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Write My Essays Today -
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Grammar and Style in help a college essay Chelsea, British English: The modern essay is a fairly short piece of write essay work of between 500 and 3,000 words, written on a well-defined subject intended for reading in a. single session. Shorter works are known as vignettes while longer ones are called extended essays or dissertations. Help Chelsea Independent? A doctoral thesis can. reach100,000 words, after which the work becomes book size. Like all scripts, essays draw from the two principal styles of peer University of Applied writing, narrative and exposition. To summarise I n short, narrative is help a college Chelsea Independent artistic writing and exposition is academic writing. This is critical thought Haileybury not to say that these two forms of writing never converge.
On the contrary, the works of journalists, travel writers and writing a college Chelsea College, biographers often draw. heavily upon critical thinking podcast Istituto, the techniques of both, b ut exposition and narrative remain recognisably different styles, and help writing Chelsea, essays, for the most part, are written in. one or the other. The narrative and expository essay each has a close relation. The descriptive essay is an thinking offshoot of the narrative essay, and the argumentative. essay, an writing Chelsea offshoot of the how to write essay The University, expository.
Four kinds of essay are thus discussed here, followed by a few tips on drafting the expository essay (analysing, defining or explaining) Narrative is help a college essay storytelling, the chronological relation of events. It is the most natural way of writing because it is the most natural way of speaking ( first I. did this and then I did that ) which is why it is the most deceptively simple of styles. How To Write An Evaluative Essay State University? Consider, for example, how one person can relate an anecdote. about her children and help writing College, have us in fits of laughter while another does the same and bores us to distraction. Some people are skilled narrators while. What goes for speech, goes for writing. To write narrative well is difficult; to write it badly in the belief that it has been written well is unfortunately all. too easy. A probable reason for this self-deception is the virtual universality of literacy.
Few among us can paint a picture or play a musical instrument, so we easily recognise the skills of those who can. But everybody ‘writes’. Little wonder, then, that far more people say they are going to write a book. one day than say they are going to master the violin, while they are as ill-equipped to how to essay, do the one as do the other. Many useful learn-to-write books are. available, and one of their most frequent pieces of advice is worth repeating: If you suspect it’s rubbish, it is . Writing narrative writing to writing Chelsea Independent, entertain people might be the most difficult kind of prose to write, but we have all probably attempted it. The most. rudimentary examples are the time-honoured titles we tackled in primary school: 'A Rainy Day'; 'How I Spent my Summer Holidays'. Podcast Marangoni Firenze? More. sophisticated examples range from the short stories of help writing a college essay Independent such masters as Saki and O. Henry to modern novels, the consummate form of narrative. Narrative essays, in fact, usually appear in the form of short stories or biographical anecdotes, and the author, just like the critical books Hanze University of Applied Sciences, novelist, needs to help Chelsea, appeal.
to the reader's emotions and draw him into a world of the critical, author's creation. How this is achieved, of course, is more easily said than done, yet there. are several devices that can be recognised in the works of successful authors. Narrative essays and short stories are often written in help a college essay College, the first person ( I ). This lends them authenticity and allows the thinking books for kids Sciences, reader more easily to identify. with the a college College, character experiencing the how to conclusion, events. The drawback is that the first person constrains the writer to one point of view, allowing nothing to occur. in the script that the central character does not himself or herself directly experience. There can be no he thought and she thought , only a college essay Chelsea College, I thought . While it is important in all essays to win the reader’s attention quickly, nowhere is this more important than in narrative. With an expository essay, as.
we shall see, the reader is looking for information or explanation. Entertainment is a bonus. With the narrative essay, on journal article College Manchester, the other hand, entertainment. is expected. This initial interest can be achieved by means of the narrative hook, whereby the first few sentences capture the reader’s attention. Writing A College College? The.
hook can be dramatic, funny, thought-provoking, mysterious or controversial, just as long as it motivates the reader to turn the crucial first few pages.. Narrative almost always focuses on some form of conflict: a conflict between people, between a person and the elements or between one person’s. desires and conscience. A lack of conflict is one of the main reasons readers give up on scripts and say that ‘nothing was happening’. Conflict also. helps to create tension and critical thinking for kids Hanze of Applied, suspense, and the writer needs to learn the skill of revealing information partially and slowly.
The denouement (plot. resolution) finally resolves the conflict or tension and creates that sense of satisfaction that readers of narrative expect. Writers of good narrative follow the much-proffered advice for all story writing: Don’t tell! Show! In other words, readers should be allowed to see. characters in writing a college Chelsea College, action rather than have those actions described for them. My partner, John, had taken a new teaching post at St. Giles’, a tough. new comprehensive school, but after only a month it became obvious. that the job was wearing him down. He came home from work one.
evening, looking dreadful and clearly very upset, and announced that. I sighed as the front door slammed again with unnecessary force. Just. four weeks at St. Giles’ Comprehensive and John was turning into a man. I neither knew nor liked. He walked into how to essay conclusion the living room and writing a college essay Independent, sank into the. settee. That facial muscle had begun to twitch again as he stared at nothing.
at all. Then he looked at me, as if surprised to podcast Istituto, find himself at home. In the same way, characters’ moods and feelings should be revealed rather than described, an end achieved by using nouns and verbs more than. adjectives and adverbs. Adverbs, in particular, are often apologies for poor narrative Samantha stared worriedly out of the window. (Describing) Samantha stared out of the window, gnawing her lower lip. (Revealing)
Sometimes, the adverbs can simply be deleted Readers want to infer the moods and feelings of characters for themselves, not be led by the nose. T he writer should also minimise the uses of he said and she said . But where necessary, it is wiser to keep to said rather than employ the so-called. ‘elegant variation’ that is characteristic of the amateur: she exclaimed , he retorted . In contrast to essay Chelsea College, expository essays, opinions need not be supported by an evaluative essay evidence. A College Essay Independent College? Feelings more than reasoned arguments are what interest the how to an evaluative essay Louisiana State, reader. Narrative enjoys considerable grammatical licence in order to help a college essay Chelsea College, represent the ways in how to write an evaluative University, which people speak and think. Help Writing A College Essay Chelsea Independent College? The fused sentence is never. advisable, but sentence fragments, the peer articles Saxion University of Applied, one-word ‘sentence’ and sentences that begin with conjunctions are all effective devices for emulating. thought, as if the character were actually thinking aloud How dare he talk to me like that! And in front of help Chelsea College Katy, too.
I said. nothing. Just watched him strut off to the kitchen in his socks. Then. he cried out and swore as he stubbed his toe against the leg of the. Finally, short narratives (in distinction to peer Abbey, longer works such as novels) often follow one or more of the ‘unity’ principles: unity of person, place and. time. Unity of person keeps the a college Chelsea Independent, reader in how to write essay conclusion The University of Sheffield, one person’s mind; unity of place keeps him in the same location, rather like a scene from a college essay Chelsea Independent College, a play or a film; and unity of time keeps him moving in real time; there are no jumps forward ( The following day, ) and certainly no flashbacks.
Everything unfolds in. an unbroken duration. Although by no means rules, these principles of unity often make for excellent narrative . Journal Abbey? 1. Descriptive essays as such are rarely encountered outside creative-writing courses. Writing Chelsea? Their nearest approximations elsewhere are passages or entire. chapters from larger works, such as novels, where the plot is temporarily suspended in order to linger on something of interest. But the description. must be graphic, not encyclopaedic. An essay describing quantum theory or describing how a bill goes through Parliament would be an expository, not a descriptive, essay.
A descriptive essay creates a vivid and colourful picture of something, along with a central mood or impression, and the. writing is sensuous, appealing to as many of the write a good essay conclusion of Sheffield, five senses as possible; at appropriate times, the writer will describe not just sight and sound, but. also touch, taste and smell. The subject of description might be almost anything: a room, a valley, a person, a storm, an erotic experience. The important thing is that the reader. feels he is vicariously experiencing something rather than simply reading about it It was near midnight, and ever since dusk I had been tramping the writing essay Chelsea Independent, naked. moors, in the teeth of as vicious a nor’-wester as ever drenched a man to. the skin, and then blew the cold home to write essay State, his marrow. My clothes were. sodden; my coat-tails flapped with a noise like pistol shots; my boots.
squeaked as I went. Overhead, the October moon was in her last quarter, and might have been a slice of finger-nail for all the help writing a college essay Chelsea College, light she afforded. Two-thirds of the how to write a good, time the wrack blotted her out altogether; and I, with. my stick clipped tight under my armpit, eyes puckered up, and head bent. aslant, had to keep my wits alive to distinguish the road from the black. heath to right and left. For three hours I had met neither man nor man’s. dwelling, and (for all I knew) was desperately lost. Indeed, at help writing essay Independent College, the cross- roads two miles back, there had been nothing for me but to choose the. way that kept the wind on my face, and it gnawed me like a dog. (Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, ‘The Two Householders’) 2.
Expository and argumentative essays are the ones most commonly encountered in academia, and are much more formal compositions than those. described above. Exposition means ‘explaining’, ‘analysing’ or ‘defining’, and the subject of an journal Saxion University Sciences expository essay is anything so exposed: the meaning. of a poem, a political doctrine, a philosophical idea, the causes of a war, an economic development and so forth. The exposition, moreover, is. precise. A philosophy essay, for example, will need scrupulously to define its central concepts, a task that requires a fastidiousness of writing essay thought for.
which the podcast Marangoni, impressionistic language of narrative is wholly unsuited. In some cases (explained below), elements of narrative might be permissible, but. this shifts the essay closer to essay College, the journalistic article, a move of which some academics might disapprove. As we might remember from school, the expository essay comprises three sections: the introduction, the body and the conclusion. The introduction typically consists of about ten per cent of the essay and normally includes a thesis statement: usually one or two sentences that. explain the purpose of the essay. The thesis statement is to the essay what the topic sentence is to the paragraph: a brief outline of reviewed journal articles what is to.
follow. Its length and position, however, will be determined by help Independent College the nature of the material and by the reader’s requirements, although it should not. normally appear later than the second paragraph. In the most intellectually demanding of essays, the articles Saxion of Applied, entire introduction might be a virtual thesis statement, forming, so to help a college, speak, the writer’s briefing. to her readers before taking them on a journey. That journey is likely to be difficult, so her readers will need a map. They will need to know their. destination and what the main stopping places are to be along the peer reviewed articles University Sciences, way.
And while there might be a few relevant diversions en route , there will be no. radical change of direction from that plotted in help a college essay College, the introduction (which is how to conclusion The University why the introduction is a college Chelsea often the last part of the essay to how to write a good conclusion, be written). In this. way, the introduction becomes an encapsulation of the entire essay, including the conclusion To examine the concept of justice in Plato’s Republic , we need first to. distinguish the several ways in which that concept can be understood.
Having outlined the four principal meanings of the word, we shall. proceed to investigate which (or which combination) of them the. Platonic Socrates most likely has in mind in his dialogues, first with. Glaucon and then Thrasymachus. We shall conclude that the.
preponderant concept is distributive justice, with possible connotations. of remedial justice, and help writing a college essay Independent, that, given Socrates’ paradoxical belief that ‘no. one does wrong willingly’, retributive justice does not figure at all. Assuming the reader to be familiar with Plato’s Republic , he now has a fairly good idea of critical for kids of Applied what to expect from the help writing essay Independent, essay. He knows from the critical podcast Marangoni, opening.
clause that the purpose is to examine Platonic justice, while the rest of the paragraph (and there might be two or three) brings the thesis more sharply. into focus for him. An introduction such as this might also include an explanation of any unfamiliar or stipulated terms to be used in help writing a college essay Chelsea College, the essay ( We. shall understand procedural justice to mean ), but it is arguably wiser to deal with them as they occur in the body of the essay where they are likely. to be better remembered. In expository essays of critical thinking University of Applied Sciences a less intellectually rigorous nature, the Chelsea Independent College, thesis statements will be correspondingly shorter The subject of inquiry is critical thought how AIDS is help writing a college Chelsea Independent College being combated in developing. The problem to critical Marangoni, be addressed is why, in spite of the government’s ban. on hand guns, there has been a dramatic rise in essay College, armed crime since the.
What do we mean by ‘freedom of the press’? This is the question we. shall attempt to answer. The evidence will be considered both for and against the claim that. David Copperfield was Dickens’s clandestine autobiography. Jazz is Abbey College Manchester arguably America’s greatest contribution to world culture. Here. we will examine its three main early influences: ragtime, gospel and the. Note the specificity of the statements and a college essay Independent, that the ‘statements’ can actually be questions. A thesis statement that proposes to discuss ‘the problem. of AIDS’ or ‘the problem of armed crime’ could be considered rather too general.
The most natural place for the thesis statement is at the beginning. As the opening sentence or sentences, the statement immediately informs the. reader of write essay State what the essay is to be about essay Independent College before he settles down to how to write a good conclusion, read it. This is probably the wisest course if the writing a college, essay is being written for books Hanze of Applied, an. exclusively academic readership (e.g. a college tutor). Help Essay Chelsea Independent? If, on the other hand, the essay is to appeal to the wider readership of, say, a magazine, the.
writer might wish to build up some interest before coming to the thesis statement. This technique, called funnelling, feeds the reader a little. anecdotal information that gradually tapers to the thesis statement, usually at the end of the first paragraph. Suppose, for example, that the topic is to be the write an evaluative essay University, surprise result of the 1992 British general election. If the writing a college Chelsea College, work is an undergraduate politics essay, the writer would be wise to open with the thesis statement The topic of articles Saxion of Applied Sciences investigation is why, in the run up to the general election of.
April 1992, the help a college Chelsea, opinion polls so spectacularly failed to journal Abbey College, predict a Conservative. If, instead, the work is to appear in a journal or magazine, the writing essay Independent College, writer might choose to write Louisiana State University, funnel it with an introduction such as this On the writing Independent, morning of 9 April, 1992, Neil Kinnock, Leader of the Labour. Party since 1983, was in how to essay University, buoyant mood. Help Writing Chelsea College? He had good reason to be. Under.
the Conservatives, Britain was going through its worst recession since. the 1930s, and the devaluation crisis of ‘Black Wednesday’ was still. painfully fresh in people’s minds. He sensed victory, and an evaluative Louisiana State University, the opinion polls. encouraged him.
Labour, they said, was heading for a clear victory. Thirty-six hours later, notwithstanding 39 Tory losses and 42 Labour. Gains, it was clear that John Major would be the man to walk back. through the door of help essay Independent College Number Ten to lead his party in its fourth consecutive. term of office. Reviewed Saxion University Sciences? Why, then, did the opinion polls so spectacularly fail? Here, the writer has included an element of narrative in her exposition in order to help a college essay Chelsea, generate interest in readers who, unlike college tutors, are under no. obligation to read the script.
Assuming all the research has been completed, the writer now has to organise her information into a coherent body of review Abbey paragraphs, each setting out. one or more points that develop the help writing Chelsea Independent, thesis statement. This can be done in a number of critical thought ways, but it is worth noting that readers tend to remember the. beginning and the end of the body more than the help writing, middle. The recommended technique, therefore, is to arrange the material into Abbey College a hierarchy of. arguments from the writing a college essay, most to the least important and then to Istituto Firenze, present them accordingly. To continue with our election example, this might be achieved.
In her notes, suppose, the writer has randomly listed six explanations of why the polls were so wide of the mark 1. So-called ‘floating voters’ are notoriously fickle and apt to change. their minds even in the polling booth. campaign against writing a college the Labour Party in the last few days before the. 3. Although John Major presented a softer image than Margaret. Thatcher, the latter’s ‘uncaring’ legacy was such that many.
Conservative supporters were afraid of critical thinking podcast Marangoni being perceived as immoral. by revealing their party allegiance to the opinion pollsters. 4. Opinion pollsters need quick, unambiguous answers, and Conservative. supporters are traditionally more circumspect about their voting. intentions than their Labour counterparts. 5. Opinion pollsters are almost always racing against the clock, and among. their temptations is to avoid knocking the doors of houses with long. drives, the more likely dwellings of Conservative supporters. 6. Help Writing A College Essay Chelsea College? The Labour Party seemed to be celebrating victory prematurely, and. many of their potential voters resented this ‘arrogance’.
These six points will comprise the body of the essay and the writer now has to arrange them in critical thought Haileybury, order of importance. The first thing she spots is that only three of these points specifically address the essay Chelsea Independent College, 1992 election as opposed to elections in general, namely 2, 3. and 6. These, then, are the most important topics and critical thought Haileybury, will somehow be arranged to appear at writing a college essay Chelsea Independent College, the beginning and how to a good essay The University of Sheffield, the end of the body. Of these, the writer might now decide that the press campaign (2) has the greatest explanatory value. For while the Tories’ uncaring image (3) and. Labour’s premature celebrations (6) were contributory factors, they were nothing like as decisive in thwarting the opinion polls as the final press. onslaught on Labour’s taxation policy led by help a college Chelsea Independent The Sun . Point 2, then, will be the last to be made and will be given full paragraph status. Next, she. decides that point 6 is more important than point 3, so 6 will come somewhere in the first paragraph and 3 in the penultimate.
So far, then, the arrangement of the six-point body is Of the remaining points, those most likely to provide new and podcast Istituto Marangoni Firenze, interesting information to the reader are probably the problems and practices of opinion. pollsters (4 and 5), while the prevarication of floating voters (1) is fairly common knowledge. Writing A College Chelsea Independent? In fact, our writer decides that 1 has the least explanatory. value and might as well be got quickly out of the way in a dependent clause as a point of critical books University Sciences small consequence Here, then, is the completed body with the introductory paragraph again On the morning of 9 April, 1992, Neil Kinnock, Leader of the Labour. Party since 1983, was in buoyant mood. He had good reason to be. Under the Conservatives, Britain was going through its worst recession. since the writing a college essay Independent, 1930s and the devaluation crisis of ‘Black Wednesday’ was. still painfully fresh in people’s minds.
He sensed victory, and the opinion. polls encouraged him. Labour, they said, was heading for a clear victory. Thirty-six hours later, notwithstanding 39 Tory losses and 42 Labour. Gains, it was clear that John Major would be the man to walk back. through the door of Number Ten to lead his party in its fourth consecutive. term of office. Journal Saxion University? Why, then, did the opinion polls so spectacularly fail? Apart from the help, notoriously fickle behaviour of floating voters, who have. been known to peer review College, prevaricate even with the writing a college essay Chelsea College, pencil in their hands (1) , the. Labour machine was celebrating victory early.
No one admires pessimism. in politics, but this flamboyant optimism - the almost indecent haste of. moving the critical Haileybury, Kinnock furniture into Number Ten before the count had. properly begun - was perceived as rather un-British. Help Writing A College Essay Independent College? This would almost. certainly have been enough to tip the scales to thinking Hanze University of Applied, the Tories for potentially. first-time Labour supporters (6) . A second reason is the considerable difficulty opinion polls encounter in. acquiring truly representative samples. Pollsters require neat unambiguous. answers, and Labour supporters are traditionally more forthcoming in this.
respect than their Conservative counterparts (4) . To exacerbate the problem, they are almost always racing against writing College the clock, and write essay Louisiana, among their temptations. is to avoid knocking the doors of writing a college essay College houses with long drives, the more likely. dwellings of Conservative supporters (5) . Odd though it might seem, another factor that contributed to peer journal articles Saxion University, the inaccurate. predictions was embarrassment. For thirteen years, the image of the. Conservative Party had inexorably been hardening.
During Margaret. Thatcher’s premiership, it came to help writing Chelsea College, be seen, rightly or wrongly, as the party. of naked capitalism, a capitalism no longer tempered by the noblesse oblige. of gentleman Tories such as Edward Heath and Lord Carrington. Both by. her rhetoric and her deeds, the Iron Lady seemed to have revived the.
nineteenth-century belief that it is Hanze a necessary condition of progress that the. weak go to the wall. That John Major might have presented a softer image. could make no impact on the legacy of help writing Chelsea Independent College successive governments that were. clandestinely privatising the Haileybury, health service and binding the hands of trade. unions with legal tape.
Little wonder, then, that many of its supporters were. reluctant to stand and be counted (3) . No one, however, was prepared for writing Independent College, the unprecedented onslaught against the. Labour Party led by The Sun . In just a few days, the write an evaluative essay Louisiana State University, paper managed to writing essay Chelsea Independent, turn. the tide to the Tories’ advantage by raising the critical, spectre of Labour’s taxation. policy (‘Will the last person to leave Britain please turns off the a college Independent, lights’).
Notwithstanding that many of those frightened by the tax Bogey Man were the. low waged who stood materially to benefit by Labour’s progressive income tax, the campaign succeeded, sealing Labour’s fate and causing some red faces. among the professional pollsters (2) . Different and better constructions of the body might be possible, but the principle remains: priority is best given to the beginning and critical Hanze Sciences, the end. One of the weaknesses of writing a college College conclusions sometimes is that they exist at review journal Abbey College Manchester, all. Having produced a reasonably good essay, the writer will often feel. constrained to write ‘a conclusion’ because this is what she has been told she should do, not realising that she might already have concluded it. well. What, for help a college Independent, example, could fruitfully be added to our sample essay on the 1992 election? If we accept that the main purpose of a conclusion is.
to confirm that the essay has fulfilled its thesis statement, then there is really nothing more to say. At 500 words, on the other hand, our sample. essay is very short. In longer essays, with a correspondingly greater number of paragraphs in support of the thesis statement, the critical books for kids Hanze University of Applied Sciences, case for a formal. conclusion would be stronger. Writing A College Chelsea Independent? What, then, should a conclusion look like? Firstly, it should not merely be a summary of the State University, essay; it must have. something original to say. Help Writing Essay Chelsea? Secondly, any questions set in the introduction or essay title should be explicitly answered.
The evidence will have been. provided in how to an evaluative State, the body and now is the time to formulate it into answers. These answers might be preceded by a summary of the help writing College, arguments that. appeared in the body, but only if those arguments have been sufficiently great in number or sufficiently complex to warrant one. A summing up in our. short essay above would be unnecessary and appear amateurish. Thirdly, the conclusion might be an inference drawn from the evidence of the body. Had it run to 2,000 words, say, the conclusion of our essay on peer articles Saxion University of Applied, the 1992 election might look like this Predicting human behaviour, then, is perhaps an art more than a science.
However much the opinion pollsters agonise over their ‘blunder’ of 1992, it is inescapably the case that the factors influencing human conduct are. ones that are not easily amenable to scientific study. Lastly, the conclusion could draw the reader’s attention to the wider implications of the thesis statement, indicating that there are other important. questions which can be raised. Essay Chelsea College? It will be beyond the scope of the thinking books for kids Hanze University of Applied Sciences, present essay to answer these questions, but they can be posed in order to. stimulate interest and further research. For example, should polling organisations consider how they might achieve more representative samples?
Should the apparent power of the press be a cause for concern? In order to investigate the relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, I first interviewed five people from social grades C2. and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, I interviewed five people from. the same grades who consistently voted Conservative.
This way of writing is probably the one that comes most naturally to us all, and the way an writing essay Chelsea uninstructed first-year might produce her first expository. essay. The passage is clear and grammatically correct, but the peer reviewed journal articles Saxion University, use of the first person I is inappropriate. To make matters worse, the help writing a college essay Independent, writer is using the first person to describe what she is doing rather than what she is thinking. The reader does not need. to be told who carried out the research since the author’s name will be on peer articles Saxion University Sciences, the document. In the text, the help a college essay, writer should concern herself only with what. was done and what was discovered, not with the fact that it was she who did or discovered it. As we shall see, the first person is sometimes justified.
in the argumentative essay to how to Louisiana, express the writer’s opinions, but mere exposition should be completely impersonal. One method by which this impersonality might be achieved (and the method sometimes recommended) is to use the more detached third person In order to investigate the help Chelsea Independent, relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, the author first interviewed five people from social. grades C2 and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, she interviewed five. people from the same grades who consistently voted Conservative. But this merely adds affectation to the problem. The writer is still drawing attention to herself by explaining what she did, succeeding only in. compounding the issue by the inauthentic and archaic practice of referring to herself as if she were someone else.
A better technique is to avoid reference to herself altogether In order to investigate the relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, five people were interviewed from social grades C2. and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, five people from the same. grades were interviewed who consistently voted Conservative. The writer is now well out of sight. Critical Thinking Podcast Istituto Marangoni Firenze? That the people in the survey were interviewed by her is understood but unsaid. The writer has maintained. authorial invisibility by using passive rather than active sentences. Help Writing Independent? But the drawback with a series of passive sentences is that they can make. for rather dull reading.
One way around this problem is for the author to peer reviewed Saxion University, combine passive sentences with active ones in which he survey, or its. results, are the writing a college College, subject rather than she herself The results of the survey show that (active with a third-person subject) Another of the writer’s options is to use the first-person plural we as the subject of active clauses and sentences. It is straying a little into informal. territory, but it is established academic practice and has the advantage of engaging the reader by creating the impression that he is sitting side- by-side with the author As can be seen from the diagram (passive and peer reviewed journal articles University, formal) As we can see from the diagram (active, engaging and formally acceptable) What conclusions can be drawn from this? What conclusions can we draw from writing a college essay, this?
Two things need to be clarified We need to be clear about two things In expository essays, then, the writer is best advised to keep her head down by thinking using a combination of • active sentences in which the subject is the research method. (the survey, interview, questionnaire, experiment, etc.) (the author and her readers) In a sense, all academic essays are argumentative. The explanations and writing Chelsea Independent College, definitions of expository essays can always be challenged, so that even.
they have a necessarily persuasive element. But argumentative or persuasive essays, per se, are much more explicitly prescriptive compositions. and are generally encountered at and above the undergraduate rung of the academic ladder. Such essays (called papers if they are published or read to learned societies) might ostensibly appear as expository essays that purport merely. to explain something, but the original, radical or controversial nature of critical thought that explanation transforms them into argumentative essays. Help Chelsea Independent? Sir Isaiah. Berlin’s essay, ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, 3 for critical for kids Hanze University Sciences, example, sets out ‘to examine’ two kinds of freedom, but it rapidly becomes clear that the definitions.
are not ones with which everyone will agree. Help Writing Chelsea Independent College? The essay thus becomes argumentative by virtue of the opposition it sets out to attract. But argumentative does not mean ‘belligerent’ (although academics can be as churlish and vindictive as anyone else). Podcast Marangoni? There is a world of difference. between persuading someone of something and merely winning an argument. The polemics of the party-political pamphlet, or the diatribes of. ‘Disgusted’ in help essay Chelsea College, the correspondence pages of the local newspaper, have no place in an argumentative essay. College? Such scripts must be just what they claim. to be: argumentative, not a series of unsubstantiated or one-sided claims. It takes at least two to argue, so that the essay must either express at least. two points of view (one challenged and the other defended) or be ‘one-sided’ only in the sense of throwing down the help a college Independent, academic gauntlet.
If the former. technique is chosen, the author must create a genuine dialogue of ideas with her opponent, real or imaginary, expressing the opposing view fairly and. acknowledging any difficulties with her own. Equally importantly, there can be no and-that’s-an-end-of-the-matter tone in an argumentative essay. There is, and can be, no end to academic.
debate, and an essay’s conclusion will necessarily be one with which readers can disagree. If disagreement is not possible, then the argument has. been circular or tautologous. Podcast Istituto Firenze? No academic argument is writing a college Chelsea impenetrable, and review Manchester, every one is an invitation to further understanding. Help A College Essay Independent College? The purpose of the. argumentative essay is to show that the writer’s point of view is plausible and internally consistent, not that it is absolutely and incontestably true. The structure of the argumentative essay is the same as that of the expository essay discussed above. The main stylistic difference between expository and argumentative essays concerns person.
For while the first-person singular I is peer journal Manchester inappropriate in. the expository essay, it is help Independent occasionally permissible in the argumentative essay where the author is expressing a personal opinion. Even so, an over- abundance of such expressions as I think and it seems to peer review journal, me smack of egotism and can irritate the reader. It is therefore wise to be frugal with the. The first person can, of course, be used freely in the early stages as the writer gathers her thoughts, but most occurrences are easily banished in. the drafting stages. The simplest way is often to a college essay Chelsea Independent, delete them. Thus In my opinion, Herzberg’s theory has two major weaknesses. Herzberg’s theory has two major weaknesses.
But in what circumstances may the author legitimately raise her head? Firstly, in cases where she herself has not set the essay, the title itself can. be a guide. For example, 'How Plausible is Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation?' does not invite the peer articles Saxion Sciences, use of the first person in quite the same. way as 'How plausible do you consider Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation to be?' Secondly, as noted earlier, the first person should never. be used to describe what the author did, but only help a college Chelsea Independent College, what she thinks.
First-person statements are best kept to a minimum, reserved for the most important or thought-provoking ideas in peer of Applied, the script or, occasionally, to. It seems to me, then, that the reasons for the fall in the birth rate have. less to do with the advent of oral contraception than the conscious decision. by women to balance their careers with their family commitments. However, I am less sure of Jones’s (2001) claim that such a fall could have resulted. But even here, the first person can be avoided if the writer feels it is in danger of overuse. Thus the opening of the first sentence is easily changed.
Arguably, then, the reasons for essay Chelsea, the fall in the birth rate while the opening of the second sentence can be changed to Less convincing, however, is Jones’s (2001) claim that Few writers will produce a satisfactory essay in how to write essay conclusion The University, one sitting. Most will find themselves with a lengthy first draft in considerable need of pruning and. refining before it meets the requirements of quality and size a task that can involve more work than was spent on the research. But while sweat. is necessary, tears are not. Writing A College Independent? If the writer is faced with the distressing prospect of having to dispose of thinking books for kids Sciences substantial, well-written passages on which.
considerable effort has been spent, then those passages are either irrelevant to the thesis statement or the consequences of its overdevelopment. Let us deal with irrelevance first. A dangerous temptation for writing essay, the unwary is to focus on a key word or phrase in the essay title and then to write down all that is known about it, which. more often than not involves needless definition. The writer, that is, will unnecessarily define or explain a concept when what is required is the. application of that concept to explain something else. Take, for write an evaluative, example, the essay title, 'Assess the value of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with. reference to help a college essay Chelsea Independent College, a business organisation'.
Some students will immediately plunge in with something like this Maslow’s Hierarchy comprises five levels of need from low to high which. people seek to satisfy in ascending order: (1) physiological needs (such as. food, water and shelter); (2) safety needs (security and freedom from. danger); (3) social needs (affection and acceptance in groups); (4) esteem. needs (being valued and respected by others); and (5) self-fulfilling needs. True but irrelevant. Critical Thinking Books For Kids University Of Applied Sciences? The writer has wasted time (and probably marks) defining Maslow’s Hierarchy instead of getting on with the business of. assessing its value The investigation into Chelsea Independent College Anyfirm revealed how it is possible to descend.
Maslow’s Hierarchy as well as ascend it. It became evident from the. interviews with the staff that, following the announcement of possible. redundancies, there was now far less concern with the peer journal articles University Sciences, satisfaction of the. higher needs and help writing a college Chelsea, a corresponding increase in concern with the lower. With their jobs under threat, the lofty goal of self-fulfilment was sacrificed.
for the humbler and more urgent goal of job security. That the writer understands Maslow’s theory is apparent from its application. Overdevelopment, on thought Haileybury, the other hand, is the result of poor planning. Help Essay College? Academics writing papers for publication usually have some discretion in. respect of the length of their work. The hapless student does not.
A victim of for kids University her own enthusiasm, she can find herself with a script so far in. excess of what is admissible that to prune it without mutilation becomes impossible. What needs to be remembered is that writing an essay of writing College two or three thousand words is like furnishing a small living room; we can acquire some. beautiful items but, without the peer journal article College, space, they merely transform the room into an obstacle course. All we need is a centrepiece (the thesis statement) and a few well-chosen, coordinated items (the supporting arguments and conclusion). As the body of the essay is being constructed, therefore, the. writer should get a feel for the size of her creation and realise, sooner rather than later, whether it is going to fit into the available space.
This is not. to say that interesting digressions should be ignored. A College Essay Independent College? They can be noted for future development, but it must be realised that they are unlikely to. find a place in the current essay. These errors aside, the reviewed of Applied, purpose of the drafting stages will be to refine the work in order to achieve optimum clarity and to rid it of dross. Advice on. how to achieve these ends can be found in the sections on expletive sentences and clichés, pleonasms and verbosity. The remainder of this page. consists of a few reminders. It is a well-known fact that
It has often been said that There can be little doubt that All these verbose phrases are easily replaced with adverbs such as doubtless , evidently , generally , naturally and help a college, so forth. We can also shorten expressions and improve the quality of critical thought English at the same time When he had written his business plan, he arranged an help a college Chelsea interview with. His business plan written, he arranged an interview with his bank. The research showed that, as far as the electorate is concerned, monetary union is not an important issue. The research showed that monetary union is not an peer article Abbey College important electoral issue.
Very often, we need make no change except to writing a college essay Chelsea Independent, delete the write an evaluative essay Louisiana State, expression Ed Miliband was elected as the Leader of the Labour Party in 2010. The interviewees were questioned, the help writing essay Independent College, forms were collected and the. Most of Bach’s orchestral works were written while he was in Cöthen. He specialised in selling while his partner specialised in critical thought Haileybury, accounts. No one else but the secretary is allowed to sign cheques. Other windbags include in spite of the fact that notwithstanding that.
in view of the help a college Chelsea, fact that because. on a daily basis daily, every day. the question as to whether whether. We can also weed out the tautologies. Each of the following, for example, should have one word deleted Finally, we should also guard against critical Haileybury our own naïvety. All writers want to impress their readers, but using verbosity to disguise a commonplace is. not the way to do it The investigation method used to obtain the information necessary to. complete this essay was the questionnaire. of seven words, or forty-four per cent of the sentence)
Some writers also fail to realise that what for essay Chelsea, them is a new discovery is article Abbey College Manchester common knowledge to Chelsea, their readers. They are consequently fond of the. grand announcement, rather like a drum roll before a circus feat that ends in a flop In 1513, a man by podcast Marangoni Firenze the name of Machiavelli wrote a book entitled, The. Machiavelli’s Prince appeared in 1513. (A reduction of ten words, or sixty- seven per cent of the sentence) In these ways, the writer takes up more and more slack until the final version is as taut as a piano wire, the help a college essay, entire essay employing a minimum. number of words working at maximum capacity. 1 Among the many well-crafted short stories that exemplify one or more of these principles of unity are the following: Roald Dahl, ‘ The Hitch-Hiker ’ , in William Pattrick (ed.), Duel: Horror Stories of the Road , W. H. Allen, London, 1987, pp. 211 23 ; Ernest Hemingway, ‘Hills Like White Elephants ’ , in Hemingway: Men Without Women , Grafton Books, Collins Publishing Group, London, 1977, pp. 44 48; Richard Matheson, ‘Duel ’ , in William.
Pattrick (ed.), op. Peer Reviewed Journal Of Applied? cit ., pp. 149 73; Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, ‘The Two Householders: Memoirs of Gabriel Foot, Highwayman’ in Selected Short. Stories , Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1957, pp. 49 60; and Saki (H. H. Munro), ‘The Open Window ’ , in The Penguin Complete Saki , Penguin. Books, Harmondsworth, 1984, pp. Help Chelsea? 259 62. 2 Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, op. cit . 3 Sir Isaiah Berlin, ‘ Two Concepts of Liberty ’ in peer reviewed articles of Applied Sciences, Anthony Quinton (ed.), Political Philosophy , OUP, London, 1967, pp.
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PhD Thesis Structure Sample: How should you structure your thesis? Thesis structure for a PhD thesis should be a document structure which is acceptable by the University from essay Independent, where you are pursuing your doctoral degree program. How To Write An Evaluative Louisiana State University? It is a good practice to refer to writing a college Chelsea Independent this structure from the University and get it vetted by your supervisor. A typical (generally accepted)PhD thesis structure sample has the write a good essay conclusion of Sheffield following sections. Title Acknowledgments Table of help Chelsea College, Contents (TOC) Abstract Introduction Literature Review Research Methodology Data Analysis Findings and Discussions Conclusion and Limitations Bibliography Appendix.
Over 24% of theses submitted in all UK universities are rejected due to how to an evaluative University wrong structure of the writing a college essay report. You must use check previous theses submitted to the University before embarking on writing yours. At Thesis Clinic, we look after all your issues that tend to arise during the selection of a structure for your thesis paper. Thesis Clinic not only assists you with the accurate selection of your thesis structure, but even offers you applicable solutions for all the issues arising from the very beginning to the end of the thesis paper creation process. Finally, my DBA thesis has been submitted after supervisor approved it. He was continously disappointed with data analysis chapter of my thesis. But you guys did a great job. Of Applied? He approved the chapter on only first study of it. Thank you so much Thesis Clinic!
Thanks a lot Thesis Clinic for your brilliant support in my research work. You helped me a lot in research methodology consulting. Thanks again. All higher degree and research candidates including PhD, Masters of Research, Professional Doctorate, Masters Research degree are required to submit an electronic copy of essay Chelsea Independent, their thesis along with a print version. This is between you and your tutor. Essay Louisiana State University? Basically, topic evolves with time as research moves forward. So, in writing Chelsea Independent, the general case the answer is yes.
Scrivener is a writing software that helps you in how to write a good conclusion of Sheffield, writing and organising your thesis in an efficient way. From organising the course material, keeping versions of the draft, brainstorming lists to taking notes from the help writing essay Chelsea College supervisor, Scrivener assi. Well, this is the default state, what you can do is: - Cracking the peer review journal College Manchester hidden topic market. - Looking for your area of interest. - Find out specific problems in your area of interest that haven't been covered yet. Research philosophy is the way of explaining your research methods and help a college Chelsea Independent College how that influences your work. It should be incorporated in your dissertation as it solves the issue on which methods to podcast Marangoni Firenze apply in your research. Help A College Essay Chelsea College? It highly depends upon the individ. There are three types of how to essay University, thesis: Analytical Thesis: It breaks down the writing essay Chelsea Independent idea or issue into how to essay Louisiana State, its component, evaluates the Independent College idea and presents its evaluation and breakdown to the audience.
• Read your thesis well before the viva, be thorough. • Make a list of all the questions you dread and to prepare an answer to them. • Take note of peer Manchester, when you should whole heartedly defend your thesis and when you can accept its minor im. You should look into the following: As much as possible, read whatever comes under the span of your research. Help Writing A College Essay Chelsea College? Using previously existing data and research work make a list of the scientific jargon, professionally used terminology and other words . You should make sure that your Thesis title encompasses the following three characteristics: Captivating: This means that the title should be able to spark interest in critical Hanze University of Applied Sciences, the minds of the readers and force them to have a glance at what. A thesis statement is essentially a concise summary of the main point or crux of the thesis and is one sentence that usually appears at the beginning of the essay College piece of writing is what we call a thesis statement. It is of essence that all arguments made.
Generally, the official ownership and the copyright of the thesis belong to the institute the thesis is Haileybury, being researched at. In most cases the Institute will hold ownership of the copyright to a thesis. The thesis supervisor works with the help a college Chelsea Independent College scholar and guides him to successfully compete his thesis drafting. He ensures that the research done is authentic and complies with all the formatting guidelines of the reviewed Saxion University Sciences institute. A supervisor does not entirely c.
An Electronic Thesis or Dissertation (ETD) is similar to help a college essay College a traditional thesis but instead of being printed on paper and then hard bound, it is thought Haileybury, stored in a format that makes it easy to be retrieved or accessed worldwide. Many Universities are now grad. Every university is very particular about the presentation of theses. They expect all thesis documents to be consistent and in accordance with the help a college essay College prescribed format. This makes work more accessible and comprehendible. A structure gives a scholar a rationale or a blueprint as to how he or she must go about drafting his or her thesis.
This ensures work is done more systematically, effectively and timely. The answer is quite simple , try to derive a conclusion out of the critical thought Haileybury various arguments you read and counter attack them through your own understanding, this will help you to a college College develop and analyze your own set of arguments. First of write a good conclusion of Sheffield, all it's very natural to essay Independent College get nervous during such times , so don't be apprehensive about it and secondly just remember to have an in depth knowledge of your paper and just prove that you have the right aspirations and a firm determination t. Yes you can pursue PhD on a part time basis, various Universities such as oxford , Liverpool gives you an opportunity to pursue specific courses on a part time basis. There are many online available software that can be used for plagiarism check, however WriteCheck's TurnitIn is one of the widely used and approached software. It provides detailed description of the plagiarized content.
While preparing the proposal focus on the research objectives and research questions. As the name suggest, you need to propose the how to essay expected outcomes where you are directing your research. An empirical paper is one wherein you do a new research by analyzing the writing Chelsea Independent primary collected by means of observation, interviews, etc. A concept paper on the other hand describes more the concept of a particular idea and is summated with a suggestion. Variables are decided on the basis of review of literature. From the reviewed journal articles Saxion University previous researches in help writing essay Chelsea College, a particular domain, we understand the variables that can fit to our research. Rewriting is suggested when there is plagiarism, sentences are broken and the better academic writing quality is required. A good research proposal should include, the clear problem statement, Purpose of the study, Definitions, Review of Literature, research questions and critical hypothesis (if applicable). For persuasive research outcome, do not use the words like, can, could, I believe in, this might, etc as these will direct towards uncertainty. Empirical research: It means that research is conducted through investigation and the conclusions are drawn on the basis of collected evidences.
It is a practical and experimental approach of a college Chelsea Independent College, research. Conceptual research: As the. The goal of a concept paper means a broad abstract statement or achievement for which efforts have been made. While the objective is to find out the The University arguments or proof directly associated with the help writing College goal. They are used interchangeably but actually play. If you want to get your thesis published in an eminent journal, it is favorable to get it edited and editing certificate, especially when you have English as a second language.
No university, institute or supervisor ask for it. Simplest method you can adopt in order to combine independent statistical tests is vote count method. It will account statistical significance of finding or focus only on the direction of the findings. It depends on the study you opt for citation. For a single study citation (SC), use past tense. To illustrate: Biodiesel was shown to have promise as an alternative to regular diesel. A Good Of Sheffield? (Arslan, 2007)
When referring to an area of inqu. At the end of entire discussion section, restate the significance of your study and speculate about the help writing a college Independent College next steps towards further research. The term pilot study refers to any small-scale version, or any trial run to test a research instrument or method as a precursor to how to write a good conclusion The University of Sheffield a more general study. Writing A College Essay Chelsea Independent? It can help in amending your data collection plans regarding content and procedures. . Empathic neutrality is identified as one the ethic in data collection for the research. Empathic neutrality is when the researcher collects the data without being biased; working in review journal article College, a research without being judgmental. Qualitative researches often tend to use peer debriefing technique in which a peer is expected to assess and review transcripts as well as reports produced. All this is done by the peers through a careful reading. Synthesis matrix is considered as one of the most efficient ways to organize the information and sources for your literature review. For this, you must identify the sources that are closely related with your topic, bring out the arguments and organiz. Contingency table is used to find the correlation between the two variables by making a frequency distribution table, where two variables are shown simultaneously and their interrelation is a college College, analyzed. . A hypothesis is a statement which predicts the relationships of events or variables clearly.
It identifies a specific variable (independent) which might have a causal effect on the other variable (dependent). Triangulation method is peer article Manchester, used for verifying the validity of data by essay College combining multiple theories and data sources using different methods. Triangulation methods can be employed in can be employed in both quantitative (validation) and qualitative (inqui. Intercoder reliability or agreement is mainly a measurement of consistency. It depicts whether two or more coders agree on same passage of text or not. The consistency of the coding be in agreement at least 80% of the College time for good qualitative reliab. When a research is conducted on the marginalized section of a society for their betterment is help a college, called emancipatory research. The researcher is generally who is either an indigenous or an outsider evaluating and interpreting the disadvantaged condition.
The term is used for peer reviewed Saxion of Applied Sciences the researcher's process of collecting data first without research planning and design to explore the research questions. Writing Chelsea Independent? In such a case, the data collected often turns into review journal article Abbey College Manchester, unjustifiable data which bears no relevancy in essay Chelsea Independent, terms o. Many students make the mistake of writing and citing every single paper in the literature review section. There might be many papers you must have studied for developing your research idea, but you must cite only those papers which contributed much t. The active or passive voice in critical podcast Istituto Marangoni, academic writing is used accordingly for writing clearly and persuasively. When to use active voice and passive voice cannot be defined. The length of your introduction section should never be of much concern. The length of the chapter would be dependent upon what all is to be covered in an introduction.
Some questions that you must consider while writing an introduction: key terminol. Research Prominent citation is writing a college essay Chelsea Independent College, one of the basic types of citation styles which focuses more on critical thinking Marangoni Firenze, research rather than on author or the researchers involved. . A conceptual framework is the research idea developed by the researcher on the basis of existing verified theory or phenomenon. A College College? It can be called a model upon which you plan to work and investigate your research problem. . Analysis of critical thinking podcast Istituto Marangoni Firenze, Variance(ANOVA) is used to determine the results and a college Independent influence independent variables have upon the dependent variables. There are basically four types of measurement scales used in quantitative questionnaire; Nominal Scale, Ordinal Scale, Interval Scale and Ratio Scale. Extraneous variables are confounding variables that are in any way related to the dependent or independent variables and should not controlled. Researcher should control such variables as they may impact the critical thinking podcast Marangoni Firenze analysis and results. Help Essay? . CC license is issued by Creative Common, a non-profit organization which permits the distribution and usage of published or unpublished work on a greater scale while retaining the copyrights of the author. . In case you have supplementary material such as audios, videos, HD images etc. Write University? that are relevant to writing Chelsea Independent College your thesis, then you can submit those in files separately along with your thesis. Also, you must include the complete details of such material in the. Yes.
It is mandatory for you to thought Haileybury obtain the consent from the concerned bodies to approve your data collection procedures and help Independent College testify all ethical considerations. This letter shall be given a proper description in appendices and disclosed to your superv. Poisson distribution is the journal of Applied pattern of random point-like events or dimensions that provide the model of randomness to which an observed event pattern in writing a college essay Chelsea College, a particular time or space can be compared. . In exploratory data analysis, sets of data are analyzed by summarizing the how to write a good conclusion of Sheffield main characteristics using various graphical as well as quantitative techniques such as Histogram, Pareto chart, Trimean, Median polish etc. . Random sampling is help a college essay Independent, a technique of selecting sample size from the population in a way that each individual has an equal possibility of being in the sample selected. . A thesis contains eight to nine chapters in general but may vary from university to university. The basic chapters that a thesis must contain are as follows: 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Methods 4. Discussion 5. Peer Reviewed Articles Saxion University Of Applied? Data Analysis 6. Resu. Thesis writing is an important part of academic research. As a part of the writing a college essay College academic curriculum, stud. Choosing the right topic for dissertation can be a very overwhelming task. How To Write Essay Of Sheffield? The sigh of relief here c. There are certain mistakes, or we may call them as blunders that would make sure your failure in writing a college Independent, you. 30 January 2017.
Even the best of PhD academic writer have faced the dreaded writer's block when working on reviewed journal Saxion University Sciences, their imp. 18 October 2016. Thesis Clinic 7200 the Quorum Oxford Business Park North, Oxford , OX4 2JZ , UK. © Copyright 2012. Thesis Clinic.
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An A to Z of Theory | Roland Barthes: Death of the Author. Many of Barthes#8217;s works focus on literature. A College Chelsea? However, Barthes denied being a literary critic, because he did not assess and provide verdicts on works. Instead, he interpreted their semiotic significance. Barthes#8217;s structuralist style of books Hanze of Applied, literary analysis has influenced cultural studies, to the chagrin of help a college Independent College, adherents of traditional literary approaches. One notable point of review journal article College, controversy is Barthes#8217;s proclamation of the #8216;death of the author#8217;. This #8216;death#8217; is directed, not at the idea of writing, but at the specifically French image of the auteur as a creative genius expressing an inner vision. He is opposing a view of texts as expressing a distinct personality of the help a college Chelsea College, author.
Barthes vehemently opposes the view that authors consciously create masterpieces. He maintains that authors such as Racine and Louisiana Balzac often reproduce emotional patterns about which they have no conscious knowledge. He opposes the view that authors should be interpreted in terms of what they think they#8217;re doing. Their biographies have no more relevance to what they write than do those of scientists. In #8216;The Death of the Author#8217;, Barthes argues that writing destroys every voice and point of origin. This is because it occurs within a functional process which is the practice of signification itself. Its real origin is language. Help Essay Independent? A writer, therefore, does not have a special genius expressed in the text, but rather, is a kind of craftsman who is skilled in using a particular code. All writers are like copywriters or scribes, inscribing a particular zone of language. Critical Of Applied? The real origin of a text is not the author, but language. If the writer expresses something #8216;inner#8217;, it is only the dictionary s/he holds ready-formed.
There is a special art of the storyteller to translate linguistic structures or codes into particular narratives or messages. Help Essay Chelsea? Each text is composed of multiple writings brought into dialogue, with each code it refers to being extracted from a previous culture. Barthes#8217;s argument is directed against schools of literary criticism that seek to uncover the author#8217;s meaning as a hidden referent which is the critical Haileybury, final meaning of the text. By refusing the #8216;author#8217; (in the sense of a great writer expressing an inner brilliance), one refuses to assign an ultimate meaning to the text, and hence, one refuses to fix its meaning. A College Essay Independent College? It becomes open to different readings. According to Barthes, the reviewed articles of Applied, unity of a text lies in its destination not its origin. Essay? Its multiplicity is focused on the reader, as an absent point within the text, to whom it speaks. The writer and reader are linguistic persons, not psychological persons. Their role in the story is Haileybury defined by their coded place in writing a college Chelsea, discourse, not their specific traits. A text cannot have a single meaning, but rather, is composed of thought, multiple systems through which it is constructed.
In Barthes#8217;s case, this means reading texts through the signs they use, both in help a college Chelsea, their structure in the text, and in their wider meanings. Literature does not represent something real, since what it refers to is not really there. For Barthes, it works by playing on the multiple systems of language-use and their infinite transcribability – their ability to write an evaluative University be written in different ways. The death of the author creates freedom for the reader to interpret the text. The reader can recreate the text through connecting to its meanings as they appear in different contexts. In practice, Barthes#8217;s literary works emphasise the practice of the craft of Chelsea Independent, writing. For instance, Barthes#8217;s structuralist analysis of Sade, Fourier and Loyola emphasises the structural characteristics of their work, such as their emphasis on counting and their locations in self-contained worlds. He views the three authors as founders of reviewed articles Saxion, languages (logothetes). The Structure of a college Chelsea Independent, Narrative. In #8216;Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives#8217;, Barthes explores the structure of narrative, or storytelling, from a structuralist perspective. Narrative consists of a wide variety of genres applied to a wide variety of substances – for example, theatre, film, novels, news stories, mimes, and even some paintings.
We can see what Barthes terms #8216;narrative#8217; whenever something is critical thinking Istituto used to tell a story. Help Writing A College Independent? People using this theory will often refer to the way people live their lives as narratives, and some will talk about Abbey College Manchester a right to tell our own story. Narrative is taken to be humanly universal – every social group has its own narratives. Barthes models the help writing essay, analysis of narrative on structuralist linguistics. The structure or organisation is how to an evaluative what is most essential in any system of meaning. The construction of a narrative from help a college essay different statements is peer journal Saxion of Applied Sciences similar to the construction of a sentence from phonemes.
Barthes argues that there are three levels of narrative: functions, actions, and narration. Each has meaning only in relation to writing a college essay the next level. Functions refer to statements in narratives. Write An Evaluative University? Every statement or sentence in a novel, for example, has at least one function. Barthes gives examples like: #8216;James Bond saw a man of about fifty#8217; and #8216;Bond picked up one of the four receivers#8217;. For Barthes, every statement has a particular role in the narrative – there are no useless statements, no #8216;noise#8217; in the information-theory sense. But statements vary in help writing Chelsea Independent, their importance to thinking for kids Hanze University the narrative, in how closely or loosely it is help writing a college essay Chelsea tied to the story. Some are functions in the full sense, playing a direct role in the story. For instance, a character buys a gun so s/he can use it later in the story. The phone rings, and Bond picks it up – this will give him information or orders which will move the action forward.
Others are #8216;indices#8217; – they index something which establishes the context of the story. They might, for critical thought Haileybury instance, convey a certain atmosphere. Or they might say something about the psychology or #8216;character#8217; of an actor in the story. The #8216;four receivers#8217; show that Bond is in a big, bureaucratic organisation, which shows that he is on the side of order. The #8216;man of about fifty#8217; indicates an atmosphere of suspicion: Bond needs to establish who he is and which side he is on. Among the essay Chelsea College, former – the true functions – these can be central aspects of the narrative, on which it hinges (#8216;cardinal points#8217; or #8216;nuclei#8217;), or they can be complementary (catalysers). To be cardinal, a function needs to open or close a choice on which the critical thinking podcast Firenze, development of the story depends. The phone ringing and Bond answering are cardinal, because the story would go differently if the phone didn#8217;t ring or Bond didn#8217;t answer.
But if Bond #8216;moved towards the desk and answered the phone#8217;, the phrase #8216;moved towards the desk#8217; is a catalyser, because it does not affect the story whether he did this or not. Stories often contain catalysers to provide moments of writing, rest from the risky decision-points. Barthes sees true functions as forming pairs: one initiates a choice and the other closes it. These pairs can be close together, or spread out across a story. The choice is opened by the phone ringing, and closed by Bond answering it.
Indices are also divided into true indices, which index things like an actor#8217;s character or an atmosphere, and informants, which simply identify something or situate it in time and thinking Istituto Marangoni space. A character#8217;s age is an example of an help Chelsea informant. True indices are more important to the story than informants. Critical Marangoni Firenze? All moments of a narrative are functional, but some more so than others. Functions and indices are functional in different ways. Cardinal functions and true indices have greater functionality than catalysers and help Independent informants. At root, however, a narrative is structured through its nuclei. The other functional elements are always expansions on the nuclei. It is possible, as in how to write a good conclusion of Sheffield, folk-tales, to create a narrative consisting almost entirely of nuclei.
Functions are arranged into narratives by being attached to agents – characters in the story who engage in actions. Every narrative necessarily has agents. The actions of an agent connect the nuclei of the narrative to particular #8216;articulations of writing, praxis#8217; – desire, communication and struggle. Review Journal Article Abbey College Manchester? The third level, narration, occurs between the narrator (or writer) and the reader. The narrator compiles the narrative in a way which is addressed to writing a college Chelsea the reader, and #8216;produces#8217; the journal Saxion University of Applied, reader as a particular position in the narrative. The positions of narrator and reader are clearest when a writer addresses a factual statement directly to a college Independent the reader: #8216;Leo was the owner of the joint#8217;. Narrator and reader are largely empty positions within the narrative.
Narratives also have a kind of logical time which is interior to a good essay them and is barely connected to real time. This logical time is constructed by the series of nuclei (which open and close choices), and their separation by other nuclei and by subsidiary elements. It is held together by the integration of the pairs of nuclei. Narratives implicitly receive their meaning, however, from a wider social world. Barthes maintains that narratives obtain their meaning from the a college essay Chelsea, world beyond them – from podcast Istituto Marangoni Firenze social, economic and ideological systems. Barthes criticises the writing Chelsea College, narratives of his day for trying to disguise the process of coding involved in constructing a narrative.
As in Mythologies, he again argues that this naturalisation of signs, and denial of the process of peer review journal Abbey College, social construction of help essay College, meaning, is critical thought Haileybury specifically bourgeois. Both bourgeois society and its mass culture #8216;demand signs which do not look like signs#8217;. They are reluctant to declare their codes. Narrative also contains other potentials. Like dreaming, it alters the familiar in ways which show different possibilities. Although what is #8216;known#8217; or #8216;experienced#8217; is constantly re-run through narratives, the narratives do not simply repeat what is re-run through them. They open a #8216;process of becoming#8217;.
In other words, things can run differently when run through narrative. Narrative shows that other meanings are possible. Familiar things can be given different meanings. What happens in narrative has no referent. Help Writing A College Essay Independent College? It doesn#8217;t refer to something in the real world.
Rather, what happens in narrative is language itself – the celebration of its many possibilities. However, it is also closely connected to monologue (which follows in personal development from dialogue). Barthes is highly critical of peer Abbey College Manchester, realist and naturalist views of writing. For Barthes, literature is built on emptiness: it represents something which is not really there. All the arts of fiction, including theatre, cinema and a college Chelsea Independent College literature, are constructed based on signs. They function by the suspension of disbelief.
They function by calling certain desires or structures into play, causing people to feel various emotions. They are not representations of reality, but rather, a way to induce feelings in the audience. The attempt to convince the audience that the how to write an evaluative essay Louisiana, story is real is a way of reproducing the naturalisation of signs. A supposedly realistic or naturalistic art or literature never really #8216;tells it like it is#8217;. It represents through a set of conventional signs which stand for #8216;reality#8217;.
Barthes criticises those who believe authors imitate an existing reality (a practice known as mimesis). He is in favour of an emphasis on the creation of a discursive world (semiosis) rather than mimesis. Hence his interest in Sade, Fourier and Loyola. Instead of conventional views of the help essay Independent College, world, alternative presentations can denaturalise the present and provide utopian alternatives. Barthes also criticises the idea of clarity in literature, for similar reasons. Clarity is simply conventional. Essay University? It is relative to a particular regime of signs. It amounts to a criterion of familiarity.
Therefore, it has conservative effects. Writing Essay Chelsea Independent? Barthes views clarity as a class attribute of the bourgeoisie, used to signify membership of this class (this contrasts sharply with the more common claim in activist circles that speech should be clear so as to be working-class or inclusive). Thinking Books Hanze University Sciences? However, this is not strictly an writing a college essay Chelsea Independent College expressive view either. The actor or author doesn#8217;t necessarily induce sympathy for their own feelings. Such an effect can amount to confusing art with reality. Instead, the actor, author and audience all know it#8217;s fiction. In some contexts, such as theatre, wrestling, and (in Barthes#8217;s view) Japanese culture, performance or artifice is articles Sciences recognised for what it is. It is not taken to be natural or real. Help Writing Chelsea College? In these contexts, signs have no content. Their operation serves to show the existence and functioning of signs. It also allows an expressive use of signs, to stand for particular emotions.
In #8216;Rhetoric of the Image#8217;, Barthes discusses the podcast Marangoni Firenze, different levels of meaning in a Panzani advert. Firstly, there#8217;s a linguistic message, which has the usual denoted and connoted levels. Help A College College? Secondly, there#8217;s a connotation, established by juxtaposition, associating the brand with freshness and peer article Abbey College Manchester home cooking. Thirdly, there#8217;s the use of colours and fruits to signify #8216;Italianicity#8217;, the mythical essence of Italy. Fourthly, the writing College, processed product is presented as if equivalent to the surrounding unprocessed items. These signifiers carry #8216;euphoric values#8217; connected to particular myths.
According to Barthes, at critical books Hanze University of Applied, least the help Chelsea College, third of these meanings is quasi-tautological. The language of images is constructed in particular zones or #8216;lexicons#8217;. How To Write Louisiana University? Each of the connoted meanings refers to a specific body of social practice which certain readers will receive, and others may not. For instance, it mobilises ideas from tourism (Italianicity) and art (the imitation of the style of a still life painting). Help? Often the same signifieds are carried by text, images, acting and so on. How To Write? These signifieds carry a particular dominant ideology. A rhetoric of the image deploys a number of help writing a college essay Independent, connotative images to carry messages. All images are #8216;polysemous#8217; – they can be read in a number of ways. Critical Thought? In an image such as this, language is used both explicitly and implicitly to guide the selection of meanings. The text directs the reader as to help essay which meanings of the image to review article College receive. Barthes thus suggests that texts have a repressive value relative to images: they limit what can be seen.
It is in this limitation that ideology and morality function. Ideology chooses among multiple meanings which ones can be seen, and limits the College, shifting flow of signification which would otherwise happen. Journal Articles Of Applied? Euphoria has both positive and negative meanings in Barthes#8217;s work. As a negative term, it refers to the enjoyment of a closed system or familiar meaning which is induced by mythical signifiers. Help Essay College? For instance, the articles of Applied, fashion system is euphoric because its persistence as a system defies death. People can partake in a system of meanings which seems eternal, and thereby experience some of its illusory universality as euphoria. Writing A College Essay Independent? Myth provides euphoria because it provides a sense that something is absolutely clear. It aims for a euphoric security which comes with enclosing everything in a closed system. Tautology, for reviewed journal Saxion instance, gives someone the help writing College, minor satisfaction of opting for a truth-claim without the risk of Haileybury, being wrong (because nothing substantive has been said). This can be compared to Negri#8217;s argument in Time for writing a college essay Chelsea Independent College Revolution that systemic closure yields a certain type of enjoyment. On the other hand, it can also signify an experience of fullness arising from peer articles Sciences actually escaping the regime of a college Chelsea, myths.
In #8216;The Third Meaning#8217;, Barthes analyses Sergei Eisenstein#8217;s films, suggesting the presence of what he terms an #8216;obtuse#8217; meaning alongside the explicit denotative and connotative meanings. Review Article? These images simply designate an emotion or disposition, setting in motion a drift in meaning. They don#8217;t represent anything. They are momentary, without development or variants. They have a signifier without a signified. They thus escape the euphoria of closed systems, pointing to something beyond. Indeed, an obtuse meaning is not necessarily visible to all readers. Its appearance is subjective. It is permanently empty or depleted (it remains unclear how this positive #8217;empty signifier#8217; relates either to the #8216;mana-words#8217; of Mythologies, or to Laclau#8217;s rather different use of the same term).
It can also serve as part of mythical schemes. For instance, ,moral indignation can function as a pleasant emotion. The obtuse meaning is not present in the system of language, though it is present in speech. It almost sneaks into speech, on the back of language. It appears as a rare and new practice counterposed to the majority practice of signification. It seems like a luxury: expenditure without exchange. And it seems to belong, not to today#8217;s politics, but to tomorrow#8217;s.
Barthes sees such facets as undermining the integration of characters, turning them into nubs of help writing Chelsea Independent, facets. Write? In other words, the #8216;molar self#8217; of the writing a college essay Independent, character (who, in Mythologies, is connected to social decomposition and misrepresentation) is critical thought replaced by a different kind of connection which is, perhaps, directly lived and connected to Chelsea the world, rather than projecting a literary figure onto it. It has been read in terms of a moment of emotion prior to thought. I think it might be better linked to Deleuze#8217;s idea of the #8216;time-image#8217;: the obtuse image is a momentary image which expresses the contingency of becoming. Barthes suggests that the obtuse image is critical thinking Marangoni carnivalesque, and writing a college essay Chelsea that it turns the film into a #8216;permutational unfolding#8217;, a flow of becoming in the system of critical thinking podcast Marangoni, signs. In S/Z, a text devoted primarily to the study of help writing essay Chelsea College, Balzac#8217;s short story Sarrasine , Barthes proposes a distinction between two types of texts. A text is #8216;writerly#8217; if it can be written or rewritten today. A #8216;writerly#8217; text is constructed in such a way as to encourage readers to reuse and reapply it, bringing it into new combinations with their own meanings. A Good Conclusion? It is celebrated because it makes the reader a producer, not a consumer, of a text. The #8216;writerly#8217; value restores to each person the help a college Chelsea Independent College, #8216;magic of the signifier#8217;. The writerly text is inseparable from the process of writing, as an open-ended flow which has not yet been stopped by any system (such as ideology or criticism).
It is necessarily plural. This is a kind of plurality distinguished from liberalism: it does not acknowledge partial truths in different positions, but insists on difference as such. Difference constantly returns through texts, which re-open the network of Istituto Marangoni, language at a different point. Barthes counterposes this view to an essentialist or Platonic view in which all texts approximate a model. For Barthes, texts instead offer entrances into the network of language. They do not offer a norm or law. Rather, it offers a particular perspective constructed of particular voices, fragments of texts, and semiotic codes. Texts have only a contingent unity which is constantly rewritten through its composition in terms of codes. A writerly text should have many networks which interact without any of them dominating the others. The #8216;readerly#8217;, in contrast, reduces a text to something serious, without pleasure, which can only be accepted or rejected. A #8216;readerly#8217; text is writing Chelsea so heavily attached to a particular system of meanings as to render the reader passive.
It is a reactive distortion of the #8216;writerly#8217; through its ideological closure. State University? Readerly texts must, however, contain a #8216;limited#8217; or #8216;modest plural#8217; in order to function. This limited plurality of the help a college essay Chelsea College, text is created through its connotations. There are also writerly and readerly styles of reading texts, depending whether one seeks predetermined meanings in it, or seeks instead to inscribe it in new ways. Instead of treating a text as a single phenomenon which represents something, Barthes proposes to examine a text through the plural signs it brings together. Instead of giving a unified image of a text, it decomposes it into peer reviewed journal University of Applied component parts. Help Writing Essay College? Such a reading uses digressions to show that the structures of which the text is woven can be reversed and rearranged.
Barthes calls this style of reading #8216;starring#8217; of a text. It cuts the text up into write a good conclusion blocks of signification, breaching its smooth surface and especially its appearance of naturalness. Help A College Chelsea College? It interrupts the flow of the text so as to release the perspectives within it. Each block is treated as a zone, in which the movement of meanings can be traced. The goal of this exercise is to hear one of the voices of the text.
Readers should reconstitute texts as plural. Among other things, this means that forgetting meanings is a necessary part of reading. It ensures that multiple readings remain possible, and therefore, that signifiers are allowed to thought Haileybury shift or move. One can#8217;t reduce all stories to a single structure, because each text carries a particular difference. This kind of difference is not an irreducible quality, but the constant flow of language into new combinations.
Analysing the function of help writing essay Chelsea Independent, each text restores it to this flow of difference. He also calls for re-reading, as a means to avoid repetition and to remove texts from linear time (before or after) and place them in mythical time. Re-reading is #8216;no longer consumption, but play#8217;, directed against both the University, disposability of texts and their distanced analysis, and towards the a college essay Independent, return of how to write essay University, difference. Help Writing Chelsea College? It helps create an experience of plural texts. Abbey Manchester? In this text, Barthes criticises many of his earlier views. He now claims that connotation is ever-present in #8216;readerly#8217; texts (though not in some modern texts). There is no underlying denotative layer. Denotation is simply the most naturalised layer of connotation. Further, connotation carries voice into the text, weaving a particular voice into Chelsea College the code.
The writer, here, has more of a role than Barthes previously allowed. Critical Thinking Istituto? Writing brings in historical context through connotation. The text as expression for the reader is also criticised. Readers are also products of prior texts, which compose subjectivity as subject-positions in narratives. Reading is writing Chelsea Independent College itself a #8216;form of work#8217;.
The content of this work is to move, to shift between different systems or flows which have no ending-point. The work is shown to exist only by its functioning: it has no definite outcome. To read is to thinking of Applied Sciences find meanings within the endless flow of language. We might think of it as creating particular, temporary points or territories by help a college, finding resonances within a field which is like an ocean or a desert. May 30, 2013 8:55. [#8230;] research, which was still taboo thirty years after Roland Barthes famously declared #8220;the death of the author,#8221; the ALA#8217;s focus was pugnaciously loyal to the special role of authorship. An Evaluative Essay Louisiana State? The [#8230;] Jun 15, 2013 2:57. [#8230;] In the fourth essay in his series on the French thinker, political theorist Andrew Robinson takes on Independent College one of Barthes#039; most famous (and controversial) proclamations: the death of the author. [#8230;] Oct 24, 2013 5:23. Feb 4, 2016 10:52. [#8230;] Robinson, “Roland Barthes: Death of the Author,” Ceasefire Magazine, Oct.
14, [#8230;] Ceasefire Magazine 2002-2017. All Rights Reserved. Sign up for entries RSS and for the comments RSS.
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ezra maize resume Forum Class for help Chelsea July 18, 2004. SHORT COMMENTARY ON EZRA. The First Return and Rebuilding under Zerubbabel (chaps. 1-6)
These chapters, besides telling the history of the period, must also have encouraged Ezra's original readers in their temple worship. As they read about the rebuilding process they would have been made aware of the great personal sacrifices the Jews had made in constructing the peer journal articles University, temple. This would have encouraged them to participate more fully in the temple activities and to be closely related to God as were some of their forefathers. A. The proclamation of Cyrus (1:1-4) 1:1. Cyrus, the king of the extensive Persian realm (see the map The Persian Empire), drafted a proclamation that allowed the help writing essay Chelsea Independent, Israelites to review journal Manchester return to their land and rebuild their temple. Cyrus made the writing a college essay Independent College, proclamation in his first year (538 B.C.).
This was the first year of his reign over Babylon, but he had been king over other territories for more than 20 years. Journal Articles Saxion University! He had been in power since 559 when he became the king of Anshan. Then he became king of Medo-Persia about 550 B.C. He conquered Babylon in October 539, and became the king of Babylon, a title of honor denoting the highest position in the civilized world. As is evidenced from Cyrus' attitude concerning the God of Israel (whom he did not worship) he was not a true believer in Yahweh. Cyrus' concern was to establish strong buffer states around his empire which would be loyal to him.
Also by having his subject peoples resettled in their own countries he hoped to have the help a college essay Chelsea Independent College, gods in how to an evaluative, various parts of his empire praying for him to his gods Bel and Nebo. The famous Cyrus Cylinder (538 B.C.), which records his capture of Babylon and his program of repatriating his subject peoples in their homelands, includes this statement: May all the gods whom I have resettled in Independent, their sacred cities daily ask Bel and Nebo for a long life for me. The fulfilling of Jeremiah's words (Jer. 29:10; cf. Jer.
25:11-12) was totally God's doing. Seventy years of Jewish captivity in Babylon were about to end. The first deportation of Jews to Babylon was in 605 B.C. Cyrus' decree in 538 was 67 years later. By the review Abbey Manchester, time the people returned and a college Chelsea Independent, built the an evaluative Louisiana State University, altar in writing a college essay College, 536, 70 years were almost up. The edict came about because the LORD moved the heart of Cyrus. The Hebrew words translated moved the heart (also trans. stirred [up] the spirit) were a favorite expression of biblical writers in the post-exilic period (Ezra 1:5; 1 Chron. 5:26; 2 Chron. 21:16, aroused; 36:22; Jer.
51:11; Hag. 1:14). Peer Journal Articles Saxion University! This shows the sovereign hand of Chelsea College, God behind the events of history. 1:2-3. Critical For Kids University Of Applied! Cyrus said that Yahweh, the God of heaven, had appointed him to build a temple. . . at Jerusalem. Part of this decree is recorded in 2 Chronicles 36:23. Also the decree was filed in Ecbatana, where Darius I found it about 520-518 B.C. (Ezra 6:1-5). God had promised the Jewish remnant that He would raise up Cyrus as His servant to restore the fortunes of His people (Isa. 44:28; 45:1, 13). Under the Holy Spirit's guidance, the Prophet Isaiah referred to Cyrus by name about a college College, 150 years before the king made his decree.
Josephus wrote that Cyrus was shown the write essay, prophecy in Isaiah 44:28 and wanted to fulfill it (The Antiquities of the Jews 11.1.1). The God of heaven is a title of writing a college essay Chelsea Independent, God used 9 times in Ezra (1:2; 5:11-12; 6:9-10; 7:12, 21. Critical Haileybury! 23 (twice--more than in any other Bible book--and 10 times in help writing Chelsea College, other exilic and articles Saxion Sciences, post-exilic books (2 Chron. Help Writing A College Essay Independent! 36:23; Neh. How To Write Conclusion! 1:4-5; 2:4, 20; Dan. 2:18-19, 28, 37. 44). Elsewhere in the Old Testament that phrase occurs only four times (Gen. 24:3. 7; Ps.
136:26; Jonah 1:9). It points to God's sovereignty. He is the One who made heaven (Gen. 14:19, 22; 2 Chron. 2:12; Ps. 115:15), who is in heaven (Deut. 4:39; 1 Kings 8:30, 39, 43, 49; Eccl. 5:2), and who reigns from help writing a college Chelsea His throne in heaven (lsa. 66:1).
Though Cyrus was a monarch over an extensive empire, Yahweh is far greater for He rules from heaven. The emphasis in Ezra 1:2-3 on the temple sets the tone for this and other post-exilic books. The temple was of utmost importance in the life of the people of Israel. Without the temple there could be no sacrificial system, which was the nation's lifeblood in its relationship to God. The God of heaven (v.
2) is write an evaluative essay Louisiana State University, also the God of Israel who Cyrus said was in Jerusalem. 1:4. Cyrus' edict also instructed the returnees' neighbors in Persia to give them the writing a college essay Chelsea College, equivalent of money (silver and gold), material goods. . . livestock, and freewill offerings (cf. v. 6). The freewill offerings were for the temple and the other gifts were for the people themselves. This is reminiscent of the Exodus from Egypt when God miraculously took the nation out of journal article College, bondage and had the Egyptians aid them with gifts of silver, gold, and clothing (Ex. 3:22; 11:2; 12:35). Now God was effecting a new Exodus, again bringing His people who had been in bondage back into the land of promise, much as He had done under Moses and a college Chelsea Independent, Joshua. The people had been in write an evaluative State, bondage to Babylon because of their failure to help a college essay keep their covenantal obligations, which Moses had given them during the first Exodus. Once more God was miraculously working in the life of the nation.
B. The reaction of the Israelites (1:5-11) 1:5-11. The religious leaders (priests and Levites) along with the heads of the two tribes Judah and Benjamin) that had been taken into exile by the Babylonians spearheaded the peer article Abbey, return to Israel to rebuild the temple, the house of the LORD. The Jews who returned totaled 49,897 (2:64-65). The neighbors of the returnees obeyed the king's decree by help writing a college essay Chelsea, contributing to the effort (1:6). Even Cyrus contributed to the return by giving back the articles belonging to the temple of the LORD. These were the dishes. Write Conclusion! . . pans. . . bowls, and other articles (vv.
9- 10) Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the Jerusalem temple in 605 B.C. (Dan. 1 :2), in 597 B.C. (2 Kings 24: 13), and in 586 B.C. (2 Kings 25:14-15; Jer. 27:16; 52:18-19; cf. Ezra 5:14; 6:5; Dan. 5:2-3) and placed in a temple in essay Chelsea Independent College, Babylon, perhaps the Esagila temple built in honor of the god Marduk. Mithredath is a Persian name, and the word for treasurer ( gizbar ) is peer reviewed journal articles Saxion of Applied Sciences, also Persian. In Ezra 1:9-10 the articles total 2,499 but in verse 11 the total number of gold and silver items was 5,400.
Why the difference? Surely Ezra would not be so foolish as to make a major mistake such as that when he so carefully wrote the rest of the writing essay Chelsea Independent, book under the Holy Spirit's inspiration. Even if one were to assume (as do many critics) that a redactor brought together in verses 9-11 two variant traditions, it would seem likely that Ezra would try to reconcile them in some way. It seems better to suppose Ezra first listed some of the items, perhaps the podcast Istituto, bigger and more valuable ones (vv. 9-10), then referred to the total number of items both the larger and help essay Chelsea Independent College, more valuable and the smaller and thinking Hanze University Sciences, less significant (v. 11). Another problem pertains to Sheshbazzar (v.
11), who was called the a college essay College, prince of Judah (v. 8). How To A Good The University Of Sheffield! Three views about his identity are suggested: (I) Some feel that Sheshbazzar was a Persian name for Zerubbabel. Both are said to have laid the foundation of the temple (3:8-10; 5:16). Zerubbabel, which means begotten in Babel, was a grandson of Jehoiachin (I Chron. 3:17-19), who had been deported to Babylon but had been released from confinement (2 Kings 25:27-30). Zerubbabel's relationship to Jehoiachin would explain the title the prince of Judah. However, it would seem strange that Zerubbabel would have a second pagan name rather than having one name that reflected Yahweh worship (Sheshbazzar being a pagan deity). If Zerubbabel and Sheshbazzar were two names of the help writing a college Chelsea College, same person, it is strange that he was never again referred to by the name Sheshbazzar except in Ezra 5:15-16.
(2) A second view is critical Haileybury, that this man was a Jew who was appointed governor by Cyrus but who died shortly after arriving in a college Independent College, Palestine and was replaced by Zerubbabel. Though plausible, no solid evidence exists for for kids Sciences this view. (3) A third view is that Sheshbazzar was the Shenazzar in 1 Chronicles 3:17, and therefore was Zerubbabel's uncle. (4) A fourth view is that Sheshbazzar was a Persian official who was sent to oversee the use of the king's money and to make Sure the king's wishes were carried out. It has been suggested that because Sheshbazzar was a Persian official the returnees later referred to a college Chelsea Independent him (Ezra 5:15-16) to podcast Istituto Support their claim of legitimacy for Chelsea Independent their building project. (See comments on 5:13-16.)
C. The list of people who returned (chap. 2) I. THE LIST RECORDED (2:1-63) 2:1-63. The list is divided into several parts. All of the critical for kids Hanze University, people of the province (i.e., of Judah) returned to help a college essay their hometowns (v. 1).
Ezra first recorded the 11 civil and religious leaders who were prominent (v. 2). Jeshua was the high priest (3:2); his name is spelled Joshua in the Books of Haggai and Zechariah. He was a grandson of Seraiah (cf. 1 Chron. 6:14 with Hag. 1:1), a priest whom Nebuchadnezzar killed at Riblah (2 Kings 25:18-21). The Nehemiah in Ezra 2:2 was not the write essay Louisiana, Nehemiah who returned to Jerusalem more than 90 years later, 444 B.C. Help Writing A College Essay Chelsea! Nor was the Mordecai here Esther's cousin (Es. 2:5-7), who lived in Susa about 60 years after the reviewed journal articles of Applied, Jews' first return. Nehemiah 7:7 records 12 names rather than 11 (cf.
Ezra 2:2). (Three names have different spellings. In verse 2 Seraiah, Reelaiah, and Rehum are probably the help a college essay Chelsea Independent College, same persons as Azariah, Raamiah, and Nehum, respectively, in Neh. 7:7.) Nahamani's name, not in Ezra's list, may have been dropped out by an early scribal error in the copying of the original manuscripts. Write Essay State University! It is likely that 12 men would have originally been listed as symbolic heads of the 12-tribe nation (cf. 12 male goats offered for the 12 tribes of Israel, Ezra 6:17). Then Ezra listed people by their 18 families and clans, totaling 15,604 (2:3-20). Next came a listing of inhabitants (totaling 8,540) from 21 towns and villages (vv.
21-35). Then the essay, priests (4,289 of them) were listed (vv. Critical Istituto Firenze! 36-39), followed by 341 Levites which included singers and gatekeepers (vv. 40-42). The temple servants (vv. 43-54) and descendants of the royal servants (vv. 55-58) totaled 392. The 652 returnees who could not clearly trace their ancestry (vv. 59-63) were listed last. The priests who could not delineate their genealogies were not allowed by the governor ( tirsata , a Persian term, possibly a reference to Sheshbazzar [cf. comments on 1:8] or to Zerubbabel) to eat. . . the a college essay Chelsea, most sacred food till a priest was ministering with the Urim and Thummim. The Urim and Thummim were parts of the high priest's breastplate, probably two stones used in Some way in Istituto, determining God's will (cf.
Ex. 28:30; Lev. Writing A College Essay Independent! 8:8; Num. 27:21; Deut. 33:8; Sam. 28:6; Neh. 7:65).
Though such a list of names and locations seems unnecessary to some modern readers, it would have been of great encouragement to the original readers as they saw their own families and towns represented. 2. THE TOTAL NUMBERS GIVEN (2:64-67) 2:64-67. When added together the numbers in verses 2-42, 58, and write conclusion The University, 60 which list the returnees come to 29,829 (including the 11 prominent men listed in v. 2). Help Writing Essay Chelsea College! However, the total in verses 64-65--the whole company--is 49,897. The larger number may include women and children.
It may also include Jews from the 10 Northern tribes who might have joined the remnant of the two Southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin (cf. 1:5). It may also have included the priests who could not delineate their genealogies (2:61-62). Ezra's grand total of 49,897 is very close to Nehemiah's total of 49,942 (Neh. 7:66-67). Nehemiah's extra 45 people are in the singers (Ezra had 200 but Nehemiah referred to 245). This may have been a scribal error, an error not in the original manuscripts but in the numerous copyings of the text in its transmission. A scribe, in copying Nehemiah 7:67, may have inadvertently picked up the 245 in verse 68, in reference to mules, and inserted that number for the 200 singers. This kind of error may also account for several variations in the other numbers in these lists. How To Write State University! (For further discussion see the comments on Neh. 7. Help Essay Chelsea College! Even the animals were counted--a total of 8,136, most of them donkeys, commonly used for how to a good essay conclusion riding (Ezra 2:66-67). The journey from Babylon to Israel was about 900 miles and took about writing a college essay College, four months (cf.
7:8-9), but Ezra did not state how long the return trip took. His focus was not on the people's hardships but on their task of rebuilding the temple. 3. THE RESTORATION BEGUN (2:68-70) 2:68-69. When the returnees arrived back in critical, Palestine at the house of the LORD (i.e., at its location site) they gave of their possessions according to their ability. They gave large amounts of money and material to begin the temple building project. The list of precious metals and materials differs from the corresponding list in Nehemiah 7:70-72. Ezra's 61,000 drachmas (darics) of gold are 41,000 in Nehemiah. Help A College Essay Independent College! Ezra recorded 5,000 minas of silver while Nehemiah referred to 4,200. Ezra mentioned 100 priestly garments whereas Nehemiah recorded 597.
These differences were probably early scribal errors. 2:70. The people then settled in their ancestors' towns and thinking Istituto Firenze, villages. D. The rebuilding of the temple (3:1-6:15) 1. THE ALTAR AND THE FOUNDATION REBUILT (CHAP. 3) 3:1-2. The first task facing the help a college College, people was the write conclusion of Sheffield, rebuilding of the altar of burnt offering, directly east of where the temple building itself would be located. This was essential for reestablishing the sacrificial system which set these people apart as a nation and which was used by God as a means for atoning for help a college essay Independent their sins.
The seventh month may refer to the seventh month after the people left Babylon or to the seventh month after they arrived in Jerusalem. This was in September-October (see the chart Calendar in Israel near Ex. 12). In years past, the seventh month had been a great month religiously for Israel. Three religious festivals were held in the seventh month: the Feast of peer reviewed articles University Sciences, Trumpets on the 1st day (Lev. Help A College Essay College! 23:23-25), the Day of Atonement on the 10th day (Lev. 23:26-32), and the Feast of Tabernacles on days 15-21 (Lev. 23:33-36, 39-43; Num. 29:12-39; cf. Ezra 3:4). The words: The people assembled as one man, suggest they all agreed that the building project must begin.
The men who headed up the constructing of the altar were Jeshua, the religious leader (a descendant of Aaron), and review journal article Abbey College, Zerubbabel, the civil leader (a descendant of David), along with fellow priests (other descendants of Aaron) and associates (other descendants of David). They built the altar so that they could offer sacrifices in accordance with what was written in writing Chelsea Independent College, the Law of Moses. It was imperative that the critical books of Applied Sciences, returnees would come back to the Mosaic Covenant. Because their forefathers had left the covenant, the nation had been driven into Captivity. The former exiles did not want to help writing a college essay Independent College make that same mistake. 3:3-6.
Even though the returnees had fear of the peoples around them, foreigners who had been deported by the Assyrian Empire into Palestine, they built the altar, and offered burnt offerings on it (cf. Lev. How To Write A Good Essay Conclusion The University Of Sheffield! 1; 6:8-13), starting on the first day of the, . Help Independent College! . month (Ezra 3:6). These were the first sacrifices made there in 50 years--since 586 B.C. when the temple was torn down. Peer Abbey College! Other sacrifices were offered in connection with all the appointed feasts, including, for example, the Feast of a college essay Independent, Tabernacles on days 15-21 of that seventh month (cf. Lev. 23:33-36,39-43; Num.
29:12-39). The sacrifices showed that the people wanted to be responsive to how to an evaluative Louisiana State the Law of God. 3:7-9. There was a period of preparation for building the temple foundation for the work did not begin till the second month of the second year after their arrival (May-June 536. exactly 70 years after the. first deportation in 605). Why this delay of seven months after the altar was built? Because they had to get organized and secure the building materials. The wood (cedar logs) came from Chelsea College Lebanon. shipped along the coast to Joppa and then carried overland to write State University Jerusalem (see the map The Persian Empire near 1:1).
Lebanon was well known for its cedar forests and its fine woodworkers. For the first temple. 430 years earlier (in 966 B.C.), Solomon had received much of his building materials (cedar, pine, and algum logs) and craftsmen from College Lebanon (I Kings 5:1-10,18; 2 Chron. Peer Review Journal! 2:1-16). Solomon began his project in the second month (May-June; I Kings 6:1), the same month this rebuilding began under Zerubbabel. Since Tyre and Sidon in writing a college, Lebanon were under the Persian Empire. Cyrus had to authorize this transaction (cf. Ezra 6:3-4), in which the logs, as in how to an evaluative University, Solomon's time. were paid for help essay Independent College by money. . . food. . . drink. and oil. Zerubbabel appointed the Levites as supervisors of the construction project.
Centuries earlier Levites were involved in the tabernacle construction (Ex. 38:21) and in caring for and transporting it (Num. 1:50-51; 3:21-37). Now they were involved in the temple construction. Three Levite groups of supervisors were mentioned (Ezra 3:9)--Jeshua and his family, Kadmiel (cf.
2:40) and his family, and the family of Henadad. 3:10-11. Nothing is mentioned about the actual process of laying the temple foundation or the length of time involved. This is because the focus was on the results of this project on that community of people who had braved the rugged conditions. They were following the command of Cyrus but, more importantly. they were following the command of their God with whom they were in covenant. As the foundation. Critical! . A College Essay Independent! . was laid the critical Haileybury, people were careful to writing essay Independent follow in the traditions of their forefathers who had been rightly related to for kids of Applied God under the Mosaic Covenant. As the priests. . . and the Levites led the dedication service for the temple's foundations, they did the essay Independent College, things that were prescribed by David. The order followed was the same as when David brought the how to write an evaluative Louisiana University, ark to Jerusalem. At that time priests blew trumpets and Asaph sounded cymbals (I Chron.
16:5-6). Here the priests blew trumpets and sons (descendants) of Asaph played the cymbals. The order was also similar to the time when the ark was brought to the temple in Solomon's day (2 Chron. 5:12-13), when Asaph and others played cymbals, harps, and lyres; and the priests blew trumpets. In this rebuilding service the priests and Levites sang, He is good; His love to Israel endures forever, words almost identical to the song of praise in 2 Chronicles 5:13 (cf. Ps. 136:1). Help Writing A College Independent! This song of praise is peer journal article College Manchester, highly significant for by it the religious leaders were acknowledging that Yahweh had again established His loving protection over the nation. The word love ( hesed ) is God's covenantal loyal love which exists forever with His people Israel. Writing Essay Chelsea Independent! Now that the temple worship was being reestablished, the people again recognized the commitment of God's unending covenantal love. 3:12-13.
In contrast with the joy many people experienced on that occasion, a few of the Istituto Marangoni, older priests and Levites and family heads, who had seen the help a college, former temple (destroyed 50 years earlier in journal, 586 B.C.) were discouraged. Perhaps they contrasted the roughness of the current project with the grandeur of the Solomonic temple. Sixteen years later (in 520 B.C.) the same emotion of discouragement again hit the builders of the temple (Hag. Writing Essay Chelsea! 2:1-9). The two sounds, the joy and the weeping (from sadness), mingled together and how to a good essay The University of Sheffield, were so loud that they were heard far away. 2. THE REBUILDING OPPOSED (4:1-6:12) Ezra did not record all the events in those 21 years (from 536) till the temple was finished (in 515). That is because he was making a theological point that the temple of the help writing Independent College, Lord was completed despite opposition that might have stopped any other project.
The temple was the basis for the post-exilic community's fellowship with God. Not till the temple was built could the people really live in accord with the covenant. Ezra's account of write essay conclusion The University, this interim period differs in tone from Haggai's account of opposition (from 520 to 518). Ezra did not dwell on the sinful condition of the people as they lived in the land as did Haggai (Hag. I). Help Independent! Ezra's account focused on external pressures from the surrounding peoples, whereas Haggai focused on the internal attitudes of the people who valued material possessions above spiritual things (Hag. 1:4.
6). a. Attempts of enemies to stop the review Abbey College, building (4:1-5) 4:1-2. The enemies used two methods of opposition to try to keep the temple from being built. First they offered to help in the construction process, thereby hoping to infiltrate the ranks and sidetrack the building project. When that did not work, they frightened the builders (perhaps with threats on their lives) and even hired counselors to frustrate them (vv. 4-5).
The enemies of writing Independent, Judah and Benjamin refer to the people living in Palestine since the time of the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 B.C. The Assyrian Empire, which conquered the 10 Northern tribes, deported some of the people away to Assyria and brought in other peoples to intermarry (2 Kings 17:23-24). This tactic prevented strong nationalistic uprisings in the conquered lands. The enemies (called the critical thinking books for kids University of Applied, peoples around them, Ezra 4:4) were the descendants of these mixed peoples and the forefathers of the help a college, New Testament Samaritans. These people in Ezra's day claimed that they worshiped the same God, that is, Yahweh, the peer reviewed journal articles Saxion, God of Israel. But they had a synergistic form of worship; they worshiped both Yahweh and others (2 Kings 17:29, 32, 34, 41). Therefore their statement (Ezra 4:2) was not fully accurate and was apparently made to mislead the leadership of the returned band. Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who brought us here, was the Assyrian mono arch who aggressively pursued the policy of partial deportation and to whose reign these enemies could trace their ancestry in Palestine. Esarhaddon, a son of Sennacherib, ruled from 681 to 669 B.C.
Some people, however, had been displaced into Samaria earlier by the Assyrian kings Sargon II (722-705) and help writing a college essay Chelsea College, Sennacherib (705-705). Judah and Benjamin's enemies were also appealing on the basis of the fact that they, like the Jews, were a displaced people, having been brought in from the outside. In a sense they were downplaying the nation of Israel's roots in the land. 4:3-5. The response by the govern. mental side (Zerubbabel) and the religious side (Jeshua) was decisive and immediate. They had two reasons for not wanting to be sidetracked by this offer of help. First, the temple was for the LORD the God of Israel, who was not the god these people worshiped.
Second, they had been commissioned by King Cyrus himself to undertake the building project and how to write a good conclusion of Sheffield, therefore had every right to carry it out on their own. This rebuff brought on the second form of opposition. As already stated, the enemies tried to discourage the workers and make them afraid, This policy of harassment continued on till the reign of help writing essay Chelsea Independent, Darius, king of Persia, who ruled from 521 to 486. It was during his reign, in how to essay conclusion, 515, that the temple was completed. The account of the building program under Darius is a college College, resumed in Ezra 4:24 after a parenthesis in verses 623. b. Parenthetical letters (4:6-23) These letters to and from Artaxerxes are out of place chronologically, but they follow here logically to show that the opposition Ezra had begun to describe (vv. 1-5) continued on articles University, for many years--to 485 B.C., the a college essay Chelsea Independent College, year Xerxes began to reign (v. 6) and on into the thinking books Hanze of Applied Sciences, days of Artaxerxes (464-424). Artaxerxes was the king who was reigning during the events recorded in chapters 7-10. Help Writing A College Chelsea Independent College! For the critical thinking of Applied, names and dates of the Persian kings in the post-exilic period, see the chart.
Thus the letters may have been written at the time of Ezra's return (458 B.C.). Therefore the letters were written nearly 80 years later than the account into help writing essay, which they were placed. Ezra was not being deceptive by placing the letters here in his book since he clearly dated them by the ruler under which they were written. Anyone familiar with the history of that part of the world at that time (as were the inhabitants of Israel when the Book of Ezra was written) would have clearly seen what Ezra was logically doing. 4:6. Opposition continued during the time of Hanze University of Applied, Xerxes, Xerxes, also known as Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther, ruled from 485 to 465.
Ezra recorded nothing of the nature or results of the accusation except that it apparently kept the Israelites from working on building projects. This verbal opposition in Xerxes' reign is mentioned nowhere else in the Bible. This verse sets the stage for the following letter which was written in the reign of writing a college Independent College, Persia's next king. 4:7. Opposition against the Jews was strong during the time of Artaxerxes. Thinking Books Hanze University Sciences! The focus of the narrative is on two letters written during his reign (464-424). Because the enemies' letter and the king's reply brought the writing essay Independent, work on how to write essay State, the city walls and foundations to a halt, it seems logical that the Chelsea Independent, letter was written before the return of Nehemiah, for under Nehemiah the building projects resumed and were completed. Though the letter was composed by people who spoke a northwest Semitic dialect (like Hebrew) it was written in critical podcast Marangoni, the Aramaic language (the trade language of the writing a college Chelsea Independent College, day).
It was in square Aramaic script rather than in the slanted Hebrew type of script or in cuneiform signs. Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26 are in Aramaic. Write Essay Conclusion! Perhaps Bishlam, Mithredath, and Tabeel were men from Samaria. 4:8-10, Rehum the commanding officer and Shimshai the secretary were probably Persians who were persuaded to help writing a college Independent write the letter. In their introduction Rehum and Shimshai tried to point out to King Artaxerxes that the participants in this opposition were from various parts of the write conclusion of Sheffield, world. Their complaint was not merely from a single isolated group. Judges and officials from various parts of the Persian Empire and people who had been deported to Samaria under the reign of the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal 200 years earlier were opposed to the work. Ashurbanipal (669-626) continued the deporting done by his father Esarhaddon (4:2). 4:11-16. The writers of the letter (cf. This is a college essay Chelsea College, a copy of the letter, v. 23; 5:6; 7:11) identified with the Persian king by noting that they were his servants.
The letter itself is recorded in 4:12-16. The opponents noted that the Jews were restoring the walls and repairing the foundations, Their opposition was obviously not against the rebuilding of the reviewed Saxion of Applied, temple, for it had been completed in 515 B.C. The. opposition was against an attempt to begin rebuilding the walls of writing a college essay Chelsea Independent, Jerusalem which the opponents called that rebellious and wicked city (cf. Critical Thinking Marangoni! vv. 15, 19). The apparent reason for the complaint was that if the city was allowed to be fortified, then Jerusalem and the territory which Jerusalem would control would no longer pay taxes or tribute money to the crown. This would dishonor the king. Therefore the complainers felt it was their patriotic duty to tell the king what was happening so that he could search the records and see that Jerusalem was a rebellious city, which is why it was destroyed. The letter added that if the city of help writing a college, Jerusalem was fortified then the Jews would take back all the territory they had previously occupied and the Persian king would have no territory left in Trans-Euphrates.
They claimed he would lose a huge portion of his empire. 4:17-23. In his reply the king actually strengthened the position of the Israelites by critical thinking books for kids Hanze Sciences, leaving open the possibility that their work might resume later by his permission. This, of a college essay Chelsea College, course, did happen under the leadership of Nehemiah. The king did search the archives and found that Jerusalem had been powerful at one time. What an encouragement this must have been to Ezra's original readers to recall the years of David and Solomon and to Hanze Sciences know that even a pagan king acknowledged the sovereignty of their empire centered at Jerusalem. The king commanded that the building projects stop. . . Help A College Essay Chelsea Independent! until I so order, This was the same king who later (444 B.C.) changed this edict and allowed Nehemiah to Haileybury return and rebuild the walls of help writing essay Chelsea College, Jerusalem (Neh. 2:1.9). However, the immediate result was a forced cessation of the building activity because the enemies used force to back up a legal document from the thinking books University of Applied, Persian king.
c. The result of the opposition (4:24) 4:24. The narrative now picks up where it left off after verse 5 (vv. 6-23 are a lengthy parenthesis). The result of the opposition during Cyrus' reign was that work on the temple was suspended until the second year of. . . Darius (520 B.C.), some 18 years after the a college essay Chelsea Independent, people had returned to the 'and for the purpose of rebuilding the house of God.
d. For Kids Hanze Of Applied! The continuation of the work (5:1-6:12) This section informs the readers of certain historical events under the a college essay Chelsea College, reign of Darius. and also helps its readers understand that the temple rebuilding was sovereignly ordained by God and carried out through pagan rulers, this time Darius I (521-486). 5:1-2. The work on the temple had been stopped (4:1-5, 24), from 535 to 520 B.C. Critical! Now under the influence of two important prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, it was resumed. The preaching of these two men is recorded in writing Chelsea Independent College, the biblical books bearing their respective names. Review Abbey Manchester! Haggai prophesied from August to December 520 B.C., and Zechariah prophesied for two years beginning in October-November 520. They were helping by exhorting and encouraging (cf. 6:14; Hag. 1:8; 2:4; Zech. 4:7-9).
They were vitally concerned with the building of the temple because they realized that their nation could never fulfill the obligations of the Mosaic Covenant till the temple worship was reinstated. Both of these prophets placed the blame for the hard times the nation experienced during this period on the people's lack of obedience in not rebuilding the temple. However, Ezra did not deal with that question in his book. He stressed the outside opposition which was also a factor in slowing the work. The building process itself was spearheaded by Zerubbabel and Jeshua, the evil and religious leaders. respectively. 5:3-5. But as soon as the work was resumed, another effort (cf. 4:1-5) was made to stop it.
Israel's leaders came into direct conflict with the duly established local authorities who were responsible to the Persian crown. Help Essay Chelsea! In a Babylonian record dated 502 B.C. the how to a good conclusion, name Tattenai and his office as governor of Trans-Euphrates are mentioned. Syria-Palestine was under him. an area including but much larger than Israel. Shethar-Bozenai was probably an assistant to Tattenai. It would have been Tattenai's responsibility, on hearing of this building activity in essay Independent College, his territory, to investigate it. Major political unrest was seething at the beginning of critical, Darius' reign. Possibly Tattenai thought the Independent College, temple-building project in Jerusalem would grow into a full-scale rebellion against the empire.
God's promise/threat (Deut. 28) He said that the Haileybury, people would be taken into writing a college Chelsea Independent, captivity if they did not live according to the covenant He instituted with them as they were ready to critical enter the land of promise. Not only was Nebuchadnezzar involved in writing essay Chelsea Independent College, the fall of critical Marangoni Firenze, Jerusalem; God Himself was responsible! Nebuchadnezzar was merely an agent of God's anger on His people (cf. My servant Nebuchadnezzar in Jer. 25:9; 27:6; 43:10)--an anger which was designed to purify the nation so that some would return to help writing the land as a believing remnant. Critical Thinking Istituto Firenze! The Exile did not mean that Yahweh was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar's gods. The group of officials asked Zerubbabel and Jeshua who authorized the project (the word structure is lit., wooden structure), and asked for the names of the people responsible for writing a college Independent College it (cf. 5:9-10). But despite this challenge, the work did not stop because the eye of reviewed journal articles University of Applied, their God was watching Over them (cf. God. Help Essay Chelsea Independent College! . . was over them, v. Thinking Podcast Marangoni Firenze! 1).
Occurring frequently in Ezra and Nehemiah are the words the hand of the LORD was on him and similar expressions (Ezra 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22, 31; Neh. 2:8, 18), God was providentially caring for them (by His eye) and blessing them (by His hand). Clearly God was at work in spite of this opposition because through it the Independent College, project was eventually given help. 5:6-10. Ezra recorded the letter (cf. This is a copy of the letter; 4:11, 23; 7:11) Tattenai sent to King Darius about the building activity going on in Jerusalem (5:7-16). Tattenai began his letter by noting that work was being done on the temple of the great God in Jerusalem. Thinking University Of Applied Sciences! This does not mean that Tattenai believed Yahweh of Israel was the supreme God.
Most likely he meant that the God to whom the Jews were building the temple was the major God of the area. In the ancient Near East there was a highly developed belief in help writing essay Chelsea, local deities. Tattenai noted that large stones and timbers (cf. 6:4; 1 Kings 6:36) were being used in the work and how to an evaluative essay Louisiana State, that the Jews were working with diligence and were making rapid progress, He added that he had asked who authorized the work (cf. Ezra 5:3) and that he had asked for writing Chelsea Independent College the names of those who were leading the building program (cf. v. 4). 5:11-12. Tattenai's letter then included the Jews' answers to his questions (vv. 11-16), Zerubbabel and Jeshua called themselves servants of the God of heaven and earth, not servants of Persia' For comments on the title the God of heaven see 1:2. The true God, Yahweh, was superior to Darius' god, Ahura Mazda, whom Darius called the god of heaven.
Years earlier Israel had a great king, Solomon, and had had a beautiful temple. It was a prominent structure in the ancient world, But because of an evaluative essay University, sin (our lathers angered the God of heaven), God I handed them over to Nebuchadnezzar, . Writing Essay Chelsea Independent College! The Jews knew why the temple was destroyed and the people deported. 5:13-17. In response to Tattenai Zerubbabel and Jeshua stated that Cyrus had allowed a remnant to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple and even gave them articles which had been taken from Solomon's temple (cf. 1:2-4, 7-11). The letter-writers also recounted the fact that Cyrus gave Sheshbazzar the critical thinking books for kids University of Applied, task of carrying out the king's command--to return the articles and to build another temple in the city. Sheshbazzar was mentioned to show Tattenai that the building program was legal.
Thus it seems likely that Sheshbazzar was a Persian official whose name carried some weight with Tattenai (cf. comments on help essay Chelsea Independent College, 1:8 on several views of Sheshbazzar's identity). Are Sheshbazzar and reviewed journal articles Saxion University Sciences, Zerubbabel the same person? Many think so because Sheshbazzar laid the temple foundations, and writing, so did Zerubbabel (3:8-10). However, this is not absolute proof that the peer review journal Abbey Manchester, two men were identical. Help Essay Independent College! Sheshbazzar could have been responsible, as the king's representative, to how to essay of Sheffield see that the work was begun, and help a college essay Chelsea Independent College, Zerubbabel the Jewish leader who completed the task. How To Write Essay Of Sheffield! Tattenai and the officials asked that the king research the records in Babylon (cf. 6:1-2) to writing a college College find out if what the Jews had said about thought, a decree from Cyrus was true. That such records were carefully kept is attested by archeology. 6:1.5.
Tattenai had requested that Babylon's archives be searched for the document (5:17) but it was not found there. Help Writing A College Independent College! Instead the scroll (of papyrus or leather) was found in. Thinking For Kids Hanze Sciences! . . Ecbatana (modern Hamadan), 300 miles northeast of Babylon and capital of Media (6: 1-2). A College Chelsea! The scroll was in Ecbatana, because that is where Cyrus had spent the summer of 538, when he issued the decree, This Ecbatana record was an official minute with three details that the critical, verbal and help writing a college College, written proclamation (1:1-4) apparently did not contain: (1) The temple was to be 90 feet high and 90 feet wide, with three courses of large stones and one of timbers (cf. Thought! 5:8; 1 Kings 6:36). (2) The project was to be financed by funds from the royal treasury, This shows the earnestness of Cyrus' repatriation program. (3) The returned gold and silver articles were to be put in Chelsea Independent, their places in the temple. 6:6-12. King Darius then gave three instructions to Tattenai and critical, his associates: (1) He told them to leave the Jews alone and not interfere with the building of the temple (vv. 6-7).
The words stay away from there were a common Aramaic legal statement. This was to be in accord with the edict of the great King Cyrus. (2) Tax money was to help writing a college essay Independent College be used to how to an evaluative Louisiana State University help finance the project and animals were to be supplied daily so that sacrifices could be made at the altar of the new temple along with food items for the offerings (vv. 8-10). Flour (from wheat), salt, and oil were to be used in the grain offerings (Lev. 2:1-2, 7, 13), and wine for help writing Independent College drink offerings (Lev. 23:13) on feast days. (3) Anyone who disobeyed the edict was to suffer a horrible fate (Ezra 6:11-12). He was to be impaled on a beam taken from his own house, and how to write of Sheffield, his house was to be demolished.
Execution by impaling was practiced in the Assyrian and Persian Empires. Darius wanted no disturbance in this part of a college essay Chelsea Independent, his vast kingdom. The pagan king acknowledged that God had caused His name to dwell at Jerusalem. Darius probably thought of Yahweh as a local deity (cf. comments on books University, 5:6-10), whereas Ezra, in recording that statement, knew of the covenantal significance in Yahweh's name dwelling in Jerusalem. So Tattenai's inquiry backfired. Instead of writing essay, stopping the temple work, he had to how to write essay State University let it proceed and even had to help pay for help it out of Sciences, his revenues! Darius' curse on anyone who would destroy the . temple was fulfilled in: (a) Antiochus . Epiphanes, who desecrated it in a college Chelsea, 167 B.C., and died insane three years later; (b) Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.), who added extensively to the temple to glorify himself. and who had domestic trouble and died of disease; and (c) the Romans, who destroyed the temple in A.D. Article Abbey College! 70, and later had their empire destroyed. 3. THE TEMPLE COMPLETED (6:13-15) 6:13-15, Tattenai, to his credit, carried. . Writing Essay Chelsea College! . out the instructions of Darius, and did so with diligence (cf. with diligence in University, 5:8; 6:12; 7:21, 23). The work was done by the Jewish elders who were encouraged by the preaching of the help writing Chelsea College, Prophets Haggai and Zechariah (cf.
5:1). Ezra noted that the ultimate decree for the building of the temple was from God Himself. God worked through the commands of the pagan Persian kings, Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes, Workers, prophets, kings, and God were all involved. Artaxerxes had nothing to do with building the temple; apparently his name was added to round out the account, for he had decreed the building of Jerusalem's walls (Neh. 2:1, 8). He also helped provide for sacrifices at the temple (Ezra 7:12-17). For Kids Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! Some have suggested that Artaxerxes' name may have been added by an early scribe but there is no textual evidence of that.
Actually in the Hebrew the words the temple are not in 6:14, It reads literally, They finished their building, thus speaking in general terms of the total reconstruction of Jerusalem under the decrees of the three kings, But verse 15 specifically mentions the temple. The temple was completed in Adar (February-March) of 515--21 years alter the work started in essay Chelsea, 536, and 4.5 years after Haggai began his prophesying. This was 70.5, years alter the temple had been destroyed on critical thinking Istituto Marangoni Firenze, August 12, 586. E. The dedication of the temple and the celebration of the Passover (6:16-22) I. THE TEMPLE DEDICATED (6:16-18) 6:16-18. After the temple was finished, it was then dedicated. The comparatively small number of help writing a college essay Chelsea Independent, animals sacrificed (100 bulls, 200 rams, 400 male lambs, and 12 male goats) contrasted sharply with the tremendous amount sacrificed by peer reviewed Saxion, Solomon at the dedication of the first temple (22,000 cattle and 120,000 sheep and goats; 1 Kings 8:63).
This points up the comparative poverty of the post-exilic community. Help A College Independent College! The 12 goats for the sin offering show that the critical, post-exilic community still envisioned a united Israel consisting of all 12 tribes even though only 2 had survived with any strength. The leaders of the sacrificial system--the priests and the Levites--were installed, , , according to , , . the writing College, Book of Moses, that is, according to that portion of the Law in which the legal system is described--in parts of how to write essay University, Leviticus and Numbers (Lev. 8; Num. 3:5-10; 8:5-14). Writing Essay Chelsea College! One of the how to write conclusion The University of Sheffield, motifs of Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles is that the post-exilic community was under the writing Chelsea, leadership 'of godly men who were steeped in the Scriptures and attempted to do everything according to the Law.
This shows that they had learned from the Exile that God's people suffer if they do not live up to their covenantal obligations. 2. Journal Articles Saxion Of Applied! THE PASSOVER CELEBRATED (6:19-22) 6:19-21. Beginning with verse 19 the a college Chelsea Independent, text is again in Hebrew (4:8-6:18 are in Aramaic). On the 14th day of the critical thinking, first month (April 515 B.C.) the Passover was celebrated, The temple had been completed in writing essay Chelsea, the 12th month (Adar; v. 15) and fittingly, in critical thinking books Hanze, the very next month, the Passover was re-inaugurated. A College Essay Chelsea Independent College! This was the first time in 70 years that the people partook of this feast which commemorated their forefathers' release from Egyptian bondage (cf. Ex. How To Essay Conclusion! 12:1-14; Lev. Writing Essay Independent College! 23:5). The Israelite returnees ate the Passover with all who had separated themselves from the unclean practices of an evaluative essay University, their Gentile neighbors. This second group might have been: (a) Gentiles living in Judah (cf.
Num. 9:14), or more likely (b) Jews who had remained in the land and had defiled themselves by practices that went against the Law, and then repented of those sins, thereby separating themselves. 6:22. The seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread was on days 15-21 of the first month, immediately after the Passover (cf. Lev. 23:6-8). The reference to Darius as the help essay, king of Assyria is not an anachronism (though the Assyrian Empire had ended in 609 B.C.) for the Persian Empire included what was once Assyria.
Perhaps this title was a grim reminder that Assyria's harsh tactics were now ended, She was the first to peer journal articles Saxion University deport Israelites from their land; but now a contingent of Jews was settled back in their land. This eight-day celebration (the Passover, Ezra 6:19, and the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread, v. 22), 900 years after the first Passover, signaled the end of the Exile for a remnant of the nation was once again back in fellowship with Yahweh. Help Chelsea College! Since the temple worship was restored, it was important for people who wanted to how to a good essay conclusion The University be in fellowship with God and live according to writing essay Chelsea Independent the covenantal obligations to be in the place where the sacrificial system was being practiced. The people had seen firsthand that God works through history, for He had caused pagan kings to issue decrees which let them return to critical thinking for kids Hanze of Applied Sciences the land of promise (much as He had caused Egypt's Pharaoh to release Israel). The original readers of Ezra's book would rejoice in that fact and help writing essay, would be encouraged to participate fully in the temple worship, which had been reestablished at such great cost. II. The Second Return and Reform under Ezra (chaps. 7-10) These chapters describe a second return of exiles from Babylon, this time under Ezra in 458 B.C. (7:7). Here Ezra often wrote in the first person (I and we): Ezra, a priest who knew the Scriptures, knew the critical of Applied Sciences, importance of having the people back where the sacrificial system was being practiced. A. The return to the land (chaps, 7-8) The emphasis in these chapters is on the character of Ezra, which sets the scene for chapters 9 and 10 where sin is uncovered in the post-exilic community.
Ezra is presented as a man who was strongly motivated by the Law of God. I. THE INTRODUCTION OF EZRA (7:1-10) The events which transpire in this section of the narrative occurred during the reign of Artaxerxes who was introduced earlier in the book (4:8-23; 6:14). The return occurred in Chelsea Independent College, the king's seventh year, which was 458 B.C. 7:1-5. After these things points to a gap of 57 years since the events at the end of chapter 6. The temple was completed in 515 B.C. in the reign of write Louisiana State University, Darius I. Writing A College Essay College! Alter Darius' death in 486 his Son Xerxes ruled for 20 years (485-465). Since Xerxes was the Ahasuerus mentioned in the Book of Esther, the peer journal Abbey, events of that book occurred between Ezra 6 and 7. Then Xerxes' son Artaxerxes ruled from 464 to 424. From 515 to 458 (Artaxerxes' seventh year, 7:7) was 57 years.
Ezra's lineage is traced back to Aaron, the first priest. Help Writing A College Chelsea Independent College! This list is abbreviated, for it does not name every generation. Between Azariah and peer Manchester, Meraioth (v. 3) six names appear in the genealogy in 1 Chronicles 6:7-10 (cf. comments there). Since Seraiah was the high priest when Jerusalem fell in 586 (2 Kings 25:18), Ezra may have been his great-grandson.
Because of his priestly ancestry, Ezra, like the priests, had authority to teach (cf. Lev. 10:11; Ezra 7:10). 7:6. Ezra. . . was a teacher well-versed in the Law of Moses, The word teacher translates soper , a broad word that means, a recorder, scribe, secretary, or writer (e.g.. 2 Sam. 8:17; Es. 3:12; 8:9; Ps. 45:1). The word also referred to a learned man who could read and write (e.g., Jehudi in Jer. 36:23) and a learned man who could teach what he read in God's Law.
Ezra was called a teacher ( soper ) four times (Ezra 7:6, 1112,21; cf. v. 25). And he was called Ezra the scribe six times in Nehemiah (8:1, 4, 9, 13; 12:26, 36). Well versed translates mohir , which is rendered skillful in Psalm 45:1. Ezra had the blessing of the pagan King Artaxerxes as well as the blessing of the covenant God of Israel. A few years later Nehemiah had an official position before the king (Neh. Help Writing! 1:11), but Ezra held no such position. It is enough for critical Istituto Marangoni Firenze the author to note that he was a teacher who was well versed in the Law. That was to be his major function in life.
Because of the king's favor Ezra was promised that he could have whatever he wanted. Rather than ask for something personal. Ezra used the monarch's favor to advance the cause of God and help a college essay College, His people. For the first of how to essay, eight times in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, mention is made of God's hand being on Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22, 31; Neh. 2:8, 18). 7:7-10. Not much is said here about the trip from Babylon to Jerusalem or the preparations for it. These few verses are a summary of the journey that is detailed in the rest of chapter 7 and in chapter 8. Returning with Ezra were groups of people corresponding to the groups in Zerubbabel's return (chap.
2). The trip back to the land took exactly four months, from the writing a college essay College, first to the fifth months, from Nisan I (March-April) to Ab I (July-August). The good hand of . . Reviewed Articles Saxion Of Applied! . God was on Ezra because he devoted himself to the study and writing a college Chelsea, observance of the Law of the LORD, and to teaching it. Devoted himself is literally, set his heart firmly (cf. 2 Chron. 19:3; 30:19), which gives the idea that Ezra was inwardly determined. His determination was directed toward doing three things: studying God's Law, obeying it, and teaching it to others-an inviolable order for a successful ministry! 2. THE CIRCUMSTANCES PROMPTING THE RETURN (7:11-28) 7:11-12. Artaxerxes wrote a letter (cf.
This is a copy of the letter; 4:11, 23; 5:6) to Ezra that allowed Ezra and write a good conclusion The University, others to return to Israel. (On Ezra as a teacher see comments on 7:6.) No reason for the decree was given. It can be surmised that Ezra had asked for permission to help a college essay Chelsea College take a group back and that this decree was the official granting of how to a good essay The University of Sheffield, his request. The decree was sent to Ezra personally. 7:13-26. Artaxerxes listed certain freedoms the writing essay Independent, people were to have as they journeyed to critical thinking books Sciences and lived in Israel.
He gave them permission to go to Jerusalem (v. 13). He gave them silver and writing a college Independent, gold to take with them and he allowed them to get more in Babylon (vv. 15-16, 20). He said that they could offer sacrifices on the altar at University, the temple (v.
17). They were also given freedom to a college College make their own decisions (v. 18). They could take back the write, utensils of help writing a college Independent, worship for how to write Louisiana State University the temple (vv. 19-20). (Apparently not all of them had been carried back with Zerubbabel; cf. 1:7-11.) They could have whatever else they needed for the temple up to a certain limit (7:21-22). The wheat, oil, and salt were for use in writing a college essay Chelsea Independent College, the grain offerings (cf.
6:9; Lev. 2:1-2, 7, 13), and the wine was for drink offerings (cf. Ezra 6:9; Lev. 12:13). As noted in the NIV margin, the books University of Applied Sciences, amounts were enormous: 100 talents (3.5. tons) of silver, 100 cors (600 bushels) of wheat, 100 baths (600 gallons) of wine, 100 baths of olive oil, and salt without limit- The priests and Levites were not to be taxed (Ezra 7:24). In return for granting these privileges the king was to receive some benefits from the expedition. He wanted to avoid uprisings or feelings of anger against him (v.
23) and to have order in that part of his empire (vv. 25-26). Ezra was responsible to administer justice to a college Chelsea Independent College all the people of the area, that is, to all who knew the laws of his God--the Jewish people. Ezra also was to administer the critical thought, judicial system by essay College, handing out punishment to any who would not obey (v. 26). 7:27-28. Ezra's response to the king's decree shows what kind of man he was. He praised the LORD for journal articles Saxion Sciences what was being done under him. Help Chelsea! By calling Yahweh the God of our fathers he linked himself with the godly line that had been concerned with proper sacrificial worship.
He also noted that God had given this idea to the king (put it into the king's heart). Ezra added that the purpose of all this was to bring honor to the house of the write an evaluative essay Louisiana University, LORD, The privileges granted by Artaxerxes were for help a college Independent College God's glory, not Ezra's. How To Essay Conclusion The University! Ezra also said that God's good favor was shown to him in front of help a college Independent, all the thought, king's pagan advisers and officials, Good favor translates hesed , God's covenantal love for His people. (That Heb. Help Writing A College Essay College! word is critical books for kids University of Applied Sciences, rendered love in 3:11, in each verse in help essay Chelsea Independent, Ps. 136, and how to write essay, elsewhere.) It refers to more than love; it means covenantal love, love borne out of loyalty to a Commitment. Because Ezra saw that God was working through him (the hand of the essay Chelsea Independent College, LORD my God was on me. cf. Ezra 7:6, 9; 8:18, 22, 31), he began the how to write conclusion of Sheffield, task of selecting people to make the Chelsea Independent College, difficult trip.
This probably was difficult and thought Haileybury, must have involved much personal contact and persuasion. But he was successful in enlisting leading men. . . to go with him. 3. THE LIST OF THE RETURNEES (8:-14) 8:1-14. Writing Essay! This list consists of the major men (family heads) who returned as well as the numbers of those who accompanied them. Most of the people listed were related to the families who had returned previously under Zerubbabel (537 B.C.) 79 years earlier (chap.
2). Many of the family names in 8:3c-14 are mentioned in 2:3-15. Gershom was a descendant of Phinehas, son of review journal article College, Aaron's third son Eleazar (Ex. 6:25), and Daniel was descended from help a college Chelsea Independent Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son (Ex. 6:23). Peer Review Abbey Manchester! The total number of men who returned was 1,514 including 18 heads of families and 1,496 other men. With the 258 Levites assembled later (Ezra 8:15-20) the number came to 1,772. With women and children, the group may have totaled between 4,000 and 5,000. Even so, this group was much smaller than the writing essay Independent, near-50,000 on the first return (2:64-65).
4. Marangoni! THE DETAILS OF THE JOURNEY AND ARRIVAL (8:15-36) a. Levites recruited for the journey (8:15-20) 8:15. Levites were to function as teachers of the Law (cf. Lev. 10:11; Deut. 33:10). Therefore they were to have an extremely important role in the reestablished community. The people desperately needed to writing a college understand the importance of the critical Haileybury, Law as they laced their situation as returnees from a college Chelsea Independent College exile. The Levites would have a difficult time in the new land for they were to be involved in the disciplined ministry of temple service.
Perhaps that is an evaluative Louisiana, why none were present when Ezra and his group were ready to depart from the canal of Ahava (cf. Ezra 8:21. 31), whose location is unknown. This canal may have been a tributary of the Euphrates River. Even Zerubbabel had comparatively few Levites on his return (733 [2:40-58), less than 1.5% of the 49,897 [2:64-65]). 8:16-17.
Therefore Ezra sent 9 leaders and 2 men of help a college Independent College, learning to secure some Levites and temple servants from the man Iddo. Ezra told the messengers what to say, which seems to indicate that this was a delicate task which needed to peer reviewed of Applied Sciences have some weight behind the message. The 11 messengers were sent to Casiphia, whose location is no longer known. 8:18-20. The men were able to secure 38 Levites from writing essay Chelsea Independent College two families--18 from Sherebiah's family and 20 from critical Haileybury Jeshaiah's relatives--as well as 220 . . . temple servants. Only then was Ezra ready to start on the important journey.
Without the Levite teachers of the Law and people to serve at essay Independent, the temple all would be lost and the trip futile. b. Preparations made for the journey (8:21-30) 8:21-23. First, spiritual preparation was made for the journey. Ezra was concerned with matters pertaining to God's people. So Ezra proclaimed a fast in how to essay, preparation for the journey.
He wanted the assembled group thereby to humble themselves before . . . God in order to ask Him for a safe journey for themselves, their children, and their possessions. Being humble before God shows one's spiritual dependence, his acknowledgment that God is in total control. Ezra did not. want to ask for Chelsea military protection (soldiers and horsemen) because he had already publicly announced that God would take care of the people as they returned. In contrast, Nehemiah readily accepted a military escort on his way back to the land (Neh. 2:9). 8:24-27. Next, physical preparation was made for the journey. Ezra divided the review article, silver. . . gold, and articles among 24 of the key men in the group. Help Essay College! These items were gilts for the temple, given by Persian officials and by non-returning Israelites. Peer Journal Abbey College Manchester! They included 25 tons of silver, silver articles weighing 3.75, tons, 3.75 tons of gold, 20 bowls of gold that weighed about 19 pounds, and a college essay Independent, two expensive bronze objects.
All this would be valued at many millions of dollars today. No wonder Ezra was concerned about the critical, people's safety (v. 21). 8:28-30. Ezra charged these key men with the responsibility of getting the precious metals and valuables back to Jerusalem safely. Help A College Essay! In his charge he said that these material possessions were Consecrated to the LORD and critical podcast Marangoni, that the silver and gold were freely given by God's people.
He emphasized the writing essay College, need for guarding the money and articles carefully by noting that they would all be weighed on arrival to be sure none had disappeared. The priests and Levites accepted the responsibility of taking the metals and utensils to Jerusalem. c. The people journeyed and arrived (8:31-36) 8:31-34. Only a few statements were made about the journey and the arrival. Peer Reviewed Articles Saxion Of Applied Sciences! The group left Babylon on the 1st day of the first month (7:9) and they left the Ahava Canal on the 12th of the same month. Since they were at the canal three days (8:15), the site of their canal encampment was about nine days' travel from Babylon, perhaps 100-130 miles away. The total journey was about 900 miles and must have been difficult for a group without a military escort.
However, Ezra was content merely to relate that the hand of Our God was on us (cf. 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22) and help a college Chelsea Independent College, that the Lord granted the returnees protection. On arriving in Jerusalem, after a three-day rest, everything was turned over to the priests and Levites and weighed (vv. 33-34). Several of critical thinking Sciences, these temple officials are also mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah: Meremoth (Neh. Help Writing Essay Chelsea Independent College! 3:4, 21), Jozabad (Neh. 11:16), and Binnui (Neh.
3:24). 8:35-36. Then the exiles offered sacrifices to God. The four kinds of animals--bulls (apparently one for each tribe of Israel), rams. lambs, and goats--were the same as those offered at the temple dedication (6:17), but now the thinking podcast Istituto, number was smaller. A copy of the king's edict was given to the surrounding officials (royal satraps and governors), who were to carry out his wishes under Ezra's leadership.
This caused the surrounding peoples to assist the Jewish post-exilic community. The section ends in an interesting climax--God's good hand was so evident on His people that even surrounding peoples helped them in a college College, the sacrificial system, the how to write a good essay The University of Sheffield, means of fellowship with God. B. The reform in the land (chaps. 9-10) In contrast with the a college essay Chelsea College, high point of God's blessing on the people at the end of the previous section (8:36), this section opens with a statement about the severe sin into which the people of the post-exilic community had fallen. The reason the people were back in how to an evaluative University, the land was so that they would be able to worship God according to the ways of their forefathers under the Law.
However, when the people returned to the land they still had a tendency to wander away from the words of God that had been written by Moses. I. The People's Sin Of Intermarriage Reported (9:1-4) 9:1-2. Essay Independent! Ezra's return had a profound effect on the people of peer Saxion of Applied Sciences, Israel. The man who was devoted to the accurate teaching of the writing a college Independent, Law became the focal point of a major reform. This occurred less than five months after his arrival (cf.
7:9 with 10:9). The leaders came to me suggests that these were men who had previously returned to the land under Zerubbabel and had established themselves as leaders and had looked into peer reviewed Saxion University, the problem. Ezra's return may have pricked their consciences as they reflected on the Law of God. They realized that something had to be done about the situation if the nation was to writing a college essay Chelsea enjoy fellowship with the Lord. Outward sacrifice was fine, but only if it was accompanied by write a good essay conclusion of Sheffield, an inward conformity to the Word of God (Hosea 6:6; Micah 6:6-8). The Jewish leaders reported to Ezra that Some Israelites had been involved with their pagan neighbors' detestable practices (cf.
Ezra 9:11, 14) which meant they had married Gentiles. One of God's major prohibitions was that His people were not to writing a college Chelsea Independent marry outside the community of believers (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). This was not because of racial difference, for the peoples of the surrounding areas were of the same Semitic race.
The reason was strictly religious. Critical Thought! If God's people married outside Israel they would be tempted (as was Solomon; I Kings 11:3-5) to get caught up in pagan idolatrous worship. Intermarrying with people who did not worship Yahweh was symptomatic of the way the help writing a college Chelsea, people forsook other aspects of God's Law. Critical Thinking Books Of Applied Sciences! If they would break this aspect of the Law in the most intimate of human relationships then they would probably also break the Law in other less intimate human relationships. The peoples listed in Ezra 9:1 were many of those God had warned about centuries before (Deut. 7:1), as well as the writing Independent College, surrounding nations of Ammon, Moab, and Istituto Marangoni Firenze, Egypt. Unfortunately some religious and civil leaders had been in the forefront of this evil practice. 9:3-4. Ezra's response was typical of the help writing a college Chelsea Independent, response of godly people in the Old Testament when they found out critical, about sin. Tearing his tunic and cloak was a sign of mourning (cf.
Num. 14:6; Josh. 7:6; Es. Help A College Chelsea! 4:1; Job 1:20), and pulling hair from his head and beard was a sign of unusual grief or of intense anger (Isa. 22:12). He was appalled because of the people's sin (Ezra 9:3; cf. v. 4). Ezra knew that it was for just this sort of sin that his nation had gone into captivity (cf. v. 7).
Perhaps he was afraid they would go into captivity again (cf. Books For Kids Hanze Of Applied! v. 8). 2. EZRA'S PRAYER TO GOD (9:5-15) Ezra's prayer reveals much about him. He identified with the nation in their sin even though he himself was innocent of the offense (cf. Dan. 9:5-6, 8-11, 13, 15-16). Ezra understood that the nation stood together under the covenant and that this breach of responsibility, especially since it had been led by leaders of the nation, could jeopardize the entire nation before God. 9:5. The evening sacrifice was around 3 P.M. Ezra's physical position (on his knees with his hands spread out to the LORD) showed that he was throwing himself on the mercy of God.
Ezra knew that the Chelsea Independent, nation was guilty (vv. How To Write Conclusion! 6-7; cf. vv. 13, 15) so he assumed a position of begging before the Lord. There was no excuse for the people's actions. Ezra's prayer was made at the temple with weeping (10:1). 9:6-7. Writing Essay Chelsea! Ezra confessed the continuing problem of sin among the people of the nation. He reacted to the sin with embarrassment, using terms such as ashamed and disgraced.
He felt embarrassed because it was for critical books for kids Hanze of Applied Sciences guilt like this that the nation had gone into captivity in the first place at the hand of foreign kings (viz., Sargon II and Nebuchadnezzar). The Captivity was to be a method of purifying the people and reestablishing a close relationship between them and God. Apparently the Exile had not accomplished its purpose because of the people's tendency to College stray from their covenantal obligations. Like a flood their sins, Ezra said, had engulfed them for their sins were higher than their heads. 9:8-9. Ezra acknowledged the grace of essay Louisiana State University, God in allowing the people to help writing a college essay Chelsea Independent College return to the land. He reminded God and himself that it was the Lord's graciousness that allowed the kings of Persia to grant the Jews freedom to return to the land of promise to peer Abbey Manchester rebuild the temple. But now they were back in bondage--bondage to sin. 9:10-12. Ezra then confessed the men's present sin of intermarriage.
Ezra asked, What can we say after this? By this question he was acknowledging that the nation had no excuse before God (cf. v. 6). No explanation was given for the leaders' disobedience. They had broken God's commands to remain pure before Him, and to help writing essay Chelsea Independent separate from the corruption and detestable practices (cf. vv. 1, 14) in the land. They had directly disobeyed the clear Word of God.
Foreign marriages contaminated Israel, fostered the foreigners' prosperity, weakened Israel spiritually, and decreased her opportunity to enjoy the land's crops. 9:13-14. The conclusion Ezra reached was that God would be totally just in destroying them in His anger so that no remnant would be left (el. How To The University! remnant' in vv. 8, 13, 15). They deserved even greater punishment than God was giving them (cf. v. 6). In a nutshell, Ezra was describing the position of essay College, all mankind before God. As people disobey the Word of God they stand under His wrath in their guilt (cf. Abbey Manchester! guilt in vv. 6-7, 13, 15; cf. John 16:8; James 2:10). 9:15.
Ezra's prayer included no specific request; he simply threw himself on God's mercy. By this he concluded his prayer in the same way he began. He acknowledged that no one in help writing College, the entire community was worthy to stand before the righteous God. In his prayer Ezra affirmed several attributes of God: grace (v. Thinking Podcast Istituto! 8), kindness (v. 9), anger (v. 14), and righteousness (v. 15). Ezra was asking God to be merciful on the basis of His loyal love for the nation. 3. THE PEOPLE'S CONFESSION OF SIN (CHAP.
10) As already noted, the leaders were sensitive to help writing Chelsea Independent College the fact that there was a problem (9:1-2). Now other concerned Israelites joined Ezra in his grief. a. The people acknowledged their sin (10:1-4) 10:1-4. Journal Articles Sciences! Many people acknowledged that something had to be done about the situation. Apparently this sin had gone on and had been tolerated for essay Chelsea some time. Children were born to some of books Hanze, those who had intermarried (vv. 3, 44).
No doubt some devout Jews were grieved because of help writing Independent College, this sin in the community. Perhaps they were afraid to speak up or had tried and were rebuffed. In any case, now that some of the articles Sciences, leaders were joining Ezra in bemoaning the sin, these righteous people joined in help writing essay, the mourning and began to demand that something be done. A large crowd of Israelites gathered with Ezra and wept bitterly. Critical Thinking Books Hanze University Of Applied! One man, Shecaniah, spoke for all the people who were weeping. He acknowledged the unfaithfulness of the nation but he felt that there was still hope for Israel. He suggested that the a college essay Chelsea Independent, people covenant before. . . God to divorce the foreign women and send them away along with the children they had borne. Books Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! This was to be done according to the Law. Help Writing Essay! Shecaniah promised Ezra that the people would stand behind him in such a decision. Shecaniah was calling on the nation to do something distasteful and difficult, something that could cause bitter division between family members and friends.
However, he appealed on the basis of the Law of journal Saxion University Sciences, God which was supposed to be the people's rule of life. The Law also was a safeguard for this situation, for help writing College an Israelite could marry a woman from outside the nation if she had become Jewish in faith. Perhaps that is why each marriage was investigated thoroughly (vv. 16-19)--to see if any women had become Jewish proselytes. Write Conclusion The University! Though divorce was not the norm, it may have been preferable in writing a college essay Independent, this situation because the mixed marriages, if continued, would lead the nation away from true worship of Yahweh. Eventually they would destroy the nation. On the write conclusion The University, other hand some Bible students believe this plan was not in accord with God's desires (cf. Mal.
2:16). Do two wrongs make one right? Perhaps Ezra wrongly followed Shecaniah's advice in help writing Independent, requiring these divorces. Critical Books Hanze University Of Applied Sciences! However, no specific support for this view is indicated in Ezra 10. b. The people took an oath (10:5-8) 10:5-8. The people's sincerity in their confession and repentance was shown by the fact that they took an oath before God.
Taking an oath was not a light matter; it bound the oath-taker to do what he had promised. If he did not, he would be punished. Ezra withdrew to fast and mourn by himself. Writing Chelsea Independent College! Jehohanan was the same as Johanan (Neh. 12:23). He was the grandson of Eliashab (Neh. 12:10-11), who was the high priest (Neh.
13:28). Hence, son of Eliashab (Ezra 10:6) means grandson of Eliashab (son in Heb. often means a grandson or even a later descendant). A proclamation was sent out to all the exiles to assemble in Jerusalem. Anyone who did not come would lose his property and would be expelled from the assembly of the essay conclusion of Sheffield, exiles. In effect such a person would no longer have any legal rights. Ezra had this authority to send out a proclamation with threat of help writing a college Independent, punishment, because of the reviewed journal of Applied Sciences, edict of the king (cf.
7:26). c. The people gathered at the temple (10:9-15) 10:9-11. The square to the east of the temple could accommodate thousands of people. The temple area was always the center of action in the Book of Ezra. On the appointed day (three days after the proclamation, in November-December 457) as the people were gathering, a rainstorm was in progress. This was the help writing a college Chelsea Independent College, rainy season (v. 13). Article Abbey Manchester! However, because of the oath (v.
5) and because of the threat of help a college essay Chelsea College, punishment the meeting went on as scheduled. The people were distressed out of fear of God's wrath and over concern about their families being separated. As Ezra addressed the group, he cited their sin of unfaithfulness, pronounced their guilt, and challenged them to acknowledge their sin and do something about it by critical for kids Hanze University Sciences, becoming separate from their foreign wives. 10:12-15. The people responded that they agreed, but that the matter would take some time because of the large number of people involved and a college Independent, because of the peer journal, rain. (In fact, it took three months, vv. 16-17.) Someone suggested that each man who had married a foreign woman should make an appointment with the writing Chelsea Independent, elders and judges of his hometown so that the matter could be settled locally. This was a good suggestion because the elders and judges of Sciences, each town would know the individuals involved. They would know whether the women involved were worshipers of the Lord or were still involved in pagan worship.
Four leaders opposed the plan, though it is not clear why. Perhaps they wanted to take care of the matter right away; or perhaps they did not want to take care of help Independent College, it at all. Thinking For Kids Of Applied! At least one of them, Meshullam, was guilty (v. Essay Chelsea Independent! 29). d. The marriages examined (10:16-17) 10:16-17. In just 11 days the examining' began (cf. University Sciences! vv. 9, 16).
It took three . . months for help a college College all the marriages to write an evaluative essay Louisiana State be examined, from the first day of the 10th month (December-January 457) to the first day of the 1st month of the next year (March-April 456). Writing A College Essay College! Obviously the problem was widespread and could not be settled in a day (v. 13). Each case was judged individually so that justice would be done. By this action the community was not saying that divorce was good. It was a matter of following God's Law about the peer journal Saxion, need for religious purity in the nation (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). Ezra wrote nothing about what happened to these foreign women or their children. Presumably they returned to their pagan countries.
e. The offenders listed (10:18-44) 10:18-44. Ezra concluded his account by listing the offenders in the foreign marriages. Involved in this serious sin were 17 priests (vv. 18-22) and 10 Levites including a singer and 3 gatekeepers (vv. 23-24), and 84 others from around the a college essay, nation (vv. 25-43). As the how to write Louisiana, leaders had said (9:1), some priests and Levites were guilty. The guilty priests each offered a ram. . . as a guilt offering in accord with Leviticus 5:14-15. The family names in Chelsea, Ezra 10:25-43 correspond closely to those in 2:3-20.
Some of these had children by these marriages (10:44). This was a grievous separation from Haileybury God's covenant. Unfortunately the people would again slip into the same kind of sin only one generation later (Neh. Writing A College Essay College! 13:23-28). The narrative ends abruptly at this point. The message of the book is complete.
In order for the people to be back in fellowship with the Lord it was absolutely necessary for them to have proper temple worship (Ezra 1-6) and to live according to God's Word (chaps. 7-10). ( Bible Knowledge Commentary , Walvoord and Zuck)
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[Clojure] [ANN] Javelin, spreadsheet-like FRP for ClojureScript. We recently released a ClojureScript library for FRP called Javelin. Chelsea Independent! Links. * Demos (more on peer review College the way): http://tailrecursion.com/ with concrete values instead of abstract event streams a la FRP. Help Writing! It. supports discrete propagation, which most FRP implementations provide as. the event stream, via the ability to write a good essay conclusion The University toggle cells between.
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reactively. If you are using graph or flow  and are interested in. reactive processing, and wouldn't mind helping us with performance testing, You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google. Groups Clojure group.
To post to this group, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an help writing Chelsea College, email to email@example.com. We recently released a ClojureScript library for FRP called Javelin. Links of thinking podcast Istituto Marangoni Firenze interest: * Demos (more on the way): http://tailrecursion.com/
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google. Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Note that posts from help a college Chelsea new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at.
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to email@example.com. You received this message because you are subscribed to write conclusion of Sheffield the Google. Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at.
You received this message because you are subscribed to help essay Independent the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from journal it, send an email to email@example.com. We recently released a ClojureScript library for help writing essay Chelsea FRP . Surprised this hasn't gotten more attention. Well done. Looking forward to using this on thinking for kids Hanze University Sciences future projects. is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with. fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, basalt or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have. been sometimes used. Writing Essay Chelsea Independent College! The polymer is article Abbey College Manchester, usually an epoxy, vinylester.
or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde. resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in help writing Chelsea Independent, the aerospace, automotive, marine, and critical Istituto Marangoni Firenze construction industries. my design plans for upcoming projects. Chelsea! Seriously, folks, please. add a (brief) explanation of TLAs and such in your announcements. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google. Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to critical podcast Firenze the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from writing a college essay this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to email@example.com.
We recently released a ClojureScript library for critical thinking Marangoni FRP . Surprised this hasn't gotten more attention. Well done. Looking forward to using this on future projects. Indeed. I'm a big fan of FRP: is a composite material made of writing essay Chelsea a polymer matrix reinforced with. fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, basalt or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have. been sometimes used.
The polymer is usually an write an evaluative Louisiana, epoxy, vinylester. or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde. resins are still in writing Chelsea Independent, use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries.
my design plans for upcoming projects. Seriously, folks, please. add a (brief) explanation of TLAs and such in your announcements. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google. Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org (mailto: email@example.com ) Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. clojure+ firstname.lastname@example.org (mailto:clojure+ email@example.com ) For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from critical this group and help writing essay stop receiving emails from it, send an Haileybury, email to clojure+ firstname.lastname@example.org (mailto:email@example.com).
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supports discrete propagation, which most FRP implementations provide as. the event stream, via the ability to toggle cells between. discrete/continuous propagation modes. Cell mutation semantics are those. of ClojureScript atoms. capable of review journal article College Manchester parallel propagation and hope to release it soon. Help A College College! Among other. things, our hope is to use it to process Prismatic graph  -compatible. workflows reactively.
If you are using graph or flow  and are. interested in podcast Marangoni Firenze, reactive processing, and wouldn't mind helping us with. performance testing, drop me a line. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google. Groups Clojure group.
To post to help writing a college essay Chelsea this group, send email to email@example.com. Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and critical Haileybury stop receiving emails from it, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. out on video. In the meantime, I don't think javelin qualifies as.
functional reactive. It is help writing a college Independent College, just reactive. Thinking! State like this: place-oriented computing vs. the value-oriented computing that FP is aiming. data structure that consumers read. Essay Chelsea College! This is important for concurrency, so.
that each producing/consuming task can run in how to a good conclusion of Sheffield, separate thread and be. scheduled at will, decoupled from any other task. This is a Hard Problem. (tm). A College Essay Independent! Infinite sequences are a popular data structure for decoupling. consumers from critical books for kids Hanze of Applied Sciences producers, but naive implementations lead to uncontrolled. resource usage esp. Writing A College Essay Independent! when it gets more complicated with higher order. goals but not yet the right implementation if I understand correctly. E.g. reactive space is populated by naive implementations that don't scale and. fail at critical thinking Marangoni Firenze concurrency on the one side, and academic Haskell-types that.
conjure up unimplementable pie-in-the-sky schemes on the other side. The. hope is writing a college Independent College, that Clojure folks are ambitious enough to produce something that. scales in how to a good essay The University, complexity and performance while having plenty real-world. scenarios to test their schemes against at their disposal. We recently released a ClojureScript library for FRP called Javelin.
Links of interest: * Demos (more on Chelsea Independent College the way): http://tailrecursion.com/ with concrete values instead of critical thinking Marangoni abstract event streams a la FRP. Writing A College! It. supports discrete propagation, which most FRP implementations provide as.
the event stream, via the ability to toggle cells between. discrete/continuous propagation modes. Cell mutation semantics are those. of ClojureScript atoms. capable of parallel propagation and hope to peer reviewed journal of Applied release it soon.
Among other. things, our hope is to help a college Chelsea College use it to process Prismatic graph  -compatible. workflows reactively. Critical! If you are using graph or flow  and are. interested in reactive processing, and wouldn't mind helping us with. performance testing, drop me a line. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google.
Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to email@example.com. Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at.
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and a college essay College stop receiving emails from it, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. as I understand them, below. Thanks in advance for interpreting my. suppositions and word choices liberally, as the words and ideas in this. area of computing are notoriously overloaded. It is write an evaluative Louisiana State University, just reactive. A College College! State like this:
place-oriented computing vs. the value-oriented computing that FP is review Manchester, aiming. Javelin's evaluation environment. Even so, if one admits Clojure + refs as. FP, I think there remains an argument to help writing essay sell the Javelin model as. immutable data structure that consumers read. Write An Evaluative University! This is important for. concurrency, so that each producing/consuming task can run in separate. thread and writing College be scheduled at will, decoupled from any other task. This is a.
Hard Problem (tm). Infinite sequences are a popular data structure for. decoupling consumers from producers, but naive implementations lead to. uncontrolled resource usage esp. How To State University! when it gets more complicated with higher. the Javelin model might empower the underlying propagation machinery to. leverage concurrency in a JVM implementation.
goals but not yet the right implementation if I understand correctly. E.g. see this discussion: primitive not unlike Go's switch statement, and writing a college Chelsea Independent College EventStream objects can be. thought of as a kind of coroutine. I don't think Elm is tackling this, as. browser JSVMs aren't generally multi-threaded, but maybe other FRP impls.
are. Re: the discussion you linked: to the extent that one can implement. green threads with arrows or CPS, switch might be useful as a (contrived?) concurrency primitive in single-threaded environments. fail at concurrency on the one side, and write Louisiana academic Haskell-types that.
conjure up unimplementable pie-in-the-sky schemes on the other side. Writing A College Chelsea Independent College! The. hope is that Clojure folks are ambitious enough to reviewed articles of Applied produce something that. scales in Chelsea, complexity and performance while having plenty real-world. scenarios to Marangoni Firenze test their schemes against at their disposal. of utility in the general idea of dataflow, and look forward to writing essay Chelsea Independent College further. developments in Haileybury, the Clojure space.
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Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google.
Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to email@example.com. Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups Clojure group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google. Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to email@example.com.
Note that posts from new members are moderated - please be patient with. your first post. To unsubscribe from this group, send email to. For more options, visit this group at. You received this message because you are subscribed to help Independent the Google Groups. To unsubscribe from peer review Abbey College this group and stop receiving emails from Chelsea Independent it, send an. email to how to a good essay conclusion The University firstname.lastname@example.org. You received this message because you are subscribed to essay Chelsea Independent the Google. Groups Clojure group. To post to this group, send email to email@example.com.
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