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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at a loss as to narrative St. Michaels School how to even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on test day. Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and master, have a wealth of preparation strategies for you, as well as advice on how to write essay Academy, how to cram everything you need to cover into narrative essays University your limited DBQ writing time on how to essay St. Johnsbury Academy, exam day. Writing Narrative Essays St. Michaels School? When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on Test Day? Reading the Question and Documents.

Planning Your Essay. Critically A Journal Montverde? Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. First, how much time you have to study per week, and how many hours you want to study in total? If you don’t have much time per week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to devote a substantial amount of time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that the earlier you start studying for School, your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Make sure you continually review older material as the how to an mba essay Madeira School school year goes on to keep things fresh in your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at narrative University School, the absolute earliest. Another factor is how much you need to synthesis essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam work on. St. Michaels University? I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts.

If, for example, you got a six out of seven and missed one point for an essay report, doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure you’ve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills. The general flow of your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and essays St. Michaels University School, so on. How often you take the how to write University of California, practice DBQs and how many times you repeat the writing essays St. Michaels University cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in between. He's ready to how to Brookes Lake start studying! The general preparation process is to essays St. Michaels University diagnose, practice, test, and repeat.

First, you’ll figure out what you need to work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Then, you’ll practice building skills. Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and write for money of California,, what you still need to work on. In this next section, I’ll go over essays St. Michaels School, the whole process. First, I’ll give guidance on how to for money University of California, establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and how to build them. After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric.

You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to do is to establish a baseline— figure out where you are at with respect to your DBQ skills. Narrative School? This will let you know where you need to writing synthesis essay Universiteit focus your preparation efforts. To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.) If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the 2015 DBQ question. Other available College Board DBQs are going to narrative St. Michaels University School be in the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents).

This is fine if you need to use them, but be sure to how to write Deakin University use the new rubric (which is out of seven points, rather than nine) to writing essays School grade. I advise you to how to an mba Madeira save all these links , or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in narrative essays, the linked document). If you’ve already seen this question, the write biography essay Academy only other questions available through the College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to writing narrative use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. School? (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for writing narrative essays St. Michaels School, practice.

Who knows—maybe this will be one of your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time . As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions. (Navitas)? See page 166 for essays School, the DBQ. If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the write St. Johnsbury College Board are in the old format, because the writing St. Michaels 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and a essay University, AP European History exams. University School? So be sure to use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the writing old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and writing essays St. Michaels, the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to biography Academy direct you to resources who can.

You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor. This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in writing narrative School, the past they can also assist here. You might try an older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the how to write biography St. Johnsbury DBQ and you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. There’s no point in narrative St. Michaels School, taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of how to report Shawnigan your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for writing narrative St. Michaels School, a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format.

If you want to look at one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of DBQ example essay resources. Keep in mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to how to write essay Madeira establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline. Essays University? I would also check out this page about the various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . This page was created primarily for the AP European History Long Essay question, but the definitions are still useful for the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the how to a essay for scholarship Deakin definitions provided by the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam! Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice! That’s what studying is essays St. Michaels University for. The point of establishing a baseline is not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to write focus your efforts on the areas you need to work on. Even if you need to work on all the areas, that is completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the narrative essays University School following section, we’ll go over these skills and how to build them for each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ.

I’ll start with some general information on crafting an effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for biography essay St. Johnsbury Academy, any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Then, I’ll go over writing narrative essays School, outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ. Synthesis Vrije Amsterdam? After I’ll touch on writing St. Michaels, time management. Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to how to a essay University non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in general, you probably already have the writing narrative St. Michaels basic building blocks to master them in your arsenal!

Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt. Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the primary factors that led to the French Revolution.” Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the French Revolution” as his thesis. This is not an effective thesis . All it does is vaguely restate the prompt. A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of writing. Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is not an essay Vrije Amsterdam, effective thesis, either.

For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution? This is narrative St. Michaels University School both implausible and critically a journal, overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the writing narrative question . If LaToya writes, “The Reign of Terror led to writing essay Vrije the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and ultimately paved the writing narrative School way for Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the question, which is not about what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it! A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and how to write for scholarship Deakin, economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out that Juan is going to discuss the political, social, and economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the members of the Bourgeois class were the ultimate inciters of the Revolution. This is a great thesis! It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of what the writer is writing narrative St. Michaels School going to discuss in the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and lays out write St. Johnsbury, what you will discuss in your essay. Writing Essays St. Michaels School? If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from SUNY Empire has an exercise in choosing the synthesis essay Universiteit best thesis from several options. Writing Essays? It’s meant for synthesis Amsterdam, research papers, but the general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Narrative St. Michaels School? Note, however, that most of the correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to “super” thesis statements. Critically Evaluating A Journal Montverde Academy? While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to narrative essays University School write some practice thesis statements in response to how to write an mba essay Madeira the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into account in your argument for the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an essays St. Michaels University School, effective thesis in general. You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to see how you could approach the writing Vrije Amsterdam prompt from writing narrative essays University different angles. Time yourself for 5-10 minutes to mimic the time pressure of the Madeira School AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback. Barring that, looking over writing narrative, the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on how to write an essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake, what might make a good thesis in response to a given prompt.

Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to writing essays St. Michaels University School support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is not a good outline. Outlining and Deakin, Formatting Your Essay. You may be the greatest document analyst and thesis-writer in the world, but if you don’t know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on test day. Narrative School? A good outline will clearly lay out Deakin University (Navitas), your thesis and how you are going to support that thesis in your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from forgetting anything you want to mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from narrative essays St. Michaels University School Roane State has some useful information. How To Report Shawnigan Lake? While the writing St. Michaels University School general principles of outlining an essay hold, the DBQ format is going to have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points. Introduction Thesis. The most important part of your intro!

Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the first point If three body paragraphs: use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on how to an essay report Lake, your number of writing narrative St. Michaels University body paragraphs and how to write report Shawnigan, your main points, you may include different numbers of documents in each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. There’s no one right way to outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and narrative essays, you remember to do a deeper analysis on four documents, bring in outside historical information, and writing essay Universiteit Amsterdam, make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in writing narrative, the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in write an essay Shawnigan Lake, the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills.

You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for Essay Writing. Do you know all of your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in University School, a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing? There could be a few things at how to articles, play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to writing narrative St. Michaels University start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and writing essay Vrije Amsterdam, the documents. Write anything here—don’t censor yourself.

No one will look at those notes but you! After you’ve brainstormed for narrative essays St. Michaels University School, a bit, try to organize those thoughts into a thesis, and then into body paragraphs. A Journal? It’s better to start working and essays St. Michaels University School, change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Are you too anxious to how to for money of California, Los Angeles start writing, or does anxiety distract you in the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety.

Lots of people have this. (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.) You might talk to a guidance counselor about writing narrative essays University your anxiety. They will be able to provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to how to essay mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and writing narrative School, check out how to write St. Johnsbury Academy, tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from TeensHealth , or this plan for reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on writing narrative essays, your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time.

Remember, an outline is just a guide for your essay—it is synthesis Amsterdam fine to switch things around as you are writing. Writing St. Michaels University? It doesn’t need to be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and synthesis essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, shorter time intervals. St. Michaels University School? When you can write one in 20 minutes, bring it down to 18, then down to 16. You may also be trying to cover too much in your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three. If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of how to an essay Brookes Lake contextual information, you need to narrative trim it down to a few relevant sentences.

Be mindful of article Montverde where you are spending a lot of time, and target those areas. Writing Narrative Essays St. Michaels University? You don’t know the problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and less time. Start with 20 minutes for your outline and how to write for money University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need). Then when you can do it in 20 and 50, move back to narrative St. Michaels School 18 minutes and 45 for write a essay University (Navitas), writing, then to 15 and essays St. Michaels University, 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in how to Brookes, the time allotted.

On to the next skill! The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay. In other words, how do you reference the information in narrative essays St. Michaels School, the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the document to identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by the working class citizens of the city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, I’ll move into write for scholarship Deakin University (Navitas) the rubric breakdowns. We’ll discuss each skill the AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. All of the writing narrative St. Michaels School history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the write for money Los Angeles (UCLA) guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to examine the writing narrative rubric.

The DBQ rubric has four sections for how to articles University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), a total of seven points. One point is for having a thesis that works and narrative University, is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by how to write Shawnigan, the documents and historical fact. So please don’t make the main point of essays St. Michaels University School your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an how to write essay School, alien. Essays St. Michaels University? Per the College Board, your thesis needs to be located in your introduction or your conclusion. Write Deakin University (Navitas)? You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in your intro, so stick with what you’re used to.

Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into essays account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is really just the write Brookes Shawnigan Lake idea that historical evidence does not always agree about everything, and that there are reasons for writing narrative University School, agreement, disagreement, etc. How To Write A Essay For Scholarship (Navitas)? How will you know whether the historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to a prompt about women’s suffrage (suffrage is the writing narrative essays St. Michaels right to vote, for those of you who haven’t gotten to that unit in class yet): “Analyze the responses to the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from one congressman to evaluating a journal article Montverde another debating the pros and cons of suffrage, and a political cartoon displaying the essays death of society and the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of Montverde female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and those who believed it was an inherent right of women.” This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the relationships between the documents (and the people behind the documents!) into account.

It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in St. Michaels, favor of women’s suffrage and those who fought against how to Deakin University it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to writing narrative St. Michaels University be socially and civilly subordinate to how to School men, or whether they were in fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into the specifics of the writing narrative essays St. Michaels School relationship between historical factors and shows the broader picture —that is, what responses to women’s suffrage revealed about the how to a essay Deakin University role of women in St. Michaels School, the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the write for scholarship Deakin (Navitas) specific issues to a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the narrative essays St. Michaels University School reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in America over the position of women in society. How To For Money (UCLA)? Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. One point for using six or seven of the documents in your essay to support your argument. Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to the main points of your paragraphs. It's best to avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of Document C expresses his support and admiration for the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the narrative right to how to write an essay vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to upheaval in how to biography Academy, women’s traditional role in society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of what a document says needs to writing narrative essays be tied to how to Brookes Shawnigan Lake a “so what?” If it’s not clear to University you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to write essay Madeira the AP grader. You can get an additional point here for doing further analysis on 4 of the documents. This further analysis could be in any of these 4 areas: Author’s point of view - Why does the author think the way that they do?

What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the author addressing or trying to essays St. Michaels University convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument!

And remember, you only have to do this for how to write essay, four documents for full credit, but it’s fine to do it for more if you can. Narrative Essays? So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for School, AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is good practice for basic document analysis. Writing Narrative Essays St. Michaels? While most of the questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of thinking more deeply about the documents and how to use them. This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about US History, but the practice could be good for other tests too. This prompt from the Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt.

Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about a essay Deakin (Navitas) basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in there! This otter is ready to essays University swim in the waters of the DBQ. How To For Scholarship University? When you want to essays University School do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts. Write Deakin University (Navitas)? Read the documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to your attention. Writing University? Do further analysis—author’s point of view, purpose, audience, and synthesis Universiteit Amsterdam, historical context—on all the documents for practice, even though you will only need to narrative do additional analysis on four on test day.

Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on things like maps and how to write University (Navitas), graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about St. Michaels University how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline! This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for write an essay, all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for St. Michaels University School, that prompt. How To Write Academy? It helpfully has an entire list of writing narrative St. Michaels School analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in your interpretation? If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the Documents - 2 Points. Don’t be freaked out by the fact that this is how to Madeira two points!

One point is just for writing narrative essays St. Michaels School, context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences to write a essay a paragraph about it, but don’t stress; all you really need to know to be able to get this point is information about writing essays St. Michaels School major historical trends over time, and you will need to know this anyways for the multiple choice section. If the question is about the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to include some of the general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized. The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in your essay that does not appear in how to, the documents.

To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the narrative University School prompt and for money University Los Angeles (UCLA), documents and then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. Writing St. Michaels University? I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to read the how to write biography documents and narrative University, prompt and list your outside knowledge—to imitate the time pressure of the DBQ. A Essay For Scholarship Deakin University? When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information! You don’t want to use incorrect information on test day.

If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up! This will help fill in holes in your knowledge. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. Narrative Essays St. Michaels University School? It is probably easiest to do this in biography essay St. Johnsbury Academy, the conclusion of the writing essays St. Michaels University School essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to the Great Recession of 2007-2009. Writing? You do need to writing essays St. Michaels University do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to make it meaningful. How are the how to write for scholarship Deakin University two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other?

Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and narrative University, documents and then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on why the essay St. Johnsbury Academy connection is significant! A great way to writing narrative essays St. Michaels make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to someone else.

If you explain what you think the connection is and they get it, you’re probably on critically evaluating a journal Academy, the right track. Writing University? You can also look at how to biography essay, sample responses and the scoring guide for writing St. Michaels University, the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on how to practice individual rubric skills is pretty similar: pull out critically a journal article, a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on just that skill. Writing University School? However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean? Let’s say, for example, you are studying for synthesis essay Universiteit Amsterdam, US History and want to writing narrative essays St. Michaels School work on writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and document analysis.

Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in write biography St. Johnsbury, response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and writing essays St. Michaels University School, a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the documents. Then, when you pull up the writing synthesis Vrije Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at once! This will also help prime you for test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. Narrative Essays St. Michaels University School? That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine. You’ll need to writing synthesis Vrije Amsterdam put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on them individually at first, that’s fine too. So once you've established your baseline and writing essays University School, prepped for days, what should you do? It's time to how to write University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) take another practice DBQ to see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it!

So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to work on, and practiced writing a thesis statement and writing narrative essays University, analyzing documents for hours. What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you haven’t seen before to how to Deakin University check how you’ve improved. Writing Narrative? Recruit your same trusted advisor to how to write essay School grade your exam and give feedback. After, work on writing School, any skills that still need to be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to make sure you maintain your skills until test day by write Academy, doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will come—read on for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day? Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to take the test! I know, I know.

But I’ve got some advice on how to make sure all of your hard work pays off on test day—both some general tips and some specific advice on how to write a DBQ. Most of these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for narrative University School, the two nights preceding the exam. This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in the afternoon) before the exam with protein and write an essay, whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and making you tired during the exam. Don’t study the night before the essays St. Michaels University exam if you can help it. Instead, do something relaxing. You’ve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on exam day if you aren’t stressed from trying to cram the of California, Los Angeles night before. St. Michaels University School? This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below I’ve laid out how to write a essay (Navitas) use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and essays St. Michaels, writing!

Be sure to keep an eye on evaluating article Montverde, the clock throughout so you can track your general progress. Reading the Question and the Documents: 5-6 min. First thing’s first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times. Writing Essays University? You may want to circle the task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on to the docs and let them jog your memory. It’s fine to have a general idea of a thesis after you read the how to University Los Angeles question, but if you don’t, move on to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on to the documents. Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and narrative essays St. Michaels, notes in the margins. After you’ve passed over an essay report Brookes, the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to analyze more deeply and read them again. You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in writing essays, which the author’s social or political position and stake in how to write St. Johnsbury Academy, the issue at writing essays St. Michaels School, hand are clear.

Get ready to go down the document rabbit hole. Once you’ve read the question and you have preliminary notes on how to a essay for scholarship Deakin (Navitas), the documents, it’s time to start working on a thesis. If you still aren’t sure what to talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Write down themes and concepts that seem important and create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the question and make a claim!

When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to work on an outline . Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on the documents to populate your outline. Which documents support which ideas? You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the writing narrative University document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to how to write for money (UCLA) make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the four documents you are going to further analyze and how to analyze them. Make sure you use all the documents! I can’t stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and writing St. Michaels School, the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to write pretty fast.

Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is out of the write a essay University (Navitas) way! You just need to make sure you get all of your great ideas down in the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction. You won’t get points for it, so trying to be fancy will just waste time. Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the narrative essays School paragraph . Then you can get right into your evidence and your document analysis. As you write, make sure to keep an how to a essay Deakin University (Navitas), eye on the time. You want to be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at the end. Keep in mind that it’s more important to writing narrative clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language. Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine.

If you are short on time, the critically evaluating Academy conclusion is the least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is fine just so long as you’ve hit all the narrative essays School points you need to how to write an essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake (i.e. Narrative Essays St. Michaels? don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in your outline and hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the essay Vrije Amsterdam drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the rubric inside and out so you will remember to hit all the necessary points on writing essays St. Michaels School, test day! It’s easy to lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to ace your DBQ! With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the score you’re aiming for.

The more you practice, the more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to the DBQ. Haven't registered for write a essay for scholarship Deakin University, the test yet? See our article for essays School, help registering for AP exams. For more on synthesis Vrije, studying for the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to writing narrative essays St. Michaels study with. Studying for World History? See these AP World History study tips from one of our experts.

Want to how to write for money Los Angeles (UCLA) improve your SAT score by narrative essays St. Michaels University School, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the an essay report Brookes Shawnigan Lake top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for University School, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. How To Essay School? She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and University School, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on how to a essay for scholarship Deakin University (Navitas), social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about narrative St. Michaels University this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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Global Business Cultural Analysis: China. China Terry Lushbaugh BUSI 604 International Business Liberty University Abstract The following examines the narrative School, nation of China and its trade relations with the world, particularly the United States. The focus is primarily on how to an essay report Brookes Shawnigan China’s culture and writing essays St. Michaels University School, how it impacts business dealings with other countries. Synthesis Essay Vrije Universiteit! Areas examined include: Religion, Management Philosophy, and Business Etiquette. Also discussed is China’s growing status as a world super power and narrative essays School, how that has impacted the global business landscape. We will write a custom essay sample. on Global Business Cultural Analysis: China or any similar. topic specifically for you. Likewise, various trading partners are examined and write for scholarship Deakin University (Navitas), the effects of doing business with China, specifically for the United States. Points of concern for the United States are things such as the outsourcing of jobs and writing narrative University School, domestic unemployment.

China has become the 2nd largest trading partner for the United States. The majority of that trade is in Imports of Chinese goods to the US. With all of the tension between the two nations, past and present, it is how to write essay Madeira a relationship that is writing narrative essays St. Michaels University extremely volatile in nature. Synthesis Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Global Business Cultural Analysis: China. A nation’s culture has a profound impact on how that nation does business globally.

An intricate segment of any nation’s culture is its religious beliefs. Business etiquette, managerial philosophy, and general work attitudes all play a role in how a nation does business. When all of those elements in the nation of China collide with other nations in the global business landscape, what is the outcome? Four key questions will be addressed regarding China and how these elements play a role in business endeavors: what are the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School, major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? How are these elements and dimensions integrated by article, locals conducting business in the nation? How do both of the above items (elements and dimensions of culture) compare with U. S. culture in business?

And, what are the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University, implications for U. S. businesses that what to do business in that region? Particular focus will be on Chinese trading relations with the United States. This relationship that began in critically a journal article 1979 has built up to the present where China has become the United States second largest trading partner. Page 2 Global Business Cultural Analysis: China Essay. vast majority of that trade takes place in the form of narrative essays St. Michaels University School imports of Chinese goods to the United States. Some believe that this has been a detriment to the U. S. economy. Scott (2011) states that the growing United States-China trade deficit has either eliminated of displaced 2. 8 million jobs between the years 2001-2010. The greatest effect was seen in the manufacturing sector which accounted for 69. 2% of the total jobs lost for the period. A Essay Deakin (Navitas)! This is seen by the U. S. government as a huge concern, especially if the trend continues.

China and the United States have a history of volatility that continues to the present day. The growing involvement of writing narrative China in the U. S. economy as the largest holder of publicly held debt makes for an even more interesting study. The overriding perception globally is that the United States has grown weaker, while China is growing stronger (Timofeev, 2012). That pendulum of super power status seems to be swinging. Like it or not, the United States has to come to terms with its diminishing global status in comparison to China.

What are the Major Elements and Dimensions of Culture in This Region? Background The U. S. An Mba Essay Madeira! Department of State, Background Note: China (2011) offers some background information for China to narrative essays St. Michaels University, begin our discussion. Geographically speaking, China’s land mass covers approximately 3. 7 million miles with the capital city being Beijing. It experiences two climates; tropical in how to write essay the south region and subarctic in the north. China’s population as of July 2011 is estimated to be 1,336,718,015. Life expectancy is 72.

68 years for men and writing narrative University School, 76. 94 years for women. The government of China is a Communist party-led state. China does have a constitution which was enacted December 4, 1982. For Scholarship University (Navitas)! There are a total of seven languages spoken in China with the predominate dialect being Mandarin (spoken by writing essays University School, more than 70% of the population). Write A Essay For Scholarship! At the core of any nation’s culture are its religious beliefs.

In China there are the “Three Jewels” Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, as described in Lopez (1996). There are small numbers of people practicing other religions such as Christianity and Islam, but these are the three dominant beliefs of the region. While they are separate in narrative essays St. Michaels School content, they have coexisted for several thousand years. Lopez (1996) goes on to say, “Historical precedent and popular parlance attest to the importance of write Brookes Shawnigan this threefold division for understanding Chinese culture…Buddhism is the sun, Daoism the moon, and Confucianism the five planets…suggesting that although they remain separate, they also coexist as equally indispensable phenomena of the essays St. Michaels University School, natural world. ” Each belief system stands alone, and at the same time needs the other(s). Confucianism. The religion of Confucianism begins, of write report Brookes Shawnigan Lake course, with Confucius whose Chinese name was Kong Qui and who lived from writing narrative essays St. Michaels University 551 B. C. to 479 B. C. Critically Article Montverde Academy! Surprisingly Confucius was merely a low level government worker. He did not exactly view himself as the founder of a school of thought. Regardless, Confucianism is the most influential belief system in Chinese culture. It provides the rules which govern the social behavior of the individual. The basic teachings of Confucius are grounded in the Five Constant Virtues: humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness.

Confucius went on to define five basic human relations and principles for each relation called Wu Lun. Sovereign and subject (master and follower): Loyalty and duty. Father and son: Love and narrative essays School, obedience. Husband and wife: Obligation and submission. Elder and younger brothers: Seniority and modeling. Friend and friend: Trust (Fan, 2000). Confucianism defines the behavioral and how to write articles University of California, (UCLA), moral doctrine regarding relationships, social structures, virtuous behavior, and work ethic.

Daoism Those who practice Daoism live in reverence of the Dao, which is translated as the Way. The point of writing a Daoist way of life is to synthesis essay Vrije Amsterdam, strive for harmony with the Dao, who is the essence of everything that exists. Unlike Confucianism, Daoism does not name a founder of essays St. Michaels University School its school of thought. Write An Mba! It is believed, however, that a person named Laozi is responsible for its initial teachings. He wrote one of the most prominent early texts associated with Daoism, “The Classic on the Way and Its Power. ” The Daoist attitude toward life can be seen as carefree and accepting, which is writing St. Michaels School a stark contrast to how to report Brookes, the moral and duty conscious teachings of Confucianism. Daoism also has a positive view as well as being active in metaphysical activities and the occult, which is also in essays St. Michaels contrast to Confucianism. While Confucianism touts its principles for the proper way that individuals should interact, the tradition of Daoism is that all beings and things in the universe are fundamentally the same and writing essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the natural order of things cannot be manipulated or predicted. It needs only to be embraced (Fan, 2000).

Buddhism Like Confucianism, Buddhism has a central character whose teachings guide the religious belief. The traditions of Buddhism are largely based on narrative University School the teachings of Siddhartha Guatama, who is better known as the write Shawnigan Lake, Buddha. In Sanskrit, Buddha is translated to “the enlightened one. ” Buddhas–enlightened ones–are unusual because they differ from narrative other, unenlightened individuals and because of the truths to which they have awakened. Most people live in profound ignorance, which causes immense suffering. Buddhas, by contrast, see the true nature of reality (Lopez, 1996). The Buddhas have the ability through their “enlightenment” to do what the rest of us cannot, solve the mysteries of the human existence.

Other Religions While statistics show that there are a large number of Christians practicing in China (nearly 23 million), it’s not clear how many houses of worship there are because so many Christians practice in unregistered religious gatherings or “house” churches, primarily due to the fear of persecution or the possibly imprisonment. Being a practicing Christian in China can be a dangerous prospect. The next highest religious population is the Muslims at 21 million. Of China’s 55 officially recognized minorities, 10 groups are predominately Muslim. According to government figures, there are 36,000 Islamic places of worship and more than 45,000 imams found in throughout the nation (U. S. Write Los Angeles (UCLA)! Department of State, 2011). Family and Social Orientation In Chinese culture, the family unit is of great importance. Re-examining the human relations and essays St. Michaels University School, principles under Confucianism, it is clear how much of an emphasis is put on how to write biography essay family. Principles are stressed regarding fathers and sons, husbands and wives, and siblings. Writing Essays St. Michaels University! Words such as love and obedience, obligation and submission, and how to biography essay Academy, seniority and modeling are emphasized.

Family relationships are meant to be harmonious and writing narrative St. Michaels School, beneficial to each party. Among the family unit there is a sense of belonging and a feeling of solidarity (Guo, 2004). Interpersonal Relations Just as family relationships are important, non-family or social relationships are very important as well. How To An Mba Essay Madeira School! Confucius also talks about trust between friends. Trust is a vital part of any Chinese relationship (the same can be said of any relationship from School any country). Other essential relational traits include; Jen-ai or kindness, tolerance, courtesy, humbleness, reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts, and face (protecting, giving, gaining, and losing) (Fan, 2000). How are the write (Navitas), Elements and Dimensions Integrated by Locals Doing Business in the Nation? Business and Work Attitudes Chinese attitudes toward conducting business are very strict and School, proper. For instance, there is no “Casual Friday” to be found on the calendar.

They view the business transaction as more than just a deal, but as a process that involves proper manners and etiquette. In a meeting setting all introductions are formal, proper and Universiteit, formal titles are to be used at all times and in a meeting setting, always allow the Chinese to leave the meeting first. For the Chinese, the essays, business decision making process is slow and meticulous (Dellios, 2005). There are no quick off the cuff decisions made. The Chinese value rank and status in an organization, so when conducting a business meeting the highest ranking, most important person who is how to essay present in your company should lead the meeting. The Chinese do not appreciate a surprise visit to the office by a business associate. Appointments are a must. To not do so would be considered rude. Finally, when greeting each other, bowing or nodding is always the common practice. However, a handshake may be offered, but only if the Chinese offer it first. Management Philosophy As has been previously mentioned, Chinese culture is greatly influenced by Confucianism.

Love, integrity, loyalty, and conscientiousness toward others are characteristics that are present not only in everyday life at home, but in the business world as well. Confucianism encourages devotion to parents, family, friends, leaders, and the society, and respect towards authority. Writing Essays School! Perseverance, patience, and tolerance are also highly valued in the Chinese culture. Another characteristic of the Confucius culture is the high importance put on the understanding of proper etiquette and social norms (Jiang amp; Liu, 2004). In a Chinese corporation, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the ultimate leader as well as decision maker. Given the Chinese belief in write biography essay St. Johnsbury Academy loyalty in respect of superiors, this role becomes even more amplified. Chinese Business Etiquette In a 2012 Interview of a Chinese businessman by the International Business Center, the following question was asked: What is the writing narrative University, single most common business etiquette mistake that Americans make in your home country? Answer: I believe that the most common mistake is to adopt the attitude that things like etiquette is critically evaluating a journal not important, even a waste of time. Only discussions and negotiations of the technical and financial matters are of value. This view, in my opinion, reflects the assumption that every transaction stands on its own, without considering subsequent trade.

Many societies (including many Americans) do not view business this way. The Chinese most certainly do not view business etiquette and manners as a waste of time. They parallel in importance with the actual business dealing at hand. Here is a sampling of some of the writing St. Michaels University, specific behaviors and manners expected to be demonstrated when dealing with the Chinese as offered by the International Business Center (Williams, 2012). Appearance * Conservative suits for men with subtle colors are the norm. * Women should avoid high heels and short sleeved blouses. The Chinese frown on women who display too much. * Subtle, neutral colors should be worn by essay Madeira School, both men and women. * Casual dress should be conservative as well. * Men and women can wear jeans. Narrative Essays University School! However, jeans are not acceptable for business meetings. Revealing clothing for women is considered offensive to Chinese businessmen. Manners * Do not use large hand movements. The Chinese do not speak with their hands. Your movements may be distracting to your host. * Personal contact must be avoided at all cost.

It is highly inappropriate for a man to touch a woman in public. * Do not point when speaking. * To point do not use your index finger, use an open palm. How To A Essay For Scholarship Deakin (Navitas)! * It is considered improper to writing narrative University School, put your hand in writing Universiteit your mouth. * Avoid acts that involve the mouth. * It is more acceptable to give gifts either in essays St. Michaels University School private or to writing synthesis Universiteit, a group as a whole to avoid embarrassment. Quality writing pens are considered favored gifts. Proper Dining Manners * Always arrive on time or early if you are the guest. * Do not discuss business at meals. * Do not start to eat or drink prior to the host. * As a cultural courtesy, you should taste all the dishes you are offered. * Sample meals only, there may be several courses. * Do not drop the chopsticks it is narrative essays School considered bad luck. * Do not eat all of your meal. If you eat all of your meal, the write a essay for scholarship University, Chinese will assume you did not receive enough food and are still hungry. * Women do not usually drink at narrative School, meals. Tipping is considered insulting, however the evaluating Montverde, practice is narrative becoming more common. As you can see, there is writing Vrije Amsterdam no shortage of etiquette and manners in Chinese business settings. It would be incumbent upon anyone who plans on doing business in China to take the time to become familiar with Chinese culture and customs and by all means, take it very seriously (Williams, 2012). How do Both of the Above Items Compare with U. S. Culture and writing essays, Business? China as a Superpower One of the most important aspects of China’s presence on the global business landscape is the how to biography essay St. Johnsbury Academy, rise of China as one of the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University, worlds Superpowers. As the new century unfolds, in all probability so will China’s prospects unfold as a global power, not just a regional one. Consider once again China’s contemporary dimensions – an write a essay for scholarship Deakin (Navitas) enormous country with the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University, world’s largest population and military establishment.

Its economy is among the world’s fastest growing. It is expected to become the largest by how to write an essay, the year 2025. Historically too, it is School imbued with greatness…inheriting 5,000 years of civilization (Dellios, 2004). Synthesis Essay Amsterdam! Economically speaking, China is the world’s fourth largest trading nation. That status has progressed from thirty-second in 1978 and University, tenth in 1997.

Its economy has grown at an average of 9. 5% annually since 1985. Its Gross Domestic Product ranks second only to the U. S. at 13% of the world’s output. China’s population makes up one-fifth of the critically a journal Montverde, world’s total population and geographically it is the writing essays University, third largest country behind Russia and Canada (Dellios, 2004). The influence of China over the world’s economy has continued to grow in write an essay report Shawnigan recent years. One need not look ant further than China’s involvement in the economy of the narrative University School, U. S. to see that demonstrated. As China continues to grow it is possible that it may overtake the United States as the world’s foremost super power. United States – China Relations Political Relations In recent years, the agenda of U. S. – China relations has changed dramatically. Current U. S. -China relations have moved far beyond a bilateral or regional Asian relationship. The current presidential cycle in the U. S. essentially differs from the how to biography essay St. Johnsbury Academy, periods of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.

Indeed, in his statements during the election campaign Clinton concentrated on violations of human rights in essays China, and accused his predecessor of foreign policy anemia following the how to Academy, Tiananmen Square massacre. It also differs from the George W. Bush’s considering of China as “not a strategic partner, but a strategic competitor. ” Under the current circumstances of the global financial and economic crisis, the agenda of bilateral dialogue between Washington and Beijing focuses mainly on economic problems (Timofeev, 2012). Throughout the Cold War the two big kids on the block were the United States and writing narrative St. Michaels, Russia. In recent years Russia has been replaced in its position by China. Business Relations The relationship between the United States and China is deep and complex. In recent years China has become a huge player in the economy of the write an mba Madeira, United States. The Department of the Treasury reports that China owns about 8% of U. S. publicly held dept equal to $1. Writing Narrative Essays School! 7 trillion. There are other foreign holders of US debt, but none to how to write an essay report Brookes Shawnigan Lake, the extent of China. A September 2011 Congressional Research Service Report estimates that US exports to China for 2011 will total $109.

2 billion and imports will be $410. 64 billion. The net result is a trade deficit of $301. 4 billion. The same report outlines the historical figures of trade between the US and China dating back to 1980 when exports to China stood at $3. St. Michaels University! 8 billion and imports were $1.1 billion. As this relationship progresses, it can only be assumed that it will grow even more complex (Morrison, 2011). In a speech given at a luncheon hosted by the American Bankers Association on December 8, 2003, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao proposed five principles of fair trade and economic partnership between China and the U. S. : “First, mutual benefits and win-win results. Write An Essay Brookes Shawnigan! Thinking broadly, one should take account of others’ interests while pursuing its own. Second, development first. Existing differences should be resolved through expanded trade and essays, economic cooperation.

Third, greater scope to coordinating mechanisms in how to write (Navitas) bilateral trade and economic relations. Disputes should be addressed in a timely manner through communication and consultation to avoid possible escalation. Fourth, equal consultation. Writing Narrative University! The two sides should seek consensus while reserving differences on major issues, instead of imposing restrictions or sanctions at every turn. Fifth, do not politicize economic and trade issues. ” (Timofeev, 2012). Trade Relations Since 2000, the United States has incurred its largest bilateral trade deficit with China ($201 billion in 2005, a 25% rise over 2004). In 2003, China replaced Mexico as the second largest source of imports for the United States. Synthesis Vrije Universiteit! China’s share of U. S. imports was 14. 6% in 2005, although this proportion still falls short of Japan’s 18% of the early 1990s. Writing Narrative Essays School! The United States is China’s largest overseas market and second largest source of foreign direct investment on a cumulative basis. U. S. exports to China have been growing rapidly as well, although from a low base.

In 2004, China replaced Germany and Great Brittan to become the fourth largest market for U. Critically Evaluating Academy! S. goods and remains the fastest growing major U. S. export market (Lum amp; Nanto, 2007). Some items that the U. S. imports from China include: computer equipment and parts, toys and narrative essays University School, games, communications equipment, apparel, and audio and video equipment. In contrast, the U. S. imports to China include: oilseeds and grains, waste and scrap, semiconductors, aerospace products (aircraft), and resin and synthetic rubber. Write School! The most dramatic increases in U. S. imports from narrative essays St. Michaels China have not been in write a essay University labor intensive sectors rather in technology sectors. U. S. trade policy with China is based on the assumption that trade will be beneficial to both countries both economically and politically (Lum amp; Nanto, 2007). The developing Chinese economy gives the U. S. an opportunity to be a part of a large and expanding market. Writing Narrative School! What are the Implications for U. S. Businesses That Wish to Conduct Business in That Region? Chinese Global Trading Partners China runs a trade surplus with the world’s three major economic centers: the critically a journal, United States, the European Union, and Japan. We have previously documented the trade figures between the U. S. and China.

As is the St. Michaels University, case with the United States, Japan has run a trade deficit with China since the 1980’s. Japan’s trade with China dropped from a surplus of $6 billion in 1985 to a deficit of nearly $6 billion in 1990. Japan’s trade deficit with China reached a peak of $26. 5 billion in 2001 and report, was surpassed in writing narrative St. Michaels University 2005 ($28. 5 billion). Synthesis Essay Amsterdam! Japan’s exports to China have grown dramatically in the past few years, its largest exports to China are: electronics, machinery, iron and steel, optical, photographic, and medical equipment, and organic chemicals. The European Union incurred a trade deficit with China of $947 million in 1988, which grew to $121. 8 billion in narrative School 2005. The European Union trade deficit with China began in the late 1990’s and grew to $63 billion in 2005. Compared to for scholarship University, the world’s two other major economic centers, the U. S. trade deficit with China at over $300 billion is the largest, followed by the European Union deficit with China at essays School, $121. 8 billion and Japan at essay, $28.

5 billion (U. S. Department of writing essays St. Michaels School State, 2011). United States – China Trade Issues The Growing U. S. trade deficit with China cost 2. 8 million jobs between 2001 and 2010 by Robert Scott, EPI’s Director of Trade and Manufacturing Policy Research, finds that all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico suffered jobs lost or displaced as a result of the growing U.S. -China trade deficit…it eliminated or displaced 2,790,100 jobs, or about 2% of total U. Writing Vrije Universiteit! S. employment over that period. (Scott, 2011). The U. S. trade deficit with China grew from $84 billion in 2001 to University, in excess of $300 billion in 2011. As a rule, increases in U. S. exports tend to create jobs for United States, and increases in imports tend to lead to critically a journal Academy, job loss. Thus, the growing trade deficit signifies growing job loss. China’s economic reforms and rapid economic growth, along with the effects of globalization, have caused the economies of the U. S. and China to become increasingly integrated. Although growing economic ties are considered by most analysts to be mutually beneficial overall, tensions have risen over narrative essays St. Michaels University School a number of Chinese economic and write an mba Madeira School, trade policies that many U. S. Writing Narrative Essays St. Michaels University School! critics charge are protectionist, economically distortive, and how to for scholarship (Navitas), damaging to U. S. economic interests. These include China’s resistance to adopting a market-based currency; its mixed record on implementing its obligations in narrative essays School the World Trade Organization (Morrison, 2011). Another great concern is how to essay Madeira School Chinese manipulation of its currency (Yuan).

Many U. Writing Narrative University! S. policymakers and business representatives claim that China manipulates its currency in order to keep the value artificially low against the dollar (U. S. Department of State, 2011). They claim that this action results in a subsidy for how to write an essay Lake, Chinese exports to the United States, and results in narrative essays University a tariff on Chinese imported U. S. How To Deakin University! goods. Writing St. Michaels University School! They complain that this policy has particularly hurt several U. S. manufacturing sectors that are forced to compete against low-cost Chinese products, and has led to the loss of hundreds of thousands of U. S. jobs.

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WHAT#039;S WRONG WITH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY? : The arguments against CSR. Like the iceberg, most CSR activity is invisible. It is often an active attempt to narrative essays St. Michaels University increase corporate domination rather than simply a defensive 'image management' operation. 76. CSR is supposed to be win-win. Write For Money Los Angeles? The companies make profits.

This section explores how CSR diverts attention from real. CSR as Public Relations. CSR also helps to greenwash the writing narrative School company's image, to cover up negative impacts by saturating the media with positive images of the (UCLA) company's CSR credentials. As Deborah Doane points out in 'From Red Tape to Road Signs', CSR enables business to claim progress despite the lack of evidence of writing narrative essays School, verifiable change 78. Since much of the business case for CSR depends on corporations being seen to be socially responsible, CSR will continue to an mba Madeira School be little more than PR for as long as it is easier and cheaper to writing narrative essays University School spin than to how to write biography essay Academy change. A prominent case against writing narrative St. Michaels School Nike in the US Supreme Court illustrates this point.

When, in 2002, the Californian Supreme Court ruled that Nike did not have the write right to lie in defending itself against criticism, chaos ensued in the CSR movement. Activist Marc Kasky attempted to sue the company over a misleading public relations campaign. Nike defended itself using the writing St. Michaels University School First Amendment right to free speech. The court ruled that Nike was not protected by the First Amendment, on the grounds that the publications in question were commercial speech79. The case proceeded to the US Supreme Court. Writing Synthesis Essay? Legal briefs were submitted to the Supreme Court by public relations and advertising trade associations, major media groups, and writing essays School, leading multinationals, arguing that if a company's claims on human rights, environmental and social issues are legally required to be true, then companies won't continue to make statements on these matters. The submission from Deakin University ExxonMobil, Monsanto, Microsoft, Bank of. This case simply reinforces the criticism that CSR is nothing more than a PR exercise. Corporations would not be so concerned about potential legal actions if they valued truth, transparency and University School, accountability as much as they claim. Writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? The submissions to the court show how important it is for essays University, corporate America to defend itself against a legal ruling which would make it more difficult for companies to make false and misleading statements to defend their image. The point is further illustrated by the conflict between what a company says in public and in its dialogue with NGOs, compared to what it is saying behind closed doors when it is lobbying government or through industry mouthpieces like the International Chamber of Commerce or the Confederation of British Industry.

That CSR is criticised as being a PR stunt is unsurprising, bearing in mind that most CSR workers in companies sit in the communications and PR departments81, and considering that the strategies of CSR - dialogue with NGOs, codes of conduct, social reports - were all designed and writing essay Vrije Amsterdam, developed by PR companies such as Burson-Marsteller, E.Bruce Harrison and Hill and Knowlton82. CSR is a clear part of the essays St. Michaels University industry's attempts to write articles of California, Los Angeles co-opt the environmental movement. This strategy has been outlined in detail by Ronald Duchin, senior vice- president of PR spy firm Mongoven, Biscoe and Duchin (MBD). MBD works to divide and conquer activist movements. Activists, he explained, fall into four distinct categories: 'radicals,' 'opportunists,' 'idealists,' and narrative essays St. Michaels, 'realists.' He outlined a three-step strategy: isolate the radicals; 'cultivate' the idealists and biography, 'educate' them into becoming realists; then co-opt the realists into agreeing with industry83. CSR has created a language shift, a re-brand and a new caring.

Like the iceberg, most CSR activity is invisible. It is often an active attempt to increase corporate domination rather than simply a defensive 'image management' operation. Essays University School? 76. CSR is a strategy for avoiding regulation. Companies are essentially holding the government to essay Vrije ransom on. These arguments, however, simply serve to expose the sham of. If regulation distracts from best practice, then companies cannot be acting 'responsibly' because they believe it to be morally right to do so ? only because they are trying to get an advantage over their competitors. The argument that regulation would hinder voluntary efforts on the part of the company to improve their behaviour has been readily accepted by a government keen to avoid its regulatory duties when it comes to curbing corporate power. The UK Department for International Development (the department charged with tackling global poverty, not the one set up to defend industry) dismissed the writing narrative essays School idea of an international legally binding framework for multinational companies saying that it would 'divert attention and energy away from encouraging corporate social responsibility and towards legal processes.'86 As this quotation shows, without any evidence for how to write an essay report Lake, its effectiveness, the government is choosing CSR over making corporate exploitation and abuse illegal. Regulation, including rules on: how corporations can be structured, as well as on the impacts they can have on writing essays St. Michaels the environment and society, and their dealings with their workforce and other stakeholders, is the only way that a democratic society can control what is acceptable and unacceptable in how to write an mba Madeira, corporate behaviour. Should corporations be able to decide for themselves what.

As Joel Bakan puts it, 'no one would seriously suggest that individuals should regulate themselves, that laws against writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School murder, assault and writing synthesis essay Vrije Amsterdam, theft are unnecessary because people are socially responsible. Yet oddly we are asked to writing St. Michaels University School believe that corporate persons ? institutional psychopaths who lack any sense of moral conviction and critically evaluating a journal article, who have the power and motivation to cause harm and devastation in the world ? should be left free to govern themselves.'87. Lobbying against writing St. Michaels University School regualtion. The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has lobbied against: any binding emission targets in a essay University (Navitas), the Kyoto Protocol at narrative essays University, the climate summits; the implementation of the a journal article Convention on Biodiversity; the inclusion of the precautionary principle in the Biosafety Protocol; and narrative, the Basel Convention banning the export of hazardous waste88. As a key organisation in the UN Global Compact, the how to write biography essay ICC vigorously defended its position that the UN should in no way measure or regulate the way the narrative essays School companies live up to the principles they have promised to follow89. Business Action for Sustainable Development (BASD) was launched in 2001 jointly by the ICC and an essay Shawnigan Lake, World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) to 'ensure maximum participation of the business community' in the Johannesburg Earth Summit in 2002. BASD succeeded in thwarting efforts to achieve binding international regulation of corporations through its promotion of voluntary mechanisms. BASD's chairman Mark Moody-Stuart (former CEO of writing St. Michaels University, Shell) argued that promoting a positive image of corporations was urgent, 'as others see the need for legislation and codes with teeth to make sure that business. is compelled to adopt certain standards and procedures'90. Lobbying for regulation. Environmental managers from BT and John Lewis (which owns Waitrose) complained that without tighter standards that everyone has to conform to, their companies put themselves at how to an mba essay School, a disadvantage if they try to go green. 'All that counts', the man from John Lewis said, 'is cost, cost and cost.' If he?s buying eco-friendly lighting and his competitors aren?t,

Yes, I heard the cry of the unicorn: a corporate executive, welcoming a European directive. And from the government? Nothing. Elliot Morley, the minister for climate change, proposed to do as little as he could get away with. The officials from the Department of writing narrative School, Trade and Industry, to a collective groan from the men in suits, insisted that the measures some of the companies wanted would be ?an. Former Shell CEO Philip Watts put it this way, '. having thus prepared themselves it is in those Chief Executive Officers? interests to advocate societal and governmental changes in the right direction to speed up trends. The smart CEOs not only Deakin University (Navitas), are going to orient companies towards sustainability, but also are going to orient society towards sustainability.'96. Similarly John Browne, CEO of BP, has called for 'the help of governments to establish the appropriate framework of incentives to move toward climate stabilisation'97. Jules Peck of essays St. Michaels, WWF commented that companies are 'showing signs of write an essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake, discontent with trade associations that do not adequately represent their interests.

For many pioneering companies environmental regulation or economic instruments would reinforce their competitive position by pushing other companies to internalise more of their environmental costs.' But before we get too excited at the prospect of companies jumping the fence and joining campaigners in the push for writing St. Michaels, progressive regulation, let's take a step back and ask a few questions. What kind of regulation do they want? Why do they want it? Will it be effective? Can corporate power really be channelled in such a way as to critically evaluating a journal article Montverde support efforts to control corporate power? First, there is a difference between regulation and financial. Secondly, these companies are calling for regulation because. Where regulation is being called for it is only in areas that supports the writing University company's competitive advantage. For example, retailers Boots, Marks and Spencer, H M and Electrolux have lobbied to how to write an mba essay support the EU REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) Directive99.

While this has been highly useful in narrative essays University, combating the huge lobbying power of the chemical industry (REACH has seen the largest ever corporate lobbying campaign in Europe100), the retailers are not lobbying in the public interest any more than BASF and the other chemical companies which have lobbied against the legislation101. How To Essay School? Instead, the retailers want: to ensure that the costs of REACH are imposed on the chemical producers and not retailers; to push for better regulation to minimise their own financial risk as end-users and retailers of harmful chemicals; to reap the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School rewards of having already sought to reduce harmful chemicals in their manufacturing processes and retail products in response to consumer demand; and to rebuild consumer trust in chemicals. It is, again, a hard-nosed business position. So companies are likely to how to write for money of California, (UCLA) support regulation when it supports their business strategy or capitalises on areas where they have invested, but they are unlikely to support the narrative essays kind of across-the-board regulation called for by the corporate accountability movement. Because companies will only lobby for the type of regulation that makes them more competitive, any regulation they support will be counterweighted by lobbying from competitors who would lose out if regulation is brought in. The powerful trade associations such as the CBI and ICC will tend to write articles for money University Los Angeles (UCLA) come out on the side of the majority of companies who will be against regulation. The supposedly 'progressive' companies which are lobbying for regulation remain members of the trade associations because membership protects their broader interests. Is it possible to divide these powerful business lobbies against each other? Truly progressive regulation can only be implemented if public awareness and activism can rival the business lobby. This means mobilising people power on writing narrative St. Michaels a grand scale to launch a major attack on corporate power. The market has no morality102.

Hand in hand with pushing for further deregulation or pushing for favourable regulation (as above), companies are effectively capturing the issue space around major social and environmental problems and seeking to how to write propose solutions which fit within a market-centred worldview. CSR asserts the classic free market line that the market will. Market-based 'solutions' distract us from this. Narrative Essays St. Michaels? If society's primary approach to tackling major social and environmental problems is to enable the powerful interests that caused the problems to profit from their resolution, then the very intention of solving these problems is subsumed to the interest of profit. Case Study: Carbon trading as a solution to cliamte change. The perversity of market mechanisms is exemplified by carbon trading: allowing corporations to avoid reducing their emissions by write report Shawnigan Lake buying carbon credits. As Tony Blair chillingly said in his address to the World Economic Forum, 'if we put forward, as a solution to climate change, something which involves drastic cuts in essays, growth or standards of essay Vrije, living, it matters not how justified it is, it simply won't be agreed to'[my italics]106. By this guiding orthodoxy, real solutions to narrative St. Michaels School the climate crisis are out, and market mechanisms are in. Carbon trading relies on the idea that once a price is assigned to an essay report Shawnigan Lake the earth's carbon cycling capacity, markets will be able to respond.

Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol quickly moved from writing narrative St. Michaels University productive discussions about the nature of the climate crisis and how to an essay report, the need for University School, action to the issue of how corporations could profit from critically evaluating article 'solutions'. Rather than legislating to cut emissions, Kyoto creates property rights: privatising the earth's capacity to absorb greenhouse gases. These emissions rights have an estimated market value of narrative St. Michaels School, $2.345 trillion, the 'largest invention of monetary assets by voluntary international treaty in history'107. Rights to emit are handed out directly to the Northern countries based on their historical level of emissions, meaning that those that have polluted most in synthesis Vrije Universiteit, the past get the most free rights to emit. Most nations receiving these rights are in turn passing large quantities of them, for free, to private companies in heavy industrial sectors.108 In addition, companies can fund energy-saving or carbon sequestration projects (storing carbon through, for example, planting trees) in developing countries to 'offset' their carbon emissions and create new carbon credits. Campaigners have catalogued a large number of concerns about the carbon trading system109.

They have shown that the idea of 'sequestering' carbon by planting trees to 'offset' emissions from burning fossil fuels does not equate to keeping the carbon reserves in the ground. Jutta Kill of SinksWatch argues that 'even in writing essays St. Michaels University School, purely economic terms, a market in how to write Brookes Shawnigan Lake, credits from ?carbon-saving? projects will fail. You simply can?t verify whether a power plant?s emissions can be ?compensated for? by a tree plantation or other project. Ultimately investors are bound to lose confidence in the credits they buy from such projects'110. That governments chose to narrative St. Michaels University School adopt an untested, logically flawed and bureaucratically complex international trading system to address emissions reductions, rather than tried and tested methods such as taxation and write an mba essay, regulation, represents an unprecedented triumph for the corporate capture of the debate on climate change. Companies successfully staved off the threat that tackling climate change in a socially equitable way would represent to their profit margins. Larry Lohman of The Cornerhouse argues that '. Kyoto-style carbon accounting systems [tend] to marginalize non-corporate, non-state and non-expert contributions toward climatic stability. Narrative Essays School? The Kyoto Protocol?s market system. Article Academy? not only writing St. Michaels University, cannot succeed in slowing the upward flow of fossil carbon into the overflowing above-ground carbon dump, but is also entrenching institutions and procedures that are likely to stand in the way of synthesis Universiteit Amsterdam, constructive approaches to climate change.'

Can the consumer really change the market? Firstly statistics suggest that consumers are not, in fact, consuming ethically, even when they are concerned about the writing narrative St. Michaels University School social impact of products. In a Co-operative Bank survey, 89% of British consumers said they were concerned about social and environmental impacts, but only 18% said they reflect this in purchasing decisions111. According to a MORI poll, fewer than 5% were what they called 'global watchdogs' making purchasing decisions on primarily ethical grounds112. But, even if consumers did primarily choose products on ethical grounds, this does not address the fundamental issue: the volume at write biography essay Academy, which we consume and the throwaway culture that goes with our over-consumption. The idea of ethical consumption also pre-supposes that consumers have access to unbiased information, but with millions spent by companies on advertising, much of the available information is heavily biased. The principal purpose of advertising is to make the product seem more essential, more important, more exciting or, in this case, more ethical than it really is. Since few consumers closely scrutinise a company's ethical claims, companies are able to get away with misleading messages even when they are refuted by independent sources.

Therefore, consumers are not truly empowered. Although corporations and government constantly refer to consumer power, consumers are often poorly informed and isolated; moreover, they have many vested interests in the system which means that their scrutiny is frequently limited to comparatively superficial issues. In some ways they are complicit with CSR, because they would like to believe it. Noam Chomsky points out that corporations use advertising to mould the consumer's desires and lifestyle, to the consumer's own detriment. He says, 'the ideal is to have individuals that are totally dissociated from narrative essays St. Michaels University one another. whose sense of value is ?Just how many created wants can I satisfy???113. So the disenfranchisement of consumers is a key part of corporate advertising strategies.

Through CSR, companies are trying to appeal to ethical consumers but also to undermine the principle of ethical consumption. Consumers' primary concerns are cost and convenience. Because of this, consumers are unlikely to act on social issues in the same way that enfranchised citizens would if called on to make democratic decisions about what a corporation should and should not be allowed to writing essay Vrije Universiteit do. Ethical consumption is often presented as democratic. Writing Narrative Essays St. Michaels University? Companies are responding directly to the concerns of the public. If the public were concerned then they wouldn't buy the product. How To Write University (Navitas)? But does this argument stand up? The idea that consumers will 'vote with their pounds' is actually anti-democratic. It means that decisions are made on the basis of writing narrative University School, purchasing power.

Individuals' access to power is decided according to the size their wallets. But what about those who are too poor to participate in write report, the consumer economy? The power to decide what is and writing essays St. Michaels, is not acceptable in corporate practice should not reside just with rich consumers, but also workers, producers and communities globally who are affected by write University of California, that practice. Focusing on ethical consumption lets the corporations off the hook. It's easy for narrative essays St. Michaels University School, corporations to deflect responsibility for inaction onto consumers who they have pushed into apathy. Write Biography Essay Academy? But if they use the narrative language of responsibility, then there must be an for scholarship University (Navitas) associated obligation, with or without consumer demand. Race to the top. In a report detailing the narrative essays St. Michaels reasons for the collapse of the project, the authors deliver a sound critique of the supermarkets' analysis of CSR and contend that self regulation is not sufficient to create a significant shift toward sustainability in the sector115. The authors criticise the supermarkets attempts to conflate 'public good' with 'customer value', to keep ethics as a niche consumer choice rather than a corporate standard, to use their controlling position in the market to pass on responsibility and cost for sustainability initiatives down the supply chain whilst taking the credit.

They conclude that for many civil society organisations, the demise of how to write University, RTTT is a signal that only 'command-and-control' regulation can tame the writing narrative School supermarket sector and that at least 'in such a relentlessly consumer-oriented industry, self-regulation and voluntary initiatives are only likely to Montverde be appropriate for concerns that are aligned with the mainstream consumer interest. The RTTT project reveals that the notion that the consumer will vote with their money is deeply flawed, that the consumer and the citizen are not one and the same, and that companies like supermarkets, that are highly consumer-focused, may listen to consumers when it suits them but the broader concerns of the narrative citizen, in writing synthesis Amsterdam, both the North and in the South, are ignored. Aside from being distinctly undemocratic, this model also means that the St. Michaels University School scope for change is limited to the concerns related to consumer choice. Corporate Citizenship: With responsibilities come rights. This kind of language shift creates a tangible shift in attitudes. Corporate citizenship buys companies access to how to write a essay for scholarship public finance for risky projects abroad.

Companies which sign up to the OECD guidelines and complete environmental impact assessments gain finance and export credits through public bodies such as the World Bank's International Finance Corporation116 or the European Bank for writing essays School, Regional Development117. How To Deakin (Navitas)? Corporate citizenship also legitimises the writing narrative St. Michaels presence of critically evaluating a journal article Montverde Academy, corporations in international forums and, often, their lobbying activities. Corporations have a presence at all the University important world summits from the write biography G8 to the WSSD. Their involvement is bought by their 'commitment' to CSR and 'sustainability', and gives them the opportunity to dominate the writing essays School agenda and write an mba essay Madeira School, put across their view of narrative St. Michaels, how the world should be run. The power and resources of the corporate citizen are such that real human citizens? concerns are marginalised. CSR as Public Private Partnerships. Through privatisation to articles University of California, Los Angeles government by corporations.

'Governments are a fundamental actor in governance, but increasingly non-state actors from business and writing, civil society are seen to play key roles.'120. The old adage from Milton Friedman that 'the business of how to, business is business' is proving untrue. Increasingly the business of business is power and control. While this has always been the case, the means and reach are now greater. As social commentator Leslie Sklair put it, 'global capitalism has to be politically active to maintain its project'. 121 CSR is taking us on a trajectory towards increased private takeover of government functions. It is not simply a form of PPP but a progression towards corporations taking on the role of governance. SustainAbility argues that CSR has evolved as a 'pragmatic response where government has failed or been weak122'. But CSR has been a mechanism in the weakening of government. It is a strategy borne out of the narrative essays School Thatcher/Reagan era of minimising government intervention and of policies driven by and on how to write St. Johnsbury behalf of the corporations. CSR both weakens and sidelines democratic decision making.

It announces that democratic decision making in the form of regulation is unnecessary, and replaces the (dis)enfranchised citizen with the 'stakeholder'. (See section on dialogue). SustainAbility's report, 'Gearing Up: From Corporate Responsibility to writing essays St. Michaels Good Governance and Scalable Solutions', argues that a window of opportunity is opening up for write report Brookes Lake, corporations, through their corporate responsibility initiatives, to take on a governance role in achieving sustainable development.123 The report claims to 'assess examples of private sector leadership in preparing the essays St. Michaels University ground or timely and effective public policy responses'124 and envisages greater corporate involvement in decision-making at the international level. According to the report, we can expect to Amsterdam see a shift from specific CSR projects to wider governance impacts and a change in the relationships between government, business and civil society. Case studies include carbon trading and Anglo American's programme of narrative essays St. Michaels School, providing anti-retroviral treatment to staff125. These examples show how, in writing synthesis essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the context of emasculated state power, unaccountable corporations are gradually gaining influence over essays St. Michaels governance and decision-making, as well as taking over of the write an essay report Brookes Shawnigan delivery of services. The authors of the report see a turning point where business will either embrace this opportunity, or suffer the backlash against corporate globalisation. Campaigners should be aware of the essays School role CSR plays in positioning companies to capitalise on this. 'The gap between the market and the community will be closed. The only question is how and in which direction. rollback, a shift away from globalisation, is the write articles Los Angeles more likely outcome unless we manage to strengthen the fabric of writing narrative essays St. Michaels University, global community. Ironically nobody is better positioned or has better capacity to play the how to write an mba essay lead role today than business itself.'126. Access to 'emerging markets?

'Emerging markets' is the current business jargon for developing countries. Writing Essays School? The terminology betrays the fact that they view these countries purely in terms of economics. Corporate partnerships with both Northern and Southern governments represent an opportunity for both policy influence and market penetration, with companies that lead in CSR gaining preferential access to how to write for money Los Angeles developing country markets127. The term 'corporate social innovation' has been coined to describe business practices aimed at 'supporting' sustainable development128. Case Study: Business Action for Africa.

The 2005 G8 Summit saw unprecedented corporate involvement. Writing Essays St. Michaels School? In the how to write a essay University run up to essays School the Summit, Tony Blair set up the how to write biography essay St. Johnsbury Academy Commission for writing narrative essays University, Africa (CfA) to advise the G8 on promoting development in Africa. A key part of the CfA was the Amsterdam business contact group, Business Action for Africa, a lobby group of the writing narrative essays St. Michaels leading multinationals in Africa including Shell, Anglo American, SAB Miller, British American Tobacco, Diageo and others.129. Just as BCSD, and later BASD, shifted the debate at write report Brookes Lake, the Earth Summit and World Summit on Sustainable Development from how to solve global environmental problems to how to make them a business opportunity, BAA has succeeded in turning debate from how to writing narrative School eradicate poverty in Africa to how corporations can benefit from the aid money being invested in the continent. This comes as little surprise since government and business attitude to 'development' comes from the same ideological standpoint ? that poverty can be tackled by increasing economic growth and write articles for money, attracting foreign investment that will trickle down to the poorest; while the negative impacts of corporate activity can be controlled, or conveniently ignored, Business did well at writing narrative essays University School, the G8. As Haiko Alfeld, director for writing synthesis essay Vrije, Africa of the World Economic Forum put it, ?business has an essays St. Michaels University enormous interest if $25 billion per year is to flow into Africa. clearly that will unleash enormous potential and business opportunities on the continent.? BAA's carefully worded recommendations to write an mba essay School the G8 and African leaders included130: Investment in major infrastructure to facilitate trade.

Replacing national markets with regional markets - reducing the national economic sovereignty of African countries. Streamlining the aid delivery process and involving the private sector. National governments stepping back from 'those areas in. The overwhelming message of the group?s concluding statement. For Graham Mackay, Chief Executive of SAB Miller, the importance of increasing private sector dominance in Africa was clear. ?Aid won't go on forever,? he said.

131. c/o Freedom Press. Angel Alley, 84b Whitechapel High Street. London, E1 7QX, United Kingdom. (replace [at] with @) Corporate Watch is run on a tight budget and we need your support to keep going! Even small amounts will help us stay independent and essays St. Michaels University, sustainable.

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Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Share this article. Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Is it really possible to completely eliminate homework or at least to writing narrative St. Michaels, assign it rarely, only when it#8217;s truly needed even in high school? We keep hearing from educators who say it#8217;s not only possible but preferable to do so. How To Brookes! Some of these folks were influenced by the arguments and data contained in The Homework Myth , while others came to writing School, realize on their own that it simply isn#8217;t necessary to make students work a #8220;second shift#8221; after a full day in school.

One example, whose comments are included in the book, is how to articles for money University (UCLA) Phil Lyons, a high school social studies teacher. He noticed that homework contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to an end #8220;a way to accrue points.#8221; Homework typically consists of tasks that are #8220;time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and writing narrative essays St. Michaels School serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in students,#8221; Lyons says. Interestingly, he confesses having assigned a lot of articles of California,, homework at the beginning of his career #8220;as a crutch, to compensate for poor lessons. . . . But as I mastered the material, homework ceased to be necessary.#8221; And so he assigned less and less of it as the years went by. Writing Narrative University School! Today he assigns none at all, even to his A.P. Critically A Journal Article! classes. #8220;In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to narrative essays St. Michaels University School, be done at home,#8221; says Lyons. #8220;Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over 100 college-level articles in the course of the year.

Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and critically evaluating a journal article Montverde Academy immediately.#8221; And the result? #8220;Each year my students have performed better on the [A.P.] test#8230;.I would feel justified encroaching on writing narrative essays St. Michaels students#8217; free time and a journal Academy I#8217;d be willing to do the grading if I saw tangible returns, but with no quantifiable benefit it makes no sense to writing narrative University School, impose [homework] on them or me.#8221; However, Lyons did notice one clear difference after eliminating homework: #8220;Students come in all the time and hand me articles about how to a essay something we talked about in writing narrative St. Michaels University, class or tell me about an mba Madeira a news report they saw. When intrigued by St. Michaels School, a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.#8221; Academically speaking, then, the absence of homework #8212; even in a high-level high school course #8212; created absolutely no problems. Intellectually speaking, it has been positively beneficial. Yet, Lyons observes, the prospect of writing, questioning homework leads some people to react in much the same way that creationists do #8220;when you try to explain evolution to writing narrative St. Michaels, them….Despite all the logical arguments, they refuse to believe less homework can lead to more and better learning.#8221; But he quickly adds that, even in the sorts of communities where high school is regarded mostly as a source of credentials for the purpose of admission to selective colleges, people can be successfully invited to how to write for scholarship (Navitas), reconsider their assumptions: I#8217;ve encountered a lot of hostility from parents who think their children are being shortchanged because they came home and essays said they didn#8217;t get any homework. But after I explain, most turn quite friendly and supportive of the policy. Adults freely admit that they can#8217;t remember anything about the election of write an essay report Brookes Lake, 1876 from writing essays St. Michaels University School their high school U.S. History class, and that other skills and write report Shawnigan experiences were more important. Narrative St. Michaels University School! Once I explain that those important skills and experiences are better served without repetitive homework assignments, they usually concur. Testimony from write an essay Shawnigan other teachers has been rolling in since The Homework Myth #8216;s publication. To wit: #8220;For the past month of the final term I assigned no outside homework.

I teach English, so all reading and writing was done in class. I had to University, plan more carefully and navigate those times when the quicker readers or writers finished earlier. There are many positives that resulted. The kids were better rested, more interested in how to an essay report Brookes Shawnigan Lake, what we were doing in class, and the quality of the work they did in writing narrative essays School, class was better. I thought I might have some parent calls, but the only feedback I got was a few parental remarks that they were glad to see their kids not so stressed. [The students#8217; written] reflections convinced me that homework has a long-term detrimental impact on critically a journal article Academy student learning. More importantly it seems to harm them in other ways, emotionally, developmentally, socially, etc. I regret not having done this earlier in the year. I plan to narrative St. Michaels University School, go homework-free next year in write report Brookes, all my classes except AP Literature.#8221; #8212; Jim Drier, English teacher, Mundelein (IL) High School. #8220;I#8217;ve assigned homework once this semester. That was Geometry. In Algebra, I#8217;m not sure I#8217;ve assigned any… [I believe] students need a certain amount of writing St. Michaels University, practice for write Deakin (Navitas) each new concept.

That amount certainly varies by the student, however. [And] if my kids evaluate and graph forty points over a class period, why would I send them home with any more?#8230;.The issue for most math teachers, I believe, is one of time management. Narrative St. Michaels! The only year I assigned homework with any regularity was during my student-teaching, when my class management plainly sucked. By assigning whatever practice we didn#8217;t finish [as] homework, I was transferring the cost of my poor teaching onto my students.#8221; [Mr. How To School! Meyer investigated this issue for narrative University his Masters thesis and write an mba School found no statistically significant difference in achievement between students who were and writing St. Michaels School were not assigned homework. Students#8217; attitudes about learning, and about math, were much lower for those who got homework, however.] #8212; Dan Meyer, high school math teacher in CA [from his blog] #8220;I always felt weird about assigning specific books for writing essay kids to read. How could you possibly find a book that is at all 34 kids#8217; reading levels.

Not to mention the fact they would all have to be excited about reading the book! . . Writing Narrative University! . [With most homework, students] do what they already did in class, and the ones that get it waste their time doing it again and the ones that didn#8217;t just get discouraged and struggle through it. It particularly would break my heart when parents would tell me. How To An Mba Essay School! . Writing Narrative University School! . how nights would be ruined. How could any teacher not feel bad about that? Then I would correct it and put it in their files and then they would stuff it in their backpacks never to be looked at again. Not to mention the inequity of write, some kids#8217; parents being able to help and writing narrative essays St. Michaels University some not. . . . I have gone from synthesis essay Amsterdam assigning pre-arranged one-size-fits-all drill homework to virtually none now.#8221; #8212; Richard Coleman, San Diego teacher. #8220;Assigning homework was something I did without really thinking because it was something that had always been done…. Not assigning homework has drastically cut down on the amount of narrative School, time I spend mindlessly grading student homework and has increased the how to an mba Madeira amount of time I spend preparing for narrative essays University lessons . . How To Write Madeira! . Narrative Essays! looking for writing synthesis Vrije Universiteit interesting activities and … finding #8216;real world#8217; examples of mathematics…#8221; #8212; Kate Degner, math teacher, Williamsburg (IA) High School. [from her Master#8217;s thesis] #8220;I first read The Homework Myth while trying to writing narrative, get my daughter through a middle school that was obsessed with making kids do 2-3 hours of homework every night. How To Write An Mba School! We have since moved her to a great alternative school where homework is writing minimal, and she is how to an mba Madeira making great progress. After reading your book, I thought about how I was teaching my [college] classes #8212; lecture, then assign pages in the text workbook to be turned in at the next class. I realized that what I needed to do was more #8216;hands on#8217; teaching in the classroom. I eliminated most of the homework assignments (except for major projects), and had the writing narrative essays St. Michaels School students do the exercises in class while I walked around giving help where needed.

I told the students that the few assignments I would give are for the purpose of giving me feedback #8212; #8216;Are they getting it?#8217; This has made for a lot less busywork for me and for the students, and critically a journal article Montverde has brought me into closer contact with the students and how they are learning.#8221; #8212; David Moore, music theory teacher, Univ. of Tulsa. #8220;Many kids are burned out on school and learning before they leave 3rd grade due to the increasing amount of writing essays St. Michaels School, homework being demanded of them. Brookes Shawnigan Lake! Having read your book this summer, I decided to try doing very limited homework in my 2nd grade classroom. Writing University! What I#8217;ve found is that the kids are less confused in critically evaluating, math [as a result]. I encourage reading, studying math facts, and essays St. Michaels University School let parents know that the kids are responsible for learning any missed spelling words. (I think they are putting more effort into writing the write for money University Los Angeles words correctly so as to avoid taking them home.) My parents are all happy and other 2nd grade teachers are trying it.#8221; #8212; Carol Tuveson, elementary school teacher, Stratham (NH) Memorial School. We#8217;ve also heard about whole schools that have virtually eliminated homework rather than merely adjusting the amount or tweaking the details of its implementation: #8212; After Christine Hendricks, the principal of Grant Elementary School in Glenrock, WY, implemented a no-homework policy, a survey of parents revealed that children had more time to play, sleep, read, and eat dinner with their families and spent less time watching TV. Children also had an improved attitude towards going to school and parents found themselves in fewer conflicts with their children. [Source:] #8212; Banks County Middle School in Homer, GA, a lower-income, rural, public school, has eliminated virtually all homework. Principal Matthew Cooper explained: #8220;First, I want our students to writing, have the Brookes Lake opportunity to be kids. If they cannot learn what they need in seven hours, something is wrong. A #8216;No Homework#8217; policy actually results in better classroom instruction. It puts more responsibility on teachers to maximize class time.

Second, homework was setting many of writing essays, our students up for failure. It resulted in lower grades and lower self-esteem. Homework also creates an critically evaluating article Montverde Academy, adversarial relationship between the teacher and students. Writing Essays University School! In short, homework does not create happy students, nor does it create happy teachers. And it definitely does not create successful students.#8221; The abolition of homework, he reports, has had a positive effect even when judged by conventional measures such as grades and the number of students meeting state standards. [Source: personal communication from Matthew Cooper] #8212; #8220;Oak Knoll Elementary in write Academy, Menlo Park [California] has mostly banned homework, except reading, occasional projects or catch-up work.

Addison Elementary in Palo Alto and the Berryessa School District in San Jose are discussing the issue. Since Bubb Elementary School in Mountain View relaxed its homework regimen, fourth-grader Elyse Fitzsimons has been reading on her own, #8216;devouring books,#8221; said her mother, Renee Fitzsimons. Writing Narrative Essays! The new policy also allows the how to Madeira family more time together in the evening, she said.#8221; [Source: San Jose Mercury News February 25, 2007] ( For more examples of essays St. Michaels School, teachers who have eliminated homework, and suggested strategies for parents who are concerned about the how to a essay for scholarship University toll homework is taking on their children, please see the book The Homework Myth and the DVD No Grades + No Homework = Better Learning.)

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?Country of origin, consumer’s Perception and Brand Image Essay. The impact of writing St. Michaels School country of origin (COO) on how to Los Angeles the consumer’s perception of products has been one of the most widely studied areas of international marketing. Increasing globalization of today’s business has resulted in writing essays St. Michaels unprecedented problems for evaluating a journal Montverde Academy, manufacturers, marketers, and consumers (L. Y. Lin Chen, 2006). The country of University origin (where a product is made) touches both consumer evaluations of the product as well as the firm’s decision to manufacture its goods in certain countries and how to brand (Parkvithee Miranda, 2012).

Country-of-origin or in how to essay Madeira School other words the “Made in” is a concept which states that people constitutes attitudes and believes shaping the perceptions to products from specific countries and this influences purchase and writing narrative St. Michaels University School consumption behaviors in international markets. The “Made In” image is the picture, the reputation, the how to write biography essay stereotype that businessmen and writing narrative essays St. Michaels University consumers attach to products of write a essay Deakin (Navitas) a specific country (Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Gaedeke, 1973; Johansson, 1989; Nagashima, 1970, 1977, Zain and writing essays St. Michaels School Yasin, 1997). Country-of-origin image (COI) has a strong influence on consumer behavior in the global market, as it is associated with mass communication, personal experience, as well as brand image. How To Write Essay. COI is defined as the consumer’s perception formed of a certain product offering according to this offering’s country of origin (Samiee, 1994; Peterson and Jolibert, 1995, Leonidou et al, 1999). The country, the type of product, and the image of the company and its brands all influence whether the country of essays origin will engender a positive or negative reaction. A variety of (Navitas) generalization can be made about country of origin effects on products and brands.

Consumers tend to have stereotypes about products and countries that have been formed by writing St. Michaels experience, hearsay, and myth (Piron, 2000, p. How To Write A Essay Deakin. 308; Roth and Rameo, 1992, p.479). Stereotypes of country and the preference of customer influence the purchase intention. Writing Narrative. Political system, culture and the economy of the country can be a cause of sensitivity to people (Teo, Mohamad, Ramayah, 2011). For instance, in 2006, protestors across the Muslim world demonstrated against writing the publications of cartoon images “Prophet Mohammed” in a Danish newspaper therefore many boycotted Danish products and many supermarkets in Cairo removed Danish products from their shelves. The question that this paper will attempt to answer is “To what extent does the country of origin image affect consumer perceptions, brand image and purchase intentions”. Previous research indicates that consumers’ and businesses’ evaluations are based on their assessment of product cues, which may be intrinsic (taste, design, performance) or extrinsic (brand name, country of origin). Writing Narrative St. Michaels University. Buyers often make judgments about how to write articles of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), product quality and writing essays St. Michaels purchase value on the basis of extrinsic cues, especially when it is difficult to evaluate the a essay for scholarship intrinsic value of a product. This justifies the reason behind using the country of narrative St. Michaels origin as an extrinsic cue in order to judge any foreign product. This paper also aims to fill the how to write an mba essay Madeira School gap between the narrative St. Michaels School impact of School country of origin on St. Michaels University School the brand image, consumer’s perception and purchase intention, more specially; the research objective is to develop a better understanding of the effect of articles University Los Angeles positive and negative country of origin image on consumer’s buying decisions. The impact of COO applies to products in general, classes of products, specific types of products, specific brands, image among developed countries, between developed and less developed countries, or among less developed countries (Bilkey and narrative St. Michaels Nes, 1982; Prendergast, Chan and Tsang, 2010, p.181). Country image is ‘‘the overall perception consumers’ form of products from a particular country, based on their prior perceptions of the country’s production and marketing strengths and weaknesses’’ (Roth and how to write an mba essay Madeira Romeo, 1992; Koubaa, 2008, p.140).

Brand-image has been described as part of branding strategy at the country level (Meenaghan, 1995; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Narrative Essays. Consumers tend to recall the stored information about the how to brand and the country in question and then they relate the brand name with the COO to form a brand image and infer the product evaluation (Scott and Keith, 2005; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Brand image is the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to a specific brand. It consists of functional and symbolic brand beliefs (Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Brand image is made up of essays St. Michaels University School brand associations. ‘‘Brand associations are the category of brand’s assets and liabilities that include anything ‘‘linked’’ in memory to University (Navitas) a brand’’ (Aaker, 1991; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). “The ‘essence’ of the brand is a single simple value, easily understood and valued by consumer” (Arnold, 1992, p. Writing St. Michaels. 17; Pappu, Quester and Cooksey 2006, p.697).When brands are competing in the international arena, marketing managers should understand how to maintain the core essence of their brand across international boundaries. Examining how country of origin impacts brand image and its associated dimensions (e.g. perceived quality, brand associations) should reveal the means to protect or enhance the core essence of an essay Brookes Shawnigan a brand. The country of St. Michaels origin of a product is an important marketing element known to Deakin University (Navitas) influence consumer perceptions as well as behavior. Conversely, an inferior country of origin could tarnish a brand name (Thakor and Katsanis, 1997; Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2006, p.697). Writing St. Michaels University School. That is, if the country of origin of a brand were to change from how to write (UCLA) a country towards which consumers have favorable associations (e.g. the USA), to a country towards which consumers have less favorable associations (e.g. Mexico), the brand names in narrative essays question could be tarnished and the consumer-based equity of these brands erodes.

Johansson (1989) speculated that consumers may, depending their circumstances, regard the country cue as a silent attribute of the product in question and that this attribute may influence the consumer through affective processes, as in the case of Universiteit individuals who hold strongly patriotic feelings about their own country (Han, 1988; Knight and Calantone, 2000, p.129), or through behavioral intentions via processes such as social norms (Fishben and Ajzen, 1975; Knight and Calantone, 2000, p.129). Johansson’s (1989) model is an important accompaniment to the empirical work of Han (1989). Household and organizational buyers’ perceptions of the quality and purchase value of writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School products are more favorable when these products are designed and/or assembled in developed countries than when they are designed and/or assembled in a newly industrializing country. A basic premise of the COO effect is that consumers’ image of a given product’s COO influences their subsequent evaluations of the product (e.g. Gurhan-Canli and how to Brookes Shawnigan Lake Maheswaran, 2000; Josiassen and Assaf, 2010, p.296) as well as their subsequent behavioral intentions to purchase or repurchase the product (e.g. Narrative Essays St. Michaels University. Ouellet, 2007). According to Johansson, country of origin is an extrinsic information cue allowing buyers to make inferences about the how to write intrinsic value of a product (Ahmed and Astous, 1995, p.38). Consumers are more likely to writing essays University purchase products manufactured by countries having distinctive images for that product(s) rather than countries that do not possess a good reputation for producing the same product(s) (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Chuang and Yen, 2007; Ozmen, 2004; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110). The values which consumers associate with a brand are significantly associated with both the macro- and micro-images of the COO of the brand (Pappu et al., 2007; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110).

According to Cordell, consumer preferences are more product specific for industrialized than less developed countries. COO becomes of less significance when the product is widely known (Cordell, 1992; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110). The image of countries as origins of products is one of many extrinsic cues, such as price, brand name that may become part of a product’s total image. Country image in respect of customer purchase intention is one of the most significant subjects among marketers for supporting their manufactured goods. The attention to this issue is because many researchers have demonstrated that a country’s image influences the essay Vrije Amsterdam prior purchase decision of customers. These kinds of investigation about country image and other related subjects dates back over three decades in writing narrative St. Michaels School developed countries (YAMOAH, 2005). According to Laroche et al. Essay Amsterdam. (2005) country image and writing essays St. Michaels University School product beliefs affect product evaluations simultaneously regardless of consumers’ level of write biography familiarity with a country’s products. A product’s COO can have a significant effect on consumer’s purchase and writing narrative St. Michaels consumption decisions. For Scholarship University. Further, causal observation indicates the importance of COO in many consumer goods, such as clothing, cars, and food products.

For instance, some luxury products (e.g. perfumes, fashion clothing) are strongly and positively tainted by being labeled ‘‘Product of France”. Most of the researchers agree that the “Country of narrative essays St. Michaels University Origin Image” has a significant impact on consumers’ evaluations of product quality and willingness to buy a product (e.g. Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Han and Terpstra, 1988; Maheswaran, 1994) Conceptual development and write articles of California, Los Angeles hypotheses. In this study, Country of origin is the independent variable of interest while the dependent variables include 3 main dimensions (perception, brand image and purchase intention) as shown in Figure 1. Each of narrative essays St. Michaels School these dimensions is expected to be affected by the country of origin image. Since the proposed model is being tested for a certain product category therefore, there relation between COI and the 3 main dependent variables will be affected by the product category in question. In other words we can say that Product category will moderate this relation.

Country of how to University of California, origin image (COI) The history of country image dates back to 1970, when Nagashima wrote about it in an academic paper. In a statement about country image he defined it as a “special image, stereotype and standing, which customers have in their mind about specific country, this picture can be shaped by historical, economical and traditional variables” (L. Y. Lin Chen, 2006). In addition, country image is one of the first variables that researchers test when it comes to narrative essays St. Michaels University School foreign product as well as international business and consumer behavior studies (Kotler, 2011). Studying issues concerning country image has been prominent in Universiteit international business for many years (Laroche, Papadopoulos, Heslop, Mourali, 2005). In our research we investigate COI as an independent variable in order to School monitor its effect on buyer’s decision making process which involves two main factors consumer’s perception and purchase intentions and also to examine its influence on writing the brand image through examining the brand’s perceived quality and writing narrative St. Michaels University brand associations. Brand image is defined as ‘‘a set of writing essay Vrije perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumers’ memory’’ (Hsieh and Lindridge, 2005; Koubaa, 2008, p.140). Brand image is writing School, determined not by only the brand’s perceived quality, but also by a host of other factors such as product characteristics, packaging, advertising, price and schemas of the typical user. Scholars define purchase intention as personal action tendencies according to brand.

They have also concluded that intention is how to Academy, different from attitude. While attitude means evaluation of products, intention is the person’s motivation in the sense of his or her intention to perform behavior. Another definition declares that purchase intention is the individual’s awareness to make an writing narrative essays St. Michaels School, attempt to how to Deakin University (Navitas) buy a brand (Shabbir, M. S., Kirmani, S., Iqbal, J., Khan, B. 2009). Writing Essays University. In a very competitive global market consumers are facing a variety of alternatives when they decide to buy a certain product therefore it is important to consider COI as a factor that can influence the consumer’s purchase intentions. Individual act and synthesis Vrije react on the basis of their perceptions, not on the basis of objective reality.

Thus, perceptions are much more important. Perception can be described as “How we see the world around us”. Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli in to a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. Customers are individuals, and University School each customer perceives things differently in the same situation. Perception of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam product is essays, more important than the product itself (Dave, 2013).

Consumers have associations toward entities such as products, places, brands and countries of origin. Writing Synthesis Essay Universiteit Amsterdam. These associations can have direction and writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School strength. Write Articles Los Angeles (UCLA). For example, Farquhar and Herr (1993) argued that product category-brand associations can be bi-directional. Writing St. Michaels University School. That is, consumers may recall a product category when they think of a brand name and they may recall a brand name when they think of how to an essay Brookes Shawnigan Lake a product category. Product category-country associations, which refer to consumers’ ability to evoke a country when the writing narrative St. Michaels School product category is mentioned, are of interest when examining the relationships between country of how to an essay Shawnigan Lake origin and writing essays St. Michaels our 3 main dependent variables. Since consumers are known to associate countries with certain product categories and how to a essay for scholarship Deakin (Navitas) vice Versa (Terpstra and Sarathy, 2000), consumers’ “product category-country” associations appear to be bi-directional. Based on narrative essays University School the literature review and our research objectives, a conceptualized model for this research was developed and is shown in Figure 1. Previous research results support the following relations: CI directly and positively impacts brand image (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Hsieh et al, 2004). CI directly and positively impacts purchase intentions (Laroche et al, 2005). Brand image directly and positively impact purchase intentions (Esch et al, 2006).

Hypotheses. H1: COO image significantly affects how consumers perceive the products H2: COO image has a significant influence on the formulation of the brand image H3: The country-of-origin asserts a significant impact on write an essay report the consumer’s purchase intention. H4: Product category will moderate the effect of COO image on the purchase intentions, consumer’s perceptions, and brand image. We expect that the perceived quality levels of a brand will vary by the country of origin of the University brand. That is, the perceived quality level of Ericsson made in Sweden is likely to be higher than the write articles for money of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) perceived quality level of Ericsson made in Mexico or Hungary, for the product category “mobile phones”. Furthermore, consumers’ perception of the quality of products is known to be product-category specific (Kaynak and Cavusgil, 1983; Pappu, Quester and Cooksey 2006, p.701) Furthermore, consumers’ product category is believed to moderate the effect of the country of writing St. Michaels University School origin on consumer-based brand image. For example, the consumer’s perception of a brand made in a country with positive COO image in a certain product category (e.g. car/Germany) is likely to be substantially higher than that for the same brand made in a country with a negative COO image in that same product category (e.g. car/Mexico), in cases where consumers perceive substantive differences between the two countries in terms of how to their product category associated with COO (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey 2006, p.702). As concerns brand-origin effects, Takhor and writing essays St. Michaels Lavack (2003) declared that brand-origin is how to write articles University of California,, one such cue that plays potentially important role in determining a brand’s image.

Samiee et al. (2005) found that consumers classify brands with their COO basing on narrative School the brand pronunciation or spelling and its similarity with the write a essay for scholarship University (Navitas) brand-origin language (Koubaa, 2007, p.142). When the brand is created, it comes out to consumers in association with its brand origin (Koubaa, 2007, p.143). Farquhar and Herr (1993) claimed that brand image will have different dimensions in consumer’s mind (Koubaa, 2007, p.143). Because brands have different perceptions among consumers across brands and writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School across countries of production, and Brookes consumers are likely to be different as they have different backgrounds and are under different circumstances of narrative essays St. Michaels University consumption; we expect that brand image will differ across brands and across countries of production (origin) (Koubaa. , 2007, p.143). Nowadays, the international trade market is evaluating article Academy, very competitive and narrative University there are many new ideas on the market to attract customers. In this case, customers have many alternatives for buying products; however, there are many elements that have an writing essay Vrije Amsterdam, effect on writing St. Michaels University product success and customer purchase intention.

Other researchers believe that purchase intention is “what we think we will buy” (Park, J. 2002). It also describes the feeling or perceived likelihood of purchasing the products that are advertised, moreover, purchase shows the level of Academy loyalty to products. Other scholars like Daneshvary and Schower (2000) believe that purchase intention has a relationship with demographic factors like age, gender, profession and education (Lu, M. 2007). There is another statement that shows that particular features of products, perception of consumers, country of writing narrative essays St. Michaels origin and perception of country of origin, all have an writing essay Universiteit, influence on customer purchase intention (C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, Ahn, 2012). Purchase intention can also be defined as the decision to act or physiological action that shows an individual’s behavior according to the product (X. Wang Yang, 2008; Rezvani, Dehkordi, Rahman, Fouladivanda, 2012, p.208). Respondents were asked in the end of the questionnaire to deliver some personal information related to gender, age, income and education. Thirty eight respondents participated in the investigation.

Regarding gender, the sample was selected randomly. Females’ percentage was 57.9 while the writing narrative St. Michaels School males’ percentage was 42.1. As for the income category 15.8 percent earned less than 5000 LE per month, 34.2 percent earned between 5000 LE and 10000 LE while 50 percent earned more than 10000 LE per month. And for the education 5.3 percent of the respondents were high school graduates, 71.1 percent are bachelor degree holder, 23.7 percent are master degree holders. Our choice of COI stimuli and our variables (BI, CP and PI) was guided by our conceptual framework, specifically we wanted to test and compare the for scholarship Deakin University (Navitas) effect of COI on the three variables shown in narrative essays figure (1) to enhance the generalizability of our results. To test our hypothesis we asked Egyptian consumers to how to write for money answer a questionnaire (see appendix) with regards to the latest purchased items. In addition to hypothesis advanced in this study we explore the reliability of the measurements of each variable to conduct a reliable computation regarding each variable in the questionnaire.

Reflective scales were to operationalize the constructs in our conceptual framework. Except for the demographic indicators (gender, age, income and education) 1. economic development. 2. Political structure. 4. standard of living. 5. Product made in this country is essays St. Michaels University School, reliable. 6. Article Montverde Academy. Products made in this country of good quality. 7. Products made in his country Prestigious. 8. It is great to writing University School have a products from this country. Khosrozadeh Shirin and Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), P.614 Consumer perception.

1. Important/ not important. 2. Overall quality. 4. Technological sophistication. Gray A. Knight Roger J. Calantone (1999) P. 144. 1. brand X offers high quality. 2. brand X offers reliable products. 3. I feel proud to products from brand X.

4. Writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. I trust the company which makes brand X. (Aakar,1991, 1996; Yoo et al. 2000) 1. the possibility I will buy this product. 2. the possibility I recommend this product. Khosrozadeh Shirin and Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), P.614 Product category. 1. Writing Essays School. Expensive/ inexpensive. 2. Good quality/bad quality. 3. Write. I look for the COO to choose the best product available in a product class Ravi Pappu, Pascale G. Quester, Ray W. Cooksey, (2005) Country of origin image. We used Khosrocadeh Shirin 9-items scale.

The 9-items of the scale measure the extent to writing St. Michaels School which the respondent perceives a particular product category from a particular country to be a good purchase choice, of high quality better than the write St. Johnsbury same product category originating from other countries. The COI is formed according to the economic level of the country, the political system of the country, the standard of living and finally the technological advancement of that country. The items are anchored with strongly agree and strongly disagree. The scale displays lower reliability (? = 0.66). Writing Narrative University School. In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are lower (Alpha = 0.83). We used five items scale from Ali Riza (April 2006). The items measure the importance of looking for COI as an external attribute. It also measures the perceived quality of the product from a certain country, so as the evaluating article consumer’s association of COI with the technological sophistication of the product, and finally if they don’t have knowledge about the product’s COO; whether they will refuse to purchase the writing narrative essays University product or agree to purchase this product. Write For Money University (UCLA). The items anchored strongly agree and strongly disagree, the scale displays a good reliability (Alpha = 0.75). In comparison with the narrative essays University School previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are lower (Alpha = 0.92).

We mapped the brand image depending on two main indicators; brand perceived quality and biography St. Johnsbury Academy brand associations using Aaker, 1991, 1996; Yoo et al. , 2000. Seven items scale including the brand’s good quality, reliability, durability, its excellent features and prestige. Items was anchored with strongly agree and strongly disagree, the scale displays a good reliability (Alpha = 0.74). In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are higher (Alpha = 0.70). The purchase intention was examined using Khostozodel Shirin. Writing University. Two items scale including the possibility of the Academy purchase and the recommendation of the narrative University purchased product.

Anchored with very low and very high, the scale displays a very good reliability (Alpha = 0.89). In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are higher (Alpha = 0.87). The research investigated the product category variable using Ray W. Cooksey, 2005. Scale with four items including the value of how to write a essay (Navitas) certain product category relative to the COI, the importance of this product category and whether it depends on the COI or not was also investigated. And finally the choice of the product class according to the COI. Ray W. Cooksey research suggested that four items scale are adequate when measuring this moderating variable. It was examined according to five-point likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scale displays a very poor reliability (Alpha = 0.5) which was very close to the researcher’s reliability (Alpha = 0.56)

Correlation coefficient of Pierson was applied to study the relation between constructs. Narrative Essays School. The results are listed in Table 3. As it is stated in the table, Pierson coefficients between constructs are significant at 95% confidence level. Several of the constructs in the research were correlated. The highest correlation was 0.36, which was between the COI and brand image, and also between the consumer’s perception and brand image. This correlation appears to be weak, positive and significant, while the lowest correlation was 0.08, which was between COI and a essay for scholarship Deakin University consumer’s perception. This correlation appears to be weak, positive and insignificant.

Correlations between our independent variable “COI” and the other 3 main dependent variables are as follows: there is a weak and positive yet insignificant correlation between the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School COI and consumer’s perception (0.08). Write Brookes Shawnigan. The previous studies findings concerning this correlation were (0.48) which is higher than our correlation. Narrative Essays St. Michaels University School. These analyses were conducted by how to write biography essay (Knight, Calantone, 1998, p.136). When comparing the correlations between COI and brand image with the writing narrative essays University School previous studies, we found that our correlation was significant, positive and weak amounted to (0.36) while (Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander, Noujaim, 2012, p.118) concluded that it was (0.344) which is lower than our correlation. How To Madeira. Table (3) shows that there is writing narrative School, a significantly weak positive correlation between country of origin and purchase intention with (0.28) while the article Academy previous studies correlation was (0.375) by (Shirin, Kambiz, 2011) there correlation was weak significant and positive. COI has a weak and positive yet insignificant correlation with product category amounted to (0.14). It also has an insignificant weak positive correlation with brand image and purchase intention while, it has a negative weak correlation with consumers’ perception. According to the previous studies; the interaction between COI and product category was insignificant at (correlation less than 0.05).

Indicating that the product category will moderate the relation ship between the COI and consumer’s perception, brand image and purchase intention (Pappu, Quester, Cooksey, 2006, p.705) Two new significant correlations were deduced from the narrative essays St. Michaels School analysis; the brand image has a significant, weak, positive correlation with the articles for money of California, Los Angeles purchase intentions (0.27) and also with the consumer perception (0.36). Writing Narrative Essays St. Michaels School. The prior correlation corresponds with previous studies (0.53) which states that “Brand image directly and how to write Brookes Lake positively impacts purchase intentions” (bu Esch et al. 2006). In light of our findings it appears to us that; COI has a positive impact on focal country’s brand image.

This would be the writing narrative essays University School case for Germany that has a strong reputation for cars in general (product) but also produces strong brands like BMW or Mercedes. Alternatively, a country like Turkey may develop a strong reputation for a certain type of product, such as carpets, but lacks the relevant skills to turn this product-related capability into strong and well-known brands (strong product image/weak brand image) Conceptually interesting are also cases where a country, such as Austria, manages to develop strong brands, for example Red Bull or Swarowski, but is not at all well known for its expertise in the respective product categories (weak product image/ strong brand image). Deakin University. It would be of immediate benefit for companies operating in such countries to analyze whether image advantages accrued by strong brands can also be used to support other less well-known brands in these product categories. To test the hypotheses of the research, we used the correlation analysis in table 3 as an indicator.

This testing resulted in writing narrative St. Michaels several significant correlation and other insignificant ones and how to Brookes Shawnigan Lake this analysis enabled us to reject and accept our previously stated hypothesis statements. Narrative School. Hypothesis H1 stated that COO image significantly affects how consumer perceives the product. The major substantive finding from the critically evaluating article Academy correlation analysis is that the correlation between the 2 variables is insignificant therefore H1 is rejected. This finding doesn’t confirm the predictions of previous researchers that the country of origin image significantly impacts the consumer perceptions (including two important dimension consumer’s attitude and writing University School beliefs). Synthesis Essay Vrije Amsterdam. Gary A. Knight and Roger J. Calantone (1999,p.131) stated that COI is a significant antecedent of attitudes and beliefs which form the consumer’s perceptions related to the product in question and this appear to be insignificant in narrative St. Michaels School our hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis H2 predicted the existents of a significant influence of the COI and an essay Lake the brand image. Our findings support this hypothesis therefore H2 will be accepted. The correlation confirms that the COI is directly related to the brand image which supports the previous studies findings (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Hsieh et al, 2004) which stated that CI directly and narrative positively impacts brand image. Hypothesis H3 stated that the country of origin asserts a significant impact on the purchase intention. The result of the how to Lake correlation analysis shows a statistical significant relation between the narrative University two variables which supports our hypothesis therefore H3 is accepted. This finding confirms with the how to write articles Los Angeles predictions of previous researchers that CI directly and University School positively impacts purchase intentions (Laroche et al, 2005) and also with “the country of origin has a significantly positive impact on purchase intention” stated by ( Shirin; Kambiz, 2011 p.605).

Hypothesis H4 offered that the how to write an essay report Shawnigan product category will moderate the relation between the COI and consumer perceptions, brand image and purchase intentions. The results supported the predictions made in H4,therefore H4 is accepted. This confirms with the writing essays School pervious studies findings (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2005 p.705). The verification of the hypotheses in this paper leads to five conclusions: (1) Country-of-origin image has an insignificant influence on consumer perceptions (2) Country-of-origin image has a significantly positive influence on writing synthesis essay Vrije Universiteit brand image; (3) Country of origin image has a significantly positive influence on purchase intentions; (4) Brand image has a significantly positive influence on both consumer perceptions and purchase intentions; (5) product category moderates the relation between COI and writing narrative St. Michaels the other 3 variables. The country-of-origin effect is an environmental factor that firms have to deal with whenever they trade in non-domestic market. Yet we can do little to change COI since it is defined by a set of historical and cultural attitudes rather than by anything lying within the control of an individual firm. The good news, however, is that consumer place (COO) below such things as quality and reliability as factor influencing purchase decision for instance Mercedes make good cars but don’t necessarily transfer such positive impression to other German products. Our findings confirms that consumers use a product’s COO as a cue in purchase decisions but this cue can be superseded by write report Shawnigan the brand image which proves to have a significant relation with the purchase intentions.

Also COI insignificantly contribute to writing essays St. Michaels School the consumer’s perceptions of a certain products this means that other information about the writing Vrije product reliability, quality or brand image will take precedence over narrative St. Michaels University School, COI in determining how people perceive a certain product. So where does this leave us? Companies cannot ignore COO effect but equally they should not rely on those effects in the promotion of their brands because for how to write articles of California, (UCLA), instance simply being an Italian clothing brand may be an narrative St. Michaels, advantage but it isn’t enough for the firm to rely solely on it when promoting its products. Any advantage from COO needs reinforcement through the marketing process this justifies the weak positive correlation between the critically evaluating a journal article Academy COI and University School the brand image. In conclusion, COI is just one of many factors that influence the consumer’s decision to write an mba essay Madeira School purchase or not to purchase a particular brand. And, yet again we find that consumers do not place a huge emphasis on where a product comes from- unless they have nothing else on which to narrative essays St. Michaels School base a decision. “The origin of a product has never been more important in the minds of consumers” (Winter, 2004, p. 46). “Ninety three percent said it is good to how to write Brookes Lake know the origin of products such as where it came from and who made it. People are no longer content to pay for something superficial and hollow” (Winter, 2004, p. 46). Holt et al. Writing Narrative Essays School. (2004, p. 96) Elaborated on this sentiment by stating that consumers expect global brands to tell the myth from the how to an essay report Brookes Shawnigan Lake particular places that are associated with the brand. In this research we are presenting both point of writing views supporting and against the idea that COI is considered an important external attribute that buyers take into account when making a purchase decisions. The research did not attempt to a essay Deakin University support a certain point of view that is why the predicted hypotheses were not initially directional.

One of the limitations of the writing narrative essays St. Michaels University School study was the number of samples collected. In our research we managed to write (UCLA) collect 38 questionnaires which are relatively small in comparison to our population. More over the age range and income level range were narrow ranges also the reliability of the measurements imitated from previous papers of 2 variables including product category and COI was very weak; future studies shall consider such limitations. Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Bodo Schlegelmilch, Dayananda Palihawadana,(2011), The relationship between country-of-origin image and brand image as drivers of purchase intentions. Ahmed, d’Astous, (1994), Comparison of country-of origin effects on writing essays St. Michaels household and organizational buyers’ product perceptions. Alexander Josiassen, A. Assaf, (2009), Country-of-origin contingencies: their joint influence on consumer behavior. APIL, (2006), Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of how to write for money (UCLA) Origin Analysis.

across Black Sea; Studies on writing narrative essays University Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, and Turkey. Gerared P. Prendergast and Alex S.L. Tsang, (2010), The interactive influence of country origin of brand and product involvement on purchase intention. Hong, S. and Wyer, R.S. Write A Essay For Scholarship Deakin. (1989), “Effects of country-of-origin and St. Michaels product attribute information or product evaluation: an how to write report Shawnigan Lake, information processing perspective. Kamal Ghalandari and narrative essays St. Michaels University Abdollah Norouzi , (2012), The Effect of Country of Origin on Purchase Intention: The Role of how to write for scholarship Deakin Product Knowledge. Katja Jarvelainen, (2012), Effects of Country of Origin on narrative essays St. Michaels University School Consumer Product Evaluations. Khosrozadeh Shirin, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Knight, Calantone, (1999), A flexible model of consumer country- of- origin perceptions. Pappu, Quester, Cooksey, (2005) Consumer-based brand equity and country-of-origin relationships. Piron, (2000), Consumers’ perception of the country of origin effect on purchase intentions of Montverde (in) conceptions products.

Rezvani, Rahman, Fouladivand, Habibi,(2012), A Conceptual Study on the Country of Origin Effect on Consumer Purchase Intention. Schaefer, (1995), Consumer knowledge and country of writing essays St. Michaels School origin effects. Zafar U. Ahmed, Imad J. Zbib, Arif Sikander, Ralph Gilbert Noujaim, (2012), Does country of brand origin (COBO) matter for the Lebanese consumers? University/College: University of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 10 April 2016.

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