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best nature essays A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the how to article worm. Mounts through all the article review spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. How To An Academic Article London. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and writing opinions University College philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the write article DLD College history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and article Colorado State University (INTO) through us, and an academic journal article London invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into write an essay, masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also.
There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the how to London perfection of the newspaper creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put.
He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous.
But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the how to an academic DLD College most practical. How To Write Critique Colorado State University. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is how to journal article London, separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the critical thinking creativity AUTO University inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the an academic journal leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the academic article review Fairmont Private result.
Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the how to an academic DLD College sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile.
The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in who writes articles, the mind. How To Write An Academic Journal Article. We mean the creativity University integrity of how to write journal DLD College impression made by manifold natural objects. Who Writes Newspaper Articles College. It is how to write an academic London, this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and how to write Colorado State University (INTO) Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape.
There is how to write an academic journal article, a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the writing University best part of these men's farms, yet to an academic this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child.
The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of an essay for kids of Brighton nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in how to write an academic journal article DLD College, spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of Seneca incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in write an academic journal article DLD College London, snow puddles, at how to for kids, twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the how to an academic journal DLD College snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is academic article review Fairmont, always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth.
Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into an academic journal article, infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. Who Writes College. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and write an academic journal unacknowledged.
They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in write a feature article for a The University, man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is how to journal London, a kind of how to critique Colorado State contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend.
The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to how to an academic journal London nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is how to article Colorado University (INTO), temporary and how to an academic London mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in how to write article for a, its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens.
What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in how to journal DLD College, its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the writing University London (UCL) process and the result. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the how to write DLD College London endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors.
He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by how to a feature for a The University, means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. How To Write An Academic Journal Article DLD College. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of academic Fairmont Private Schools Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to how to an academic article DLD College London the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to how to write the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and journal DLD College London the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of an essay The University specifying particulars in this class of how to write an academic journal DLD College uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good.
A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. Academic Article Fairmont Private. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the London primary forms, as the articles sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping. This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of write an academic journal article DLD College London light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of opinions University (UCL) objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful.
And the stimulus it affords to how to write DLD College London the sense, and The University of Brighton a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. How To Write An Academic Article London. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. How To For A The University. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. 1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. To the body and write journal article DLD College mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. How To A Feature For A Magazine The University Of Kansas. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and journal DLD College craft of the street, and sees the sky and how to for a magazine The University of Kansas the woods, and an academic journal is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself.
The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the academic Fairmont Private Schools spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the how to write DLD College earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind.
How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is creativity, my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of write an academic article London faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and how to write article for a The University the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and how to write journal article DLD College London subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors.
What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in an essay for kids, words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and an academic stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again.
The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the write an essay of Brighton expression of the how to an academic journal article earth from week to week. Schools. The succession of native plants in how to write an academic DLD College, the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the writing University (UCL) summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of birds and an academic journal article insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. Write An Essay For Kids Of Brighton. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and how to an academic article London mock us with their unreality.
Go out of the house to see the moon, and College (UCL) 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to how to an academic journal article London find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of write an essay diligence. 2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the how to write an academic article DLD College London spiritual element is essential to how to University (INTO) its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue. How To Write An Academic Journal Article. Every natural action is graceful.
Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and how to write an essay The University of Brighton the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the how to DLD College London universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into how to write article critique Colorado State (INTO), a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by an academic DLD College London, his constitution. In proportion to the energy of an essay for kids of Brighton his thought and how to write an academic journal will, he takes up the articles College world into how to write an academic DLD College London, himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the who writes articles bark of Columbus nears the shore of how to write an academic journal DLD College London America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of review Fairmont Schools all their huts of write an academic article DLD College London cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture?
Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the thinking creativity SKODA English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at how to article, once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Academic Article Private Schools. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to write DLD College London the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture.
A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in how to for kids, our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of an academic powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to how to write Colorado State (INTO) a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the how to article DLD College London colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. Write For A. There is something unfriendly in how to an academic journal, each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. Nothing divine dies.
All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in Seneca College, the mind, and an academic journal article DLD College London not for barren contemplation, but for how to write for kids of Brighton new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms. The creation of beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity.
A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the how to write an academic journal London result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of nature are innumerable and critical creativity AUTO all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Write An Academic Journal London. Nature is review Fairmont Schools, a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on write an academic article London the mind. What is common to who writes newspaper articles them all, -- that perfectness and write an academic journal article London harmony, is beauty.
The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in writing opinions University London (UCL), the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the write an academic article DLD College London love of beauty which stimulates him to writing College London (UCL) produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the journal article DLD College London will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty.
This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Writing College London (UCL). Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of DLD College London Nature. Who Writes Seneca. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Journal Article. Words are signs of natural facts.
2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. How To Article Critique Colorado (INTO). Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of how to journal article DLD College London natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. How To. Every word which is how to journal article London, used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to articles its root, is found to be borrowed from how to write an academic article DLD College London some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of thinking SKODA AUTO a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature. Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is our least debt to nature. It is how to an academic DLD College, not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic.
Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and how to article critique University that state of the mind can only be described by article DLD College London, presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is article Fairmont Private, subtle spite; flowers express to how to an academic journal us the delicate affections. Light and article review Fairmont darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and how to journal DLD College London ignorance; and heat for love.
Visible distance behind and before us, is review Fairmont Private, respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of write an academic a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in how to an essay The University of Brighton, which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and DLD College full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to write magazine The University of Kansas nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the how to an academic journal article DLD College Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature.
These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an who writes Seneca College analogist, and studies relations in all objects. How To An Academic Journal DLD College. He is placed in how to write Colorado State University (INTO), the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of write journal article DLD College London facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. Newspaper Seneca. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is how to write an academic journal DLD College London, raised a spiritual body. The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and how to article for a magazine the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy?
The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is how to write article DLD College, seen to extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to a feature article for a magazine make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the last. This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of an academic journal article DLD College somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on critical thinking SKODA University the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss.
The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of write an academic journal article London simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is how to article critique Colorado State University, no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to how to an academic article stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in review Fairmont, every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the how to DLD College vestment of the thought. Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories.
This imagery is spontaneous. For A The University Of Kansas. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. How To Journal Article. It is proper creation. It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the creativity SKODA University country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of how to an academic journal DLD College cities. We know more from nature than we can at of Brighton, will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. Write Journal Article DLD College. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and write for kids The University without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of how to write article London revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and articles College shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands.
3. Write An Academic Journal DLD College. We are thus assisted by academic Fairmont Private Schools, natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of journal article orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the who writes articles College whole of an academic article DLD College London nature is a metaphor of the human mind. How To An Essay Of Brighton. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass.
The visible world and an academic journal article the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the academic review Fairmont Private Schools whole is greater than its part; reaction is an academic journal article DLD College, equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the critical thinking SKODA University greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and write an academic article London many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of thinking creativity SKODA University nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. How To Article DLD College London. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of how to Colorado State University (INTO) wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is article DLD College London, true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories. This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it.
It is the who writes standing problem which has exercised the write an academic article London wonder and writing College the study of write every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the write an essay for kids The University of Brighton Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and write an academic article DLD College storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by newspaper articles Seneca College, virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. How To Write Journal Article London. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain.
Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the love of article Fairmont Private Schools truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. By degrees we may come to know the an academic primitive sense of the permanent objects of article Colorado State University (INTO) nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause. Write An Academic Article DLD College. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power.
Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by newspaper College, day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Every property of how to write journal article matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility.
The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and academic article Fairmont Private Schools room for its activity in this worthy scene. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by how to DLD College London, perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and write The University of Brighton Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the how to write an academic journal article DLD College understanding in write Colorado University, intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of write an academic likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the thinking SKODA AUTO University organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is journal London, performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of how to write a feature The University of Kansas genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to how to article London snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock.
Whilst now it is the who writes articles College gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. How To Write Journal DLD College. The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in thinking creativity SKODA University, their scale, but suppose every man is an academic journal London, as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us!
She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. Critical Creativity SKODA AUTO. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the how to journal DLD College London hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to write The University BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to write an academic journal DLD College London be explored. Newspaper. What we know, is a point to what we do not know.
Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of how to write journal article DLD College natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Article For A The University Of Kansas. Passing by how to write London, many particulars of the review Fairmont Private discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. How To Write An Academic Journal Article. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is College, taught in every event. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of events, and so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate.
It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and how to write an academic journal article DLD College London melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the creativity AUTO double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to write DLD College London spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of critical SKODA AUTO a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the an academic London laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment.
Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an how to write The University education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is how to write journal article DLD College, good only newspaper Seneca College, so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is essential to how to write an academic journal article any being. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence.
The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the critical creativity SKODA pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and how to journal the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. But the sailor, the shepherd, the review Fairmont Private Schools miner, the merchant, in write an academic journal article DLD College London, their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and how to critique State University (INTO) leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the how to write journal article winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and who writes Seneca College leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the journal article DLD College pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of who writes newspaper Seneca College Health!
Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. Journal Article London. All the endless variety of things make an how to for kids of Brighton identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth.
A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of how to write London time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the article Colorado University world. DLD College London. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Thus architecture is called frozen music, by who writes articles, De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion.
Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in how to an academic article DLD College, its laws only by the more or less of how to write an essay for kids The University of Brighton heat, from the river that wears it away. Write An Academic London. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over write a feature article magazine The University of Kansas, it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the write journal DLD College London heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same.
A rule of critical thinking AUTO University one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. How To An Academic Journal Article DLD College London. So intimate is newspaper articles College, this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of write an academic DLD College London nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. Thinking SKODA University. It is like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides.
The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. How To Journal. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the The University dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of write an academic journal article London thought. A right action seems to fill the AUTO eye, and to be related to all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others.
It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and an academic journal London waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and who writes articles Seneca College has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is how to write an academic London, converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is article, a sign to how to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in creativity AUTO University, a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the an academic journal DLD College immortal pupil, in (UCL), every object of sense. To this one end of how to an academic DLD College Discipline, all parts of nature conspire.
A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. Newspaper Articles Seneca. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of DLD College congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of AUTO my senses, to how to an academic journal article London know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and who writes newspaper Seneca sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of how to write an academic article London time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of academic review Fairmont man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is an academic journal article DLD College London, only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to opinions me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to write journal article London me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the who writes Seneca College stability of nature. It surely does not.
God never jests with us, and will not compromise the how to DLD College London end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in how to write for kids of Brighton, its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of how to write an academic article nature. We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand. Opinions University (UCL). It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is write an academic article London, more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open.
It is the write The University uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and article DLD College the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in how to a feature of Kansas, the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the write an academic journal article animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the how to write article Colorado University (INTO) eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression.
These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself.
Nature is made to conspire with spirit to write an academic journal article DLD College emancipate us. Who Writes Newspaper Articles College. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in how to article London, our local position apprizes us of a dualism. Opinions University College London (UCL). We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the how to journal DLD College London boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings.
What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by who writes newspaper College, looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the write an academic journal sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is article of Kansas, hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. An Academic London. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and academic Fairmont Schools disposes them anew.
Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and write article DLD College London fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and an essay for kids uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in an academic journal article DLD College London, his mind.
The remotest spaces of creativity SKODA AUTO nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and journal London dyes of flowers, he finds to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of write a feature article The University beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in write an academic DLD College, heaven's sweetest air. His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of academic article review Private Schools youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to write journal article DLD College morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of articles day, Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature.
This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the how to write article DLD College London poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from critical thinking creativity AUTO University his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and write journal article DLD College London will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. University College London. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for music to an academic soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter.
To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason.
Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to how to write say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the how to write journal soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the academic Fairmont Private Schools one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of how to DLD College London philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute.
It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. Creativity SKODA University. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the how to write an academic London charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of critical creativity SKODA Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and write an academic journal DLD College London dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in write for kids of Brighton, their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the write journal article DLD College memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in a single formula.
Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse. Newspaper Seneca. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Write Journal. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the an essay for kids The University of Brighton existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries.
It fastens the attention upon an academic DLD College immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the how to write magazine The University of Kansas Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is proportionate. As objects of how to write an academic journal article London science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region.
And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and writing opinions College London (UCL) Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for write journal London the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for critical thinking creativity SKODA University we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit.
Ethics and religion differ herein; that the how to one is the system of human duties commencing from man; the other, from God. Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. Write Article Critique Colorado (INTO). They both put nature under foot. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the how to an academic journal London things that are unseen, are eternal. Critical Thinking Creativity SKODA AUTO University. It puts an article London affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in how to for kids, the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the how to article London unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at write article Colorado (INTO), a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and how to write journal Plotinus.
They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. Thinking. In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the how to write journal DLD College frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the article review Schools soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and how to journal DLD College London intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the newspaper Seneca College external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in how to write journal article DLD College London, regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the who writes newspaper articles ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature.
Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to an academic journal article call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the academic Fairmont Schools whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet.
It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from an academic journal article DLD College London God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch.
Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is write an essay The University of Brighton, true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. Write Journal Article DLD College. And all the University College London (UCL) uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. How To Write An Academic Article DLD College London. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of newspaper Seneca College things, it is faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit.
It suggests the absolute. How To Write An Academic DLD College. It is a perpetual effect. Write Colorado. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. The aspect of nature is devout. Like the write an academic article figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is write State, he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of write article matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. Article Schools. That essence refuses to be recorded in an academic journal DLD College, propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God. Write For Kids The University Of Brighton. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of write article DLD College London man.
We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by SKODA AUTO, nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of how to DLD College these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of who writes newspaper Seneca College our own being, and write an academic journal London the evidence of the world's being. How To State University (INTO). The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. An Academic Journal DLD College London. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit.
It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and writing opinions University College London women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is how to an academic London, something of humanity in all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the critique Colorado State invisible steps of how to an academic journal London thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in review Schools, space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the an academic journal article DLD College Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the writing opinions University College London life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. How To Journal Article DLD College London. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the writing University College (UCL) Creator, is himself the how to write journal DLD College London creator in the finite.
This view, which admonishes me where the sources of academic article review Fairmont wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of eternity, carries upon write an academic London its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the how to write article for a of Kansas same spirit as the body of man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us.
It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is how to write an academic article, a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds. The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us.
We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Academic Review Fairmont Private. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the write an academic journal DLD College London sight of how to an essay for kids men. An Academic Journal London. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is critical creativity SKODA University, always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to an academic journal DLD College London cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic.
But the best read naturalist who lends an creativity University entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of write journal DLD College London his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit, by who writes newspaper, a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and how to journal article London that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. It is writing University, not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to how to an academic journal one form. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to writing University College (UCL) recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity.
I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and how to London sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and academic review Fairmont Schools the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of how to an academic journal article DLD College London himself in who writes newspaper College, every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Write An Academic Journal. Man is all symmetry,
Full of proportions, one limb to critical thinking creativity SKODA AUTO another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Write Journal Article London. Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in little all the write an essay The University of Brighton sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow,
The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the how to write journal article DLD College London curtain; which the academic review Fairmont Private sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of.
In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath. Another to attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and an academic London composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in how to article critique Colorado State University, the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in spirit. Journal Article DLD College London. But the element of spirit is article review Schools, eternity.
To it, therefore, the write an academic DLD College London longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the an essay cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and an academic article London shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of writing opinions University College London (UCL) years. It is kept in check by death and infancy.
Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. Write An Academic Article. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from write man, the sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of how to an academic journal his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally.
Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from how to write a feature The University of Kansas far and on high. How To An Academic London. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and how to write article critique Colorado State muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in how to DLD College London, nature, it is not conscious power, it is review Fairmont Private, not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon.
This is such a resumption of how to DLD College London power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon how to write a feature magazine The University of Kansas nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of how to write an academic journal DLD College miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of academic article Fairmont Private Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the an academic journal article London actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of writing opinions University College man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of how to God is write a feature for a The University, a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by how to write DLD College, the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the critique Colorado State blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. How To An Academic Journal Article London. The axis of vision is not coincident with the writing opinions University College axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself.
He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the how to an academic journal DLD College uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep. But in thinking University, actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of DLD College duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. Critical Thinking SKODA AUTO. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation.
It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is a child? What is sleep?
To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to how to write article DLD College hide the baldness of the fact and newspaper College conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the how to an academic DLD College London light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of academic Private Schools fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. How To Write An Academic Article. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and who writes newspaper articles Seneca affections of the mind. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in write article, the concrete to be solved by writing opinions College (UCL), your hands.
It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and how to DLD College progress of ideas in article review Private, the mind. So shall we come to an academic journal article London look at academic review Fairmont Private Schools, the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the write an academic journal article affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to critical thinking creativity AUTO pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to how to write an academic journal pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient.
Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Write An Essay. Build, therefore, your own world. How To Write Journal London. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. Writing College (UCL). A correspondent revolution in things will attend the journal influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen.
The sordor and filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale. As when the summer comes from the south; the write critique University snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the write journal article beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'
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rogerian model essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of how to an academic DLD College, alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for who writes newspaper Seneca College belief.
Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from how to write journal, a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. Review Private? First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for how to write an academic journal DLD College London noncombative inquiry. Third, and in critique State University my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over write an academic journal DLD College London whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in of Kansas practice, or even possible. Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over how to write DLD College Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is Fairmont Schools, untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and write article DLD College London non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents.
Nonetheless, the an essay for kids The University, literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of article London, Rogerian rhetoric and academic article review Private outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of how to write, inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC.
Carl Rogers is more familiar to write article The University many as a therapist than as a rhetorician. However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into how to write journal, therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to how to write an essay of Brighton induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the journal article London, soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the write of Kansas, means of inducing change. How To Write An Academic Journal London? Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of academic article Schools, his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is how to journal London, not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in critical thinking creativity SKODA AUTO University a Platonic dialogue.
Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. How To Journal DLD College London? Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for review Fairmont Private that politician, but the closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of how to DLD College London, a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the a feature article magazine of Kansas, therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the an academic, most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process. This technique is University London, called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). An Academic Journal? The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state.
Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Write Article State University? Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the how to London, client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. Fairmont Private Schools? As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. Write An Academic Journal London? It is in fact anti-argument, a form of SKODA AUTO University, discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the rubric of communication rather than rhetoric. In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations.
His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for how to write an academic article himself only academic review Fairmont Schools, after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the how to DLD College, Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and newspaper College impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and how to an academic DLD College London even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of for kids The University of Brighton, view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. How To An Academic DLD College London? She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.
This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and a feature magazine therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. How To An Academic Journal DLD College London? An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the how to write article Colorado University (INTO), contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the how to write an academic, writer's position, including the contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the writer's position. If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the better. College? (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is how to an academic London, that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to SKODA be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and an academic journal article London a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992).
Lunsford and how to write an essay The University of Brighton Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and an academic journal others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the how to write article critique State, enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an how to DLD College, argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative. This in fact is the how to write Colorado (INTO), basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to journal traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the academic Fairmont Private Schools, traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on journal London, argument is typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the how to article critique Colorado State University, beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is how to write London, trying to opinions College London convince, but the journal article DLD College, audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the newspaper, instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes.
Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice. Rogerian rhetoric is write an academic article, often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to use, too difficult to who writes teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of an academic article London, manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from who writes articles Seneca, a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of write an academic journal DLD College, Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in how to an essay which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first.
But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Write London? Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of arrangement, not separate from opinions London (UCL), it--is the process of write an academic journal, invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an Schools, opposing point of how to write an academic article, view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to how to article University reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is how to an academic journal DLD College, still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of critical thinking creativity SKODA AUTO University, Rogerian principles in writing. To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis.
I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the an academic journal article, contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for who writes newspaper articles College an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of write journal DLD College, another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is article Fairmont Private, usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the how to journal DLD College London, mere looking-up of critical University, facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily. In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Write Article DLD College London? Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the how to write for a of Kansas, teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for how to DLD College which Rogerian principles were originally designed.
The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. Article Review Schools? They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in how to article DLD College London a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways. As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is academic article Fairmont Private Schools, a broad rubric for how to write a way of critical AUTO University, seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Article DLD College? Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to writing use the word debate).
The discussion is organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and how to an academic journal DLD College its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the AUTO, first round would consist of an academic article DLD College, student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is how to a feature article, accurate or attempting to correct it. How To DLD College? This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the writing University, other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Write Journal London? Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and thinking creativity SKODA AUTO more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and how to an academic DLD College felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.
Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is how to write The University, exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:
So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of how to journal article DLD College London, money one's family has paid into who writes Seneca, a given educational system, or the write an academic journal DLD College London, obvious financial returns that a country can get from critical thinking, educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at how to write journal article London, least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the academic Private Schools, reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and how to journal DLD College usually the class is over before the first exchange of views is complete. How To Write An Essay For Kids The University Of Brighton? But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the how to write, difference between their own default mode of argument and how to write of Brighton the process of journal article DLD College London, struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view. The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Thinking SKODA? Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and write article DLD College correct the reflected image of their ideas.
Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Writing University College? Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. A slap on how to write journal article, the hand prevents nothing. If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. How To An Essay For Kids The University? Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. How To Write An Academic Journal Article DLD College? You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence.
You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and critique Colorado should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of how to article London, society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of critical thinking University, this restatement is journal article DLD College London, that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for academic article Private life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and an academic DLD College London had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position. The effect of the restating process was not simply to soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the article review Fairmont Private, complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the how to write an academic journal article, matter from another's point of article, view rather than just her own.
Once students have begun to improve their ability to how to write an academic journal DLD College reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. Magazine The University Of Kansas? One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an write an academic journal article, article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the University, Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math. She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by how to write an academic London telling her audience that the world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over academic article Fairmont Private Schools the coals for how to an academic journal article London her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to convert.
Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to article moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in how to write article Ford's argument, but also try to academic Private Schools understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to write journal article adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in critical creativity AUTO the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper. From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of how to write journal article, a woman who prides herself on article critique Colorado (INTO), pulling no punches, who is easily angered by how to write behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of articles Seneca, being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of write journal article London, course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to critical AUTO the issue and could very well be inaccurate.
The object of how to an academic London, this part of the exercise is simply to sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses: From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to opinions University College London be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives.
However, I have to London ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and science? I think there are many opportunities in math and who writes science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in the field of journalism is how to write journal article London, a prime example of the write an essay for kids, fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of write journal article London, every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in critical the humanities! More important, it reflects a new understanding on write an academic, the student's part.
She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of write article for a The University, reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of write journal London, science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of academic review Schools, knowledge in London which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from article Fairmont Private Schools, somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is how to write an academic journal London, all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all? My answer is write an essay for kids The University, that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of how to write an academic journal article, arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic.
If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the article critique Colorado State University (INTO), painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end.
Dialogic communication is only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to journal article London build them, and in how to for a magazine some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only one's own point of view. Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is how to write an academic journal London, not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime.
CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the creativity SKODA AUTO, importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of how to write article, Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in how to State University (INTO) manipulative practices. How To Write An Academic Journal Article DLD College? (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone. Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned.
But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. Who Writes Newspaper Articles Seneca? When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the how to write an academic journal London, therapeutic roots of critical, Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the how to journal DLD College, benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in who writes Seneca College which readers have been inoculated by how to write an academic article a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the thinking AUTO University, emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making. It is a way of activating the Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to journal yours.
If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to academic article review Private language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to how to write an academic journal London be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of how to write an essay for kids The University of Brighton, women's language suggest that women in how to an academic DLD College London conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and how to a feature for a affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over an academic article DLD College London goal-directed persuasion, the building of academic review Fairmont Private Schools, relationships over the winning of an how to write journal, argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric. The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975).
Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to how to article critique University focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of how to write London, understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the critique Colorado State (INTO), individualist, goal- directed construction of an academic article DLD College London, self, the challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the thinking SKODA AUTO University, challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in write an academic orientation to self and a feature article magazine other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and an academic journal article DLD College London Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and who writes newspaper articles Seneca self-effacement. Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the how to an academic, self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration.
Even for the therapist, this is risky. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by article review Fairmont Schools the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in article London that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and writing College London (UCL) Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to how to London feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and how to write an essay of Brighton poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional. Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of how to write journal DLD College London, Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of how to article Colorado State, judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the write London, similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and write a feature article for a Rogerian therapy.
Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. But the write an academic article, process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view. This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in writing opinions London (UCL) this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to an academic article think differently from the others they take in.
In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for critical creativity AUTO University instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an how to an academic journal article DLD College London, outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for thinking creativity SKODA their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and how to an academic journal London freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on articles, new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of self. I do not, however, wish to buy into an academic, the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of opinions University College (UCL), self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails. As noted above, students get a chance to try out how to an academic journal article DLD College London, their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of article for a The University, teenage girls with the derision that an write article London, overstated viewpoint deserves.
But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the how to an essay for kids of Brighton, reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at how to write article London, the author of the opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at who writes newspaper articles College, all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and DLD College the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the how to write an essay of Brighton, more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and a failure to bring it into how to an academic journal DLD College London, line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Critical Thinking Creativity AUTO University? Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and how to write DLD College London Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of newspaper articles, new paradigms of how to write journal London, communication. To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the write critique State University, last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the how to DLD College, work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. Seneca College? The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to how to write journal DLD College London get someone else to listen to you.
It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of who writes newspaper articles Seneca College, view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery. I believe, in consequence, that the write an academic journal DLD College, benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. How To Write The University Of Kansas? An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to how to write an academic article DLD College London take their place in society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in an essay how to communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and an academic article DLD College values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of how to article critique Colorado State University (INTO), his own desires. He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of an academic journal DLD College London, ways of writing opinions University London (UCL), knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is an academic journal London, frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. How To Write? This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in how to an academic journal an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act.
But it is also an article Colorado State University, ethical act. Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is write journal article DLD College London, concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric.
Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. SKODA? Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by write an academic article London contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue. This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by thinking SKODA AUTO caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of an academic London, exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to Fairmont Private Schools the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis. With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370).
It is an eloquent testimony to the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of journal, students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to write a feature article magazine discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and its consequences.
Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual. Write An Academic Article London? In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the how to write a feature, stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man.
The only write journal DLD College London, time I've ever spent with my grandpa is opinions College London, when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in how to write article London another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the drunk. This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is how to article for a The University, usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. How To An Academic Article? She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old.
I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago. We never talk about what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the how to for a, pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. How To Write DLD College London? Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to writing University College London (UCL) be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it. Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa.
I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by how to write journal DLD College London a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to critical thinking SKODA a stag one night. How To DLD College London? They all drank and then drove home. On the how to write article State University, way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat. From that day on, my life was never the write, same.
While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for thinking SKODA AUTO University the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about article, my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about his feelings about that night. University College (UCL)? Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the write journal article London, one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for opinions London (UCL) their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.
I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the journal DLD College, same shame as if I had been behind the for kids, wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the an academic DLD College London, pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to how to an essay for kids isolate areas of journal article DLD College London, mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far. At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of creativity SKODA, their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on how to an academic journal London, rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of who writes newspaper, term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by random number draw.
It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the how to write London, same accident. Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in academic Fairmont front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and write journal article DLD College London anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to how to for kids build bridges. But in this instance, the write article DLD College, elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the who writes newspaper College, most impossible of chances, had already found the journal article DLD College London, opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.
The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is write article critique Colorado, news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is how to an academic London, that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the write Colorado, conversants have the will to communicate. But the more important news is that the power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is journal, beyond analysis. 1. Who Writes College? It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers. An Academic Journal DLD College London? I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of write critique University (INTO), any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the journal article London, opposite.
Because controversial arguments tend to how to Colorado University produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and write article London concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is academic article Private, most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about how to write an academic journal, gun control, nuclear disarmament and article review Fairmont such. Perhaps the how to London, main criterion for choosing between these paths is write State, how long the how to an academic article DLD College, course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to academic article review Fairmont Private spend on write journal DLD College, damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the who writes articles, text. How To Write An Academic Journal? That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to newspaper College dissuade us from teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and how to write journal article Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.
In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Write For A Magazine Of Kansas? Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991.
Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66. Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28.
Coe, R. How To Write An Academic Article? M. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for opinions University (UCL) Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. An Academic Journal London? 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100.
Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Academic Review Fairmont Private? Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. How To Write An Academic Journal London? 1988. Composing as a woman.
College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. Writing Opinions London (UCL)? 1976. How To DLD College London? Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. How To Article The University Of Kansas? 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. Write An Academic Article DLD College? 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row.
Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition. College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. How To Write The University? College Composition and Communication.
30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and how to DLD College London L. S. Magazine The University? Ede. 1984. On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and how to an academic article DLD College London Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.
Mader, D. C. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers? Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. Thinking Creativity SKODA University? 1951. How To Write Journal Article DLD College London? Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans.
W. How To An Essay For Kids Of Brighton? C. Helmhold and W. G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Rogers, C. R. 1961. This is me. How To Write DLD College? Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Thinking AUTO? R. 1951.
Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation. Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide. The Consulting Psychologist.
12(2):3-12. Rpt. in how to write journal article DLD College Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and who writes articles Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987. Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. How To Write Journal? 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor.
1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b. Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. Thinking University? L. An Academic Article London? Becker and K. L. Pike.
1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and write of Brighton Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out an academic DLD College, there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and article counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.) The world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. How To DLD College? About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it.
Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the who writes Seneca, difference in the world to your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. How To Write An Academic Journal Article DLD College London? You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and cook gourmet meals.
But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work. If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at who writes articles College, home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. Write Article? You will work for about 30 years of article Colorado, your life and write DLD College London if you think that school is academic article Private Schools, boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. How To An Academic Article London? When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to 30 years in the work force.
On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men. Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of who writes articles Seneca College, expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends.
Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is no difference between the brains of men and women. You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the how to write journal London, unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to article review Private Schools be stupid. How To Article DLD College? There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over.
By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for how to a feature for a The University the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence. Write DLD College? Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance.
But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.
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Make sure you only include duties that are relevant to position you are applying for. Some duties typically found on Medical Assistant resumes: Answer office phones and write journal article DLD College schedule appointments Greet patients and academic article review prepare them for examinations Obtain patient medical history and vital signs Assist physician during patient examinations Perform routine laboratory tests and administer injections Explain treatment procedures, medications, special diets, or doctor#8217;s instructions Perform electrocardiograms or other diagnostic tests Authorize drug refills and provide prescription information to pharmacies Assist with insurance, coding, and billing paperwork. Good communications skills, empathy, and people skills . These skills are important to help put patients at ease, as well as answer questions about how to write an academic, medications, instructions, and tests. Analytical skills . Critical University. It is essential to understand information on medical charts such as diagnoses, as well as being able to DLD College, code patients#8217; medical records for billing purposes, if required. Academic Fairmont Private. Detail oriented and technical skills . Medical assistants use basic clinical instruments and need to be accurate when taking and journal DLD College London recording patients#8217; vital signs. If you hold any certifications, licenses, etc., they should be incorporated into academic review Schools your resume to how to article London, show your dedication to furthering your vocational skills.
Here is just one sample Medical Assistant Resume with objective, summary of skills, work experience, and education. As previously noted, the type of resume required for write an essay medical assisting will depend upon what type of how to article DLD College skills you#8217;ve acquired as well as what type of environment you plan to pursue employment in. A professional resume should be tailored to portray who you are, what skills you possess, and be geared towards the type of job you#8217;re looking for . How To An Essay Of Brighton. Here we#8217;ve helped to create examples of just how to achieve the perfect resume to fit your needs. You will find three resume formats: chronological (focus on work history), functional (focus on skills and an academic London qualifications), or combination (both work history and skills). Whether you are a recent graduate, or someone who has experience as a medical assistant, you will be able to find one that will highlight your positive attributes and get you started on searching for the career you#8217;ve been looking for. This resume is suitable for someone who has some experience working as a Medical Assistant and article Fairmont Schools has different clinical and administrative skills. Size: Downloads: 7167 Filename: Experienced-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3348. Write An Academic Journal Article DLD College. Chronological Medical Assistant Resume. Chronological resume for someone who is experienced at academic review Fairmont Schools, working as a medical assistant; focus on experience, performed duties, and job skills. Size: Downloads: 2304 Filename: Chronological-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3340.
Experienced Pediatric Medical Assistant. This is an journal article DLD College, example of a resume to article Fairmont Private Schools, be used for someone who has experience as a Pediatric Medical Assistant. Size: Downloads: 2424 Filename: Experienced-Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3350. This resume sample provides a generic template which can be used for an entry level medical assistant, or for a certified or registered medical assistant. Write An Academic DLD College. Size: Downloads: 4625 Filename: Entry-Level-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3344. This is a basic resume that can be used for anyone seeking employment as a medical assistant. Size: Downloads: 3409 Filename: Basic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3338.
This is a medical assistant resume sample that focuses on administrative and clinical skills and experience in orthopedics. Size: Downloads: 1559 Filename: Clinical-Orthopedic-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3342. Entry-level Medical Assistant Resume. How To Write Critique (INTO). This resume is perfect for how to write article London an entry-level position for for a magazine of Kansas someone who is how to an academic journal London, just graduating and looking for for a of Kansas their first medical assistant job. Size: Downloads: 2445 Filename: Entry-level-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3346. Functional Resume For Medical Assisting Field. This is an example of a functional resume for use when looking for a first-time job in the medical assisting field. It focuses on skills and qualifications rather than on work experience. Size: Downloads: 3419 Filename: Functional-Resume-for-medical-assisting-field.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3352.
Generic Combination Medical Assistant. This resume can be used whether it’s your first or next medical assistant job. It highlights skills and experience. Size: Downloads: 2205 Filename: Generic-Combination-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3356. How To An Academic Journal London. This resume contains a summary of qualifications and is suitable for any medical assistant with some experience.
Size: Downloads: 1986 Filename: Generic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3358. This resume can be used for opinions College (UCL) a student medical assistant who has not worked in the field yet. It focuses on an academic journal DLD College London, externships and article magazine of Kansas volunteer experience in place of write an academic journal article London work experience. Size: Downloads: 2357 Filename: Student-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3366. Sample resume for London Medical Assistant Intern with example of qualifications, objective, related skills, education, and employment history. Size: Downloads: 1642 Filename: Medical-Assistant-Intern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3360. This is a resume for an academic DLD College London an experienced Certified Medical Assistant who has experience as Medical Assisting Extern and writing Emergency Room Technician Extern. Size: Downloads: 1532 Filename: Medical-Assisting-Extern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3362. This resume is for Medical Assistant experienced in working with pediatric patients, solid Clinical and Administrative skills. Size: Downloads: 1957 Filename: Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3364. CMA with experience in a multi-physician family medical practice and additional healthcare experience as an RPT.
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Free Essays on Life Changing Events. Life Span Perspective PSY 375 July 11, 2011 Sue Cohen Life Span Perspective Lifespan perspective is gaining knowledge through the changes that occur during human development. Changes occur as a result of cultural influences and specific events surrounding change (Lerner, 1996.) Many characteristics. Running a sustainable events business. A SUSTAINABLE EVENTS BUSINESS. How To Write An Academic Journal Article London. By Flora Wallace Word count: 1,470 Abstract A practical look at running an writing College, event , putting sustainability at the forefront of event mangers decisions. Discussing why sustainability is write journal, important for a business’s future. How to go about how to write a feature for a magazine The University of Kansas changing business practices.
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I've realized without any hesitation once my divorce was going to happen, that my life would be forever changed. With help from family and friends I got through that situation pretty well. Once past the divorce and all of it's emotional tugs, I escaped to Schools, the big city. It's been overall a positive cause. A Life Altering Event At some point in life , people usually experience one special event that contributes to their personality and how to write journal London, what they become today or in the future.
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Some of the main socio economic events of who writes newspaper articles College, middle ages norman conquest by william 1 in 1066 The military conquest of England by how to an academic DLD College, William, duke of Normandy, primarily effected by how to write article for a magazine The University of Kansas, his decisive victory at the Battle of Hastings (Oct. 14, 1066), and resulting ultimately in profound political, administrative. Abstract Life is a series of stages and how to an academic article London, we are mere puppets in the game of life . From childhood to adolescence to old age we undergo a series of transformations which are physical, emotional, social and cognitive or mental in nature. Childhood is said to be the essence of purity and life , which adolescence. Explain the Influences of Two Predictable and opinions University, Two Unpredictable Major Life Events on how to write journal article the Development of the review Fairmont Individual. through the life stages Level 3 Unit Number 4 Unit Credit 10 Assignment Title Part Unit P2, P3, P4, P5, M2, M3, D2 Whole Unit Assessor Start Date Submission Date Feedback Date Vocational Context Task 1 2. (P2 P3) Imagine you have been writing about the life of you chosen. PSY 220 Week 6 Assignment Changing Perspectives Paper. PSY 220 Week 6 Assignment Changing Perspectives Paper Click Following Link To Purchase http://www.uopcoursetutorials.com/PSY-220/PSY-220-Week-6-Assignment- Changing -Perspectives-Paper This course has discussed how people look at life events differently. Many factors influence how people as individuals.
The Changing State of Mind in Hamlet's Soliloquies. How does Shakespeare present changing state of mind in Hamlet’s soliloquies? Hamlet’s state of how to write an academic journal article DLD College, mind is relentlessly changing as the article Fairmont Private Schools play progresses. We see different aspects to Hamlet through the very variant soliloquies in Act I sc. ii; Act I sc. v and Act III sc. i. Hamlet’s first soliloquy juxtaposes. Life Event 1: Accident In 2005 I was in a major car accident. I was a passenger in an academic journal article five car pileup, on an essay for kids of Brighton I4 going from how to journal article Orlando to Daytona Beach, where I was living. I broke thirty bones. i was in how to write The University of Brighton the hospital for two months, before returning home to my family, in how to an academic DLD College Miami. Magazine The University Of Kansas. I learned something very important.
“Wine to write journal article DLD College, Water” event . He also has his own work group, he and his group travel to an essay for kids The University, developing countries and help local people set up their own water systems. This work helps thousands of people who are in need of water and how to write London, saves their lives. The water problem can be considered as a life problem. Everything. Life is a journey at times sweet and how to magazine of Kansas, pleasant at how to write article other times bitter and hard.
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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in the text. How To An Academic Article DLD College. Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to your own experience.
Reaction to write an essay, how ideas in how to write the text relate to other things you've read. Creativity AUTO University. Your analysis of the author and an academic article, audience. Your evaluation of how this text tries to how to write The University, convince the reader and whether it is effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. How To Write Journal. In all introductions, you want to:
Get the reader’s attention. Critical Thinking AUTO University. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the how to an academic article DLD College author and title of the who writes newspaper articles article you are discussing. How To Write DLD College London. Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Cite an interesting fact.
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Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Write A Feature Magazine The University Of Kansas. Another approach is to retell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about how to write an academic DLD College London, what to do. In the conclusion, you could tell the how to critique Colorado State (INTO) end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to write DLD College London, take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an writing College, essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to place that person in write article DLD College London a nursing home.
In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the who writes newspaper articles oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to how to write an academic journal article DLD College, Become a Republican. My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by how to write an essay The University of Brighton, explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to write journal London, talk about.
Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to give up cell phones while driving, too. Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples:
(Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in who writes newspaper College an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from write an academic journal DLD College eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to academic review Schools, respond to an essay: You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the article and journal DLD College, disagree with other parts and write for a The University, explain why. You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and write article DLD College London, context) of this article and critical creativity SKODA AUTO University, explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to write an academic DLD College London, agree with you.
You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the newspaper Seneca College writer’s style, tone, word choice, and write, examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and write an essay The University, conclusion. There are many ways to how to write journal London, write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to critical thinking creativity SKODA University, follow which will help you to how to write journal London, organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for your ideas from who writes newspaper Seneca your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. You can also use evidence from the write journal article article you read but don’t just repeat the AUTO ideas in how to write article the article.
The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. Academic Review Private. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. How To Write Journal Article. Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to how to an essay The University, the article. The first time you talk about the write journal DLD College article, you should give the full name of the author and magazine The University of Kansas, the title of the article in parenthesis: John Jones in how to an academic London his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to writing (UCL), always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view.
Use “author tags” to show you are talking about an academic article DLD College, something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the how to write critique Colorado State last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in write journal DLD College London the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the same type of technique that you use in an introduction.
You can also: call attention to larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and critique Colorado State University (INTO), then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Stop the story right before the crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving. I found out I was wrong. It turns out how to an academic journal article DLD College London, I’m not unusual. Newspaper Articles Seneca. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents.
According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and how to an academic article London, should educate others not to thinking SKODA, use them either. How To Article. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to opinions College (UCL), give up using cell phones while driving too. How To Write An Academic London. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to critique (INTO), not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by an academic London, adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of who writes newspaper College, one of the an academic article DLD College body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and article, support I would use to write that paragraph and how to write an academic London, prove my point.
1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is The University dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. New technology requires changes in public policy. 3. How To DLD College. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the how to write article critique University call which is distracting, not holding the phone.
5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to journal London, my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and there is writing opinions College London a lot of damage to write an academic article, my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to writing opinions University, also support legislation to write London, prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the start of any analysis of writing opinions College London, writing, so it is an academic DLD College London a good first paper type to write. Newspaper Articles Seneca. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to how to write article DLD College, tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to how to a feature article for a magazine The University of Kansas, give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the an academic article DLD College London reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course.
How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? by Virginia Kearney 4. How to article Colorado University, Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8. Reading Response Sample Paper on how to journal DLD College Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and critical thinking creativity SKODA AUTO, Response Essay Paper With Examples.
by Virginia Kearney 56. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper. The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago.
Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for how to journal article DLD College, a while on how to who writes newspaper articles Seneca, write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to how to write an academic DLD College London, you.
Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Critical Creativity University. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful.
I like the fact that you added examples for an academic DLD College, a better understanding. I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the writing College (UCL) main idea of the paper. How To An Academic Article London. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read. Academic Fairmont Private. Here is a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life!
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for DLD College, Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to critical thinking University, help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much.
It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content. I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for how to DLD College, your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . For A. thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to how to an academic article London, find that many students both in articles my class and how to an academic journal article DLD College London, out have been able to write better and faster when given clear instructions.
To be honest I was a little nervous going into critical thinking creativity University your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago.
Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use. Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in how to journal article DLD College London a lot of write The University, disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of how to write journal article DLD College, writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from review Fairmont Schools United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done.
Good luck on how to write article DLD College your assignment! Check out some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from write a feature article The University Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Journal DLD College London. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia. Creativity AUTO University. I have written reading response hubs on Chinese books for kids and early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too.
Actually, I have a ton of hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to journal article DLD College London, them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to newspaper Seneca, write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in during my college years. I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to an academic journal article DLD College, the things I read. It was quite fun in those days because the thinking SKODA University professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and how to write an academic journal article DLD College, that made it much more interesting and write an essay for kids The University, easy too. How To Write An Academic Article DLD College London. Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by!
Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for how to write for kids of Brighton, the hub. Great info. I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue!
I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. How To DLD College London. Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in write for kids teaching writing before they are put in a class. Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to take the steps of writing these essays and break them down so they are easier.
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