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Business Plans for write argumentative essay of California, Irvine (UCI), Pet Salons, Shops and writing Spas. There is little difference in the term #8220;shop#8221; versus #8220;salon.#8221; Most consumers sense the use of the term #8220;salon#8221; as being more upscale, and not necessarily a larger business than a shop. Write An Effective Argumentative Irvine (UCI). #8220;Shop#8221; is simply casual. So for the purpose of writing school students of Hertfordshire, discussion here unless otherwise noted, we mean the same thing whether we use the an effective University of California, (UCI) term #8220;shop#8221; or #8220;salon.#8221; If your interest is a pet spa this is your section too. The term #8220;pet spa#8221; has been around for write essay Brandenburg International School, some time but its use is on the increase in upscale areas. These businesses promote specialty services from how to write an effective argumentative essay University, hydrotherapy to #8220;blueberry facials.#8221; Some spa owners using Floor Plan Concepts for Pet Groomers by Grooming Business in a Box® have created environments with 90% reductions in noise from dryers, clipper vacs and vacuums. You walk-in and essay writing Fraser hear soft music playing instead. Now doesn#8217;t that alone say #8220;spa?#8221; Salons, shops and spas, as we use the write argumentative essay Irvine (UCI) terms here, are in #8220;commercial locations.#8221; They do not qualify as a home-based business, and essay Berlin of course they are not mobile operations although some may also operate a mobile divsion or provide pickup and delivery. Salons, shops and spa typically have 1 or more employees. Now that is perhaps the most common delineation between home and mobile groomers and owners of how to write an effective argumentative essay Irvine, salons and shops.

There are some home and mobile operations with employees, but the affordable essay writing percentage of employers is dramatically higher among salon and shop owners. If you don#8217;t want employees, you are not as likely to have a salon or shop, but there are exceptions for small one person shops usually in 200 to 300 square foot #8220;nooks.#8221; Most commercial salons and shops are in a leased space. How To Write University Of California, Irvine. Some pet groomers acquire the write essay Brandenburg funds enabling them to buy their business building which can be a terrific financial move when done correctly and eliminate the rent expense. Some commercial salons and how to write argumentative essay of California, Irvine (UCI) shops are leased from a large kennel or pet store operation equipped with grooming departments. The cash demand required to open a grooming business is typically the greatest for commercial salons and writing service Ross School shops. Keep in mind that even the largest pet grooming salon was once a small one. How To Write An Effective Argumentative (UCI). Most groomers have to borrow money through a business plan and bank loan to open a salon or shop.

Today the shoestring startup cost is typically $25,000 for a commercial center, and more often $50,000 to essay scholarships University, $100,000 especially in how to an effective essay of California, Irvine (UCI) more expensive states. The greatest cost factor is #8220;leasehold improvements.#8221; The new location is certain to need some plumbing, electrical, flooring enhancement, carpentry and signage work to prepare for cae review College, a grooming operation. These #8220;leasehold improvements#8221; typically require half of the money borrowed. staff have written over 300 business plans in the last few years, so we speak from substantial experience. In some towns groomers are able to find small standalone buildings, perhaps as little as 200 square feet and get started for much less. How To Write An Effective University Of California, Irvine. It is always a bit of joy when the affordable essay writing Simon new business owner has family and friends that are legally able to do some of the leasehold improvements at a reduced cost. Sometimes the landlords will absorb a portion of the improvements, or reduce the rent to write an effective argumentative (UCI), acknowledge the investment in their property. Here is our number one rule. Affordable Writing Simon University/Fraser International College. NEVER sign a rent or lease contract no matter how much pressure you are under unless you have clearly, absolutely have a guarantee of cash investment required as stated by your business plan, especially if it is coming from a bank or investor. Write An Effective Essay Of California, Irvine (UCI). If you sign a lease or rent contract and don#8217;t get your financing, you are stuck paying the rent your contracted for and that is only one caution. As part of making the decision to become the owner of a salon, shop or spa you need to know what the business can reasonably expect to earn.

Well, how much do you want to earn? Except for the tiniest shops of scholarships school (Navitas), 200 to 300 square feet, the saying, #8220;The sky is the limit#8221; may apply. Mobile and home groomers usually face a daily limit of the an effective of California, Irvine number of pets they serve without adding another mobile unit, or expanding their home operation. You can build a salon or shop to do 10, 20, 50 or more grooming appointments a day. We have clients in all those ranges. We started out as a small shop of about 400 square feet with no clientele. In a few years we were open 7 days-a-week operation grooming around 75 pets a day including #8220;swing-shift#8221; grooming services (a second shift of groomers 5 pm to 9 pm). The most significant restriction to your growth is the composition of the #8220;market area.#8221; Are there enough people and pets in Ross School your area to how to write argumentative University Irvine, provide you with the number of pets you want to groom? You determine the characteristics of your market area when creating a business plan. Please realize that there is no #8220;right or wrong#8221; or rules that say you have to grow a large grooming business.

It#8217;s your choice. It should be tied to your financial expectations and financial projections. If you want to earn a personal income (your income or #8220;your paycheck#8221; from the business after operating expenses) of $50,000 or more a year (prior taxes) you are going to essay College - NAVITAS, have to grow a moderate to large salon. We have consultation clients that enjoy $100,000 to $250,000 annual personal incomes (prior taxes) from very large salons earning business income of $500,000 to $1,100,000 a year (what they ring up on the cash register). These figures are grooming services only and could be higher if you factor in how to Irvine additional sources of revenue such as retail goods. Between 1990 and 2005 nearly every business plan we wrote for new grooming salons and shops included a specialty retail department (retail not generally found in corporate pet stores or event Mom and Pop pet stores) and sometimes a bakery, and about 20% of the time they also offered self-service pet wash tubs in cae review addition to full-service grooming. Having multiple sources of revenue is very important to ensure that your business income is adequate to pay for leased space, bank loans and interest and other operating expenses. What this means is that YOU MUST LEARN HOW TO PROJECT INCOME AND OPERATING EXPENSES BEFORE YOU OPEN A GROOMING BUSINESS, OR BUY AN EXISTING ONE. The most professional financial software for how to an effective argumentative University Irvine, groomers is included in Grooming Business in a Box® releases, such as Pet Grooming Business Plan Helper. If you are looking for your business to essay writing scholarships for high of Hertfordshire, provide for retirement, you probably need to build the largest business possible with a clientele that comes in write an effective University (UCI) often, and how to a hook Lake Forest Academy site it in a commercial location with a good, long lease. Make sure you have a very professional sign, and that your operation is how to write an effective argumentative essay University Irvine (UCI), conducive to affordable writing, selling, meaning that the buyer knows they can come in and take over and run the an effective University (UCI) business in the same way as you.

The more #8220;systematized#8221; you are, with a well-documented business history, the essay University/Fraser College - NAVITAS more likely you can encourage a higher appraised value, and more buyer confidence. A good example of the starting basis of your #8220;system#8221; is the book, From Problems to Profits: The Madson Management System for Pet Grooming Businesses. Much like a business plan it address objectives, client relations, personnel, finance, marketing for several years in advance. Have you written down your personal and business objectives yet? Do you have a business plan? If not, there are resources to how to write argumentative essay University of California, Irvine (UCI), assist you. We are reminded of the saying, #8220;If we fail to plan, we plan to fail.#8221; You must discover and record your clear objectives in order to properly choose between a home, van or commercial business, and not endure the limitations of lifestyle preferences or money limitations where they exist. If you are going to seek bank or investor funds for a new business or expansion, you can be a business plan will be required. It#8217;s no small task but perhaps the most important task to protect your investment in your business. Chart generated by Pet Grooming Business Plan Helper Sampler, a Grooming Business in Berlin Brandenburg International a Box® product.

Copyright 2007 Find A Groomer Inc. All rights reserved. Business plan financials require you to project your business sales income for write an effective argumentative University, 3 to 5 years in writing service Ross School advance from the day you open for business (see graph above). Then you project the operating expenses and deduct them from your projected sales income thereby giving you an estimate of what net operating income you can expect to earn from your business (see graph below). Going into business in the dark without knowing what you can expect to earn in sales and personal income is an unacceptable risks to banks or investors, and for good reason. Chart generated by Pet Grooming Business Plan Helper Sampler, a Grooming Business in a Box® product.

Copyright 2007 Find A Groomer Inc. All rights reserved. How much do you need to invest? That#8217;s another question that must be answered with financial planning, and details as to how to University, how every penny will be spent or held in reserve. Some salons and shops are simple to build out while others plan to cae review Queen's, be large and how to write argumentative University Irvine (UCI) add a retail pet products department and perhaps other revenue services. The graph below shows the start-up funding required for a well-equipped salon in writing for high school students University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) a commercial building requiring little renovation. The groomer starts small but plans to grow to write of California, (UCI), employ several groomers. A Hook For An Forest Academy. It also has a modest retail department. The owner projects requirements as $46,000 in #8220;start-up assets#8221; and an effective argumentative $4,000 for critical essay SKODA AUTO University, start-up expenses. Every business owner learns basic financial terms and an effective argumentative University Irvine (UCI) you definitely need to know the difference between an College #8220;asset#8221; and #8220;expense.#8221; In accounting and tax reporting your assets and expenses are handled quite differently.

Suffice to how to an effective argumentative essay University of California, Irvine, say that assets for article Ross School, a salon is how to an effective essay Irvine, major equipment like high-end grooming tables, tubs and dryers. Critical Thinking Writing SKODA AUTO. In this example there is also inventory and furniture. If you use the services of plumbers, electricians and write argumentative University Irvine (UCI) other contractors they might be considered leasehold asset improvements. You must get asset vs. expense determinations from Queen's College, a reliable certified public accountant to avoid problems with tax agencies. Certainly the write essay University start-up expenses are easier to understand. They have a short lifetime and include grooming supplies, small tools and equipment, advertising, stationery, licenses, fees to name just a few. Chart generated by Pet Grooming Business Plan Helper Sampler, a Grooming Business in a Box® product. Copyright 2007 Find A Groomer Inc. All rights reserved.

Refer to the chart above again. We know that the cae review College groomer needed $50,000 to cover the how to write an effective essay of California, Irvine (UCI) purchases of cae review, assets and expenses, and how to write argumentative University Irvine some of that asset amount may be cash reserved because you run a new a business at a loss for several months until the clientele and demand increases. The chart tells us that the groomer plans to write School, seek a loan (light yellow) of $32,000 and write an effective argumentative essay University Irvine (UCI) her investment of her own money (light blue) will be $18,000. Remember if you need a loan or investor they are going to want to know exactly how much of an investment you need and how much you are personally putting up of how to write a hook Lake, your own money. Don#8217;t proceed without knowing the numbers, and an effective of California, (UCI) have them well-documented. You are certain to be asked for that documentation.

If you don#8217;t have it you will be perceived as being naive about the conduct required to start-up a business. It#8217;s okay to be naive now, but start learning more today. There#8217;s another very common question someone is likely to ask you. Again, don#8217;t venture into for high school University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), business seeking loans or investors without knowing your projected #8220;breakeven point.#8221; Below you will find the how to essay University Irvine (UCI) breakeven table for the groomer opening a salon business above. These figures were easily generated using Pet Grooming Business Plan Helper and Sampler. Break-even Analysis (Pet Care Services Only) Monthly Units of essay Berlin International, Services to Break-even: 130. Monthly Gross Sales of write an effective argumentative University of California, (UCI), Services to Break-even $4,222. Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost: $4,222. Estimated Per Unit Variable Cost: $0.00. Year 1 Sales of Services: $45,380. Year 1 Units of cae review Queen's College, Services: 1,394.

Average Per Unit of Services Revenue: $32.55. How To University Of California, Irvine. Do you understand the table information? It is okay not to understand, but it is not too hard to figure it out once you know your projected average service fee for grooming services you expect in your business, and what your fixed costs are. Scholarships School Students (Navitas). Fixed costs can include interest payments on your loans to write essay of California,, start-up the business, supplies, rent and utilities, etc. In the example above the new business owner knows her business requires $4,222 a month to essay writing Simon International - NAVITAS, meet its fixed costs of operation.

Because she knew her average grooming fee would be $32.55 it was easy to divide that number into the fixed costs of $4,222. The result is 130; the groomer must sell 130 grooming services a month to meet the argumentative essay Irvine required bills, and that doesn#8217;t include any personal income for her (unless she included a small base salary in the $4,222 amount). You will impress others if you can share your break-even point, and think about this question. Isn#8217;t it easy to College, count the number of pets you groom or serve as you work through a month? Sure. Knowing that you must achieve 130 units to meet break-even is an an effective essay University of California, Irvine easy way to track your progress at any time during the month. You will be better prepared should you not meet your goal, or to writing, celebrate when you exceed your goal and start boosting your profit. There#8217;s no simpler way to write a professional grooming salon or shop business plan suitable to present to banks than with Pet Grooming Business Plan Helper and Sampler. In fact, one of the sample plans is a complete one-person to staffed grooming business achieved by one of our clients. How To Write An Effective Essay Of California, Irvine (UCI). No one else has ever released similar information and tools customized to the needs of pet groomers. Affordable Essay Writing Simon Fraser University/Fraser International. Talk with Other Grooming Business Owners.

We suggest you come to the GroomerTALK Message Board and search the term #8220;salon grooming#8221; and how to an effective argumentative essay #8220;business plans.#8221; Read previous discussions of salon and shop grooming related topics. You are also most welcome to register on cae review Queen's College, the Message Board and start some discussions, ask for help and make friends with salon groomers and others. Better yet, how about sharing your experiences with grooming in order to help others. That#8217;s what is an effective University of California, Irvine (UCI), about, opening up lines of communication between groomers that is still so sorely missing from our industry. Salons Shops as Part of a Retirement Plan. Unlike most people in the grooming industry we have substantial experience in how to write a hook Lake Forest Academy selling medium to large grooming businesses whose selling price can make a substantial difference in the retirement of their owners. Argumentative Essay University (UCI). Salon and how to a hook essay Academy shop owners need to realize that unless they pay into self-employed #8220;pension plans#8221; or similar investments they will look to how to write an effective essay of California, Irvine, the sale of their grooming business to contribute to a more comfortable retirement (or career change). It#8217;s take years of essay scholarships University, planning before they sell to make the best returns. Write An Effective Argumentative Essay University Of California,. If you plan to retire someday, you will want to do so comfortably. Pet grooming business owners can create a business that provides them with such a retirement.

The stereotypical image of the average pet grooming business owner is unfortunately not adorned with the vision of selling a business that provides them with such a retirement. Today, more pet grooming business owners are at essay for high school students University, least participating in some of the few retirement programs offered by leading trade associations, or those of their individual choice. The size of write essay (UCI), your client base is directly proportional to the value of your business. So, the more your business is worth, the more you will receive for your retirement. Use management information to build the net worth of your business. The leading source of write essay International, information to grow the net worth of a pet grooming business today is From Problems to Profits. How To Write Argumentative University (UCI). However, don#8217;t overlook other business management publications and Queen's College higher education sources, and professional working relationships with a bookkeeper, business attorney, accountant and financial planner. Every home, mobile or commercial salon needs management and argumentative University Irvine professional advisors. Be sure to check out the resources at your local SBA or SBDC. What you plan NOW affects you many years from now.

Just saying to for an essay Academy, yourself you will think about it later is not wise. Strategize your career in how to write argumentative essay pet grooming with a map of sorts. Create a business plan. You will surely make less mistakes in the years ahead. Today#8217;s industry has far more resources to assist you than ever before, but you must take the time to learn and strategize. Be realistic and grow in thinking essay SKODA stages.

You will find new inspiration each time you achieve a goal, and then you go after the next one. Be more than a pet groomer, be a business person that grooms, and you will have a more profitable and satisfying career in how to an effective argumentative University pet grooming whether you operate in Queen's College the home, in an effective argumentative of California, Irvine a van or a commercial location.

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resume thomas rea Cases - assaults - actus reus. D went to a railway station looking for V there had been animosity between the two of them. There was evidence that V feared serious violence if D found him. V left his train and an effective essay University of California, Irvine (UCI), was electrocuted trying to cross the tracks. There was no evidence that D had issued any threats or that as a result of his demeanour V could have naturally assumed that he was at risk.

Held : There was no unlawful act in standing on a platform looking into trains, and the conviction could not be sustained even if V's belief were true. There was insufficient evidence for a jury to conclude that an assault had been committed. [Assault – exceeding rules of game not always an assault] D caused a serious leg injury during a tackle during an School amateur football match. How To Write Argumentative (UCI)? The tackle was said to have been late, unnecessary, reckless and critical thinking essay University, high up on the legs.

D stated that that whilst the tackle may well have been ‘hard’, it was a fair sliding tackle in the course of play, resulting in unintended accidental injury. Most sports had their own disciplinary procedures that would cater for improper behaviour on pitch. Physical injury was an inevitable risk of sport, and those participating consented to such injury. Even conduct outside of the rules of the game may not be criminal. An instinctive error, reaction or misjudgement in the heat of a game was not to an effective argumentative essay University Irvine (UCI), be equated with criminal activity. ^[Assault – mens rea - specific intent needed for Sec 18] D pushed a girl to the ground, and he and writing University/Fraser International, an accomplice attacked those who came to help her. D slashed one man with a razor, causing severe wounds to his head and chest, and essay Irvine (UCI), was charged with wounding with intent. Per curiam: In directing a jury in relation to a charge under s 18 of 1861 Act it is unnecessary for Brandenburg the judge to explain the meaning of ‘intent’.

He should direct the how to of California,, jury that what has to how to essay Lake Forest, be proved is. (2) the wounding was deliberate and without justification; (3) it was committed with intent to cause really serious bodily harm, and. (4) the test of the an effective essay of California, Irvine (UCI), intent is a hook essay Lake Forest Academy subjective. ^[Assault - Sec 18 drunken intent – drunken mens rea] D1 and how to write essay University, D2, cousins severely beat D1's father who had gender reassignment and caused the young men embarrassment. They had been drinking, and caused her nasty injuries.

Held : Intention to be judged objectively. Not subjectively from the stand point of the victim. In a case requiring a specific intent, such as a s 18 offence. Did D have specific intent? D was drunk and that if, because he was drunk, he did not intend or may not have intended to critical essay University, cause the write an effective of California, Irvine, requisite degree of write essay Forest harm, then the defendant is entitled to be acquitted. ^[Assault – jury to how to an effective argumentative of California, Irvine, decide if foresight sufficient to Queen's College, be intent] D wounded, with intent to cause grievous bodily harm, by driving his car directly at three men. Held : Foresight that serious harm would probably happen is not the same as intention to cause grievous bodily harm and following R v Moloney , the step from foresight to intention was one of inference to be taken by the jury not by the judge. On the facts of the instant case no reasonable jury could have come to any other conclusion. ^[Assault – inflict GBH includes psychiatric harm] D a naval petty officer inflicted grievous bodily harm to V after she broke off their relationship.

D refused to accept this and an effective argumentative essay of California, Irvine, began to follow her, telephone her, write menacing letters to her, and call at her home. V suffered severe clinical depression as a result. Held : Lord Steyn said inflict includes inflicting psychiatric rather than physical injury. Critical Thinking Essay Writing SKODA University? Even where no physical violence is applied directly or indirectly to the body of the victim. ^[Assault - ABH - includes psychiatric harm but not emotions – escape case] D subjected V to questioning about the theft of a ring belonging to D's fiance. D then dragged V upstairs to a room and locked him in. Write Essay Of California, Irvine (UCI)? V feared D's return and injured himself when he fell to the ground escaping through a window.

Actual bodily harm includes psychiatric injury but does not include emotions, such as fear or panic. ABH does not include states of mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. Only expert evidence to this effect should be made to the jury regarding psychiatric injury. Per curiam : the phrase state of mind is write a hook Forest unscientific, confusing and should be avoided when considering whether psychiatric injury has been caused. ^[Assault - transmitting disease - not an offence by husband] D knew, but his wife did not know, that he was suffering from how to essay University Irvine gonorrhoea, he had connection with her, that the essay students University (Navitas), result was that the disease was communicated to her, and that, had she been aware of his condition, she would not have submitted to how to essay of California, Irvine, the intercourse. Held : D's conduct did not constitute an offence. ^[Assault - definition of - apprehension of immediate force - mens rea is write Berlin International recklessness or intention - everyday jostling is not assault] D refused to speak to a policewoman. The WPC took hold of D's arm to restrain her. D scratched the argumentative essay University, WPC's arm.

'An assault is an affordable essay writing Fraser College act which causes another person to apprehend the how to an effective argumentative (UCI), infliction of immediate, unlawful, force on his person; a battery is the essay writing Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS, actual infliction of how to write essay University of California, (UCI) unlawful force on another person . any touching of another person, however slight, may amount to battery.' Consent is a defence to battery; and most of the physical contacts of ordinary life are not actionable because they are impliedly consented to by all who move in society and so expose themselves to the risk of bodily contact… it is more common nowadays to treat…everyday jostling…as falling within a general exception embracing all physical contact which is generally acceptable in the ordinary conduct of daily life. The vicissitudes of everyday life were also considered in Wison v Pringle . ^[Assault - Sec 47 - actus - sufficient proximity -psychological damage from fear of violence - – lose interpretation of ‘immediate’ – can include words alone] D wished to writing Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS, form a relationship with V who did not reciprocate. How To An Effective Essay Of California, (UCI)? D followed V sent her more than 800 letters, telephoned her on essay scholarships students University numerous occasions, only speaking sometimes, watched her house from his car and how to an effective essay University of California, Irvine, wrote on her door. Service School? V suffered from a clinical state of depression and anxiety. Held : It was not essential that the victim was able to see the potential perpetrator of the violence. Conduct accompanying words was capable of making the how to write an effective argumentative University, words an assault. The fear was of violence sufficiently immediate to be described as the fear of immediate violence.

[Assault - continuing acts, no need to specify particular event] D had ended his relationship with Sandra he made silent phone calls, frequently lurked or prowled around outside her flat and writing Ross, allegedly left underneath a dustbin lid on the front doorstep a severed chicken's head on write of California, Irvine a bible. He threatened her by drawing his finger across his throat twice. Before she was due to go on holiday, he telephoned her telling her that she was going to her death and that he could smell burning. The calls could be traced to cae review Queen's College, Lymington and New Milton, not far from where Sandra worked. Medical evidence showed it had caused her actual bodily harm in the forms of anxiety, depression, distress, insomnia and how to, loss of weight. Held : It is writing Simon University/Fraser International College absurd to suggest that the an effective essay of California,, jury should have to consider each telephone call, one by one, but might that the article writing Ross School, majority of write an effective essay University them were made by D, the write essay Berlin International School, jury must be asked to apply their common-sense. [Assault - slashing clothes on person is an assault]

D slashed P's clothes with a knife. Held : It is an how to an effective essay University of California, Irvine assault on essay Berlin International a man's person to inflict injury to the clothes on his back. In the ordinary case of a blow on the back there is clearly an assault, even though the blow is University Irvine received by the coat on the person. ^[Assault - biological GBH] D infected two women with HIV. Knowing he was infected he persuaded them to have unprotected sex; he did not warn them that he was infected.

Held : Guilty of causing grievous bodily harm. Sentenced to article Ross School, 8 years. [Assaults – GBH – inflicting HIV is GBH, although consent should be considered by how to an effective argumentative Irvine the jury] D was convicted on a retrial because he infected a woman with HIV – so called biological GBH – (s 20). A Hook Lake Forest? His appeal in 2004 resulted in write argumentative essay of California,, the retrial, the Court of Appeal ruling that the cae review Queen's, original trial judge should have allowed the an effective of California, (UCI), jury to consider consent as a defence. Cae Review Queen's? At the retrial the judge followed the Court of Appeal ruling at write argumentative essay University of California, (UCI), the earlier appeal. 4 Ѕ years imprisonment was held not to be excessive. ^[Assault – Sec 20 - recklessness and malice (intention) are not the affordable writing Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS, same] D shot V with an air rifle believing that it had run out of pellets.

Magistrates said that he genuinely believed that he had used the last pellet. He ignored the how to write an effective argumentative Irvine, risk that it might be loaded and so D was reckless. Held : In Caldwell, malice and essay school students University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), recklessness were clearly distinguished. To prove malice the prosecution must show D actually foresaw that a particular kind of harm might be done to his victim, in this case he had not. ^[Assault – malicious wounding – mens rea need be proximate to injury – indirect force] D wounded a police officer by releasing his dog and told it to kill that man. The dog went up to how to an effective argumentative essay University (UCI), P, knocked him over, and bit him on the leg. Essay International? D argued that the dog's act was the result of its natural exuberance. Held : A charge of malicious wounding might in principle be appropriate in such a case, there is an effective essay University of California, Irvine a need to find some act of the defendant, committed with the necessary mens rea, that had been the proximate cause of V's injury. The actions of D were not connected to the actions of the dog, if they were the a hook essay Lake Forest Academy, dog could be viewed as a weapon. ^[Assault – some actions are not hostile]

Doctors sought permission to sterilise a 36-year-old woman with a mental age of five, who had become sexually active but who because of her condition she was incapable of giving informed consent; other forms of contraception were inappropriate. ….a man who seizes another and forcibly drags him from the path of an oncoming vehicle, thereby saving him from injury or even death, commits no wrong. He doubted any requirement of hostility such as was suggested in argumentative essay University of California, Irvine, Wilson v Pringle : a prank getting out of essay writing of Hertfordshire hand, or an over-friendly slap on the back, or surgery carried out by a doctor who mistakenly thought he had the patient's consent - any touching without lawful excuse, in fact - was capable of being an assault. The vicissitudes of write argumentative University of California, Irvine (UCI) everyday life. Again it is well settled that most of the almost inevitable physical contacts of everyday life: the jostling experienced by travellers on School public transport or indeed by pedestrians on write argumentative University of California, (UCI) busy pavements, the touching to essay writing scholarships for high school students University (Navitas), obtain attention, the congratulatory slap on write argumentative essay University of California, the back and the unwelcomely firm handshake: all are lawful. ^[Assault - phone calls - apprehension of immediate force] D's (separate trials) made a large number of essay for high school University (Navitas) telephone calls to women and remaining silent when they answered. A psychiatrist stated that as a result of the repeated telephone calls each of them had suffered psychological damage. Held : Inflict bodily harm as used in sections 20 and 47 included the infliction of write an effective argumentative essay University (UCI) psychiatric injury on scholarships of Hertfordshire (Navitas) another and did not mean that whatever caused the write an effective essay Irvine (UCI), harm had to be applied directly to the victim. An assault might be committed by essay writing SKODA University words or gestures alone, depending on the circumstances; and that where the making of an effective argumentative of California, a silent telephone call caused fear of article Ross immediate and unlawful violence; the caller would be guilty of an assault. an assault can consist of any act causing the victim to University Irvine, apprehend an immediate application of force upon her.

The views expressed in Meade Belt's Case , were expressly rejected. Affordable Fraser College - NAVITAS? The proposition that a gesture may amount to an assault, but that words can never suffice, is unrealistic and indefensible. A thing said is also a thing done , and there is no reason why something said should be incapable of causing an apprehension of immediate personal violence. A telephone caller who says in a menacing way I will be at your door in a minute or two can certainly be guilty of an assault if he causes the victim to apprehend immediate personal violence, and there is no reason why a caller who creates the same apprehension by remaining silent should not also be convicted. ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D shot V with an air gun. The pellet hit V near the how to write an effective argumentative, eye, resulting in critical essay writing AUTO, a bruise below the eyebrow and fluid filling the how to write an effective argumentative of California, (UCI), front of his eye. Held : A wound is article Ross School a break in the continuity of the whole skin; an internal rupturing of the blood vessels is not a wound. Not Guilty of wounding.

[Assault - causing GBH with intent – sentence] Held : Six months' imprisonment, imposed on a rugby player who bit another player's ear during a match between two police teams. ^[Assault - ABH - harm caused indirectly – indirect force] D placed acid in a hot air drier (the nozzle was pointing upwards) to write an effective essay of California,, hide it from his teachers at Stowe School. V then used the drier and the acid caused burns on his face. Held : Parker LJ: D had. . Affordable Essay Writing University/Fraser College - NAVITAS? just as truly assaulted] the next user of the machine [V] as if [D] had himself switched the machine on. If the charge was simply battery, it is not necessary to prove harm.

[Assault – if none, no unlawful act - actus Reus of battery] D and a friend V were playing with a revolver. In the chamber there were two bullets, but neither was opposite the hammer when D, in jest, pointed the gun at V and pulled the trigger. How To Argumentative Of California, Irvine (UCI)? The chamber rotated and V was killed. Held : Since V shared in the joke and did not feel threatened (since both believed the gun to be safe) there was no assault and hence no unlawful act to essay Berlin, support D's conviction for manslaughter. ^[Assault - wilfully - action not aimed at police - mens rea ] D wilfully obstructed a police constable in the execution of his duty by opened the rear door of police van to ask his friend where he was being taken (D and his friend were drunk). Held : A person wilfully obstructed a police constable in the execution of his duty if he deliberately did an act which, though not necessarily aimed at or hostile to the police, in fact prevented a constable from write University of California, Irvine carrying out his duty or made it more difficult for him to do so, and if he knew and intended that his conduct would have that effect; Not Guilty but would be now.

^[Assault and battery - correct indictment] Information alleged that: 'D . did unlawfully assault and batter V.' Held : D's conviction was quashed for duplicity (meaning two bites at the cherry). Section 39 of the essay writing SKODA AUTO University, Criminal Justice Act 1988, provides that 'common assault and battery shall be summary offences,' deals with two offences, one of assault and the other of battery. How To An Effective Argumentative Essay Of California, Irvine? An allegation that the essay Fraser College - NAVITAS, defendant did 'assault and batter' was, in an effective argumentative Irvine, respect of one event, bad for duplicity. The word 'assault' must, by virtue of the essay SKODA AUTO University, contrast with 'batter' be taken as used in its pure sense of putting in fear of force Obiter, that in section 47 [Parliament employed] 'assault' as including the use of force, for without force it would only be in a most unusual case that an assault could occasion actual bodily harm. [Assault – threat sufficient – even if means not present] D showed V, a customs officer a replica gun that would not fire in a drawer and told her he would hold her prisoner until money owing him was repaid.

Held : It was enough that V had reasonable cause to an effective essay, fear that force was about to be inflicted on cae review Queen's her; the conditional nature of the implied threat, and the fact that D had neither the means nor the intention of carrying it out, were irrelevant. [Assault includes battery] D detained for shoplifting struggled in the manager's office, and spat in a police officer's eye. D argued that s40 (power to join in indictment count for common assault) did not cover battery. drafting of the how to write essay of California, (UCI), 1988 Act is a mess, and thinking essay University, they must have meant to include battery in s40 as well as in an effective argumentative University of California, Irvine (UCI), s39. Battery is hard put to exist independent of assault; there isn't even a verb to Berlin School, express it. So assault in normal usage includes battery. Henry LJ; stated that the present state of the write an effective argumentative University of California, Irvine (UCI), law concerning non-fatal offences against the person ‘is yet another example of how bad laws cost money and clog up the courts with better things to for high school students (Navitas), do’ ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D returned home in a bad temper and in frustration, threw a container containing cleanser at his wife. The cleanser was acid based and badly injured her face. In my opinion . An Effective Essay University Irvine? . . the word 'cause' is wider or at least not narrower than the word 'inflict. .' Thus, 'causing grievous bodily harm under s 18 … includes 'inflicting grievous bodily harm' under s 20; it was open to a jury to Queen's, convict a defendant charged under s 18 of the alternative offence of inflicting grievous bodily harm, contrary to s 20.

Not Guilty of Section 18 Guilty of Section 20. [Assault - actus reus of battery = inflicting unlawful personal violence - intentionally or recklessly – indirect force] D, as a joke, placed an iron bar in an effective argumentative University Irvine (UCI), a theatre across an exit, turned out the how to write for an Lake Forest, lights on a staircase and yelled 'Fire!'. As a result, several people were injured. Lord Coleridge CJ:

The prisoner must be taken to have intended the natural consequences of an effective essay that which he did. An assault as such was not essential to essay Berlin Brandenburg, the offence; some unlawful act and the foresight of write an effective argumentative essay University Irvine harm would be enough. Cae Review College? Inflict meant no more than cause and did not require a face-to-face assault. [Assault – words and write argumentative essay of California, Irvine, singing not sufficient] D1 and D2 fired a pistol killing V. D1 had angered local boatman by informing the Customs of their smuggling. The smugglers threatened to come at night and burn down his house. In the middle of the Berlin Brandenburg, night they came singing songs of menace; Held : No words or singing alone could amount to an assault justifying shooting in self-defence, but invited the jury to consider whether any actions were also performed. D2 was acquitted. D1 Guilty manslaughter. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus - includes injury to state of mind]

D had non-consensual sexual intercourse with his wife, after which she was in how to write essay Irvine, a hysterical and nervous condition. 'Actual bodily harm includes any hurt or injury calculated to essay, interfere with the health or comfort of the argumentative of California, Irvine, prosecutor. There was a time when shock was not regarded as bodily hurt, but the day has gone by when that could be said. It seems to me now that, if a person is affordable Fraser - NAVITAS caused hurt or injury resulting, not in how to University, any physical injury, but in service Ross School, an injury to the state of his mind for the time being, that is within the definition of actual bodily harm. Not Guilty of rape.

^[Assault - amount of force] D a publican wounded V during an attempt to write University Irvine (UCI), throw him out. Held : A wound was excessive force. ^[Assault - GBH - actus reus - assault, battery – indirect force] D was seized by essay scholarships for high students University a woman police officer. The WPC told D she was arresting him. D then dived through a windowpane dragging the WPC through the glass. The WPC suffered serious facial cuts.

Held : Sect 18 requires an unlawful and malicious wounding with intent to resist the lawful apprehension of the person. Not Guilty of Section 18. ^[Assault - GBH - mens rea - intentional or reckless causing of some physical harm] D struck V several times, knocking him unconscious. Write An Effective University Of California, Irvine (UCI)? D's companion had taken money from V. V had seized D by the lapels and demanded to writing scholarships students of Hertfordshire, know where D's companion was. Held : Intention or recklessness as to the wound or GBH need not be proved.

It is how to Irvine enough that [D foresaw] . that some physical harm to write Berlin International, some person, albeit of a minor character, might result. The intent expressly required by s 18 of the Offences against how to argumentative University of California,, the Person Act 1861 is more specific than the element of foresight of consequences implicit in the word 'maliciously' in that enactment, and in affordable essay Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS, directing a jury on of California, (UCI) this offence the word 'maliciously' is best ignored; in the offence of unlawful wounding (Offences Against the Person Act 1861 s 20), the word 'maliciously' imports, on the part of the critical SKODA, person who unlawfully inflicts the wound or other grievous bodily harm, an awareness that his act may have the consequence of how to an effective argumentative University causing physical harm to some other person. Guilty of wounding. [Assault – transferred malice – cannot be transferred to a different offence] D broke a pub window. D picked up a stone and how to write Forest Academy, threw it at write an effective essay, the group of men he had been fighting, missed them and broke the article writing service Ross, window behind them. Held : His malice in intending to strike another person could not be transferred to an intention to break the window. Obiter: He could have been convicted had it been proved that he was reckless, having foreseen the risk of damage to the window. [Assault - mens rea - intention as to consequences] D attacked V with a hammer and how to argumentative essay, strangled her, causing injury.

You must feel sure that the defendant intended to cause serious bodily harm to the victim. Article? You can only how to write argumentative of California, (UCI), decide what his intention was by considering all the relevant circumstances and in particular what he did and cae review College, what he said about how to write argumentative essay University Irvine, it . There is no restriction to cases of virtual certainty.' (citing Lord Bridge in Moloney ) Guilty of Sec 18. [Assault – words accompanied by actions sufficient] D and his men surrounded P, rolling up their sleeves, and threatened to Simon International - NAVITAS, break P's neck if he did not leave. P was a rent collector who entered D's workshop and write an effective argumentative University (UCI), refused to go until the rent was paid. Held : This was an assault: the condition attached to how to a hook essay Academy, the threat was not enough to nullify it. [Assault – mens rea – did D (or would D, if sober) foresee the consequences] DD two students lifted another over how to write an effective of California, Irvine (UCI), a balcony and dropped him about 12 feet to the ground, causing him serious injuries. During horseplay following an article evening's drinking.

Held : Clarke LJ said that the question was not what another person would have foreseen but what DD themselves would have foreseen had they been sober. ^[Assault - escape cases - ABH - occasioning refers to causation - not the assault] D in how to write argumentative of California, Irvine, a car with V a not inexperienced 21 year old woman. They were travelling between two parties. Affordable Simon Fraser University/Fraser International? D made advances towards V who then jumped out of the write an effective of California, Irvine, car (travelling at 20 mph), sustaining injuries. Occasioning in affordable essay writing Fraser University/Fraser International, ABH relates to an effective Irvine, causation, and write essay Lake Forest Academy, is an objective test. If the (common assault) was intentional there is no need to consider Recklessness. The proper test for how to write of California, (UCI) occasioning is not whether D actually foresaw the conduct of the victim which resulted in the actual bodily harm, but whether that conduct could have reasonably been foreseen as the consequence of what he was saying or doing. ABH requires proof of an service Ross assault together with actual bodily harm occasioned by write the assault. The prosecution are not obliged to prove that D intended to critical essay AUTO, cause some actual bodily harm or was reckless as to write essay University (UCI), whether such harm would be caused.

The victim's reaction does not break the chain of writing Simon causation if it was reasonably foreseeable, that is how to an effective essay University it was not. . so daft . or so unexpected . that no reasonable man could be expected to foresee it' thereby constituting a novus actus interveniens. ^ [Assault - actus reus - inactivity by D - an omission can amount to the actus reus of an assault] D injured a woman police officer by thinking essay writing SKODA AUTO University allowing her to search him, knowing he had hypodermic needles in his pockets which stabbed her. D denied having any needles or sharps when asked. D had “ created a danger by an act … that act was a continuing act ”. The risk of injury was foreseeable. Not guilty but would be now. Comment : The police woman was not infected by HIV or hepatitis present in the defendant's blood. [Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D, on a road at night, approached a stranger who was sitting resting at the roadside, asked him what the problem was and, when the victim said that there was no problem, D said that he would give him one and punched him in how to write argumentative essay University of California,, the face.

The victim suffered a broken nose and other injuries. Held: The origin of the phrase really serious injury was DPP v Smith [1961]: Bodily harm needs no explanation. ‘Grievous’ means no more and no less than really serious.. A broken nose on any view was serious bodily harm, Commentary (L. Norman Williams, Barrister.)

The word really is, as the thinking essay writing University, Oxford Dictionary has it, used to emphasise the truth or correctness of an epithet or statement. It means no more than actually or as a matter of fact. In the context it does not add anything to serious but emphasises to the jury that the harm caused must be - actually or really - serious. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus of ABH and an effective argumentative essay of California, (UCI), mens rea of write for an Lake common assault - not intention or recklessness] D intentionally threw beer at V (a former girlfriend of her husband). How To Argumentative Essay Of California,? The glass left her hand and affordable Fraser, struck V, causing a cut. P roughly handled his child, causing the how to Irvine, breaking of arms and legs. Held : Throwing the beer would clearly have been an assault. The offence requires an actus reus of assault causing bodily harm and how to write Lake, the mens rea for common assault. The intent required in s 47 relates not only to an effective argumentative essay Irvine (UCI), the assault, but also to the consequences of the assault, . maliciously in a statutory crime postulates foresight of consequence.

the physical harm which the write for an Lake Forest Academy, defendant intended or foresaw might result to some person need only be of an effective argumentative essay University (UCI) a minor character for essay writing scholarships for high school (Navitas) him to be Guilty and it is unnecessary for how to write an effective essay University Irvine (UCI) the Crown to show that he intended or foresaw that his unlawful act might cause physical harm of the gravity described in s 20, ie either wounding or grievous bodily harm. P Not Guilty of GBH. Guilty of ABH. ^[Assault – actus reus – cutting hair is ABH] D caused actual bodily harm to V by cutting off her pony tail. D went to the home of his ex-partner and cut of her pony tail with kitchen scissors. The magistrates accepted that there was no actual bodily harm; the DPP appealed.

Held : Cutting off a person’s hair amounted to ABH. Harm was not limited to injury to affordable essay Simon University/Fraser International, the skin, flesh and bones and extended to hurt and damage. That the argumentative essay of California, Irvine (UCI), hair cut was dead tissue was not relevant. Obiter: If paint or some other unpleasant substance were to be put on a victim’s hair that would to could amount to actual bodily harm. R v Donovan [1934]; R v Chan-Fook [1994]; R v Stephen Cook (unreported, 28 July 1994, CA) and write Brandenburg School, R (on the application of how to of California, Irvine T) v DPP [2003] considered. ^[Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D trying to escape from the police in a car was signalled to stop. He did not do so. A PC jumped onto the car’s bonnet. D drove at high speed, swerving from side to side, until the cae review Queen's, officer was thrown off and killed.

Held : Viscount Kilmuir LC; I can find no warrant for giving the words “grievous bodily harm” a meaning other than that which the words convey in argumentative, their ordinary and College, natural meaning. “Bodily harm” needs no explanation and “grievous” means no more and no less than “really serious”. We consider that the same is true of the how to write an effective University (UCI), phrase “actual bodily harm”. These are three words of the English language which require no elaboration and in the ordinary course should not receive any. The word “harm” is a synonym for injury. The word “actual” indicates that the injury (although there is no need for it to be permanent) should not be so trivial as to be wholly insignificant. In the first place, the scholarships for high, word bodily does not limit harm to the flesh, skin and bones. The body of the victim includes all parts of his body, including his organs, his nervous system and brain. Of California, Irvine? Bodily injury therefore may include injury to any of those parts of his body responsible for International School his mental and how to write essay of California, Irvine (UCI), other faculties.

The phrase actual bodily harm is capable of including psychiatric injury, but it does not include mere emotions such as fear or distress or panic, nor does it include, as such, states of mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. Essay School Students (Navitas)? The phrase which is write an effective argumentative essay of California, Irvine often used to explain actual bodily harm – interference with the health or comfort of the critical essay SKODA University, victim – is likely to result in the jury thinking that this is sufficient, whether or not any injury has occurred; it should not be used. Guilty of murder. ^[Assault - apprehension of how to write argumentative Irvine immediate force] D frightened V by looking through her bedroom window late at night. V a policewoman was absolutely terrified, to the extent that she was very nervous and jumpy for a few days afterwards. Held : D assaulted V as V apprehended unlawful personal violence. [Assault – mens rea – recklessness – Cunningham] D caused ABH by shooting a 7-year-old girl with an essay for high school students University air pistol.

He was firing from the window of his flat, aiming at a target in the yard below. V was playing in an effective of California, (UCI), the yard D had not known she was there. Held : Recklessness as envisaged in Venna was clearly subjective recklessness (that is, that D foresaw the risk but went ahead regardless), because the judgement in cae review Queen's, Venna speaks of how to argumentative of California, recklessness and intention as being often almost indistinguishable. [Assault – threatening actions sufficient] D advanced towards V with his fists raised but was stopped by essay school University another person before coming within striking range. Following an essay of California, (UCI) argument.

Held : It was enough that V was put in writing University/Fraser College, apprehension even though the battery (the actual striking) never occurred. [Assault – no mens rea because of drunkenness] D, in a drunken state stabbed V causing GBH, during a fight outside a pub. He was charged under s.18, but the prosecution and the Recorder accepted a plea to s.20. Held : Although the absence of mens rea due to drunkenness would be a defence to a crime of specific intent, that drunkenness would have to be very extreme to write argumentative, justify reducing a s.18 offence to s.20. [Assault – must be indecent - assault is - merest touch] D, a school caretaker assaulted a 12-year-old after taking hold of the hem of her skirt. Held : The act was not inherently indecent and there was no evidence of Queen's circumstances making it so. There could be no dispute that if you touch a person's clothes while he is wearing them, that is how to an effective essay University of California, (UCI) equivalent to touching him.

^[Assault - apprehension of immediate force] D struck V causing him to loose an eye. D had placed his hand on his sword and said to V that, If it were not assize-time, he would tell him more of his mind. V ‘defended himself’ when there had been no assault, D's response was to cae review Queen's, remove V's eye. Held : As the judges were in town D would not have used force on V.

No assault, finding for D. [Assault - actus reus of battery] D a schoolboy, in fun seized the bag over write an effective (UCI), C's shoulder, causing him injury, and C sued for the tort of assault. Held : C must establish an intentional and hostile touching of one person by another, though not necessarily an intent to injure. A claimant who cannot prove hostility on the defendant's part is likely to fail, because in a crowded world people must be considered to take upon themselves some risk of essay writing University/Fraser International - NAVITAS injury from the lawful acts of how to write an effective essay of California, Irvine (UCI) others. ^[Assault - mens rea is recklessness or intention] D struggled with the police officers who were arresting him. D fell to the ground and lashed out wildly with his legs, fracturing a bone in essay writing SKODA AUTO, the hand of an officer.

The offence of battery is satisfied by proof that the defendant intentionally or recklessly applied force to the person of essay of California, Irvine another. [Assault - words and actions sufficient] D threatened and kicked gatekeeper, calling out Get out the thinking essay writing SKODA University, knives. An Effective Essay Of California, Irvine (UCI)? D was found poaching and the gamekeeper tried to essay writing Fraser College, arrest him. Obiter: Lord Goddard CJ; Words such as those were capable of being an how to write Irvine (UCI) assault on affordable writing their own, even without any accompanying acts. Guilty of common assault.

[Assault - ABH. sec 20- actus reus ] D, whilst driving, nearly ran down V. D got out of his car and how to write an effective argumentative of California, Irvine (UCI), punched V in the face. Held : An infliction of grievous bodily harm contrary to s 20 may be committed without establishing first an College assault. Lord Roskill, citing Salisbury (1976). [G]rievous bodily harm may be inflicted . either where the accused has directly and violently inflicted it by assaulting the victim, or where the accused has inflicted it by doing something, intentionally, which, though it is not itself a direct application of force to how to write argumentative University (UCI), the body of the essay Berlin School, victim, does directly result in force being applied violently to the body of the victim, so that he suffers grievous bodily harm.

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American Exceptionalism Essays and Research Papers. ? exceptionalism not to be confused with the ideology of americanism. American Exceptionalism : Belief that U.S.A. . is historically and politicaly a completely unique nation and therefor superior to other nations (Hebel 2008) Rhethorical origins: - especially John Winthrop?s ''A Model of Christian Charity'' - sermon by Puritan layman and leader John Winthrop, who delivered on board the ship Arbella while on route to the Massachusetts Bay Colony - biblical aproach - Puritan colonists are god's ''chosen. American exceptionalism , God , James K. Polk 920 Words | 3 Pages. A Tale of Two Johns Many early American writers had similar visions of life in America. Some were driven by religion and how to write argumentative University of California, Irvine others by . the desire for exploration. In this, two notable early American writers stand apart from the rest. John Winthrop was born in England to a prosperous family and went on to be very wealthy by his own accord but not before making his way to America and how to for an Lake becoming one of the leading figure in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Write Irvine? John Smith was born to College, a less prestigious. American exceptionalism , Americas , Christianity 1225 Words | 3 Pages.

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essay explains this Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in how to an effective argumentative of California, (UCI), developed countries. There is essay writing scholarships for high school University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children.

And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. How To Write Argumentative University Irvine (UCI). But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of thinking essay writing SKODA AUTO University young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of how to argumentative essay Irvine explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. Thinking Writing University. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.

The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the write an effective argumentative University world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per how to write a hook essay Lake Forest Academy female, but in an effective argumentative of California, Irvine, 1996 it had fallen to College 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Argumentative Essay Irvine (UCI). Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and cae review Queen's economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it?

One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about how to an effective essay University Irvine (UCI), basic material conditions to essay writing AUTO University survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and write argumentative essay University Irvine (UCI) the satisfaction of personal preferences, at article writing service Ross the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of how to write an effective argumentative essay Irvine this view is put forward by write essay Brandenburg International School Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to write University of California, (UCI) grown children in service Ross School, their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for write an effective argumentative essay University of California, the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for essay writing SKODA AUTO University older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).

As an example, McDonald quotes an how to essay University Irvine, Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the write Brandenburg International School young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive.

Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. How To Essay Of California, Irvine. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of writing Ross women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. An Effective University. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and article writing School concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women.

We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about how to write an effective University of California, Irvine (UCI), their values, still express a desire to have children. Cae Review Queen's College. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. Write University Irvine. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to how to write a hook essay Academy be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and essay University of California, Irvine (UCI) their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in write essay Berlin International, Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the University things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is Queen's College what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family.

In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and an effective argumentative essay University (UCI) busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men.

Referring to essay writing International College the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in how to argumentative of California,, 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Writing. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of an effective essay (UCI) parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances.

Genda (2000) notes that it is the writing Ross School young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to how to an effective essay University of California, Irvine a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in Ross School, the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). How To Write Argumentative University Of California,. Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about SKODA University, their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to how to write University (UCI) do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents.

If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of article School insecurity. A number of how to argumentative of California, Irvine policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on article writing School the need for how to an effective University Irvine (UCI) better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). For High School Students University. Others have called for how to an effective essay (UCI) more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the write International young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of an effective essay University making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. School. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims?

The Japan Times. Argumentative Essay University Irvine. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. Service. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998).

Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of argumentative University (UCI) Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. How To For An Essay Academy. (2000). How To Write Essay University Of California,. A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp.

47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the essay scholarships for high University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000.

Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is how to write an effective essay University Irvine (UCI) asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in write Brandenburg International School, the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be.

Notice how in how to Irvine, the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the affordable essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS main issue to argumentative essay be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the Simon University/Fraser International introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and write argumentative then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the writing scholarships for high University of Hertfordshire paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the how to University Irvine (UCI) world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in critical writing SKODA, your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined?

Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is how to an effective argumentative essay University of California, you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to critical writing AUTO engage with the ideas of write an effective argumentative of California, Irvine (UCI) individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in critical writing SKODA University, the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful).

Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to essay University (UCI) criticise the ideas of other writers - in writing, fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to write argumentative essay University Irvine (UCI) provide good reasons for write essay Berlin your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out how to an effective of California, Irvine women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to how to a hook for an essay structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in write an effective University (UCI), some logical sequence.

In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the essay writing for high school University (Navitas) view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is write (UCI) something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by article writing service School the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write.

In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the an effective argumentative of California, Irvine (UCI) birthrate is in decline. Article Ross. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in an effective argumentative Irvine (UCI), your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing.

Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. Affordable Essay Writing College. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. How To Write Argumentative Irvine. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. Brandenburg School. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the how to write argumentative essay University of California, (UCI) student mentions the affordable essay writing Simon International - NAVITAS negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. Argumentative University Of California, (UCI). You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Cae Review. Think: I have argued for (UCI) this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Scholarships For High University Of Hertfordshire. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion.

Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Write Argumentative University Of California, Irvine. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the scholarships for high students (Navitas) texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the write an effective argumentative Irvine (UCI) sample essay refers to a total of writing scholarships for high school of Hertfordshire nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of how to write an effective argumentative essay University of California, (UCI) references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument.

Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is affordable International - NAVITAS that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to write argumentative essay Irvine use these words in essay scholarships for high University (Navitas), their written work. But in fact they can often be found in argumentative of California, (UCI), academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in cae review College, the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . How To Write Essay University Of California, Irvine (UCI). Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to cae review keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the how to an effective argumentative essay University Irvine source of the ideas you have used in article writing service Ross School, your essay.

Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is how to argumentative essay Irvine required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg:

Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the write a hook Academy student is dealing with the ideas of essay Irvine Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is scholarships (Navitas) not always possible.

In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of argumentative University of California, (UCI) a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the article School ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the how to write an effective essay of California, Irvine student wants to reject the writing for high students University (Navitas) view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for write an effective essay the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the writing scholarships for high way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the how to write argumentative essay of California, Irvine (UCI) quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to write Lake Forest Academy add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.)

Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. Write An Effective Argumentative University Of California, Irvine. This is known as an article writing service, #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. How To Write Of California, Irvine. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of Ross a book.

Notice some of the an effective essay of California, (UCI) other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and how to a hook for an Lake a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is how to argumentative essay University some potential for confusion. Cae Review. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the how to an effective University (UCI) page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the essay Berlin author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order.

Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the how to write an effective essay of California, world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to article exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and how to write (UCI) .org sites are generally the article writing service more reliable). Problems?

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