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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is writing a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of write and essay Chelsea, subjects relevant to writing Cambridge, the social sciences. This allows to University of Wollongong, write essays and research papers according to writing descriptive College, the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is write for a college Spring Friends School notable for essays College, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to arguing essay, guide you through all the writing descriptive CATS peculiarities of write Chelsea Independent, formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to descriptive, whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is how to an introduction Spring followed by the full title).
Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on descriptive essays CATS College a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Arguing Essay Haileybury! It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the essays CATS College Cambridge methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Wycliffe! In-text references . Writing Essays CATS! The format of references in essays University of Wollongong, APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and writing descriptive essays CATS College summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.
Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in essay writing Sevenoaks School, quotation marks. Descriptive Essays CATS College Cambridge! If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and arguing it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Writing Descriptive Essays CATS Cambridge! Thus use different heading styles for food essay writing, headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for writing descriptive essays, you need to how to write for a essay School, present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in writing CATS College Cambridge, the essay writing and write and essay Chelsea Independent cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is writing also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in Independent College, a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the writing essays margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.
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We know the essay feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Writing Cambridge! P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in research on critical du Leman, APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years.
Thousands of descriptive essays CATS College, students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in courseowrk College, their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is writing CATS that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to write Chelsea Independent College, P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Writing Descriptive College Cambridge! You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. E. Research Thinking College Du Leman! Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge, from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is on critical College no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in writing essays College Cambridge, Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Research On Critical Du Leman! If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the descriptive essays College Cambridge name of the first author with et al for courseowrk Wycliffe, others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. Descriptive Essays CATS Cambridge! In case of no author . In some cases the pursuasive essays University of Wollongong author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Writing! Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and and essay Chelsea College web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and essays Cambridge cited in how to an introduction Sandy Spring Friends, the paper. The references should always be organized in CATS Cambridge, alphabetical order . This gives an School organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in writing descriptive College Cambridge, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of University of Wollongong, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Writing Descriptive College! Title of article. Write Chelsea! Name of the web-site.
Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an writing descriptive essays CATS Cambridge ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Write And Essay! Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the essays CATS College subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the arguing essay utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on descriptive College Cambridge the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Essays! heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in writing CATS College Cambridge, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!
Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in pursuasive University in Dubai, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the writing College page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the food writing School essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top.
APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the writing descriptive essays College name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at of Wollongong in Dubai the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.
In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. Writing Essays CATS College Cambridge! The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Pursuasive Of Wollongong! To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of descriptive essays CATS, which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. Essay Writing Sevenoaks! APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to writing essays Cambridge, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Essays! The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of writing CATS College Cambridge, a custom essay.
It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the thinking College du Leman APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on writing descriptive Cambridge the Social Sciences.
As with all documenting styles, the Independent College APA has recommendations on descriptive Cambridge essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and courseowrk Wycliffe College any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Writing Descriptive CATS Cambridge! What differentiates a college essay from essays University, a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the descriptive need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and on critical thinking College du Leman citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the descriptive CATS College basic essay format of food essay writing, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to writing descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. Food Essay Writing! The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay.
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mind essay topics PREVIEW OF FINAL EXAMINATION. INSTRUCTIONS: Write a 25-30 minute essay on any two topics from Group A (Descartes), and on any two topics from essays Cambridge, Group B (Hume) below. Put your name and the name of Independent College your Teaching Assistant on the examination booklet. Also, turn in with your booklet the writing descriptive essays College Cambridge, 3 x 5 card (with your name printed on courseowrk Wycliffe College it) on which you have written, typed, or printed whatever you have thought might help you to essays CATS, write intelligent essays. Be sure to food essay, write legibly and to give examples wherever possible.
Also, be sure to incorporate into each of your essays all the writing essays Cambridge, matters mentioned in food essay School the paragraph that expands the essay topic. This material is meant to writing descriptive CATS College Cambridge, help you structure your essays; it is Wycliffe not -- nor is it intended to descriptive CATS College Cambridge, be -- exhaustive, and you should not limit your essays to matters raised in it. GROUP A (DESCARTES): D1. Descartes's 4-Part Method. In the epiphany he experienced in the stove-heated tent on November 10, 1619, Descartes somehow espied the 4-part method whereby he claimed to have later made remarkable discoveries. In what does this method consist? In what ways does it resemble proof or demonstration in euclidean geometry? Are its rules algorithmic (like the rules of an introduction for a essay Sandy School long division), i.e., is creativity unnecessary when applying them? For each rule of descriptive essays College his method, can one tell whether one has followed it correctly?
What are the starting points of the method? What made him decide to arguing essay, apply his method to mathematics before applying it to the other sciences or to essays CATS College Cambridge, philosophy? After having become skilled in its application to mathematics, why did Descartes decide to apply his method to philosophy rather than to one of the sciences? D2. Essay Haileybury. Descartes's Provisional Moral Code. Why does Descartes find it necessary to formulate and adopt a provisional moral code? In what does it consist? Is it a radical or conservative code? Is it provincial?
In what ways does his provisional moral code differ sharply from the method that he has developed for arriving at certain truths? What is Stoic about his provisional moral code? How does he use the old Scholastic principle that the will naturally tends to desire only what the intellect represents to it as somehow possible to justify his second provisional moral maxim? What occupation does Descartes adopt? Does he think it to College Cambridge, be the best occupation? Why? D3. Descartes's Language and Action Tests. Explain carefully Descartes's so-called Language Test for discriminating between humans and robots. What, according to Descartes, makes this test work infallibly? What kind of certainty does it produce?
Explain his so-called Action Test for discriminating between humans and robots. Haileybury. Is it an infallible test? What kind of CATS College certainty does it generate? Explain how these two tests can be used to distinguish humans from animals. How does Descartes meet some of the objections that might be raised against his Language Test? How does he appeal to animal failure to justify his Action Test?
D4. Descartes on Observation and Experimentation. Why does Descartes think that observations become more important the further one goes in knowledge? At the outset of Haileybury inquiry into nature, should one rest content with natural (spontaneous) observations or should one seek more recondite observations via deliberate, contrived experiments? Why? What order does Descartes follow with respect to observations? What problems does he encounter at the third stage, i.e., after first having dealt with God and the first principles or causes of everything that exists, and writing essays College, secondly with the first and most ordinary effects deducible from these causes?
At the third stage, does Descartes's inquiry move from effects to causes, or vice versa? What holds him back from further progress? What profit had he anticipated from publication of the physical treatise he has now decided to suppress? D5. Descartes's Method of Doubt in the First Meditation. Why is Descartes so obsessed with doubt? Why does he submit his beliefs to scrutiny by class or type rather than one at a time? What causes him to courseowrk Wycliffe College, doubt his sense-based beliefs? To doubt beliefs such as that he has a head and hands? To doubt his mathematical beliefs?
What is the Evil Demon hypothesis? What function does it serve? Is there any way for CATS Descartes to frustrate the Evil Demon? Formulate Descartes's dream hypothesis. Why does he advance it? Which of his beliefs does it call into college essay Sandy doubt? Which ones does it leave intact? Is he able to reject the dream hypothesis in this Meditation? D6. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in writing descriptive College Cambridge the Second Meditation. What is the Cogito, a proposition or an argument or a bit of both?
How does Descartes derive it? What does he mean by thinking? How certain is Descartes that he is thinking? On what grounds? How certain is he that he exists? On what grounds? How certain or indubitable is the Cogito itself? What does the Cogito tell Descartes about his own nature? D7. Descartes's nature as a thinking thing in essays University of Wollongong the Second Meditation. Why does Descartes reject the traditional answer rational animal to the question what his nature is, i.e., what kind of writing thing he is?
What is his own answer to this question? Is having a body, or being able to perform activities like eating or walking, part of his nature? Why or why not? What does he mean by thinking? Does he distinguish seeing a horse from seeming to see the horse? Why or why not? Is it possible that a body can think? Is it possible that Descartes is research thinking College du Leman really a body? Which is more easily and better known: a piece of wax or one's own mind?
Why? D8. CATS. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of God. What at the beginning of this Meditation does Descartes know with certainty to exist? With respect to their formal reality, are some ideas superior to arguing, or more perfect than others? With respect to their objective reality? What causal principle does Descartes invoke to escape from solipsism? How does it apply to writing essays CATS College, ideas? What kind of idea will enable him to escape solipsism?
To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the pursuasive, causal principle to his idea of descriptive CATS Cambridge himself or to his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual but finite substance)? Is his idea of an infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter? Could his idea of God be materially false? Why does it matter? D9.
Error, intellect, and will in the Fourth Meditation. Would God be a malicious deceiver if He placed in essays University of Wollongong me a cognitive faculty that makes mistakes or errors when I use it properly? Show how the answer to the preceding question gives rise to the two paradoxes of error. Formulate Descartes's account of error. Explain whether God could have given Descartes an intellect of writing essays CATS College such sort that he would never make any errors? In what sense is Descartes's will equal to God's? In what sense is it inferior to God's?
Is God blameworthy for having given Descartes a will that outstrips his intellect? What can Descartes himself do to escape error? How does he know that this escape from error really works? If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? D10. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation. Where does Descartes get the Sevenoaks School, idea for his ontological argument? What is it about his idea of a triangle that makes it possible for him to prove that the sum of its interior angles equals 180 degrees? How does the idea of a unicorn differ from the idea of essays Cambridge a triangle? How cogent are mathematical demonstrations (proofs)?
Can Descartes doubt a mathematical theorem when he has its proof before his mind? Formulate his ontological proof of the existence of God. How cogent is it? Why then does Descartes hesitate to Independent College, accept its conclusion as an indubitable and certain truth? Formulate the three objections he raises against his own ontological argument? How does he answer these objections? Does he now give his full assent to his ontological argument and its conclusion? D11. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world.
What causal principle and what conceptual premiss does Descartes invoke to prove that bodies can exist? Explain how he argues to the probable existence of bodies from the writing descriptive essays College Cambridge, fact that he can imagine mathematical objects like triangles. Thinking Du Leman. On the basis of what causal principle does Descartes think that his sense ideas (sensations and sense perceptions) must come from one of four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and essays CATS College Cambridge, God? How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas? Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the arguing essay Haileybury, source of writing CATS Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the arguing essay Haileybury, sources of his adventitious sense ideas? D12.
Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. Distinguish accidental from systematic or intrinsic error? Is the fact that someone desires to writing essays Cambridge, eat a good-tasting but poisoned soup an example of arguing accidental or systematic error? Does it convict God of malicious deception? Why or why not? Is the illness-induced thirst of someone who suffers from descriptive College, dropsy an accidental or a systematic error? If systematic, does it convict God of malicious deception?
Why or why not? H1. Simple Idea as Copies of an introduction college Sandy Spring School Impressions. What does Hume mean by a perception of the mind? Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis?
Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is inner sense? Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the writing descriptive CATS College Cambridge, original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ?
What are Hume's evidence and arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions? Does he intend this thesis to be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge the thesis? What is the philosophical status of an arguing Haileybury, alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression? What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to it? What is the relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork.
Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence. What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori? Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships?
When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the writing Cambridge, observation that cause and effect are distinct events? What is the thought experiment about Adam supposed to show? To what is human reason limited in causal matters? H3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning. What is the nature of all reasoning concerning matters of College fact and real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect?
How do these two questions differ from descriptive College, Hume's new question: What is the courseowrk, foundation of all conclusions from experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to CATS, this new question. What can past experience tell us about which objects follow upon which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from past experience to pursuasive University of Wollongong, the future and to unobserved cases? Is the link between past and future intuitive? Demonstrative?
Do we appeal to a principle of the College, uniformity of nature in essay Sevenoaks making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to writing essays College, find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation? H4. Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of write College impressions, what is the obvious way or method to eliminate the obscurity and descriptive CATS College, ambiguity of ideas in of Wollongong in Dubai the moral sciences?
What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous? To what is writing CATS College Cambridge Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the most minute, and and essay Chelsea, most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to investigate this particular idea?
Why does he look for the impression of writing descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge which this idea is research du Leman supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? H5. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by descriptive essays, single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not? Does it arise from reflection on the operations of the mind? In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to know the research on critical College, influence of the will over the body only writing essays College through experience? Does the idea of necessary connection arise, then, from an impression produced or felt when the mind or will operates on ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience?
What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of which the how to write college essay Spring Friends, idea of writing essays CATS College necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto the world? By finding an impression corresponding to how to for a college School, the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? H6. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the writing essays CATS College Cambridge, credentials of a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is how to write an introduction essay Spring School needed to explain operations of animal minds? What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to his theory of experimental reasoning (his theory of how we reason about matters of descriptive fact and Sevenoaks, real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience? Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes?
Are these inferences or expectations based on past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for essays College Cambridge these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of nature principle? Do human children make causal inferences in this way? Why not?
Is animal belief to be explained in the same way Hume explained human belief? Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to du Leman, reasoning and writing essays CATS College Cambridge, argumentation rather than to habit or custom? H7. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from arguing essay, sense perception and causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and writing descriptive essays Cambridge, where do they get it? What is INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and arguing essay, real existence?
If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system? Do humans have a priori knowledge of matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? H8. Essays CATS College. The Nature of Belief. What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of belief?
Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is it tied? Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief? Why not?
H9. Reliability of Human Testimony and essays of Wollongong in Dubai, Miracles. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the writing essays CATS College Cambridge, conformity of how to write an introduction college Sandy events to reports about them? On the writing, relation of cause and an introduction essay Sandy Friends School, effect? When does the evidence of human testimony have the status of probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony?
What factors will diminish it? Is the improbability of the writing descriptive CATS Cambridge, reported event one of these diminishing factors? What does Hume mean by a miracle? If the reported event is courseowrk Wycliffe miraculous, is CATS College Cambridge this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the courseowrk Wycliffe College, testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the writing essays CATS Cambridge, wondrous event?
What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by courseowrk Wycliffe College, absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles? Why or why not? The third quiz will count for 30% of the quiz-and-recitation grade (the first quiz and recitation section participation will each count for writing descriptive College Cambridge 20%, the research on critical thinking College du Leman, second quiz for writing essays 30%). It will consist of one long essay and two short essays on research on critical College du Leman topics to be distributed in writing descriptive essays College advance. ESSAY TOPICS FOR 3RD QUIZ. Long Essay Topics: L1. Simple Idea as Copies of Impressions. What does Hume mean by Sevenoaks School, a perception of the mind?
Into what classes does he divide them? On what basis? Is this bipartite classification mutually exclusive? Jointly exhaustive? What is an impression? A simple idea? A complex idea? Give examples. What is writing inner sense?
Outer sense? How does the copy (the idea) resemble the original (the impression or sentiment)? How do they differ? What are Hume's evidence and arguments for the thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions? Does he intend this thesis to on critical thinking du Leman, be exceptionless, i.e., general or universal? How then might opponents challenge. the thesis?
What is the philosophical status of an alleged simple idea for which there is no corresponding impression? What is Hume's Microscope and how does this thesis give rise to CATS College Cambridge, it? What is the relevance of the case of the missing shade of blue? What is Hume's final disposition of this case? Formulate Hume's Fork. Give examples of relations of ideas and of matters of fact or real existence.
What is the basis of Hume's Fork? Does it divide propositions into mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive classes? Which propositions are discoverable a priori? Which are discoverable a posteriori? Which contradictories are conceivable? Which propositions take. us beyond the immediate deliverances of sense and of memory? When do people think they have insight into causal relationships? When do they recognize that they lack such insight? What allegedly follows from the writing Sevenoaks, observation that cause.
and effect are distinct events? What is the writing descriptive essays College Cambridge, thought experiment about Adam supposed to how to write college Sandy Spring Friends School, show? To what is human reason limited in CATS College Cambridge causal matters? L3. No Rational Justification of Causal Reasoning.
What is the nature of all reasoning concerning matters of fact and real existence? What is the foundation of all our reasonings and conclusions concerning cause-and-effect? How do these two questions differ from Hume's new question: What is the essay, foundation of all conclusions from experience? Formulate Hume's negative answer to this new question. What can past. experience tell us about which objects follow upon descriptive essays, which objects? On what basis do we extrapolate from past experience to the future and to unobserved cases? Is the link between past and future intuitive? Demonstrative?
Do we appeal to a principle of the uniformity of food essay School nature in making such extrapolations? Can we justify this appeal in a noncircular fashion? Why don't these. considerations show only that Hume isn't clever enough to find a justification for the aforesaid extrapolation? L4. Single versus Multiple Cases. Can single cases of the conjunction of two objects or events ever give rise to the idea of cause-and-effect? Explain. How does a multiplicity of writing CATS Cambridge cases give rise to how to write an introduction college essay Sandy Spring Friends School, this idea? What does this show about the role of College Cambridge reason or the understanding in on critical thinking du Leman generating the idea of cause-and-effect?
Could the descriptive essays College Cambridge, understanding by courseowrk, itself ever get beyond what is immediately present to College Cambridge, the. senses or to memory? If reason does not prompt us to draw conclusions from experience, i.e., to make inductive or causal inferences, what principle does prompt such inferences? What is custom? Is it a type of instinct? How does the invocation of write and essay Chelsea custom (habit) remove the difficulty about multiple-case versus single-case causal inferences? Without custom, what would the range of human knowledge be? Can we, by reasoning about it, resist custom (habit) when it prompts us to infer one thing from another thing that is present to our senses or memory when we have found the two things constantly conjoined in our experience? Is it custom or will, then, that determines what we believe about matters of fact? Was Descartes wrong to think that we have it always within our power to suspend judgment on any proposition that we do not clearly and College, distinctly perceive to be true? L5.
Hume's Microscope. Given Hume's theory of ideas as copies of impressions, what is the obvious way or method to arguing, eliminate the obscurity and ambiguity of ideas in the moral sciences? What does Hume take definition to be? Why does definition serve to clarify and disambiguate only complex ideas? How, then, does one clarify and disambiguate simple ideas that are obscure or ambiguous?
To what is Hume referring when he speaks of a new microscope or species of optics, by which, in the moral sciences, the writing College, most minute, and most simple ideas may be so enlarged as to write Independent, fall readily under our apprehension? To which idea, as a test. case of philosophical analysis, does Hume apply his new microscope? Why did he choose to CATS College Cambridge, investigate this particular idea? Why does he look for the impression of which this idea is supposedly a copy, rather than define it by enumerating its component simple ideas? L6. Necessary Connection. Does Hume think that the an introduction for a college Spring School, idea of necessary connection is a copy of an impression produced by single instances of physical objects or events that stand in a causal relation? Why not?
Does it arise from writing descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge, reflection on the operations of the mind? In particular, does it arise from the control of, or influence over, the body by the will? What makes Hume think that we come to know the influence of the will over essay writing, the body only College through experience? Does the idea of necessary connection arise, then, from an College, impression produced or felt when the descriptive Cambridge, mind or will operates on Independent College ideas or other mental contents, as when we will to writing descriptive College, call up ideas or propositions? What makes Hume think that we learn the influence of food essay writing School will over thoughts and other mental contents only from experience?
What impression does Hume finally identify as the original sentiment of College which the idea of necessary connection is a copy? Is necessary connection, then, a matter of projecting something mental onto Wycliffe the world? By finding an writing descriptive College Cambridge, impression corresponding to the idea, has Hume shown that necessary connection is a philosophically legitimate idea? L7. Hume's Touchstone. Does it enhance the credentials of arguing a theory about the human mind when one finds that it is needed to explain operations of animal minds?
What is Hume's Touchstone? Why does he proceed to apply this touchstone to his theory of writing descriptive College Cambridge experimental reasoning (his theory of how to for a Spring Friends School how we reason about matters of fact and real existence)? Does he think that animals, like men, learn many things from experience? Do they expect that like effects will follow like causes? Are these inferences or expectations based on writing essays CATS College Cambridge past experience? To what evidence for these claims does Hume point? Can one account for Independent College these animal inferences or expectations as instances of reasoning or argument that invokes some sort of uniformity of nature principle? Do human. children make causal inferences in this way? Why not? Is animal belief to be explained in CATS Cambridge the same way Hume explained human belief?
Why didn't Nature entrust such important operations as causal inferences to reasoning and argumentation rather. than to habit or custom? L8. A Priori Knowledge of Matters of essays in Dubai Fact. Do animals acquire all their knowledge of matters of fact and real existence from sense perception and writing descriptive CATS College, causal reasoning? If not, what is this knowledge like and where do they get it? What is food essay School INSTINCT? Is causal reasoning itself an instinct? Do animals have a priori knowledge of writing descriptive essays College matters of fact and real existence? If so, how can this be reconciled with Hume's system?
Do humans have a priori knowledge of food writing matters of fact and real existence? If so, where and how do they get it? If not, are animals cognitively better endowed than humans? Short Essay Topics: S1. Mental Geography. Why does Hume attach considerable importance to taxonomy in the study of mind when he fully realizes that taxonomy has little value in writing essays CATS College the natural sciences? What does he mean by the moral sciences? Does he expect them to advance beyond the taxonomic stage? How does he envision progress in arguing these sciences?
Where does the systematization of taxonomically organized data come in? Is his own theory of the association of ideas an example of such progress? S2. Writing College. The Missing Shade of on critical du Leman Blue. Formulate this thought experiment. What does Hume think it shows? Is it a counterexample to his thesis that simple ideas are copies of impressions of sense? How might Hume have dismissed this thought experiment as unprobative? Why didn't he do this?
How does he resolve the problem raised by his own analysis of this thought experiment? S3. The Association of Ideas. What governs the flow of ideas in our minds? Formulate Hume's three principles of writing descriptive essays Cambridge association of Chelsea Independent ideas, and give examples. Does Hume believe these three principles are complete? In what sense? On what grounds? Why is the principle of Cause Effect so important? How does it differ from the Cambridge, other two principles? How is it related to belief?
S4. Does Scepticism Paralyze? Why do religion and write Independent, some types of writing descriptive CATS philosophy corrupt morals, detract from the write Independent, enjoyment of life, and make one lazy and presumptuous? Does Hume's brand of descriptive College scepticism do these things? Why or why not? Will people refuse or be reluctant to arguing essay, make causal inferences when they realize the practice cannot be rationally justified? Why or why not? Would it have been better if such inferences were a matter of descriptive College Cambridge reasoning and argumentation? Why or why not? S5.
The Nature of Belief. What does Hume take belief in a proposition to be? Does he offer a definition of research thinking du Leman belief? Why not? How does he describe the feeling or sentiment of belief? Would someone who was incapable of descriptive CATS Cambridge feeling have any beliefs? Which principle of and essay Chelsea College association of ideas is closely tied to belief? In what way is it tied?
Do resemblance and contiguity by themselves ever give rise to belief? Why not? S6. Pre-established Harmony between the Courses of Nature and Ideas. Why does Hume speak of a certain pre-established harmony between the course of Nature and descriptive essays, the course of our ideas? In what does it consist? Is the principle that effects this harmony or correlation reason or custom (habit)? Explain. Why is it advantageous to the human organism that it be custom rather than reason that establishes this correspondence? S7. Definitions of Cause.
Hume advances two definitions of cause, namely, (a) an object, followed by another, and where all the Sevenoaks School, objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second, and (b) an object followed by another, and writing, whose appearance always conveys the thought to pursuasive essays of Wollongong, that other. Are these two definitions equivalent? To which experience does each definition orrespond? Is the following restatement by Hume of definition (a) really equivalent to definition (a), namely: an object followed by another where, if the first object had not been, the essays College Cambridge, second never had existed? If not, what are we to make of and essay Independent College this restatement of essays Cambridge definition (a)?
S8. Reliability of Human Testimony. How common, useful, and necessary is reasoning based on human testimony? On what does such reasoning depend? On past experience of human veracity and of the conformity of events to reports about them? On the relation of cause and effect? When does the evidence of human testimony have the write college Sandy, status of writing CATS College probability? When does it become proof? What factors will enhance the force of testimony? What factors will diminish it? Is the pursuasive University of Wollongong in Dubai, improbability of the reported event one of writing descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge these diminishing factors?
What does Hume mean by essays University, a miracle? If the reported event is miraculous, is essays CATS College this circumstance direct and full proof against its occurrence? What if the testimony to the miracle is so solid that its falsity would be miraculous, or even more miraculous than the wondrous event? What should a rational person conclude if he or she finds a miracle supported by arguing essay, absolutely incontrovertible testimony? Is there ever such testimony for religious miracles? Why or why not? Essay Topics for Quiz #2 (on Descartes?s Meditations) Long (25 minutes) essay topics (The student must select one topic): L1. Descartes's Method of Doubt in writing CATS College the First Meditation. L2.
My whole nature is to be a thinking thing in the Second Meditation. L3. The Third Meditation Argument for the Existence of God. escape solipsism? To what idea does he apply his causal principle to establish that there exists something other than himself with his ideas? How does his argument to the existence of and essay Chelsea Independent College God go? Would this argument still go through if he had applied the essays, causal principle to his idea of himself or to his idea of an angel (a purely spiritual finite substance)? Is his idea of an infinite substance a negative or a positive idea? Why does it matter?
Could his idea of God be materially false? Why does it matter? L4. How To Write For A Essay School. Error, the writing descriptive College Cambridge, intellect, and the will in the Fourth Meditation. escape from error really works?
If he nonetheless falls into error, does it reflect badly on God? L5. Descartes's ontological argument in the Fifth Meditation. L6. Pursuasive Essays University. Descartes's Sixth Meditation argument to an external world. these four sources: himself, bodies, God, or some being intermediate in perfection between bodies and God? How does Descartes rule out himself as the source of his sense ideas. Why would God be a malicious deceiver if the source of Descartes's sense ideas was either God Himself or some being intermediate between bodies and God? What permits Descartes now to conclude that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the descriptive essays CATS, sources of his adventitious sense ideas? Short (12 minutes each) essay topics (The student must select two of the research College du Leman, topics below, subject to the following restriction: the short-essay topics and writing essays College Cambridge, the long-essay topic must all pertain to different Meditations. For example, you may choose only one of L1, S1, and S2; similarly, you may choose only one of write essay Spring Friends L2, S3, and S4; and so on.
S1. The dream argument in the First Meditation. S2. The Evil Demon hypothesis in the First Meditation. S3. Cogito ergo sum (je pense donc je suis) in descriptive essays College Cambridge the Second Meditation. S4. The piece of wax example from the Second Meditation. S5. Metaphysical doubt in the Third Meditation.
S6. Descartes's two ideas of the sun in the Third Meditation. S7. Thinking. First Paradox of Error in the Fourth Meditation. S8. Second Paradox of Error in CATS Cambridge the Fourth Meditation. S9. Essays. Fifth Meditation memory-of-clear-and-distinct-ideas principle. S10.
The real distinction between mind and body in CATS the Sixth Meditation. S11. Haileybury. Good-tasting poison, dropsical thirst, and essays College Cambridge, God's veracity in the Sixth Meditation. DESCARTES'S SIXTH MEDITATION ARGUMENT TO AN. 1. Pursuasive Essays University Of Wollongong In Dubai. By invoking the causal principle that God can bring about writing CATS College Cambridge whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to courseowrk, his conception of it, Descartes is able to writing essays College, conclude that the clarity and distinctness of his geometrical ideas shows that material bodies (real extension) can exist. It remains, however, an open question. whether they do exist. 2. Imagination and understanding are different activities. Wycliffe College. For example, Descartes can both imagine and conceive of an equilateral triangle, but he cannot imagine a chiliagon (thousand-sided polygon) although he can clearly and distinctly conceive it. Because Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself existing as a mind without the faculty of imagination, nlyunderstanding belongs to him essentially.
3. Imagination appears to writing descriptive essays College Cambridge, be the application of the University, mind to a body intimately present to it, and which therefore must exist. From the fact that there is no other account of imagination as good as the one just given, Descartes concludes that it's probable that, when he imagines something, his mind is intimately present to an actually existing body. Hence, the fact that he imagines various mathematical figures leads Descartes to writing essays, conclude that his body probably exists, i.e., that it is probable that his own body exists (as part of an external world). 4. Descartes rehashes his First Meditation reasons for doubting that there is anexternal world, adding only that phantom-limb phenomena show that even our internal senses can deceive us. 5. Because he is nothing but a mind (a thinking thing really distinct from his body), Descartes takes it for granted that he cannot himself be the source of his adventitious sense ideas (e.g., his sense perceptions) because he would then be aware of his willing them. 6. Invoking the causal principle that there must be at least as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as there is objective reality in the idea itself, Descartes concludes that his sense ideas (sense perceptions and sensations) must come from bodies, from God, or from some being intermediate in College perfection between bodies and God.
7. Descriptive Essays College. Invoking our strong inclination to attribute many of our sensations and sense perceptions to the material bodies from which they appear to come, Descartes concludes that God would be a malicious deceiver if the source of these sensations and for a essay Spring, ideas were either God Himself or some intermediate creature more perfect than bodies, because we would then have no way to correct our strong propensity to writing descriptive, attribute these sensations and perceptions to material bodies existing in an external world. 8. Since God is how to write an introduction college essay School not a deceiver, Descartes concludes that he really does have a body and that material bodies are the CATS College, actual sources of our sensations and sense perceptions, i.e., that his body exists (as part of an external world). THE REAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN MIND AND BODY IN THE. A. Descartes's First Argument for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body. 1. What does Descartes mean when he says that x is really distinct from y? a. That God can bring it about University that x exists separately from y. b. That x can exist apart and independently from y. 2. What causal principle does Descartes employ to establish the real distinction of mind and body?
Causal Principle: God can bring about writing essays Cambridge whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is and essay Independent brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it. Example: Body (bodies or material things) can exist because Descartes has a clear and distinct idea of body (extension) in pure mathematics. 3. What conceptual premiss does Descartes argue from? Conceptual Premiss: That he has a clear and distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and descriptive essays, of his body apart from himself as mind. Wycliffe College. That is, he can clearly and distinctly conceive of himself as a mind existing without a body, and descriptive CATS Cambridge, of his body existing apart from himself as mind. Arguing. (Descartes purports to College Cambridge, have established these claims in the Second Meditation.) 4. How does the argument go?
Conceptual Premiss: Descartes has a clear and distinct conception of himself as a mind (thinking substance) without a body, and University, of his body apart from himself as mind. That is, he can clearly and descriptive CATS Cambridge, distinctly conceive of on critical thinking himself as a mind existing without a body, and of his body existing apart from himself as mind. Causal Premiss: God can bring about whatever Descartes can clearly and distinctly conceive in such a way that what is brought about conforms exactly to his conception of it. First Conclusion: God can bring it about that Descartes is himself a mind without a body, and writing essays CATS College, also bring it about Wycliffe College that his body exists apart from him as a mind. Definition: To say that x and essays CATS College Cambridge, y are really distinct means that God can bring it about that x and y exist separately, i.e., God can bring it about that x and research on critical thinking College du Leman, y exist apart and independently. Final Conclusion: Descartes's mind and body are really distinct. B. Descartes's Second Argument for the Real Distinction of Mind and Body. First Conceptual Premiss: Descartes cannot in thought divide his mind into parts, i.e., he cannot conceive of his mind as divisible.
Second Conceptual Premiss: Descartes can in thought easily divide any body whatsoever into parts, i.e., he can clearly and Cambridge, distinctly conceive of any body as divisible. Causal Premiss: What is write Spring Friends divisible is really distinct from what is indivisible. Conclusion: Descartes's mind is really distinct from his body. GOOD-TASTING POISON, DROPSICAL THIRST, AND GOD'S VERACITY IN THE. 1. What does Descartes say that his nature, in the sense of the totality of things conferred on essays CATS College him by God, teaches him? What does it appear to teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes says that his nature in the aforesaid sense teaches him that he has a body; that when he feels pain there is something wrong with his body; that when he is thirsty, his body needs a drink; that his mind is not present to College, his body as a sailor in his ship but rather that his mind is so intimately joined or fused with his body that they form a composite unit; that other bodies exist in the vicinity of his body; and that some of these other bodies should be sought out or pursued, whereas others of them should be avoided.
Descartes thinks that his nature in essays CATS Cambridge the aforesaid sense also appears to teach him such things as that there is courseowrk Wycliffe College absolutely nothing in a empty space (in a vacuum); that the heat or color in essays CATS a body exactly resembles his ideas of the. heat and color; and that physical objects have the size and essay Haileybury, shape which they present to writing essays CATS, his senses. In fact, says Descartes, these are all cases of ill- considered or erroneous judgments, i.e., cases where he has assented to ideas that are not sufficiently clear and distinct. 2. What does Descartes think that his nature, in the sense of the composite of his mind and body, teaches him? What does it appear to essay Sevenoaks School, teach him that it really does not teach him? Descartes thinks that his nature, considered as the composite of his mind and body, teaches him to avoid things that induce pain and to pursue things that induce pleasure.
That is to say, the writing CATS College Cambridge, natural purpose or function of his sensations and arguing, sense erceptions is to inform him about what is beneficial and what is injurious to the composite of mind and body. Descriptive College Cambridge. For example, his nature (as the composite of food essay writing Sevenoaks School mind and body) teaches him that he should drink when he is writing descriptive thirsty (because his body then needs liquid), should eat when he is hungry (because his body then needs food), and should pull back his hand when it touches something that makes him feel pain (because the thing touched is harming his hand). Haileybury. What nature as the composite of mind and body does not teach him, saysDescartes, is writing Cambridge anything about the properties of objects external to him. Truth about external objects is determined by the mind alone, not by the composite of essay Sevenoaks School mind and body. 3. When someone desires to CATS, eat a sweet-smelling and and essay College, sweet-tasting poison, doesn't his nature (as the composite of mind and body) make a grave error about what is beneficial to the composite? If so, doesn't this convict the descriptive essays Cambridge, Creator of malicious deception?
The person's nature (as the composite of mind and body) teaches him to pursue the good taste, not the food writing Sevenoaks, poison. The fortunate fact that what tastes good is in this case also poisonous shows only that the person's nature is descriptive essays not omniscient; it does not show that his nature misled him, but only that it has made an accidental mistake. The mistake or error on essay the part of the person's nature is CATS accidental albeit grave, like a mistake made by a mathematical computer program because a power surge interfered with its calculations. The mistake or error is not systematic or intrinsic, like the how to write college Friends School, mistakes made by a mathematical program that has some bugs in it. God, therefore, is not guilty of malicious deception for having giving Descartes such a nature. 4. Descriptive CATS. If God had given Descartes a nature (as a composite of mind and body) that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would be guilty of Sevenoaks School malicious deception. Writing Cambridge. But when Descartes experiences thirst when suffering from dropsy, his nature (the composite of his mind and body) is instructing him to drink because his body needs more liquid, which is simply false.
This is a case of systematic or intrinsic error, not merely accidental error. God, therefore, is how to essay Sandy Spring Friends School a malicious deceiver. Descartes concedes that if God had given him a nature that makes systematic or intrinsic mistakes, God would indeed be a malicious deceiver -- but only writing descriptive essays CATS Cambridge if God could have done better. It's true that from time to time his nature (as the composite of mind and on critical College, body) does mislead him systematically or intrinsically, e.g., when thirst prompts him to drink when he is suffering. from dropsy, because what his nature then impels him to CATS Cambridge, do is to consume liquid, which is in fact bad for his body in the circumstances. But, Descartes contends, the essay, nature God has given him (as a composite of descriptive essays mind and body) is optimally designed, i.e., it is the best design possible for a creature composed of mind and body. Essay. But no one should be blamed for writing descriptive essays doing. what is best, so God is pursuasive University not blameworthy for writing essays CATS College Cambridge having given Descartes a nature that occasionally makes intrinsic mistakes. God, therefore, is essays of Wollongong in Dubai not a malicious deceiver.
5. What is Descartes's argument for his claim that his nature (as a composite of mind and body) is descriptive CATS College optimally designed? The argument runs thus: The mind is immediately affected by only one part of the body, namely, the brain (or perhaps one particular part of the brain, viz., the Haileybury, pineal gland). A state [of motion] of the brain (or of the pineal gland) sends exactly the same signals to the mind, irrespective of the states of other organs or other parts of the body. The body is a mechanical system, so when a part A is moved by a part D by means of intermediate parts C and B, part A would be moved exactly the same way if part D didn't move at all while parts C and descriptive essays CATS College, B moved as before. For example, stubbing the big toe of College your left foot on a rock causes motions in the toe and foot that cause motions in writing descriptive essays Cambridge the nerves that ultimately cause a motion in the brain that affects the mind in such a way that you experience pain in your left foot, so the same motions in the nerves near your brain would cause the same brain state and thus occasion the same mental experience of pain in write and essay Independent your left foot even if your left foot as resting comfortably on a footstool or even if your left foot had been amputated. Descriptive CATS. Experience shows that the correlation of brain. states (pineal gland states) and mental states has the following property: Of all possible mental states, each brain state occasions that particular mental state that would most benefit the mind-body composite in most of life's circumstances. That is, for each brain state, the pursuasive of Wollongong, correlation of any other mind state with it would result in an arrangement less beneficial overall to essays CATS College Cambridge, the mind-body composite. Thus, although the correlation of the feeling of how to write an introduction college essay School thirst with the brain state caused by dryness of the mouth will casionally result in a desire to drink in circumstances where drinking is harmful to the body, e.g., as in descriptive essays CATS Cambridge a person with dropsy, in most cases where the brain is in essay writing Sevenoaks School the aforesaid state, drinking will be beneficial to the body. Thus, the correlations of mind states with brain states in our nature (as composites of mind and body) is the best possible arrangement so far as the essays CATS College, well being of. the mind-body composite goes.
In other words, Descartes's nature is optimally designed. 6. Can Descartes say anything else on writing Sevenoaks behalf of God's veracity? Yes, he can and does. Writing Descriptive Essays CATS College Cambridge. Descartes points out we can correct the how to essay Friends, systematic or intrinsic errors made by our nature (as the descriptive essays Cambridge, composite of mind and body) by College, employing several senses instead of just one, and by using our intellect and our memory. For example, if we suffer from dropsy, we can correct what our sensation of thirst tells us (that we need to drink) by recalling that medical science has shown that drinking is harmful to someone suffering from dropsy.
So, even though God designed our composite nature optimally, He didn't simply abandon us to its systematic or intrinsic mistakes, but in His infinite goodness God saw to it that we had the wherewithal to correct them.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never written an SAT Essay or didn't get the score you wanted on descriptive CATS College, your last test, you can benefit from knowing more: both about the an introduction Spring Friends, Essay itself, and what really matters when the writing descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge, graders are reading your essay. Here are 15 tips to master the SAT essay . If you can reliably follow all these points, you'll be able to get at least a 6/6/6 on the SAT essay - guaranteed. The SAT Essay is how to for a Spring Friends School, a very short assignment. You only get 50 minutes to read a 650-750 word passage, analyze the writing CATS Cambridge, devices the author uses to structure her/his argument, and write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. Writing an SAT essay requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class in school. The goal of Wycliffe College, this strategy is to cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 50 minutes you've got.
In this article, we give you 15 key tips for the SAT essay. The first five tips in this article relate to what the writing descriptive essays Cambridge, College Board tells us about what's a good essay. Write Chelsea. The next five are truths that the College Board doesn't want you to know (or doesn’t make explicit). And the last five tips for writing descriptive CATS SAT essay writing show you how to build an SAT essay, step by step. What the College Board Does Tell You: 5 Tips. The College Board explains the main components of the College, successful SAT Essay in its scoring criteria. Here they are condensed: The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a precise central claim.” What this means is that your essay needs to make a clear argument that the reader can easily identify. All you have to do to create your precise central claim is to identify the descriptive essays CATS Cambridge, main idea of the passage and list the methods the author uses to support it. Fortunately, the SAT provides you with the passage’s main idea, so you don’t have to go hunting for it yourself.
I've bolded the claim in this (fake) sample prompt so you can see this for yourself: Write an essay in which you explain how Sam Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters . In your essay, analyze how Lindsay uses one or more of the features listed in courseowrk Wycliffe the box above (or features of CATS Cambridge, your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of her argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the College, passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Lindsay’s claims, but rather explain how Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience. Now, here's an essays Cambridge example of a thesis statement for and essay Independent an essay responding to this prompt: In the descriptive essays CATS College Cambridge, article “Monsters Monsters Everywhere,” Sam Lindsay uses personal anecdotes, vivid language, and write and essay Chelsea Independent College, appeals to emotion to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters. It's fine to copy the exact words describing the author’s central claim from the prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and CATS, on-topic. #2: Include Both an Introduction and a Conclusion. The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.” Including an write and essay Independent College introduction paragraph in your essay is absolutely essential to getting a Writing score above a 4/8.
The introduction paragraph introduces the reader to what you’ll be talking about and allows you to set up the structure for the rest of the writing CATS Cambridge, essay. Food Sevenoaks School. Plus, an introduction can be a pretty good indicator of the quality for the rest of the essay – a poorly constructed introduction is often a warning that the essay that follows will be equally discombobulated. It's best to have both an introduction and descriptive essays CATS Cambridge, a conclusion, but if you’re running short on time and write and essay College, can only have one, definitely pick the introduction. A good introduction includes your thesis statement. For the SAT essay, as I discussed in writing descriptive essays College the previous point, your thesis (or your precise central claim) should be a statement about what devices the author uses to build her/his argument.
Introductions can be tricky to write, because whatever you write in that paragraph can then make you feel like you’re locked into writing just about that. If you’re struggling, leave yourself 10 blank lines at the beginning of the essay and jump into writing your body paragraphs. Just make sure you remember to go back and write in your introduction before time’s up! #3: Use Effective Language and Word Choice. There are a couple of parts of the Writing score section on the SAT essay rubric that pertain directly to essay Haileybury, style.
First, the SAT essay rubric states: The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. For most of us, this is an area that takes a long time to develop, so unless your language skills are really rough or you're prepping a year ahead of time (or both), you'll probably get more out of focusing on writing essays CATS Cambridge, the other components of the essay. The SAT essay rubric also states: “The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.”
This basically boils down to: don't be repetitive and don't make grammar mistakes. In addition, you should avoid using first person statements like I or My in the essay, along with any other informality. You're writing the pursuasive in Dubai, equivalent of a school paper, not an opinion piece. “I think that Sam’s super persuasive in writing descriptive Cambridge this article cause she’s just so passionate. Arguing. It made me feel kinda bad that I don’t really monster it up in my everyday life.” “Lindsay’s passionate defense of how drawing monsters 'allows us to laugh at our personal foibles' causes her audience to put themselves in writing descriptive essays her shoes and empathize with her position.” Finally, try to use different words to describe the same idea - don't use shows 15 times.
Take the chance to show off your vocabulary ( if, and thinking College, only if , the vocabulary is appropriate and makes sense) . This component is the biggest reason why revising your SAT Essay is descriptive essays College, essential - it's fast and easy to College, change repeated words to other ones after you're finished, but it can slow you down during writing to worry about your word choice. If you're aiming for a top score, using advanced vocabulary appropriately is vital. #4: Only Use Information From the Passage. All the descriptive essays College Cambridge, relevant information is in arguing essay Haileybury the passage, so avoid getting drawn into the topic and using your outside knowledge – you want to be sure to show that you’ve read the passage. In real life, there are many ways to essays Cambridge, support a thesis, depending on the topic.
But on the SAT, there's one kind of correct support: specific details drawn from the passage you’re asked to College, analyze . We'll show you more below. #5: Focus Your Essay on Relevant Details. You don’t have to mention every single detail that makes the argument effective. In fact, your essay will be more coherent and descriptive essays CATS Cambridge, more likely to score higher in Analysis if you focus your discussion on just a few points . It's more important to show that you're able to pick out the research on critical, most important parts of the argument and explain their function that it is to be able to descriptive, identify every single persuasive device the author used. Think about food essay Sevenoaks School, it as if you were asked to write a 50-minute essay describing the human face and what each part does.
A clear essay would just focus on major features - eyes, nose, and mouth. A less effective essay might also try to descriptive essays Cambridge, discuss cheekbones, eyebrows, eyelashes, skin pores, chin clefts, and dimples as well. While all of these things are part of the face, it would be hard to get into an introduction essay Sandy Spring School, detail about each of the parts in just 50 minutes. And this is the eye, and this is the writing Cambridge, other eye, and this is the. other eye. and food writing, the other eye. and writing, the other. wait. what's going on here? What the arguing essay Haileybury, College Board Doesn’t Tell You: 5 Secrets. Even though the writing CATS, SAT essay has clearly stated, publicly-available guidelines, there are a few secrets to food writing Sevenoaks School, writing the essay that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. #1: Read the Prompt Before the Passage. Why? Because the prompt includes the description of the author’s claim. Knowing what the author’s claim is going into the article can help keep you focused on the argument, rather than getting caught up in reading the passage (especially if the topic is one you're interested in). #2: Your Facts Must Be Accurate…But Your Interpretation Doesn’t Have to CATS College, Be.
A big part of the Analysis score for the SAT essay is not just identifying the devices the author uses to write and essay Independent College, build her argument, but explaining the effect that the use of these devices has on the reader . You don’t have to be completely, 100% accurate about the effect the passage has on the reader, because there is no one right answer. As long as you are convincing in your explanation and cite specific examples, you’ll be good. Here's an Cambridge example of an interpretation about what effect a persuasive device has on the reader (backed by evidence from the passage): Lindsay appeals to the emotions of her readers by how to write an introduction for a college essay Sandy Spring, describing the forlorn, many-eyed creatures that stare reproachfully at College Cambridge, her from old school notebook margins. The sympathy the readers feel for these forgotten doodles is expertly transferred to Lindsay herself when she draws the of Wollongong, connection between the drawn monsters and her own life: “Often, I feel like one of these monsters – hidden away in writing College Cambridge my studio, brushes yearning to create what no one else cares to see.” Now, you don't necessarily know for sure if sympathy for the doodles is what the author was going for in her passage. The SAT essay graders probably don't know either (unless one of them wrote the passage). But as long as you can make a solid case for your interpretation, using facts and write Chelsea Independent College, quotes from the passage to back it up , you'll be good. #3: You Should Write More Than One Page. This has always been true for the SAT essay, but for the first time ever, the writing descriptive Cambridge, College Board actually came out in Haileybury The Official SAT Study Guide and explicitly said that length really does matter . Here's the essays College Cambridge, description of a 1-paragraph, 120-word-long student response that received a Writing score of 2/8 (bolding mine).
“Due to the brief nature of the response , there is not enough evidence of writing ability to merit a score higher than one. Overall, this response demonstrates inadequate writing .” (source: The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , p. 206) You’ll have one page for (ungraded) scrap paper that you can use to essays in Dubai, plan out your essay, and four pages of writing paper for the essay – plan on writing at least two pages for your essay . #4: Be Objective When Reading the descriptive essays CATS College, Passage. Being able to stay detached while reading the passage you'll be writing the essay about can be tricky. Write. This task might be especially difficult for descriptive essays CATS students who were used to how to write for a college Sandy Spring School, the old SAT essay (which pretty much made it mandatory for you to choose one side or the other). You’ll have to practice reading persuasive essays and gaining objectivity (so that you are able to write about writing CATS College, how the argument is constructed, not whether it’s good or bad). A good way to practice this is to read news articles on topics you care deeply about by people who hold the opposite view that you do . For instance, as a composer and research thinking du Leman, violist/violinist, I might read articles about descriptive CATS College, how children should not be encouraged to play musical instruments, since it holds no practical value later on in life (a view I disagree with vehemently). I would then work on my objectivity by jotting down the central ideas, most important details, and how these details relate to the central ideas of the article . Being able to understand the central ideas in the passage and details without being sidetracked by rage (or other emotions) is key to writing an effective SAT essay. Don't let the monster of rage distract you from your purpose.
#5: Memorize and Identify Specific Persuasive Techniques. Once you’re able to read articles objectively (as discussed in point 4 above), the next step is to be able to du Leman, break down the argument in the articles . To do this successfully, you'll need to writing descriptive College Cambridge, be aware of some of the of Wollongong, techniques that are frequently used to build arguments. The SAT essay prompt does mention a few of these techniques (bolding mine): As you read the descriptive CATS, passage below, consider how Lindsay uses. evidence, such as facts or examples , to support claims. reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to Wycliffe College, emotion , to add power to the ideas expressed. It’s certainly possible to wing it and go into writing essays CATS, the test without knowing specific names of particular persuasive devices and just organically build up your essay from essay, features you notice in the article. Writing Essays CATS College. However, it's way easier to Haileybury, go into the essay knowing certain techniques that you can then scan the passage for essays CATS . For instance, after noting the central ideas and important details in the article about how more works of art should feature monsters, I would then work on write College, analyzing the way the author built her argument. Does she use statistics in essays CATS College Cambridge the article? Personal anecdotes? Appeal to emotion? I discuss the top persuasive devices you should know in more detail in the article 6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt.
How to Get All the food Sevenoaks, Necessary Components in 50 Minutes: 5 Step-By-Step Strategies. When you write an SAT essay, you only writing descriptive essays have 50 minutes to read, analyze, and pursuasive of Wollongong, write an essay, which means that you need a game plan going in. Here's a short step-by-step guide on writing CATS College, how to write an essay effective SAT essay. Don’t just summarize the passage in your essay, or identify persuasive devices used by the author - instead, be sure to descriptive essays College Cambridge, actually analyze the way the author of the passage builds her argument. As The Official SAT Study Guide states, [Y]our discussion should focus on what the author does, why he or she does it, and College, what effect this is likely to have on readers. College Board makes a point of writing Cambridge, specifying this very point in its grading rubric as well - an essay that scores a 2 (out of 4) or below in Analysis merely asserts, rather than explains [the persuasive devices'] importance. If you want to Wycliffe College, get at least a 3/4 (or a 6/8) in Analysis, you need to heed this warning and stay on task . #2: Support Your Points With Concrete Evidence From the Passage. The best way to get a high Reading score for your essay is to quote from the passage appropriately to support your points . This shows not only writing College that you’ve read the passage (without your having to summarize the passage at all), but also that you understand what the author is saying and food essay writing School, the way the author constructed her argument. As an alternative to using direct quotations from the passage, it’s also okay to paraphrase some of what you discuss. If you are explaining the author's argument in your own words, however, you need to be extra careful to make sure that the facts you're stating are accurate - in contrast to scoring on the old SAT essay, scoring on writing descriptive essays CATS, the new SAT essay takes into account factual inaccuracies and essay Haileybury, penalizes you for them. The SAT essay rubric states: “The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.”
The main point to take away from this is that you should follow the standard structure for an SAT essay (introduction-body-body-conclusion) . Using a basic 4-5 paragraph essay structure will both keep you organized AND make it easier for the essay graders to follow your reasoning - a win-win situation! Furthermore, you should connect each paragraph to each other through effective transitions. We'll give you ways to improve your performance in this area in the articles linked at the end of this article. #4: Make Time to Read, Analyze, Plan, Write, and Revise. Make sure you allocate appropriate amounts of time for each of the steps you’ll need to writing essays, take to write the essay – 50 minutes may seem like a long time, but it goes by awfully quick with all the things you need to do. Reading the passage, analyzing the an introduction Sandy Spring Friends School, argument, planning your essay, writing your essay, and revising are all important components for writing an descriptive essays Cambridge 8/8/8 essay. For a breakdown of how much time to spend on each of these steps, be sure to check out our article on how to write an food writing Sevenoaks School SAT essay, step-by-step. The more you practice the analysis and descriptive CATS, the writing, the better you’ll get at the task of writing an SAT essay (as you work up to it a little at a time).
It's especially important to practice the analysis and how to for a Spring School, writing components of the essay if you are a slow reader (since reading speed can be difficult to change). Being able to analyze and write quickly can help balance out the extra time you take to read and comprehend the material (plus, the essays CATS Cambridge, time you put into working on analysis and writing will yield greater rewards than time spent trying to write an introduction college essay, increase your reading speed). But don't forget : while it’s okay to break up the practice at first, you also really do need to get practice buckling down and writing Cambridge, doing the whole task in one sitting . This is just the beginning of improving your SAT essay score. Of Wollongong In Dubai. Next, you actually need to put this into practice with a real SAT essay. Want to learn more about the changes to the SAT essay?
We have a comprehensive guide to what changed (and what didn't) here. Want to descriptive CATS College Cambridge, improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. How To Essay Friends School. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Writing Descriptive CATS Cambridge. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve.
We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and research on critical College du Leman, earned a Master's degree in Composition from the writing descriptive College, Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on how to write Sandy, the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to descriptive College, excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on Sevenoaks School, social media. Descriptive Essays CATS Cambridge. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:
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