's authority was strengthened, the achievements of the revolution consolidated. And when Iraq's invasion was successfully repulsed, the ayatollahs went on the offensive. Spurning a 1982 ceasefire proposal that promised billions in how to NEOMA Business reparations from the Gulf states, Khomeini continued the conflict for six more years in an increasingly futile effort to composition Independent College topple Saddam. Millions of Iranians were killed, wounded or displaced; key ports were destroyed; vital oil export routes and write Business facilities were disrupted; and the economy and the war effort were severely constrained by sanctions. Jean-Claude Delmas/AFP/Getty Images. Brookings Senior Fellow Bruce Riedel calls the Iran-Iraq War devastating. Khomeini finally conceded the war's failure in creative skill Sevenoaks School 1988. The decision to how to college level essays School accept a cease-fire with Saddam, which he famously compared to drinking from a poisoned chalice, contravened his frequent invocations of victory at any cost, and came over the objections of his own commanders as well as many of the regime's radicals. But Iran had little alternative: challenges from the opposition and on the streets were mounting; its economy was near collapse; and Tehran lacked the money or materials necessary to achieve a decisive military victory. For many, however, the wounds of the conflict remain raw, and books Concord College bitterness over international indifference toward Tehran's suffering and write college essays NEOMA Business complicity in Saddam's crimes still rankles.
The politician tapped to bring the an essay paragraph, war to how to write level NEOMA Business a satisfactory conclusion was Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, then-speaker of the parliament and a cleric who was especially close to Khomeini. Rafsanjani was made acting commander-in-chief in mid-1988, and he ended the war expeditiously and without remorse. Then, when Khomeini died in compare and contrast writing Manchester 1989, Rafsanjani played a central role in boosting his revolutionary comrade Khamenei into the post of supreme leader, while he himself moved seamlessly into the newly expanded presidency. Ayatollah Rafsanjani has been one of the key figures in Iran for the past half century. Write Level NEOMA School? He studied theology in Qom where he became a follower of Ayatollah Khomeini and was a member of Iran's Revolutionary Council. He has served as speaker of the Majlis, Iran's parliament; commander-in-chief of the armed forces during the final months of the Iraq war; president for two terms; and chairman of the thinking skill Sevenoaks, Expediency Council, a powerful state institution.
During and after his presidential terms, he was considered a centrist with pragmatic tendencies. Although disqualified from how to write essays Business School, running in the 2013 presidential election, he backed the eventual winner, Hassan Rouhani. BBC News has called him the richest man in Iran. Rafsanjani's presidency proved decisive for Iran. He came into office determined to enact an ambitious reconstruction program, and his efforts to undertake an economic and diplomatic rehabilitation of Concord College his country were hard-fought, if not wholly successful. But his policies sparked waves of resistance—first, from a liberalizing reform movement and then, in counter-reaction, from a new generation of hardliners. How To Write Essays School? Both movements imploded of learn articles their own volition, leaving in their wake a country ripe for essays Business School, Rafsanjani-style moderation and pragmatism—which in turn would later lead to a strange kind of comeback for the Islamic Republic's most storied politician. Supporters of nuclear negotiator and learn to write University presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally.
Supporters of how to write nuclear negotiator and presidential candidate Saeed Jalili display his campaign posters next to a banner honoring Ayatollah Khomeini inside Tehran's Heydarnia Stadium for a campaign rally. The 2013 Presidential Election: 686 Applicants, Only Eight Contenders. In 2013, nearly a quarter century after Rafsanjani's first election to the presidency—literally a lifetime in a country where two-thirds of the population is below the age of 30—the possibility of his return to the office loomed large as the latest ballot approached. He had already served two terms, from compare and contrast writing, 1989 to 1997, and had sought a third in how to write college essays 2005, in a tight race against Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, then mayor of Tehran. He lost that contest in a run-off, a defeat that stung the establishment and catapulted the little-known Ahmadinejad into the limelight. Ahmadinejad's presidency reversed the trajectory of Iran's post-war path of moderation, and how to write an essay Niagara put the revolution back on a collision course with the how to write college essays NEOMA Business School, international community. This time around, after months of public vacillation, Rafsanjani arrived to register his candidacy at introduction Niagara, the last possible moment, creating a perfectly orchestrated election surprise. His dramatic bid captivated an how to college essays NEOMA Business School, Iranian political establishment that had been in a state of College suspended animation for four years, ever since the massive street protests that erupted after Ahmadinejad's dubious 2009 reelection. Not that Rafsanjani's candidacy was universally welcomed. Over the how to level NEOMA Business, years, the disappointments of thinking Sevenoaks his tenure and his reputation for opportunism and corruption had eroded public support, perhaps accounting for the failure of his last two campaigns (a 2000 bid for the parliament as well as the 2005 presidential race).
But he remains a heavyweight. And after the havoc wrought by Ahmadinejad, the prospective candidacy of a politician still considered a man of action and write college level essays substance buoyed hopes for a better future. Iranian elections adhere to an idiosyncratic set of procedures. While anyone can toss a hat into the ring, a clerical oversight body—the Council of scholarship St. Clair College Guardians—determines who is permitted to how to college NEOMA Business School run. The eligibility criteria are vague enough to enable the regime to cull all but a few hand-picked insiders. In a bizarre turn of events, the Guardians rejected Rafsanjani's bid for another go at the office he had held for eight years. Creative Sevenoaks School? However absurd the Islamic Republic's vetting process has been in the past—and more than two dozen elections over the course of how to level School 34 years have provided abundant fodder for ridicule—the ruling that one of the introduction, regime's founders was unfit to run for the presidency carried the farce to a new level.
Rafsanjani's failed bid remains one of the more curious factors in an astonishing election. Perhaps it was simply textbook political theater from the how to level essays School, regime's most skilled showman, his snubbing meant to reinforce the need for a return to realism, thus improving the prospects for and contrast essay College Manchester, the candidate closest to his own views and experience—Hassan Rouhani. The sixth president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad earned a reputation as an how to college level essays, unpredictable hardliner who reversed the liberalization promoted by his predecessor, reformist Mohammed Khatami. Learn Articles Of Southampton? Prior to his 2005 election, Ahmadinejad served as mayor of Tehran and write college essays a provincial governor. His comments denying the Holocaust and raising doubts about al Qaeda's role in the 9/11 attacks, plus his contested 2009 re-election victory, created fierce opposition at home and abroad.
After his presidency, Ayatollah Khamenei appointed him to College the Expediency Council, where he now serves alongside such notables as Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hassan Rouhani, Ali Akbar Velayati and Mohammed Reza Aref. As Rafsanjani's understudy, Rouhani is a quintessential creation of Iran's post-revolutionary order. He trained in the seminary and, like many young Iranian clerics in the 1960s, became active in the opposition to the shah, which led to repeated arrests. How To Write Level Essays NEOMA School? Having become part of Khomeini's inner circle during the ayatollah's final months in exile, he has held influential positions throughout the creative thinking skill School, post-revolutionary period. But it was his role as a nuclear negotiator, an extension of his 16-year tenure as the secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, that hurtled Rouhani into the eye of the hurricane, and college level essays Business School brought him to thinking the attention of the college level Business, world, which had hitherto taken little notice of him.
Representing Iran in talks with Europe from 2003 to 2005—an effort by the Iranian regime to stave off reprisals over its just-disclosed nuclear program—Rouhani helped hammer out an agreement that suspended Iran's most worrisome nuclear activities. To date it remains Iran's most significant concession on the nuclear issue, and it earned Rouhani the nickname the sheikh of diplomacy for his role in defusing a mounting clash with the West. Yet as the sense of threat receded, and few of the incentives promised by European negotiators for Iranian cooperation materialized, Tehran quickly soured on the deal. Having only warily endorsed the 2003 suspension, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei quashed it less than two years later, resuming the nuclear program and championing defiance in tune with Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Rouhani resigned his responsibility for the nuclear portfolio, and emerged as the whipping boy for Iran's ascendant hardliners. In their eyes, Rouhani's diplomacy represented a surrender to thinking the rapacious West, exchanging diamonds for peanuts, conceding Iran's resources and its influence as irresponsibly as the monarchy had. While Rouhani remained a senior functionary in the Iranian system during the college level essays NEOMA School, Ahmadinejad presidency, he was mostly sidelined to a government think tank. From there, he inveighed in surprisingly frank tones against Ahmadinejad's ideologically-driven excesses. Of Southampton? Sometimes he even appeared to be serving as an informal spokesman for Iran's embattled realists, most of write college level NEOMA Business whom had been shunted aside in the wake of Ahmadinejad's giddy arrival on the scene. During this period he also wrote one of the write an essay College, only truly interesting memoirs of recent Iranian political history, divulging new details about the nuclear program, sharing insider gossip and how to write NEOMA dispensing the write an essay introduction paragraph College, blunt truths that are his hallmark. Rouhani held a strange sinecure on the fringes of official respectability and how to write college essays Business School relevance in these years, publicly excoriated by Khamenei for the nuclear negotiations he had led, yet somehow retaining his close bond with the supreme leader.
So it was perhaps not surprising that out of 686 applicants, Rouhani was one of the eight candidates —all of them men of the system, and most of an unabashedly conservative bent— to receive the nod from the Council of Guardians. The slate elicited little excitement and, after the short-lived commotion over Rafsanjani, many observers anticipated an anodyne campaign, a display of mindless deference to the regime's ideological strictures. Expectations reverted to what had become the conventional wisdom ever since Ahmadinejad's contested reelection: that Khamenei preferred, indeed required, an unquestioning acolyte in the presidency. This would explain his elevation and assiduous defense of Ahmadinejad, his endorsement of the thinking books, 2009 electoral fraud, and the earlier backlash against the reformist Khatami. Behrouz Mehri/AFP/Getty Images. Like so many widely held perceptions of Iran, however, the assumption that Ahmadinejad had ever been merely a pliant errand boy for level NEOMA, Iran's hardliners misses the write scholarship, mark. That may have been the intention, but Ahmadinejad eclipsed these expectations and the presidency's limited powers, overturning the revolutionary state's protocols and alarming the establishment. Late in write college level Business his second term, after he had overstepped one time too often by attempting to fire the School, intelligence minister over the supreme leader's objections, Khamenei reined him in—which only reinforced presumptions that the supreme leader would not make the same mistake again. This time he would anoint a trusted subordinate who would pose no challenge to his own primacy. Khamenei's public protestations that he had no favored candidate elicited practically audible derision. Everything he had said in the run-up to the race spoke volumes to how to write level essays School the contrary.
The supreme leader framed the parameters governing the election in St. Clair College unambiguous fashion: the ballot must be a pro-regime epic; candidates must avoid any hint of concessions to [Iran's] enemies; and any repeat of the mass unrest that erupted four years earlier would not be tolerated. Given these criteria, Iran's incumbent nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili seemed spot-on for consecration. His piety was well-established, he had spent several years working in Khamenei's office, and since 2007 he had led Iran's nuclear negotiations, where he had transformed obfuscation into an art form, stonewalling his adversaries as he defended Tehran's determination to retain its nuclear prerogatives. His service in the war against Iraq, in which he had lost his right leg, only how to write level NEOMA underscored the and contrast essay Abbey College, depth of his commitment to the Islamic Republic. Jalili's main competition looked to college level essays School come from another next-generation conservative, Tehran mayor Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. Essay Writing Abbey College? A precocious hero in the Iran-Iraq war, Qalibaf had two main assets in essays NEOMA School the race.
First, he had impeccable credentials on Khamenei's highest priority: regime stability. In 1999, Qalibaf signed an unprecedented letter by senior military commanders publicly rebuking then-President Khatami over his handling of student protests; Qalibaf even boasted of his own role in and contrast essay writing cracking skulls during the write level School, quashing of to write articles those demonstrations. Second, his position as mayor of Tehran bestowed upon him a built-in popular base and a reputation for results on quality-of-life issues. The other candidates represented an array of interest groups and political tendencies. That their number included a representative of how to write level essays NEOMA Business Iran's beleaguered reformist front, respected technocrat Mohammad Reza Aref, seemed a small but hopeful sign. How To Write? The inclusion of a credible reformist candidate signaled the rehabilitation of the how to write college level essays NEOMA Business School, faction, as well as an how to write Niagara College, acknowledgment that the wholesale domination of Iran's conservatives and college level essays NEOMA hardliners has been neither successful nor sustainable. Ahmadinejad played an paragraph Niagara College, outsized if unintentional role in advancing this realization.
Outside Iran, the former president is best known for his Holocaust denial and anti-Israeli invective, his unsettling messianism and his wild-eyed ruminations. Within Iran's establishment, such rhetoric was not necessarily unwelcome. Write College Essays NEOMA School? But his proclivity for chaos and crisis was, and it alienated even the essay writing Abbey College, hardliners who had backed him. Thanks to write college essays skyrocketing oil prices, Ahmadinejad had assumed office during a period of unprecedented prosperity in argument Bosworth College Iran. Yet the economy cratered under his volatile stewardship, and many of the modest improvements in how to essays the social and political atmosphere effected during the Khatami presidency were also undone. The fallout from his reckless rhetoric and policies, particularly as it affected people's pocketbooks, cost him much of skill his initial public support and made him persona non grata within the establishment. For that reason, the campaign to succeed Ahmadinejad was characterized by an almost palpable determination to write essays repudiate him. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in Tehran on an essay introduction paragraph, state television, one week prior to the election. (L to R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images. Iran's 2013 presidential candidates pose for a group picture after a live debate in how to write level Business Tehran on state television, one week prior to the election. (L to R): Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel; Saeed Jalili; Hassan Rouhani; Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf; Mohsen Rezaei; Mohammad Reza Aref; Ali Akbar Velayati; Mohammad Gharazi; and anchor Morteza Heidari. Mehdi Dehghan/AFP/Getty Images.
An Inconceivable Twist in the Presidential Campaign. A funny thing happened on the way to the conservative cakewalk in Iran: a supposed sleeper of a presidential campaign got interesting. Rouhani himself had much to do with sending the how to write an essay introduction College, anticipated narrative off the write essays, rails. This was a surprise. Scholarship Essay St. Clair? By virtue of college level essays Business his long-standing association with the regime, he was expected to toe the official line. Yet Rouhani's every move along Iran's short campaign trail seemed calculated to shake things up. Atta Kenare/AFP/Getty Images.
It is difficult to how to write an essay introduction paragraph Niagara pinpoint precisely when it became clear that Rouhani did not intend to how to college essays NEOMA run a cautious campaign. Thinking Books Concord? Was it his appeal for how to college level essays, the release of learn to write University political prisoners, including detained reformist leaders Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, which he made even before his candidacy was approved? Was it his adoption of the symbol of a big key that would unlock big problems for Iran? Or was it his decision to color-code his campaign with purple, a tactic that seemed perilously reminiscent of the green wave of support for Mousavi that the regime had rolled back with such force in the previous election? It might have been an appearance on state television when Rouhani upbraided an interviewer for misrepresenting his record on how to college level essays Business, the nuclear issue and how to write essay St. Clair College instructed him to re-read his memoir to get his facts right. He sparred just as aggressively with the Jalili campaign, whose staff included several members of the incumbent negotiating team. For Rouhani to have broached this discussion, knowing how obsessed the leadership is with retaining its nuclear infrastructure and presenting a united front to the world, was a particularly daring move. And dispensing with protocol and the state broadcasters, Rouhani released his campaign video straight to YouTube, where its emphasis on his close ties with Iran's leadership and his own achievements alternated with poetic appeals for a new spring after a long, cold winter. One of the biggest surprises came 10 days before the ballot, when Rouhani travelled to Iran's historic capital of Isfahan to how to write college School stump for write introduction paragraph Niagara, votes. While there, he joined the mourning procession for a dissident cleric who had penned a public letter a decade earlier that condemned the regime for deviation, abuse and lawlessness and described its leadership as henchmen of tyranny. It did not seem to bother Rouhani that the chants of support for his campaign were interspersed with denunciations of Khamenei and the theocratic system.
Amazingly, no formal recriminations against the candidate were issued afterward. In the end, however, while Rouhani's boundary-bashing may have set the how to write level essays, stage, it was a televised debate among all the candidates that really broke the presidential race wide open. The fact that the debates were held at all raised eyebrows. Ahmadinejad's deft and dangerous exploitation of the 2009 debates—when he wielded intelligence files on television as a prop to accuse his rivals of corruption and nepotism—had sparked an uproar. Many expected that the regime would simply dispense with debates. Instead, state television organized three lengthy debates, culminating in a four-and-a-half hour foreign policy fisticuffs that laid bare Iran's deep strategic divide over nuclear diplomacy and the regime's approach to the world. Rouhani, who had mounted a pugnacious defense of his own nuclear record while on the campaign trail, stayed true to form during the debate, disparaging Jalili as an creative thinking skill Sevenoaks, unsophisticated puritan whose only negotiating skill was verbosity. And his zinger—that Iran needs working factories as much as it needs spinning centrifuges—was considered catchy enough that his campaign tweeted a variation on it within moments of his having uttered it. However, the most powerful deviations from the official narrative were voiced not by essays NEOMA Business School Rouhani but by other conservatives.
Several questioned why Jalili, the presumptive front-runner, had not secured a deal in write essay College talks with the how to write college level essays Business, West, and essay writing College challenged the sense of resistance on the nuclear issue if it came at write college School, the cost of keeping Iran's population hungry. Ali Akbar Velayati, the long-time foreign minister who owes his entire career in politics to his close relationship to Khamenei, delivered the most devastating blows. He lectured Jalili on essay St. Clair, the difference between diplomacy and write college School philosophy: diplomacy, he noted archly, is intended to obtain results and lessen sanctions. Write? We can't expect everything and give nothing, Velayati scolded his younger nemesis, adding that Jalili's handling of the latest round of talks definitely shows that you do not really want to make any progress on the issue. The more conservative candidates fought back, with Qalibaf scorning Velayati for sipping coffee with the college level essays Business, French president even as Baghdad strafed Iranian troops via fighter jets provided by Paris. For the hardliners, diplomacy is Independent College, of dubious value in safeguarding Iran's revolution from international antagonism. Jalili took pains to underscore that he was merely implementing Khamenei's mandate at the negotiating table, a defense eerily reminiscent of that previously offered by Rouhani himself.
In the context of the election, however, Jalili's insistence that he was following orders only made the attacks on him seem that much more of a mutiny against the unpopular establishment. The debate was far more significant than simply another sharp-elbowed display by an elite known for its quarrelsomeness. The suddenly candid discourse on such a sensitive subject betrays the Iranian establishment’s awareness of the regime's increasing vulnerability. Nothing like this had ever happened before, and certainly not on live state television, with approximately two-thirds of the country watching. In Tehran’s public rhetoric, the nuclear program represents the nation’s glory as well as its capacity to withstand the “bullying” of the West.
Any deviation from the official line is considered disloyal as well as dangerous, and unlike almost every other issue, where repression has failed to staunch freewheeling debate, the nuclear program had remained sacrosanct. So the airing of a frank, in-depth discussion of the nuclear issue one week before the essays NEOMA Business School, vote seemed an inconceivable twist in the campaign. The nuclear debate served as the learn to write articles of Southampton, writing on the wall. It was an intervention, initiated by how to School some of the how to write an essay paragraph Niagara, regime's most stalwart supporters, intended to how to NEOMA Business rescue the system by conceding its precariousness and appealing for pragmatism to rescue it. And it was an acknowledgement that the sanctions-induced miseries of the Iranian public could no longer be assuaged with the nuclear pageantry of the Ahmadinejad era, or even the formerly reliable appeals to the system's unique blend of religion and nationalism. As the and contrast writing, campaign entered its final week, the conventional wisdom about the inevitability of a conservative victory was obliterated, almost as if a spell had been broken. Two final developments sealed the election's outcome.
Working on the sidelines, Rafsanjani hammered out a painstaking truce with the reform faction, headed by former president Khatami, which eased the how to college level essays NEOMA School, departure of the only real reformist in the race, Mohammad Reza Aref. This bargain represented a dramatic shift in Iran's internal power struggles. After more than a decade of rivalry and, at times, bare-fisted animosity, the regime's liberalizing reformers aligned with its more conservative realists. The compact proved key to how to scholarship St. Clair College consolidating a wide swath of Iranian public opinion behind Rouhani. Meanwhile, despite similar machinations, the conservatives failed to coalesce around a single candidate. Ill-suited to how to essays NEOMA School the new environment of truth-telling on the nuclear issue, the campaigns of both Jalili and Qalibaf appeared to falter as the race drew to a close. Argument Bosworth Independent College? To generate a conservative victory at this stage would have required blatant manipulation of the vote, a risk that the regime may not have been willing to take, particularly with many of how to level essays Business School its neighbors in an unprecedented state of upheaval. In the write Niagara College, final days of the campaign, Vali Asr Avenue and other Iranian streets were plastered with flashy campaign paraphernalia, not just for the presidential contenders but also for the 300,000 candidates running for local positions.
A country whose democratic aspirations had been beaten back only four years before risked hoping again, and returned to the polls in blockbuster numbers. And this time Iranians opted to turn the big key. Rouhani took the presidency in the first ballot with an unexpectedly strong plurality. How To Level NEOMA? Tehranis, their expectations tempered by bitter experience, waited for the formal declaration, after a protracted and suspenseful night of vote-counting, before erupting into mass celebrations—once again on Vali Asr. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in to write of Southampton 2005 just outside the city of Isfahan in central Iran. Technicians work inside a uranium conversion facility in 2005 just outside the write, city of Isfahan in central Iran. A Lack of and contrast Trust on the Nuclear Issue. Like so much about Iran, the election provokes divergent interpretations.
Did an how to write college essays NEOMA Business, ossifying regime accede to overwhelming public demand for more responsible leadership, or did the revolution's hard-nosed stalwarts orchestrate a shift in thinking Concord College its center of gravity away from its bellicose extremes? The truth likely lies somewhere in the middle; in level NEOMA Business School other words, the election was another untidy improvisation by an essay introduction a regime that is acutely aware of its own vulnerabilities and has made an art form of survival under the most inauspicious circumstances. How close is Iran to having nuclear weapons and what can America do about it? For a usual suspect, Iran's new president is an unusual character. Beyond his seminary studies, he also received a degree from Tehran University and pursued a doctorate in constitutional law at Glasgow Caledonian University, even as he climbed the ranks of the bureaucracy in a theocracy that had little use for European credentials. When much of the Iranian elite did little more than grumble about Ahmadinejad's provocative policies, Rouhani boldly denounced his recklessness and highlighted the costs to the economy. Like his mentor Rafsanjani a quarter-century ago, Rouhani appears to have been tapped to effect a turnaround—to staunch a crisis and salvage the revolution from its own failings.
But his past political affiliations lie closer to Iran's traditional conservatives than to how to write college essays NEOMA School the leftists who spearheaded the reform movement 15 years ago. In seeking to transcend the thinking, trap of partisanship, however, he argues that he represents the reasonable faction, which he describes as being made up of how to college level essays Business School all those Iranian politicians who are interested first and creative thinking skill School foremost in problem-solving. This is a moment of tremendous opportunity for essays NEOMA, Washington, although it offers no easy answers. In fact, Rouhani's very moderation may make things harder by learn articles of Southampton eroding international support for sanctions and in turn stiffening the spines of Iran's hardliners. Khamenei still holds all the cards in Iran, and the nuclear issue is how to college NEOMA, not a presidential prerogative. For some in Washington, where distrust of self-proclaimed Iranian moderates runs deep, the new president's appeal for the middle ground is a dangerous deception. And turmoil elsewhere in the region, particularly in Syria where Washington and Tehran are backing opposing sides, may put a nuclear deal even further out of reach. Moreover, the presumption that Rouhani will drive an how to write an essay introduction Niagara College, easier bargain may be overly optimistic. The Europeans who sat across the table from him during his time as Iran's nuclear negotiator remember him as a tough customer. And his recent track record underscores the essays Business, difficulty of expecting too much from Rouhani on the nuclear issue.
The only recent progress on this issue came in 2009, with a tentative agreement to export much of Iran's enriched uranium in exchange for creative thinking skill, Western-supplied fuel rods for its medical research reactor. How To Write College Essays Business? Ironically, the argument composition, primary Iranian proponent of this arrangement was Ahmadinejad, whereas Rouhani played a vocal role in scuttling the deal, which he described as illegal, a mistake, and a Western attempt to deprive Iran of how to level essays NEOMA School its uranium stockpile. These criticisms helped persuade Khamenei to back away from an initial acceptance of the how to write an essay introduction Niagara College, agreement, sending Iran further down a path of international isolation and how to write college level essays NEOMA Business pressure. On the merits, the nuclear crisis need not be intractable. Washington could tolerate some low-level enrichment in Iran, so long as its scope is capped and articles an inspection regime to ensure absolute transparency is implemented. Rouhani's repeated references to transparency signal that Tehran may be willing to how to essays accept additional oversight. With regard to composition Independent College Iran's repeated insistence that the West acknowledge its self-described legitimate rights to the full fuel cycle under the NEOMA, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), some diplomatic sophistry and rhetorical creativity should be able to facilitate a mutually acceptable formulation. Still, the substantive disagreements that have thus far stymied any breakthroughs will not disappear with a more pragmatic Iranian negotiating team.
It will be an uphill battle to persuade Tehran to composition Bosworth College put strong enough limits on the size and scope of its nuclear program in sufficient fashion to reassure the international community. Iranians argue that negotiations should execute a reciprocal—and equivalent—exchange. However, Washington and its European partners see grounds for no such equivalence. For them, Iran is the college essays NEOMA Business, transgressor, having concealed its nuclear activities for 18 years and how to an essay introduction paragraph Niagara College having failed for more than a decade since their revelation to fully adhere to NPT safeguards obligations or satisfy U.N. Security Council demands. Washington and its partners expect any deal will begin with tangible Iranian concessions. The efficacy of the sanctions program has only exacerbated this disconnect. With Iran having paid such a high price for its nuclear ambitions, Iranian officials may now demand a commensurately large reward in exchange for constraining the program.
Could this be the year for write college Business School, an engagement with Iran that 'is honest and grounded in mutual respect'? The fundamental obstacle to real progress is the lack of argument College trust between the two sides—validated by their respective historical narratives and how to NEOMA Business exacerbated by their contentious domestic politics. Can the international community trust Tehran to adhere to any commitments it may make? And can Iran's isolated, ideological leadership trust the world sufficiently to dare to compromise? Both Iran and America now have presidents who campaigned on the idea of hope, but as Iran's nuclear program continues to advance, it will take more than hope to build confidence in each other. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the outside world and improving the sanctions-battered economy. Tehran, August 12, 2013: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani attends an creative skill School, open session of parliament to debate his proposed cabinet. President Rouhani told parliament that his government's priorities will be easing tensions with the write NEOMA Business, outside world and improving the sanctions-battered economy.
Rouhani, The West and the Road Ahead. Three decades of how to introduction College rule by a revolutionary Islamic regime has generated a political reality that in many ways fails to conform to the ideological imperatives of its founders—or, for that matter, to the one-dimensional depiction that has become entrenched in the Western imagination. College Essays NEOMA Business? Iran remains a place of compare essay Abbey jarring contradictions. It is at once an autocratic system, governed by the whims of a ruler who claims a divine mandate, and at college NEOMA School, the same time a fractious country shaped by factional competition and the institutions of representative rule. Learn Articles Of Southampton? Oddly enough, the secret to the Iranian regime's survival may lie in this very volatility. The dual and dueling institutions of the Islamic Republic are in write level essays NEOMA School its DNA, inciting the power struggles that ultimately determine Tehran's decisions.
These struggles have proved an effective mechanism for channeling competition, and, through carefully controlled but not always pre-ordained elections, generating some sense of buy-in among Iran's citizens. The Islamic Republic's unpredictability belies an unsteady but persistent stability. When the devastating sanctions that were the byproduct of the nuclear crisis threatened this equilibrium, the system stepped in to right itself again, and and contrast Abbey there is now reason to hope that the crisis can be managed to the satisfaction of both Iran and the West. But, there is also reason to worry that this self-correction will not happen. Write Business? We expect revolutions to Abbey Manchester diminish in fervor, to how to write college essays modulate fiery tenor and rationalize unconventional policies, once the chaos and violence that accompanies any sudden change has subsided. The Iranian Revolution has not followed this model. Despite substantive changes during its 34-year history, the Islamic Republic has yet to fully embrace the and contrast essay Manchester, moderation that should herald the twilight of the revolution. It is college essays School, still too soon to say if Rouhani's election will be the harbinger of a durable Thermidor for Iran's theocracy. Fars News Agency. The new president's initial steps have given reason for tempered optimism. Though his cabinet nods have largely bypassed Iran's best-known reformists, he has appointed Mohammad Javad Zarif, a much-admired diplomat with an unusually rich Washington rolodex, as foreign minister and apparently tasked him with responsibility for the nuclear talks.
And he has put in place what amounts to an Islamic Republic dream team on the economy—a slate of ministers with considerable technocratic credentials, substantial experience, and real commitment to market-based reforms and foreign investment. Perhaps most important, even in his earliest official moves, President Rouhani has reinforced the perception that his election is intended to essay College serve as a conduit for resolving the nuclear standoff. He invited former European Union foreign policy chief Javier Solana—who negotiated with Tehran for write level, years on the nuclear issue—to attend his inauguration, and he has continued to advocate negotiations with Washington on the basis that diplomacy can produce a worthwhile resolution to the crisis. Anticipating how Iran's story will unfold from compare essay writing Manchester, here is impossible. Its peaceful, popular revolution begat a vicious theocracy; since then, each triumph for one of the write college level essays, regime's rival factions has only foreshadowed a subsequent reversal.
The half-life of predictions about Iranian politics is the blink of an eye. Perhaps that accounts for America's fascination with Iran's fate. Introduction Paragraph Niagara College? Iran is the country whose break with the West ended our innocence about the world's affections, and whose government has kept our own leaders up at night for more than a generation. We watched its revolution play out on national television, and lived through the hostage crisis courtesy of Ted Koppel's nightly updates. How To Write NEOMA? We have followed the write scholarship essay St. Clair, roller-coaster ride of its political turmoil, worn green in solidarity with its short-lived opposition movement, and jeered the loathsome Ahmadinejad in late-night parodies. August 2009, Kenneth Pollack, Daniel Byman, Martin Indyk, Suzanne Maloney, Michael O’Hanlon, Bruce Riedel More Brookings research on Iran. Though no one can say for certain what the Rouhani era will bring, now that an election that was expected to consolidate authority in the hands of defiant theocrats has unexpectedly opened a tentative door to conciliation, we are hoping that the how to college NEOMA, tide has turned at last. And Contrast Essay Writing College Manchester? Clearly many in Iran harbor that same wish.
A few days after the election celebrations, Iranians once again jammed the streets of its cities in joyful demonstrations. The national team had qualified for the World Cup and, just as in 1997, the write NEOMA Business, confluence of the two successes—on the playing field and in the political arena—seemed almost too good to be true. Iranians have been hardened by disappointments and reversals; they know that the an essay Niagara, path of political change will be long and how to write level NEOMA Business circuitous. Still, they take their victories where they can and, in essay the cool of a summer evening, hope stretches all along Vali Asr, from one end of Tehran to the other. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on how to write college essays NEOMA Business School, Facebook . Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues.
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