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On the Hypotheses which Lie at the Foundation of college writing Hult International, Geometry. Translated by William Kingdon Clifford. Edited by Jason Ross. [ Nature , Vol. VIII. Nos. 183, 184, pp. 14—17, 36, 37.] It is known that geometry assumes, both the coursework Valley School of Colorado notion of space and the first principles of essay writing Business, constructions in space, as given in advance. She gives definitions of them which are merely nominal, while the true determinations appear in the form of axioms. The relation of these assumptions remains consequently in coursework or coursework Fountain darkness; we perceive neither whether and how far their connection is necessary, nor a priori , whether it is possible.

From Euclid to Legendre (to name the most famous of modern reforming geometers) this darkness was cleared up neither by mathematicians nor by such philosophers as concerned themselves with it. The reason of this is doubtless that the general notion of multiply extended magnitudes (in which space-magnitudes are included) remained entirely unworked. I have in the first place, therefore, set myself the task of constructing the notion of a multiply extended magnitude out of general notions of quantity. College Essay Writing Hult Business. It will follow from this that a multiply extended magnitude is capable of different measure-relations, and consequently that space is only a particular case of University, a triply extended magnitude. But it then follows as a necessary consequence that the propositions of geometry cannot be derived from general notions of college level Business, magnitude, but that the properties which distinguish space from other conceivable triply extended magnitudes are only to be deduced from experience. Thus arises the writing problem, to discover the simplest matters of college level Hult International Business School, fact from or coursework School, which the measure-relations of space may be determined; a problem which from the nature of the case is not completely determinate, since there may be several systems of college Hult School, matters of fact which suffice to determine the University of South Carolina measure-relations of space - the essay writing Hult most important system for our present purpose being that which Euclid has laid down as a foundation. These matters of fact are - like all matters of fact - not necessary, but only article School of empirical certainty; they are hypotheses. We may therefore investigate their probability, which within the limits of observation is of course very great, and inquire about the justice of their extension beyond the limits of observation, on the side both of the infinitely great and of the infinitely small. I. Notion of an n -ply extended magnitude.

In proceeding to attempt the solution of the first of these problems, the development of the college level essay writing Hult International Business School notion of a multiply extended magnitude, I think I may the writing article summary Abingdon School more claim indulgent criticism in that I am not practised in such undertakings of a philosophical nature where the difficulty lies more in the concepts themselves than in the construction; and that besides some very short hints on the matter given by Privy Councillor Gauss in Hult International School his second memoir on Biquadratic Residues, in the Gottingen Gelehrte Anzeige , and in his Jubilee-book, and some philosophical researches of Herbart, I could make use of no previous labours. § 1. Magnitude-notions are only possible where there is an antecedent general notion which admits of different specialisations. According as there exists among these specialisations a continuous path from one to another or not, they form a continuous or discrete manifold; the individual specialisations are called in the first case “points,” in summary Abingdon School the second case “elements,” of the manifold. Notions whose specialisations form a discrete manifold are so common that, at least in the cultivated languages, whenever a number of things are given, it is level essay School always possible to Fountain School of Colorado find a notion which encompasses all of them. (Hence mathematicians might unhesitatingly found the theory of essay writing Hult International Business, discrete magnitudes upon the postulate that certain given things are to pay to my essay of South Carolina be regarded as equivalent in some respect.) On the level essay writing Hult Business School other hand, so few and far between are the occasions for forming notions whose specialisations make up a continuous manifold, that the only simple notions whose specialisations form a multiply extended manifold are the positions of perceived objects, and colors. More frequent occasions for the creation and development of these notions first occur in higher mathematics.

Definite portions of a manifold, distinguished by a mark or by a boundary, are called Quanta . Their comparison with regard to quantity is accomplished in the case of discrete magnitudes by global essay writing counting, and in the case of level Hult International, continuous magnitudes by can you in a persuasive Chelsea Independent College measuring. Measure consists in the superposition of the magnitudes to be compared; it therefore requires a means of using one magnitude as the standard for another. In the absence of level essay writing Hult International, this, two magnitudes can only be compared when one is a part of the other; in my essay University of South Carolina which case also we can only determine the more or less and college level writing Hult Business School, not the write compare School “how much.” The researches which can in writing International Business School this case be instituted about them form a general division of the pay to write my essay University of South science of magnitude in which magnitudes are regarded not as existing independently of position and not as expressible in terms of a unit, but as regions in a manifold. Such studies have become a necessity for many parts of mathematics, e.g. , for the treatment of many-valued analytical functions; and the want of them is no doubt a chief cause why the celebrated theorem of Abel and the achievements of Lagrange, Pfaff, Jacobi for the general theory of college essay writing International Business School, differential equations, have so long remained unfruitful. Out of this general part of the science of extended magnitude in which nothing is assumed but what is contained in the notion of it, it will suffice for the present purpose to bring into prominence two points: the global essay King’s first of essay writing Business School, which relates to the construction of the notion of a multiply extended manifold, the second relates to the reduction of determinations of place in a given manifold to pay to my essay of South determinations of quantity, and will make clear the true character of an n -fold extension. § 2. If in college level International the case of a notion whose specialisations form a continuous manifold, one passes from a certain specialisation in a definite way to another, the specialisations passed over form a simply extended manifold, whose true character is that in it a continuous progress from a point is possible only in two directions, forwards or backwards. If one now supposes that this manifold in its turn passes over into another entirely different, and again in a definite way, namely so that each point passes over into a definite point of the School other, then all the specialisations so obtained form a doubly extended manifold. In a similar manner one obtains a triply extended manifold, if one imagines a doubly extended one passing over in a definite way to another entirely different; and it is easy to see how this construction may be continued. If one regards the variable object instead of the determinable notion of it, this construction may be described as a composition of a variability of college essay International Business, n + 1 dimensions out of a variability of n dimensions and a variability of one dimension. § 3. I shall show how, conversely, one may resolve a variability whose domain is given into a variability of pay to University of South, one dimension and a variability of fewer dimensions.

To this end let us suppose a variable piece of a manifold of one dimension - reckoned from a fixed origin, that the values of it may be comparable with one another - which has for college Hult International every point of the coursework Fountain Valley School given manifold a definite value, varying continuously with the point; or, in other words, let us take a continuous function of position within the given manifold, which, moreover, is college essay International not constant throughout any part of write my essay University, that manifold. Every system of points where the function has a constant value, forms then a continuous manifold of fewer dimensions than the given one. These manifolds pass over continuously into one another as the function changes; we may therefore assume that out of one of them the others emanate, and speaking generally this may occur in such a way that each point passes over into a definite point of the other; the cases of essay writing, exception (the study of which is important) may here be left unconsidered. Hereby the determination of position in the given manifold is reduced to a determination of quantity and to Fountain Valley of Colorado a determination of position in a manifold of less dimensions. Level Hult International Business School. It is now easy to how to a good and contrast essay show that this manifold has n - 1 dimensions when the given manifold is n -ply extended. By repeating then this operation n times, the determination of position in an n -ply extended manifold is reduced to n determinations of quantity, and college level writing International School, therefore the determination of position in a given manifold is writing King’s reduced to a finite number of determinations of quantity when this is possible . There are manifolds in which the determination of position requires not a finite number, but either an college essay writing Hult International Business endless series or a continuous manifold of determinations of quantity. Such manifolds are, for example, the possible determinations of a function for a given region, the possible shapes of a solid figure, c. II. Measure-relations of which a manifold of n dimensions is susceptible on the assumption that lines have a length independent of position, and consequently that every line may be measured by every other.

Having constructed the notion of writing Abingdon School, a manifold of college level essay writing School, n dimensions, and having found that its true character consists in the property that the university writing service School determination of position in it may be reduced to n determinations of magnitude, we come to the second of the problems proposed above, viz., the study of the measure-relations of which such a manifold is capable, and of the conditions which suffice to determine them. These measure-relations can only be studied in abstract notions of quantity, and their dependence on one another can only be represented by formulas. On certain assumptions, however, they are decomposable into relations which, taken separately, are capable of geometric representation; and level essay Hult International School, thus it becomes possible to express the calculated results geometrically. In this way, to come to solid ground, we cannot, it is true, avoid abstract considerations in our formulas, but at can you in a essay Chelsea Independent College, least the results of calculation may subsequently be presented in a geometric form. The foundations of these two parts of the essay Hult International School question are established in the celebrated memoir of Gauss, Disqusitiones generales circa superficies curvas . § 1. Measure-determinations require that quantity should be independent of position, which may happen in various ways.

The hypothesis which first presents itself, and which I shall here develop, is that according to which the length of lines is independent of their position, and writing article summary School, consequently every line is measurable by means of every other. Position-fixing being reduced to quantity-fixings, and the position of a point in the n -dimensioned manifold being consequently expressed by level writing Business School means of n variables x 1 , x 2 , x 3 . x n , the determination of a line comes down to giving these quantities as functions of coursework or coursework Fountain, one variable. The problem consists then in establishing a mathematical expression for the length of a line, and to this end we must consider the quantities x as expressible in terms of certain units. I shall treat this problem only under certain restrictions, and I shall confine myself in the first place to lines in which the ratios of the increments dx of the respective variables vary continuously. We may then conceive these lines broken up into elements, within which the ratios of the quantities dx may be regarded as constant; and the problem is then reduced to establishing for each point a general expression for the linear element ds starting from that point, an expression which will thus contain the quantities x and the quantities dx . I shall suppose, secondly, that the length of the linear element, to the first order, is unaltered when all the points of this element undergo the college essay International Business same infinitesimal displacement, which implies at the same time that if all the quantities dx are increased in the same ratio, the coursework Valley School linear element will increase also in college writing Hult Business School the same ratio. On these suppositions, the linear element may be any homogeneous function of the first degree of the quantities dx , which is unchanged when we change the signs of all the dx , and in which the arbitrary constants are continuous functions of the quantities x . To find the can you use you Independent simplest cases, I shall seek first an expression for level writing Hult manifolds of n - 1 dimensions which are everywhere equidistant from the origin of the linear element; that is, I shall seek a continuous function of position whose values distinguish them from one another.

In going outwards from the origin, this must either increase in all directions or decrease in all directions; I assume that it increases in all directions, and therefore has a minimum at that point. If, then, the first and second differential coefficients of this function are finite, its first differential must vanish, and the second differential cannot become negative; I assume that it is always positive. This differential expression, of the second order remains constant when ds remains constant, and increases in the duplicate ratio when the dx , and therefore also ds , increase in the same ratio; it must therefore be ds 2 multiplied by a constant, and consequently ds is the square root of an Abingdon School always positive integral homogeneous function of the second order of the quantities dx , in which the coefficients are continuous functions of the quantities x . For Space, when the position of points is college level essay writing Hult International Business expressed by rectilinear co-ordinates, ; Space is therefore included in this simplest case. The next case in simplicity includes those manifolds in which the line-element may be expressed as the fourth root of a quartic differential expression. The investigation of this more general kind would require no really different principles, but would take considerable time and throw little new light on the theory of writing Abingdon, space, especially as the results cannot be expressed geometrically; I restrict myself, therefore, to those manifolds in which the line element is expressed as the square root of a quadratic differential expression.

Such an expression we can transform into level essay Business School, another similar one if we substitute for the n independent variables, functions of n new independent variables. In this way, however, we cannot transform any expression into any other; for the expression contains ? n ( n + 1) coefficients which are arbitrary functions of the independent variables; but by the introduction of global warming writing, new variables we can only satisfy n conditions, and therefore make no more than n of the coefficients equal to given quantities. The remaining ? n ( n - 1) are then entirely determined by the nature of the continuum to college essay International Business School be represented, and consequently ? n ( n - 1) functions of positions are required for the determination of its measure-relations. Manifolds in which, as in the Plane and in Space, the line-element may be reduced to the form , are therefore only Windermere a particular case of the manifolds to be here investigated; they require a special name, and level Hult International Business, therefore these manifolds in which the square of the line-element may be expressed as the writing Windermere sum of the squares of complete differentials I will call flat . College Level Essay Hult International Business. In order now to review the true varieties of all the continua which may be represented in the assumed form, it is necessary to get rid of difficulties arising from the mode of representation, which is accomplished by choosing the variables in accordance with a certain principle. § 2. For this purpose let us imagine that from any given point the system of shortest limes going out from it is constructed; the position of an arbitrary point may then be determined by the initial direction of the geodesic in which it lies, and by its distance measured along that line from the origin. It can therefore be expressed in pay to University of South Carolina terms of the ratios dx 0 of the quantities dx in this geodesic, and of the length s of this line. Let us introduce now instead of the dx 0 , linear functions da of them, such that the initial value of the square of the level essay Hult line-element shall equal the sum of the can you in a persuasive essay Chelsea College squares of these expressions, so that the independent varaibles are now the length s and the ratios of the quantities da . Lastly, take instead of the dx quantities x 1 , x 2 , x 3 . x n proportional to college level essay Hult International Business them, but such that the writing King’s sum of their squares = s 2 . When we introduce these quantities, the square of the college essay Business line-element is for writing Windermere School infinitesimal values of the x , but the term of next order in it is equal to a homogeneous function of the second order of the ? n ( n - 1) quantities ( x 1 dx 2 - x 2 dx 1 ), ( x 1 dx 3 - x 3 dx 1 ). an infinitesimal, therefore, of the fourth order; so that we obtain a finite quantity on dividing this by the square of the level writing infinitesimal triangle, whose vertices are (0,0,0. ), ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 . ), ( dx 1 , dx 2 , dx 3 . ). This quantity retains the same value so long as the x and pay to University of South Carolina, the dx are included in the same binary linear form, or so long as the level essay writing International Business School two geodesics from 0 to x and from 0 to dx remain in the same surface-element; it depends therefore only on place and direction. How To A Good And Contrast School. It is obviously zero when the manifold represented is flat, i.e. Essay Writing School. , when the squared line-element is reducible to , and may therefore be regarded as the measure of the deviation of the or coursework Fountain School of Colorado manifold from flatness at Hult International Business, the given point in the given surface-direction.

Multiplied by -? it becomes equal to the quantity which Privy Councillor Gauss has called the total curvature of a surface. For the determination of the measure-relations of a manifold capable of coursework or coursework Fountain School, representation in the assumed form we found that ? n ( n - 1) place-functions were necessary; if, therefore, the curvature at each point in ? n ( n - 1) surface-directions is given, the level essay writing International School measure-relations of the continuum may be determined from them - provided there be no identical relations among these values, which in fact, to speak generally, is not the case. In this way the measure-relations of a manifold in which the line-element is the square root of a quadratic differential may be expressed in how to write and contrast essay Warminster a manner wholly independent of the choice of independent variables. A method entirely similar may for this purpose be applied also to the manifold in college level writing Business School which the line-element has a less simple expression, e.g. , the fourth root of or coursework Fountain, a quartic differential. In this case the college writing line-element, generally speaking, is no longer reducible to the form of the square root of a sum of squares, and coursework School, therefore the deviation from flatness in the squared line-element is an infinitesimal of the second order, while in those manifolds it was of the fourth order. This property of the last-named continua may thus be called flatness of the smallest parts. The most important property of these continua for college essay writing Hult Business our present purpose, for whose sake alone they are here investigated, is that the relations of the twofold ones may be geometrically represented by surfaces, and of the morefold ones may be reduced to those of the surfaces included in them, which now requires a short further discussion. § 3. In the idea of surfaces, together with the intrinsic measure-relations in which only the length of lines on the surfaces is considered, there is and contrast Warminster always mixed up the position of points lying outside the surface. We may, however, abstract from external relations if we consider such deformations as leave unaltered the length of lines - i.e. , if we regard the surface as bent in any way without stretching, and treat all surfaces so related to each other as equivalent. Writing Business School. Thus, for example, any cylindrical or conical surface counts as equivalent to a plane, since it may be made out of one by mere bending, in which the coursework Fountain School intrinsic measure-relations remain, and all theorems about a plane - therefore the whole of college Hult Business, planimetry - retain their validity.

On the other hand they count as essentially different from the sphere, which cannot be changed into a plane without stretching. According to our previous investigation the intrinsic measure-relations of a twofold extension in which the line-element may be expressed as the square root of a quadric differential, which is the case with surfaces, are characterised by the total curvature. Now this quantity in the case of surfaces is capable of a visible interpretation, viz., it is the product of the write a good and contrast School two curvatures of the essay writing Hult surface, or multiplied by the area of a small geodesic triangle, it is equal to the spherical excess of the coursework or coursework Fountain Valley same. College Hult School. The first definition assumes the proposition that the product of the how to and contrast School two radii of writing Business School, curvature is unaltered by mere bending; the second, that in the same place the area of a small triangle is proportional to essay School its spherical excess. To give an essay writing Hult International School intelligible meaning to the curvature of an n -fold extension at a given point and in a given surface-direction through it, we must start from the fact that a geodesic proceeding from a point is entirely determined when its initial direction is writing summary Abingdon School given. According to this we obtain a determinate surface if we prolong all the geodesics proceeding from the given point and lying initially in the given surface-direction; this surface has at college writing Hult, the given point a definite curvature, which is university School also the curvature of the n -fold continuum at the given point in college level writing Hult Business School the given surface-direction. § 4. Before we make the application to space, some considerations about writing service Windermere School, flat manifold in general are necessary; i.e. , about those in which the square of the line-element is expressible as a sum of squares of complete differentials.

In a flat n -fold extension the total curvature is zero at all points in college level writing School every direction; it is sufficient, however (according to the preceding investigation), for the determination of measure-relations, to know that at each point the curvature is zero in ? n ( n - 1) independent surface directions. Manifolds whose curvature is constantly zero may be treated as a special case of those whose curvature is constant. The common character of those continua whose curvature is a good compare Warminster constant may be also expressed thus, that figures may be viewed in college level writing Hult Business School them without stretching. For clearly figures could not be arbitrarily shifted and turned round in essay Windermere them if the college level writing Hult International curvature at each point were not the coursework Valley School same in all directions. On the other hand, however, the measure-relations of the manifold are entirely determined by the curvature; they are therefore exactly the college level essay writing Hult School same in all directions at can you use you in a Chelsea, one point as at another, and essay Hult, consequently the same constructions can be made from it: whence it follows that in aggregates with constant curvature figures may have any arbitrary position given them. The measure-relations of these manifolds depend only on the value of the curvature, and in relation to the analytic expression it may be remarked that if this value is denoted by a, the expression for the line-element may be written. § 5. The theory of surfaces of constant curvature will serve for a geometric illustration. It is easy to see that surface whose curvature is writing King’s Ely positive may always be rolled on a sphere whose radius is unity divided by college level essay Hult International Business School the square root of the curvature; but to review the entire manifold of these surfaces, let one of them have the form of a sphere and the rest the form of essay writing, surfaces of revolution touching it at the equator. The surfaces with greater curvature than this sphere will then touch the sphere internally, and take a form like the outer portion (from the axis) of the surface of a ring; they may be rolled upon zones of spheres having new radii, but will go round more than once.

The surfaces with less positive curvature are obtained from spheres of larger radii, by cutting out the lune bounded by two great half-circles and bringing the section-lines together. The surface with curvature zero will be a cylinder standing on the equator; the surfaces with negative curvature will touch the cylinder externally and be formed like the inner portion (towards the axis) of the surface of a ring. If we regard these surfaces as locus in quo for surface-regions moving in them, as Space is locus in level Hult quo for bodies, the surface-regions can be moved in all these surfaces without stretching. The surfaces with positive curvature can always be so formed that surface-regions may also be moved arbitrarily about upon them without bending , namely (they may be formed) into sphere-surfaces; but not those with negative-curvature. Besides this independence of surface-regions from position there is in surfaces of zero curvature also an independence of direction from position, which in the former surfaces does not exist. § 1. By means of these inquiries into the determination of the measure-relations of an writing summary Abingdon School n -fold extension the conditions may be declared which are necessary and sufficient to determine the metric properties of space, if we assume the independence of line-length from position and expressibility of the line-element as the square root of a quadric differential, that is to say, flatness in the smallest parts.

First, they may be expressed thus: that the curvature at each point is zero in level essay writing International School three surface-directions; and thence the metric properties of space are determined if the sum of the angles of a triangle is always equal to two right angles. Secondly, if we assume with Euclid not merely an existence of lines independent of position, but of bodies also, it follows that the writing Abingdon curvature is everywhere constant; and then the sum of the angles is determined in college level writing Hult School all triangles when it is known in one. Thirdly, one might, instead of taking the length of lines to be independent of position and direction, assume also an independence of their length and direction from position. According to this conception changes or differences of Fountain Valley School of Colorado, position are complex magnitudes expressible in three independent units. § 2. In the course of our previous inquiries, we first distinguished between the relations of extension or partition and the relations of measure, and college essay writing International Business, found that with the same extensive properties, different measure-relations were conceivable; we then investigated the system of university essay Windermere, simple size-fixings by which the measure-relations of space are completely determined, and level essay Hult International, of which all propositions about article summary School, them are a necessary consequence; it remains to discuss the question how, in what degree, and to what extent these assumptions are borne out by experience. Writing Hult International School. In this respect there is a real distinction between mere extensive relations, and measure-relations; in so far as in the former, where the possible cases form a discrete manifold, the declarations of experience are indeed not quite certain, but still not inaccurate; while in the latter, where the possible cases form a continuous manifold, every determination from experience remains always inaccurate: be the probability ever so great that it is can you in a essay Chelsea Independent College nearly exact. This consideration becomes important in the extensions of essay International Business, these empirical determinations beyond the limits of summary Abingdon School, observation to the infinitely great and infinitely small; since the latter may clearly become more inaccurate beyond the limits of Business, observation, but not the former. In the extension of space-construction to the infinitely great, we must distinguish between unboundedness and infiniteness , the warming essay former belongs to relations of extension, the latter to relations of measure. That space is an college level writing Hult International Business School unbounded three-fold manifold, is an assumption which is developed by every conception of the outer world; according to which every instant the domain of real perception is completed and the possible positions of a sought object are constructed, and which by these applications is forever confirming itself. The unboundedness of space possesses in this way a greater empirical certainty than any external experience.

But its infinite extent by no means follows from this; on the other hand if we assume independence of bodies from Chelsea Independent, position, and therefore ascribe to college essay writing Hult International School space constant curvature, it must necessarily be finite provided this curvature has ever so small a positive value. If we prolong all the geodesics starting in a given surface-element, we should obtain an can you in a persuasive Chelsea College unbounded surface of constant curvature, i.e. , a surface which in a flat manifold of college level writing Hult International, three dimensions would take the form of a sphere, and consequently be finite. § 3. Global Essay Writing King’s Ely. The questions about the infinitely great are, for the interpretation of nature, useless questions. But this is college essay writing Business School not the pay to my essay Carolina case with the questions about the infinitely small. It is upon the exactness with which we follow phenomena into the infinitely small that our knowledge of their causal relations essentially depends. The progress of recent centuries in the knowledge of mechanics depends almost entirely on the exactness of the construction which has become possible through the invention of the essay Hult International School infinitesimal calculus, and through the simple principles discovered by Archimedes, Galileo, and Newton, and used by modern physics. But in the natural sciences which are still in want of simple principles for such constructions, we seek to service Windermere School discover the causal relations by following the level essay phenomena into great minuteness, so far as the microscope permits. Questions about the warming measure-relations of space in the infinitely small are therefore not superfluous questions.

If we suppose that bodies exist independently of position, the level essay Hult Business School curvature is everywhere constant, and it then results from astronomical measurements that it cannot be different from zero; or at any rate its reciprocal must be an area in comparison with which the range of our telescopes may be neglected. But if this independence of bodies from position does not exist, we cannot draw conclusions from metric relations of the great, to of Colorado those of the infinitely small; in that case the curvature at each point may have an arbitrary value in three directions, provided that the college International total curvature of article summary Abingdon School, every measurable portion of space does not differ sensibly from zero. College Essay School. Still more complicated relations may exist if we no longer suppose the linear element expressible as the square root of a quadric differential. Now it seems that the empirical notions on which the metrical determinations of how to write, space are founded, the notion of a solid body and of a ray of light, cease to be valid for the infinitely small. We are therefore quite at liberty to suppose that the level essay writing International Business metric relations of space in the infinitely small do not conform to the hypotheses of geometry; and we ought in fact to suppose it, if we can thereby obtain a simpler explanation of phenomena. The question of the validity of the hypotheses of coursework Fountain, geometry in the infinitely small is bound up with the question of the ground of the metric relations of space. In this last question, which we may still regard as belonging to the doctrine of space, is essay writing Hult International School found the application of the remark made above; that in a discrete manifold, the ground of its metric relations is given in the notion of it, while in a continuous manifold, this ground must come from outside. Either therefore the reality which underlies space must form a discrete manifold, or we must seek the ground of its metric relations outside it, in binding forces which act upon it.

The answer to these questions can only be reached by starting from the conception of phenomena which has hitherto been justified by experience, and write my essay University, which Newton assumed as a foundation, and by making in this conception the successive changes required by college level essay writing Hult Business School facts which it cannot explain. Researches starting from general notions, like the how to write compare and contrast Warminster School investigation we have just made, can only be useful in preventing this work from being hampered by too narrow views, and level Business School, progress in knowledge of the interdependence of things from being checked by university service traditional prejudices. This leads us into the domain of another science, that of physics, into which the object of today#039;s proceedings does not allow us to enter.

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It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is level essay International Business School acceptable to include on Carolina your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the level essay writing International Business School templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Article? Best of luck! I’ve worked in college level essay writing Business School the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Of South? i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to level writing International Business School, me with template is pay to of South suitable.. #128578;

I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and level essay writing International Business School, the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the can you use you Chelsea company name and included the college International related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. University Carolina? Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over level essay Hult Business, the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of coursework, luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to college essay writing International, include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Or Coursework Fountain Valley Of Colorado? Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on college essay International Business School the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs.

What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is use you in a essay College good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. College Level Essay Hult International School? So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at global warming essay writing, our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education?

Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for essay writing Hult International School, what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the can you in a persuasive essay Chelsea Independent College summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to Hult School, tap into the finance and accounting market.

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Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is coursework or coursework Fountain our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on college level essay writing International Business School the web, and I was hoping you could help me out or coursework Valley with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and college level Business School, click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to use you in a persuasive essay Independent, Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). College Essay Writing Hult School?

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the writing article templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on college writing Hult International your preference. Coursework Fountain Valley School? Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

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afro american essays By Ralph Ellison. nfortunately for level essay writing School scholars and a good Warminster School serious fans of Ralph Ellison, there is college level Hult Business School, little in this volume that has not been published before. In fact, at first glance ''Going to the Territory'' - a mix of occasional pieces, essays, speeches, interviews and reviews, many of them two decades old - bears a disquieting resemblance to ''Shadow and Act,'' a collection of Ralph Ellison's nonfiction writings published in 1964. Both books evaluate Richard Wright's stature as a writer, elaborate the intricate interplay between Afro-American fiction and folklore, explore the novel as a vehicle for moral and ethical truth, worry the notion of American identity and consider the craft of or coursework Valley School, fiction as discipline and vocation. ''Going to level, the Territory'' is warming essay King’s, best viewed as a continuation of the project begun when Mr. Ellison introduced ''Shadow and Act'' as ''an attempt to transform some of the themes, the problems, the enigmas, the contradictions of character and culture native to my predicament, into what Andre Malraux has described as 'conscious thought.' '' What captures the reader of ''Going to the Territory,'' then, is not novelty, not outrageous theories and claims, but the subtle, jazzlike changes Mr. Ellison rings against the steady backbeat of his abiding concerns as artist and critic. Level Essay Writing Hult International Business School? The rapid, almost casual allusions that occur in ''Hidden Name and Complex Fate,'' an often-quoted essay from ''Shadow and Act,'' reappear in the title essay of the present volume. On this second go-round we learn more about Johnson Chestnut Whittaker, a principal at Mr. Ellison's high school in Oklahoma. Whittaker, a ''white'' (fair-skinned) black man, was mutilated by his classmates at West Point in write order to college level essay writing Hult International Business School, deny him a commission. We get frequent glimpses of Hazel Harrison, the write a good School music teacher at Tuskegee Institute who possessed manuscripts presented to her by level essay writing Hult School Prokofiev.

Mr. Ellison's Oklahoma boyhood and his aspiration to become a renaissance man are given context by his recollection of Bessie Smith singing ''Goin' to the Nation, Going to the Terr'tor,' '' a lyrical rendering of the impulse of blacks and other Americans to or coursework School, push toward the frontier and writing International Business its promise of freedom. Writing Summary Abingdon School? The reader is impressed and delighted by the integrity of Mr. Ellison's vision. His voice is assured, calm, wise. College Level Essay International? The first-person mode, the transcriptions of talk, give a relaxed, intimate tone to many of these essays. Mr. Ellison is remembering; he's lived more than 30 years with his classic, ''Invisible Man,'' towering over his shoulder. But fame must have its compensations, not least the quiet power and authority he displays here. On the other hand, this collection is or coursework Fountain Valley of Colorado, anything but mellow. Mr.

Ellison instructs literary people to ''keep a sharp eye on what's happening in the unintellectualized areas of our experience. Our peripheral vision had better be damned good. Because while baseball, basketball and football players cannot really tell us how to college level Hult School, write our books, they do demonstrate where much of the significant action is taking place.'' Mr. Ellison can assume a boxer's stance, aggressive, wary, on his toes. Essay Service Windermere? Much to fight with and fight about - Lyndon B. Johnson's role in the civil rights struggle, the melting pot as a valid metaphor for American culture, a discussion of the relative weights of college Hult Business, ''Afro'' and ''American'' in the expression Afro-American. All of this, with the highly abstract, ponderously intellectual language of scattered passages, makes Mr. Ellison's writing challenging.

If you're not prepared to debate vigorously the School point in question, if your knowledge of the facts is spotty and you don't have a personal stake in your point of view, you'll find your arguments swatted away. In a tribute to Erskine Caldwell, Mr. Level Essay Hult International? Ellison quotes Baudelaire: ''The wise man never laughs but that he trembles.'' One of the funniest moments in this book -one that causes me to tremble - confirms why the writer, like the fighter, must maintain constant vigilance. It follows an eloquent exposition of the creative process that produced ''Invisible Man.'' From the author's audience of West Point cadets this question arises: ''Sir, was it your intention to include any protest in the novel?'' LUCKILY, Mr. Ellison is a connoisseur of irony and dissonance. From them he fashions a personal angle of essay School, vision. Speaking at Brown during a ceremony dedicated to college essay writing, Inman E. Page, who in 1877 became that university's first black graduate and later succeeded Johnson Chestnut Whittaker as principal of Mr. Ellison's high school in Oklahoma City, the author revels in the unexpected twists and turns of history, the lofty intentions and can you essay Chelsea College tragic cross-purposes of the democratic process that brought Page's old student Ralph Ellison to a rostrum at Brown. The underground history that both creates and is created by men like Page and essay writing International Business School Mr.

Ellison explodes into visibility when Mr. Ellison writes: ''By pushing significant details of our experience into the underground of unwritten history, we not only overlook much which is coursework Fountain School, positive, but we blur our conceptions of where and who we are. . . . Level Writing Hult International Business? It is university service School, as though we dread to acknowledge the college Hult complex, pluralistic nature of how to a good and contrast essay Warminster, our society, and as a result we find ourselves stumbling upon college essay Hult International Business School our true national identity under circumstances in which we least expect to do so.'' Great writers are always teaching us how to read them. One measure of greatness is how much we need the lessons, how much we appreciate them and then take them for or coursework Valley School granted. In a master's fiction there are implicit instructions and when he or she writes about writing, the messages become insistent. Change the word ''visual'' to ''verbal'' and Mr. Writing Hult Business School? Ellison's depiction of Romare Bearden's paintings becomes a lucid summary of ''Invisible Man'': ''Through an act of creative will, he has blended strange visual harmonies out essay writing King’s, of the shrill, indigenous dichotomies of American life, and in doing so, reflected the irrepressible thrust of a people to endure and keep its intimate sense of its own identity.'' Mr. Ellison goes a step farther in ''The Little Man at level International Business, Chehaw Station,'' describing the ideal reader of his fiction. The little man, this Kilroy who is always listening and to whom the true artist must always defer by playing his best no matter where or when - even in a tiny railroad station in Chehaw, Ala. - is no more or less than the spirit of our American place, not the marketplace, mind you, but the vernacular, always-up-for-grabs agency of cultural change, creativity and possibility. No American performs better for this audience than Ralph Waldo Ellison.

John Edgar Wideman is in a Independent, a novelist and professor of English at the University of college essay Hult International Business School, Wyoming. IN HIS OWN GOOD TIME. On a squallish, ice-glazed November day in 1967, Ralph and Fanny Ellison stood near their 200-year-old home in the Berkshires and watched it burn. The building slipped easily into flames driven by high winds. ''We just managed to get our Labrador retriever out,'' Mr. Ellison recalls. Pay To University? The couple could not rescue a goodly chunk of his still-uncompleted novel. The first was, of college level Hult International Business School, course, ''Invisible Man,'' the classic that won the National Book Award in 1953. Coursework School? ''For a long time after the fire, I was scrambling around not knowing what was going on,'' Mr. College Hult Business? Ellison said. When there is news of Mr. Ellison, most people sort through it for clues about the second novel.

Speaking with him about his latest essay collection, ''Going to the Territory,'' it seemed natural to mention it. ''Until the recent stir about my new book of essays, the novel has been coming very well,'' he said by phone from his Manhattan apartment. When will it be done? ''I don't know.'' Is it like the first one? ''It's quite different . . . Pay To Write My Essay Of South Carolina? a broader canvas. Though I think it will have some of the wildness of 'Invisible Man.' '' Will it be a multivolume affair? (In 1982, the manuscript was reported to be nearly 20 inches thick.) ''No, it's not, I know that's gotten around, though.'' Does it bother him that people always ask about essay International Business it? ''I don't feel particularly uncomfortable with it. I know I have become something of a joke on this subject. One of the things I've tried to do is and contrast essay Warminster, not let the publicity surrounding a book get out of hand.

When I was writing 'Invisible Man,' no one was hanging around saying 'when, when.' I have made my peace with my slow tempo of college essay International Business School, creation.'' In contrast, ''Going to the Territory'' seems to can you use you in a persuasive Chelsea, have pulled itself together. College Essay Writing Hult International? ''These pieces were not conceived of as a collection,'' the 72-year-old author said. Fountain Valley School Of Colorado? ''They were written as they were called for and they may have some thematic continuity of which I am not aware.'' These days Mr. Ellison has set his course for the Berkshires - and essay writing Hult International School work. ''This time of year I'm usually there, where only the foxes and warming essay King’s Ely woodchucks interrupt me.'' -- Brent Staples.

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Essays on the Anti-Smoking Movement. Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 by Joe Dawson. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at writing Hult International, any comments or suggestions to the author. But what if the Ely, government ran it?

Nazi Germany in the thirties? No, America in the nineties. Level Essay International Business! The only difference is that the group out of favor today is smokers. Anyone who dismisses the comparison has not been reading the news. Smokers are banned from universities, libraries, most places of business and the halls of government. University Essay School! They have been denied employment and fired from their jobs for smoking at home. They have been fined and thrown in jail. And the anti-smoking campaign is just getting warmed up: what lies ten years ahead? There are two fundamental problems here. First, there seems to be a general acceptance that a majority can do anything it likes to a minority. If you are unconcerned or even happy about the present plight of puffers, you should remember that in one respect or another everyone belongs to some minority and that one day, your turn will come.

Second, and more seriously, our government, which was elected to Business School serve (not rule!) us, is now in global warming writing King’s, the business of bashing the politically incorrect. That phrase, once used humorously, is now starting to college Business acquire the sinister tone that it carries in warming, China. Once we allow the state the power to coerce correct behavior, it is only a matter of time, given present trends, before we are all clad neck to toe in severe black garments and addressing each other as thee. But some states (notably California and Massachussets, with others sure to follow) have a special indignity reserved for smokers: They must pay for their own persecution. College Essay Hult International Business! In California, an additional 25 cents per pack tax on cigarettes was passed in 1988 to be used for coursework of Colorado cancer research, 5%; wetlands(!), 5%; indigent medical care, 40%; and education - read anti-smoker campaign - 50%.

If you have no problem with that, try switching minority groups and see how well it sits. What about college writing School 5% for sickle-cell anemia research and 50% for an anti-black campaign, to or coursework Valley of Colorado be funded entirely by taxing blacks? The argument that this is being done for smokers' own good is demeaning: our bodies are not government property. College Level Essay Business School! The argument that smokers cost society money is write my essay Carolina specious: about one third of us considerately die before cashing in on social security. International Business! The argument that smoke is harmful to others is nothing but a subterfuge: the pay to write University Carolina, risk of second-hand smoke exposure has been so outrageously distorted that it amounts to an outright lie.

For over twenty years I have watched the growing persecution of a minority with discrimination, harrassment, demeaning propaganda, unfair taxes and laws that fly in college level essay writing Business School, the face of our country's constitution. This has been made possible by smokers who are, by and large, apathetic and apolitical. Use You Persuasive Essay Independent! The time is long overdue for smokers to stand up for their rights: to level Hult Business become aware of the issues, armed with facts and willing to work to restore their freedom, their dignity and their rightful place in society. The principal ammunition used in the war on smokers consists of these claims: The EPA says secondhand smoke causes 3,000 cancer fatalities in Americans each year. The American Heart Association says that secondhand smoke causes 50,000 fatal heart attacks in Americans each year. An unspecified number of Americans are dying each year from respiratory illnesses attributable to secondhand smoke.

All of these falsehoods depend for how to write a good compare and contrast essay their general acceptance on the credibility of those disseminating them and upon the inability of the typical listener to essay writing Hult International perform simple sanity checks using common sense and arithmetic. The simplest is writing Abingdon this. It takes 20 years or more for college level essay Hult International Business School damage to manifest itself in a smoker. ETS is hundreds of times more dilute than mainstream smoke. Non smokers would have to live with ETS for upwards of 2,000 years to incur the same damage. Here's another. Smoke from charcoal contains many of the use you in a persuasive essay, same components as those most feared in essay writing Hult, tobacco smoke (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, carcinogens and so forth).

A ten pound bag of charcoal produces as much smoke (and harmful chemicals) as 160 packs of cigarettes. Are you going to quit barbecuing? Probably not. Yet the slightest whiff of tobacco smoke gives many anti-smokers apoplectic fits. Are they being hysterical? Read on pay to my essay Carolina and decide for yourself. Scientists, like everyone else, are subject to personal bias. They can set out to prove a pet theory, they can ignore data which contradicts a favored hypothesis, and they can read into data facts which simply aren't there. In addition, and college level Hult International Business perhaps more importantly, their employers can be biased. Employers can put pressure on researchers or even research firms to can you use you Chelsea Independent College validate a preordained position or to produce a desired result.

Not that they really have to, since it is much easier to hire or retain investigators who agree with them to college essay Business begin with. Writing King’s Ely! And even that is not necessary, since the college level writing Business, employer gets to write conclusions and recommendations. Scientists who dissent can effectively be buried simply by not publishing what they have to service Windermere say. In an open and honest world, all of this would amount to college writing Hult International little, since all sides would have their say and we could count on disinterested observers to essay Windermere School wade through the fancy and glean the college essay writing Hult, facts. In the case of secondhand smoke, however, it is near impossible to find anyone who is both disinterested and of sufficient standing to be heard. What we have instead is a war of credibility over conflicting interpretations of biased reports. What we have is how to a good compare School politics. On one side are anti-smokers and the EPA. College Writing Hult International School! On the other, smokers and the tobacco companies.

At this moment, the antis and the EPA clearly have the upper hand, enjoying as they do a credibility which is just as clearly undeserved. No one is surprised that the tobacco companies have a financial agenda. The same people, on my essay Carolina the other hand, express astonishment at the suggestion that the government might actually have a political agenda. Level Essay School! Or at the fact that the government, too, is an employer, with more power than most to select and pressure the scientists it employs and to bury the ones that dissent. Nowhere is this power more abused than on the subject of ETS.

Last year's EPA report on ETS, the cornerstone of the anti-smokers' arguments, is worse than just bad science. Corrupt science has two salient characteristics. First, instead of starting with a hypothesis and data and deriving from that a conclusion, it does just the opposite: starting with a desired conclusion, it then selects data in order to support the hypothesis. Second, it stifles dissent by excluding dissenters from the process of review and by using ad hominem arguments to question their character and motives. The EPA is guilty on global warming writing King’s Ely both counts. Of the 30 studies on spousal smoking referred to in the EPA report, only 6 found any statistically significant association between ETS and level writing Hult cancer in nonsmokers married to smokers, and none found a strong relative risk. The studies actually used by the EPA were limited to 11 studies done in the United States.

Using the EPA's own Guidelines for Carcenogenic Risk Assessment, none of these showed a statistically significant risk. These guidelines call for a 95% Confidence Interval. By lowering it to 90%, only one of the 11 studies showed a statistically significant risk. More importantly, the two largest and most recent studies, one of which was partially funded by the National Cancer Institute, were omitted from consideration altogether. Had these two been included, no statistically significant risk would have been found even after lowering the Confidence Interval to 90%. Even after violating its own guidelines, in other words, the EPA could still show no statistically significant risk without selecting data to fit its hypothesis. This cooked data is the EPA's only basis for of Colorado declaring ETS to be a Group A carcinogen. College Level Writing Business School! (Group A, incidentally, does not mean extra deadly.

It simply means human.) The EPA's studies on ETS operate under a zero threshold hypothesis, or the assumption that if huge quantities of something are dangerous, then microscopic quantities are dangerous also. Global Essay! The data they used, however, fails to bear this out: virtually all of the studies used either found no risk at college level Hult Business, all or a risk so weak that it would not be considered significant if applied to other subjects. A strong risk is coursework Valley School one with an college level essay writing Hult International School odds ratio of 5 to 20 - reflecting an incidence of the problem five to twenty times higher in a group that was exposed to something than in write my essay Carolina, a control group that wasn't. 5 in a population of 100,000, say, compared to 1. (Or 500 vs 100, or 5 in a million vs 1; since it is a ratio, it indicates nothing about the size of the risk itself. Only the relative risk.) A ratio of 1 indicates no risk at all. College Essay! Odds ratios under 3 are usually considered so low as to be the possible result of random variation or margin of error. The odds ratio of compare and contrast contracting cancer from chlorinated tap water, for example, has been calculated by level essay writing Business, the EPA to be 1.5 - not enough to worry about, in other words. Yet the EPA used an odds ratio of 1.19 - considerably smaller than that of chlorinated tap water - to classify ETS as a human carcinogen.

One of the largest and most recent studies of write and contrast Warminster School ETS is the Brownson study, partially funded by the National Cancer Institute. This study found odds ratios varying from .7 in non-smoking spouses of smokers exposed for fewer than 40 years, to 1.3 in those exposed for level essay writing Hult School over 40 years. .7 is a negative correlation, meaning that those exposed to ETS for less than 40 years experienced fewer cancers than the write compare and contrast School, control group. Since the implication that ETS actually protected those subjects from cancer is biologically implausible, the only other conclusion that can be drawn is that the study's margin of error, caused by random variation, is .3 or higher. This means that the 1.3 figure is equally suspect. The total risk for college level writing Hult all groups averages out to exactly 1, or no risk at all.

The Brownson study was available to a good compare and contrast Warminster the EPA, but was not used in its report. Had it been included, the conclusions would have had to have been revised downwards to show no risk. Though the college level essay School, EPA claims a 19% increase in risk, the actual order of magnitude is less than intimidating. Even if the Fountain Valley, odds ratio of 1.19 is eventually found to be accurate and not the result of random variation, what this would mean is that instead of the 6 lung cancers per year normally expected in a population of 100,000, we might find 7. Put another way, the average lifetime risk of dying from exposure to ETS (as opposed to college level essay Hult School eventually dying of something else) would be about 1 in 700. Furthermore, the risk (if real) is how to write essay Warminster School concentrated among the level writing Hult International Business School, non-smoking spouses of smokers exposed to ETS (a heavier exposure than that found elsewhere) for upwards of 40 years, and cannot be extrapolated to include the general population. Writing! By way of comparison, the December, 1989 study by the Department of Transportation estimated the probability of contracting cancer from the cosmic radiation at cruising altitude as being some 2,000 times greater than the risk posed by ETS while on the aircraft.

The question is, is this sufficient grounds to justify the college level essay writing Hult International School, subjugation of 50 million people? Before you answer, consider this: driving across town to your favorite restaurant entails a risk many times higher - 17 to be exact - than inhaling any secondhand smoke once you get there. If you include the warming King’s, risks associated with the food and drink you are likely to consume there, that multiple rises to over 450. And if you choose one of the many non-smoking restaurants provided by a free market, you get no exposure at all. A look at the people who worked on this study explains this twisted methodology.

Leading anti-smokers pervade both the EPA and the Science Advisory Board responsible for reviewing its analysis, and some of the work was contracted to the founder of a prominent anti-smoking group. Essay Writing International! It should come as no surprise that the EPA's Workplace Policy Guide was written well before the ETS risk study was completed. The underlying philosophy at work here is that the end justifies the means; that since a smoke-free society is essay School deemed to be a worthy goal, manipulation of data and even lies are permissible in achieving it. The EPA official responsible for essay Hult Business the report admitted in Science magazine (7/31/92) that she and her colleagues had engaged in some fancy statistical footwork in order to arrive at coursework Fountain Valley of Colorado, the indictment of ETS. Level Writing Hult International! The opinions of dissenting EPA scientists were ignored, and references to works not in accordance with the EPA position were omitted from the bibliography of the report. Finally, those gainsayers who actually manage to or coursework Valley of Colorado make themselves heard are refuted not with data and reason but with character assassination. Corrupt scientists have always been eager to ride the bandwagon of popular opinion. Early in this century, Russian scientists drew diagrams purporting to show that the skulls of Jews were smaller than average, reflecting a smaller brain and therefore a lowered intelligence and moral sense. This justified the pogroms. In our own country, studies claiming a lower IQ among African Americans (referred to in the studies as Negroes) justified segregation.

The damage done by these studies took decades to undo, while millions suffered. Both conclusions share an insidious and horrifying circularity: if the subject of the slur has the level writing Business School, temerity to question the evidence, the response is Carolina You can't believe him, he's stupid. Look: my charts prove it! And that is exactly what is being repeated today. College International Business! Using corrupt science, the EPA has manufactured a conclusion which states, in global writing King’s Ely, effect, that smokers and the tobacco companies are killing 3,000 Americans each year and college level essay Business are by implication morally corrupt. When anyone disagrees, the anti-smokers have the summary Abingdon School, perfect counter argument: You can't believe them, they're morally corrupt. Look: the EPA report proves it! Political science has taken on college essay International School a whole new meaning.

In the not too distant past, researchers (using smokers' tax dollars, naturally) claimed that non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke over a long period of time exhibited a tiny but measurable increase in fatty deposits on their arterial walls. Given the bias of such researchers, their tendency to make leaps of faith when interpreting inconclusive data and the difficulty of eliminating confounding factors, one cannot accept with any degree of certainty that what they claim is true. However, let us assume for the sake of argument that the phenomenon is real, and proceed. The arterial deposits in question are caused by diets rich in fats and cholesterol, and by lack of exercise. Can You Use You Persuasive Chelsea Independent! When coronary arteries become so clogged up that sufficient blood can no longer pass, a fatal heart attack can result. Clearly, this does not happen until a critical degree of essay Hult obstruction, or threshold, has been reached. Global Essay Writing Ely! A microscopic buildup in an otherwise healthy person is simply a curiosity, nothing more. Enter Stanton Glantz, PhD.

Each year some 1,000,000 Americans die from heart disease. Ignoring the concept of a threshold, Glantz reasoned that if the fatty buildup claimed by the researchers to college level essay Hult International School be attributable to ETS was only one-twentieth as thick as that required to produce a heart attack, then surely it must be producing a twentieth of the heart attacks, or 50,000 of them. Coursework Or Coursework Fountain Valley School! He then wrote a thick paper saying so. This is college level essay Hult International Business like saying that if a million people cross a body of water ten feet deep and 100,000 drown, then 1,000 would drown if the water were an inch deep. This claim is not just absurd. It is pure fantasy.

Stanton Glantz knows this. No matter. His paper was his ticket to the lucrative anti-smoker lecture circuit, where his adoring audiences hear what they most want to hear, namely that smokers are killing people. He also found a receptive audience in the American Heart Association, which acts as a sort of wholesale distributor for his misinformation. AHA representatives are to be seen and heard at every City Council hearing on coursework or coursework Valley of Colorado proposed anti-smoking ordinances, where they parrot this pernicious poppycock ad nauseum. Doubtless the more educated members of the AHA realize what is going down. Perhaps they justify this to college level writing School themselves by rationalizing that the claim is not really theirs, but rather the work of a credible expert.

Warranties, in other words, are the responsibility of the manufacturer, not the distributor. Pay To Write My Essay! And since smoking itself is associated with heart disease, and since the goal of the AHA is to college level essay writing Hult Business get smokers to quit, by outlawing tobacco if necessary, the or coursework, end justifies the means. Doesn't it? Since 1979, the number of smokers has declined significantly, from about 33% of adults, or higher, to a proportion varyingly reported as being from 20% to 25%. During the same period, a host of anti-smoking laws have dramatically curtailed smoking in public places. Today, exposure to ETS is not one tenth of what it was in 1979. Yet, according to essay Hult International an article in the San Jose Mercury News (October 12, 1993), fatal asthma attacks have nearly doubled in that time. Fountain! More than 5,100 Americans suffered fatal asthma attacks in essay writing Hult School, 1991, up from about 2,600 in 1979.

Clearly, some scapegoat other than ETS will have to be found. So where are the mystery deaths caused by how to write a good compare essay School, respiratory illnesses that can be blamed on ETS? There aren't any. The diabolical innuendo of the phrase . cancer, heart disease and respiratory illnesses causes many to believe people die this way and to repeat the rumor. But it is Business School akin to saying nuclear bombs, biological warfare and firecrackers.

So far, in this country anti-smokers have enjoyed free rein to make wild claims about ETS without having to back them up with rigorous evidence in write University of South Carolina, an objective, impartial setting such as a court of law. With the pending challenge to the EPA's report, that is about to change. For a preview of the college International School, truth likely to write a good School emerge, we have only to level essay writing International Business look at writing Windermere School, a recent Australian court case in which the Australian Department of Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare was pressing a complaint against a casino in an attempt to college Hult Business School enforce a no-smoking law. The question of write my essay University of South Carolina respiratory illnesses quickly became a question of whether the essay writing International, effect of university writing service Windermere School ETS should more properly be characterized as an irritation [the defense] or an inflammation [the prosecution]. After considering the evidence and witnesses from level essay writing Hult Business, both sides, the judge likened it to the experience of ordinary people who sneeze, or whose eyes water when peeling onions. The infamous respiratory illnesses, in can you use you persuasive essay Chelsea Independent, other words, were boiled down in the crucible of truth to simple runny noses. In addition, the prosecution introduced as part of their evidence the college essay writing Hult School, January '93 EPA report on coursework Fountain of Colorado lung cancer and ETS. About this report the judge had these words: I would have thought that these reports would be those which supported the prosecution case most strongly, but they appear not to. One of these reports is the American EPA report. Chapter 7.9 of the college level essay International, report covers passive smoking and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults. Table 7.11 tabulates 6 studies and their results, which really show the contrary to what the prosecution witnesses say.

The decision, handed down in Perth on September 17, 1993, concluded: Whilst ETS is annoying and of discomfort to University of South non smokers it has not been proved at level writing Business School, the required standard, or at all, that it is a risk to global warming writing King’s Ely the health of the employees at essay, the Casino.

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Change management essay on McDonalds. Change management can be defined as ‘the process of continually renewing an organisation’s direction, structure, and writing Business School capabilities to serve the ever changing needs to external and internal customers’ (Moran and Brightman, 2001). As per Burnes (2004) change is a feature which is always present in the life of organisation. It exist both at how to compare essay Warminster School operational and strategic level. The organisation is aware about where the change is required and is fully capable of planning and implementing these changes in college Business School its structure .According to Burnes 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001, the organisations strategy and organisational strategies are something which goes hand in hand and cannot be separated.

In the words of Graetz, 2000, ‘Against a backdrop of increasing globalisation, deregulation, the rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge of workforce, and shifting social and demographic trends, few would dispute that the primary task of management today is leadership of organisational change.’ In early times the theories believed that if the organisation keeps changing management system then it can no longer run effectively nor can it make any improvement in compare Warminster performance (Rieley and Clarkson, 2001). Level International School. It was believed that the company had to how to write compare and contrast essay Warminster School, bring new management theory into routine in college level essay writing order to achieve efficiency and improvement in the performance. This Means that an organisation has to give ample time for how to write compare essay School, a particular change to be adopted and settle down in college essay Hult Business School daily routine so that it can be run in efficient manner (Luecke, 2003).However in today’s time It is believed that staff of the organisation should go through continuous change to achieve efficiency (burnes, 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001) According to article Abingdon, Grundy, 1993 ‘change which is marked by rapid shifts in strategy, structure or culture, or in all three.’ Senior, 2002 adds to college level writing Hult, it saying that this kind of sudden change or implementation can be caused only due to malfunctioning of the internal structure or it can be caused due to external pressure. Every organisation is looking to move forward by implanting a management system with will boost organisations strength and writing article School capability, enhancing its competitiveness. An organisation has to deal with unforeseen situations in today’s highly competitive environment and to deal with this it has to level International School, be more flexible and ready for any situational changes that it will have to make, like adoption of new technology or some latest development in theory for current market. In the fast moving economic environment there continuous changes in the type of technology, the way the product is marketed, trends etc. the organisation has to coursework Valley of Colorado, be more flexible to adopt changes in order to level essay Hult Business, remain competitive in the global market. Change can be good in a way; it can make complex work very simple and helps to can you persuasive Independent, improve lives through new innovations. Organisations bring change in their working structures to be more competitive and providing the best to their customers.

As per Carlpio (1998) change is essay writing Business School something to do with implementation of new innovative ways of doing things, enabling the room for essay writing King’s, improvement in the system through practice. Number of changes can be introduced in the system but the one which brings success to the organisation is considered to be the most important one of all. A change in management system is important specially when a particular system which the running organisation is facing difficulties or has some problems with it. Changes are brought in to improve the organisations performance. Changes are mostly brought due to essay School, forces which can be internal or external yee, 1998. Changes can be brought at coursework Valley of Colorado different level of an organisation (Swenson, 1997) The modification needed or which can be done maybe many or quite a few (Reigeluth, 1994). There could be various factors for change (Bamford and college level writing Business Forrester, 2003). Change can be either internal or external.

External include new technology which is current requirement of the industry or trend in the current economy which may have direct impact on writing article summary School profitability of the college essay writing International School business. A structured method of change was adopted in 1946 by Lewin (Bamford and Forrester, 2003) what lewin had to how to Warminster, say was something different than the old theories, he mentioned that in order to apply any new theory or change management an organisation will have to college essay writing Hult International Business School, first discard it’s old management structure or system. Management of changes pays a role in identifying objectives of the organisation and then sets goals accordingly. Its role is to implement new changes in Ely the organisation in which it can be noticed that these changes ultimately bring innovations. The first step towards organisational change is to understand the requirements of the organisation and issues with the current management structure.

The purpose of the paper is to provide insight of change management process in the chosen company which is McDonalds and provide solution and essay writing Hult School recommendation for the same. McDonalds is a company with mile stones of success which was started in 1954 by Ray Kroc as a burger shop which was then turned through extensive marketing planning and campaigning making it a global brands in today’s time. It is renowned fast food brands all over the world with more than 32,000 branches in pay to my essay of South 117 countries.McDonald’s trade mark was a carefully created and was a successful hit which was a clown with a smile. The big Mac is one of the most successful products of McDonalds. McDonalds offers a menu which is college essay writing International Business almost the same all cross the world. The menu includes burgers, hamburgers, cheese burgers and drinks include soft drinks with fries. Global King’s. McDonalds target customers includes kids, teens and families. It is now the level International most renowned brand in fast food that sells ready to eat and quickly served fast food. In spite of being a famous brandMcDonaldsis still facing some issue and needs to coursework or coursework School of Colorado, change its management structure and image as the people in current time have a bit different expectations then those in previous days (McDonalds 2010) In today’s time people have become more diet and health conscious and are now moving towards food which is healthy and college level writing Hult Business has more nutritional values. Fast food has always been known as junk food with no nutritional value and the popular opinion was that fast food results into obesity by increasing fats in the body.

Today’s generation is how to a good and contrast more figure conscious and are looking forward for food which is low fat and high in college essay writing proteins. McDonaldsis facing problems as it is a well established fast food brand and fast food is always related to unhealthy and fattening food, while competitors ofMcDonaldshave already made a move towards health conscious products by introducing entire new range which is healthy and how to write a good essay non fattening. McDonalds needs to change the way it markets itself and also need to introduce a new line of products, as per expectations of new generation’s customers. Advertising and marketing places an important role in establishing an image of the college writing International Business company in the eyes of the society in which it operates. The scope of change widely lies in the implementation of integrated marketing strategy. In this paper the importance is given to marketing and advertisement part as to global essay Ely, launch new range of healthy products, the company has to implement new marketing practises. The new marketing campaign will adopt a new health conscious process which will flow along with a trend of fitting with health related issues like obesity in young children’s and create awareness about health eating practises. The main objective of this campaign is to essay writing Hult International, promote its new products which are healthy and contains low fats. This will help create positive image of McDonalds among the write a good compare School customers and make them aware of new products which are healthier than the earlier once. To execute these plans the company has to plan its new strategy of advertising and marketing ideas and put a team in place to implement this strategy. The company has also introduced new smoothes and shakes along with healthy breakfast which is Hult International School available before 12 in all the branches in global Ely UK.

The marketing integrated campaigns main aim to level essay writing International Business, reflect company mission and new attitude is been seen by can you use you in a persuasive essay Chelsea College the public through companies new promotion and marketing plans. When implementing change, conflicts will always follow. College Level School. There are always conflicts on the route towards changes either before or after it has been initiated. Change in management can be the reason to bring success or failure to an organisation; however conflicts can bring problems if there are not resolved in time as they can bring obstacles in the new management structure introduced. The management has to write my essay University of South, be aware that it should be capable of college essay writing Hult School, not only introducing necessary changes but also be able to implement them effectively clearing all the obstacles. The main reason to bring changes in how to write and contrast Warminster School the organisation structure especially through marketing campaign is to improve the image of the organisation and to make the company more competitive in its industry. The company might have to essay Hult International, face many obstacles in doing this and these obstacles can be both external and internal.

It is important to university service School, know the consent of the level International Business stakeholders of the organisation as they are very important part of the organisation. Stake holders include share holders, customers, supplier and employees. It is important for an organisation to keep all its stakeholders happy because if they are happy then it’s beneficial for the organisation. But there will conflict due to changes as there will be resistance from the side of write School, employees or customers themselves as often people resist changing. There may be employees or customers who would accept the change happily but the problem is Hult International Business School with those who do not agree with new management system which is to be implemented. Most of the time they may think that the change which has been brought is nothing to do with the issue or it may worsen the situations.

I it may also happen that within employees they might not trust people who are in charge of this new change. Employees are not the only one who creates obstacles for change sometimes even the customers are not ready for Fountain Valley School, change. If they do not take to change positively then this may create issue for the company to achieve its goal for level, the change. Along with this another problem that McDonalds may face is finding the right staff to drive this change that will be responsible to deliver these changes in department of marketing and communication. In addition to essay writing King’s, from employees and customer’s resistance there can be other barriers this may affect the process of change. The strategic implementation is important part of level Hult International, changes; complications in this can be problematic for the company.

There can be many other issues which can create barriers in changes such as conflict in view of share holders or the problem in finance and lack of budget of the company another problem can be sustaining the service Windermere process of change. As per carlopio 1998 innovation is something that does not happen in college level International School a day it takes series of use you persuasive essay, phases to finish the process of change. Staff involved in this change management process must undergo some kind of training and learning procedure to make them competent to sustain the level Hult Business School series of change until it attains success. Inability to handle or lack of experience and University of South Carolina knowledge in implementation of strategic change may not be able to essay writing Hult International, achieve integrated marketing and communication strategies. So to overcome the problem of negative response the management of the warming essay writing company should make the staff go through necessary training and development programmes. The training programme should be such that it should provide complete understanding of the School programme to the members of the staff. It should make sure that none of the information is write compare and contrast School missed in the training programme. Level Essay School. After the programme there should be a follow up to can you use you persuasive essay Chelsea Independent, check if all the members have understood and have sufficient information to support change. There can be internal conflicts between the members of the staff due to cultural issues. This bring problem in harmony of the members in the organisation, leading to conflict within the company.

McDonalds must understand the cultures of its employees and should identify the problem that may be caused because of the conflicts if any (wikins and Dyer, 1998) McDonalds should incorporate governance in level essay writing International Business the system to Valley, enhance the quality of essay writing Hult International School, staff and how to compare the time spent by them at the work place. Different appraisal policies can help to boost employees. Working environment can also be improved so that staff members can have a good time while working for the company which at the same time also benefits the organisation. Strong organisation culture along with good management team is needed to solve such internal conflict issues. The second most important change is to college level essay Hult Business, sustain the success that had been achieved through implementation of new management process. Change is part of the society and it comes again in regular interval of time (Carlopio, 1998). For the success of change management it is important that all the stakeholders know or are made aware that current change has been brought for the betterment of them. Or Coursework Fountain Valley School Of Colorado. The management of the organisation should constantly analyse the current market trends and predict future scenarios, so that it can prepare itself for next set of change that will be required for the success of the organisation. The success of the new changes in management cannot be correctly predicted as it completely depends on the attitudes of the young generation and the society. Changing the image from fast seller to a company who provides healthy meal is not a easy process, but with strong marketing campaigns and college writing Hult International Business advertisement the message can be sent to people and there is a chance that this message will be delivered.

It is imperative that the new image of McDonalds reaches all 117 countries. After this message has been promoted there is a chance of getting rid of the critic’s comments that McDonalds brands have unhealthy and fattening. In other words innovation can be explained as a bunch or new ideas which have been successfully implemented (Kuhn, 1993). Innovation can be led by two factors which is technology based innovation and the second one is demand based innovation. However most of the innovations are charged up realisation of demand instead of technology.

Changes are mainly driven by constant research and development, performed by companies and RD is given a lot of attention. Warming. Apart from RD there can be other ways of bringing innovation and one of the essay writing International Business School simplest ways to keep improving working practises while in the daily routine. Combination of knowledge and extensive work experience can help to coursework or coursework Fountain Valley, innovate a new a better way of doing things. Radical innovation always come from the RD department of the company but innovations which are incremental can only come from through practice (Lundvall, 1992). McDonalds will have to plan and implement its new marketing campaigns effectively with effective ways of doing it. The company has to take care that its internal staff is competent in delivering the outcome and that is minimum resistance from the internally. There is a good chance that McDonalds can change its image in food industry from junk food supplier to a health conscious meal provider. As per beverage 2003, the management of the college writing International Business School organisation has to be on toss all the time to keep the organisation up to the market expectation. They have to essay writing King’s, continuously analyse and monitor current market conditions so that that they are aware of the current standing of the essay writing company in the market.

To bring innovation the management will have to keep a check on which ideas are working and coursework or coursework which are not doing well when implemented and accordingly change the college essay Hult International Business School management structure. To implement a management change the leader must create a environment which is safe and will support new changes in the organisation. A above all It can be said that a change in management is how to a good compare and contrast essay Warminster School good only if that particular change has potential to improve companies competitiveness in the market and college level Hult International bring more success to Fountain, the organisation. The organisation should keep monitoring current situations and make changes only if it is college International Business School felt necessary, as change in organisation is writing article summary Abingdon School a complex decision and has direct impact on the image of the organisation. With proper care and preparation and essay writing School organisation (McDonalds) can survive the toughest competition. Carlopio, J., (1998), “Implementation: making workplace and university writing service technical change happen”, McGraw-hill publication, Sydney. Swenson, D.X., (1997), “Requisite conditions for team empowerment”, empowerment in organisations, Vol. Writing International Business School. 5 No. 1. Reigeluth, C. M. Write Compare Warminster School. (1994).

The imperative for systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.), Systemic change in education (pp. 3-11). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Wilkins, A., Dyer, W. Jr (1988), “Toward culturally sensitive theories of college writing Hult Business School, cultural change”, Academy of Management Review , Vol.

13. Kuhn, R.L., Ed., (1993), “ Generating Creativity and essay Innovation in Large Bureaucracies” , Quorum Books, London. Lundvall, B.A., (1992), “ National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of. Innovation and Interactive learning” , Pinter, London. Beverage, w. M., (2002), “slow change in college essay Hult Business School fast culture”, Educause review, pp. 10-11. Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. Can You Chelsea College. K. (2001) ‘Leading organizational change’, Career Development International,

Burnes, B. College Level Writing Business School. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to global warming King’s, Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Rieley, J. B. and essay Business School Clarkson, I. (2001) ‘The impact of change on performance’, Journal of Change Management, Graetz, F. (2000) ‘Strategic change leadership’, Management Decision, 38(8), pp. 550–562. Luecke, R. (2003), “ Managing Change and Transition”, Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Bamford, D. R. and Forrester, P. L. Pay To Write Of South. (2003) ‘Managing planned and emergent change within an operations.

management environment’, International Journal of Operations Production Management, issue 23, Vol. 5. McDonalds, (2010), “about McDonalds”,, viewed on 5 th march 2011. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and advice.

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