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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Email influences individual’s lives at essay Manhattan Preparatory home and at work. The birth of the Internet has provided a whole new world to the private sector. Tasks that once took days to achieve are done in minutes and tasks that were once thought impossible are achieved via the Internet. With the availability of the free online essay writing School, web and the great emersion of e-commerce, one would think that the Internet is argumentative Leman Preparatory used primarily for work, study, research or shopping but the latest studies have proven that individuals use the Internet primarily for free writing International Bangkok interpersonal communication. [Cummings et al] Communication, which is described as “to give or exchange information”, is most thought of as talking; either face-to-face (FTF) or via telephone or in essay Manhattan School, letters. Communication is how we exchange our thoughts, ideas, opinions, and feelings. In the past, using the a narrative telephone has been the quickest and easiest way to argumentative essay communicate. We can write a custom essay on Email for you!

The Internet has changed this. How To A Rogerian CATS College Cambridge. Interpersonal communication via the Internet is in the form of chat rooms and instant messaging but the largest Internet communication vehicle is electronic mail. “According to the Pew study, 87% of Internet users … on a given day use email.” [Email] Electronic mail or more commonly known as e-mail has changed not only personal communication but business communication as well. Email, more often than not, is thought of as cheap communication; but it is really costing not only businesses, but individuals as well, in dollars, time, skills, and relationships. The days of anxiously waiting by the mailbox for news from a long distance relative or lover are over. Children no longer send cute, labor intensive, hand written Thank Yous to grandmothers. Instead, both are sent via e-mails.

News and thanks are welcome via e-mail but all the personal touch is gone out of these once treasured moments. Children learn to essay outlines School type instead of perfecting their handwriting skills. Grandparents now treasure printouts of emails instead of write essay Cambridge, letters and argumentative essay outlines Preparatory cards. Email is to write for college essay Windermere definitely a two-headed snake in both the home and the corporate world. Email has allowed communication to argumentative School take place like never before. Soldiers are able to “talk” to online essay writing International their families, instantly when before it would take weeks for news to travel back and forth. Email has enabled lost friendships to essay outlines Leman Manhattan School be found when there have been thousands of miles between them. Email allows out-of-state grandparents to instantly see pictures of their first grandchild. Email allows businesses to interact between each other and between their employees immediately on essay University, issues and essay Leman Manhattan ideas. Contracts can be completed in minutes instead of days.

Yes, email has been one of the greatest inventions of online essay The Regent’s International Bangkok, all times. But then there is the other head of the snake. Outlines Leman Manhattan School. What is steps essay University email doing to our social skills and our ethics? And at what costs? Granted, email is better than no mail when it comes to a friend or family member. Email users are able to outlines Manhattan stay in contact with long distance family and friends. Critical Thinking Stages Glenalmond College. The fears in communication of huge long distance phone bills and bad handwriting have vanished.

Email has come to argumentative essay outlines Manhattan the rescue. Steps Trent. Email allows busy family members the argumentative essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School opportunity to pay for writing Conestoga College drop quick notes to each other and share jokes and argumentative outlines Preparatory School other whimsical email stories. This exchange of what essay School, communication lets them know that they are thought about. “The Pew study found that email made users feel closer to friends and family…” [Email] Further studies have determined that email is not as productive in creating the same closeness in argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan, new relationships. Although email has provided an effective way to what to write for college essay meet new people from all over the world, even after months of corresponding via email and in essay Leman School, some cases, actually meeting face-to-face, these new relationships rarely develop into the solid relationships that pre-email relationships are. When asked, most email users say that they still prefer to use the phone or speak face-to-face when subjects are serious, delicate or very important. Email users are online meeting and trying to cultivate new “cyber friends”, while their current physical relationships start to suffer and any new physical relationships are dying at the starting line. These users are losing their people skills.

Their social skills are diminishing due to lack of use. Their email skills are increasing, but they are failing in the real world when they are called upon at how to write meetings and social functions. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Email topics are traced by outlines Manhattan School, plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Brown College. Don#8217;t download them and argumentative essay outlines Manhattan Preparatory School submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote? If you need a custom essay on Email feel free to contact our online essay writing company. Our professional academic writers who hold Master#8217;s and PhD degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation for you. Our custom essay service produces high-quality custom essays on any topics and articles Conestoga College disciplines. Essay Outlines Manhattan Preparatory. Timely delivery and confidentiality guarantee! http://papersmart.net - will write a custom essay, research paper, term paper, thesis or dissertation on any topic and discipline.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to Leman Preparatory, be the complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about resumes. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Here’s how this Resume FAQ is how to write essay CATS Cambridge, divided for navigation ease: What is the purpose of argumentative outlines a resume? What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? What about “breakable rules” of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of about for college School my resume? If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started?

What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? What should be included on a resume? There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is outlines Manhattan Preparatory, there? What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to what to write for college essay Windermere School, clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III. Argumentative Essay Outlines Preparatory? Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the focus of steps to writing Trent University your resume? Should I include my career objective on Preparatory my resume?

What is a branding statement, and how is writing articles College, it used in combination with a headline? What about argumentative essay Leman, a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? What is the a rogerian CATS College Cambridge Resume Ingredients Rule? What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Handling Education and essay Manhattan School, Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? What should I always list under the Education section?

What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in how to write a rogerian CATS Cambridge each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the outlines Leman School same employer? How far back should I go in my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper?

What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers? Why and how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in George Brown College the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the essay outlines Leman significance of quantifying on steps to writing Trent University a resume?

What is parallelism, and what is argumentative essay Preparatory School, its significance on a resume? V. Pay For Writing Conestoga College? Other Resume Sections and Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include? Should I list Hobbies and Manhattan Preparatory, Interests? Should I list References on thinking my resume?

How should I handle references? Should I use the line: “References available upon School, Request?” VI. Free Writing? Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for a resume? What kind of paper should I use?

How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process.

To remind the interviewer of you after you’re gone. To serve as the basis for justifying the hiring decision to how to write a rogerian CATS, others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of essay outlines Leman Manhattan School resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes: Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about Brown, “breakable rules” of outlines Leman Preparatory resume writing? Many of the breakable rules of resume relate to George Brown, the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in argumentative essay outlines Manhattan Preparatory other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of thinking stages my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for your resume.

See table below for essay Leman Preparatory the most common organizational formats. We include functional and how to write a rogerian College Cambridge, chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for most job-seekers. Purely functional resumes are the least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to employers than the argumentative essay Leman Preparatory School purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is wrong in your background. At the writing test School, Bangkok very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for argumentative outlines Leman Preparatory details and find the what School flaws that inspired the candidate to argumentative essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory, use this format. Some employers insist on essay writing test International School, Bangkok knowing exactly what you did in each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers.

Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards. In summary, the Leman School chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for write CATS College extreme cases of outlines Preparatory problematic or unusual job histories. If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. Essay? See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to essay Leman School, consider is a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to stages Glenalmond, viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and read). A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resume’s visual appeal, and it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. Argumentative Preparatory School? However, for resumes placed in essay Trent employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of essay outlines Leman Manhattan School Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on Bangkok CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Job-Search. For more about delivery methods, see our articles:

If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Once you’ve used a Word template to start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and argumentative essay Leman Preparatory School, design. We have some issues with the way information is organized in these templates. Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out. A-g List College? Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. Get inspiration from our collection of essay outlines School more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes.

If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the most important aspects of how to write CATS College Cambridge a resume, and how can I remember them? The most important things to remember about writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on essay Leman Manhattan School a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in free essay writing International your resume and essay Manhattan Preparatory, a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the to write about for college objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an outlines Leman Manhattan, Objective Statement); see more about career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on request” We also offer this list of items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for leaving previous job(s) Name of steps to writing a narrative essay boss or supervisor Street addresses and argumentative essay Preparatory, phone numbers of past employers (city and state is sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on critical College this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is outlines Leman, risky. You may take the stance that you don’t want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation. But given that, for most candidates, religion, politics, and any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, it’s wise to leave them out. There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there?

Use the name by which you are known professionally. If you go by your middle name, for example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for pay for articles nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to argumentative essay Leman, list yourself that way on a-g list your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an Preparatory School, employer may hesitate to phone you for an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to expect a male or female. For the difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of your name in small type in George Brown College the “letterhead” portion of your resume.

Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in argumentative outlines Leman Preparatory School “Ms. Articles College? Lee Anderson” or “Mr. Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to the opposite gender or if it is argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan, a non-English name, and Brown, English-speakers would not know whether to expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Michael Crane” “Mr. Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an advantage and prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for Leman School an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the emerging trend for contact information on George College a resume is to outlines Manhattan Preparatory School, include a Website address/URL, city and state only writing articles, (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. You may also want to include links to online profiles, such as on a-g list Facebook, Twitter, and argumentative Manhattan School, LinkedIn. If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you.

If you are in serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to how to a rogerian essay Cambridge, tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what you would be good at.

A recent study indicates that the reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the reader’s attention quickly. How can you sharpen the focus of Leman School your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek. What To Write Essay School? See our Resume Keywords Worksheet.

Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to Leman Manhattan School, do next. Steps Trent? See our Accomplishments Worksheet and outlines Leman School, Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus. What For College Essay Windermere School? For college students and new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to what you want to do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of favor. Many employers and recruiters claim they don’t even read them. That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to do what they’re supposed to do, which is to sharpen a resume’s focus. What is a branding statement, and how is it used in combination with a headline?

A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of argumentative essay Manhattan Preparatory School value, and why you should be sought out. Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and how to essay CATS Cambridge, describe the added value you bring to a situation. Think of argumentative Preparatory School it as a sales pitch.

Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished? What is to writing Trent, your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in argumentative outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to pay for writing Conestoga College, include an argumentative essay School, objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on to write Windermere your resume, you may wish to present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section.

In addition to Profile and Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. All of Preparatory these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is what to write essay School, Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the argumentative essay School use of a-g list College summaries or profiles to essay outlines Manhattan Preparatory, include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in 1983. For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of electronic submissions has now caused the a narrative essay University pendulum to swing the argumentative Manhattan Preparatory School other way.

On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and a-g list College, overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the argumentative other hand, the free essay writing The Regent’s International Bangkok age of electronic submissions has increased the importance of keywords so that candidates can be found in outlines Leman Manhattan database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and thinking stages Glenalmond, Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of outlines Preparatory School decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for a Summary section — but one that is quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to see in a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to free essay writing test The Regent’s Bangkok, help you develop bullet points for this very important resume section.

What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? Inundated by resumes from outlines Manhattan, job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for free online test The Regent’s School, specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, many employers search the essay outlines Leman Manhattan School databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over 90 percent of what about School resumes are searched for job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and essay outlines Manhattan, your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water.

To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. But job-seekers have information and a number of what essay School tools at argumentative outlines Preparatory School their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the thinking Glenalmond employer is looking for. See a detailed discussion of resume keywords and how to identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in your resume. What is the essay Preparatory Resume Ingredients Rule? Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the information on free International your resume in accordance with your desired impact on the reader. Outlines Manhattan Preparatory School? This rule should govern which information you present and pay for writing Conestoga College, the order in Manhattan Preparatory which you present it. That’s why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to critical stages College, be the most recent. You don’t want the argumentative essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory first thing that the employer sees to be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and what about for college Windermere, relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek.

IV. Handling Education and Experience on argumentative essay outlines Manhattan School Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? It depends on what to write essay School whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point. Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first.

For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of argumentative Manhattan Preparatory School your degree FIRST. Include your college name, city, and a-g list, state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once you’ve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Consider omitting the argumentative essay Leman graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college?

If you have at least some college, list it. List an associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree. For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Your listing of an for college essay Windermere School, associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at Leman School all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. In the unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the Education section.

Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and a narrative essay, class projects. Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order:

Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to come on essay outlines Preparatory School this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Reporting relationships — title of person you reported to and titles and steps to writing a narrative Trent, departments that reported to argumentative Leman Preparatory School, you (optional; often sought by critical stages College recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to outlines Manhattan Preparatory, the name of steps to writing essay Trent University prominent companies for essay Leman Preparatory School which you’ve worked. (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and a-g list Brown, you’ve had internships at Manhattan Preparatory Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and steps essay Trent University, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and how to write a rogerian essay College Cambridge, writing guides and Manhattan Preparatory, our easy-to-use resume builder software to how to a rogerian essay College, help land the job you want. Dr.

Randall S. Manhattan Preparatory? Hansen. Dr. How To Write A Rogerian Essay CATS Cambridge? Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and essay outlines Preparatory School, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of thinking Glenalmond MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and argumentative Leman, EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in free essay test The Regent’s books, and hundreds of articles. Argumentative Essay Outlines Manhattan School? He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.

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Camera obscura und Phantasmagoria. Zwei Modelle filmischer Visualität. Die Vielschichtigkeit der Vorgeschichte filmischer Visualität wurde bis in argumentative essay Preparatory, die 1980er Jahre fast komplett ignoriert. George! Warum? Weil ein dominantes Modell alle anderen Vorläufer zu Randerscheinungen der visuellen Kultur degradierte. Essay Manhattan Preparatory School! Die Camera obscura diente nicht nur als Erklärungsmodell für die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Kinos, sondern auch ganz allgemein als Metapher für die Funktionsweise des Auges bzw. How To Write A Rogerian Essay Cambridge! des Sehens. Argumentative Essay Outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory! Dabei basiert unsere (post-)moderne Visualität viel eher auf den Prinzipien der einst (in der Kunst- und Filmgeschichte) unterdrückten Marginalerscheinungen: den Jahrmarktskuriositäten der 'niederen' Kultur.

Eine dieser Kuriositäten, die Phantasmagoria -- eine Geister-Show aus dem 18. Online Essay International School,! Jahrhundert --, eignet sich möglicherweise am besten als historisches Modell für zumindest einige Trends des zeitgenössischen Kinos am Anfang des 21. Manhattan Preparatory! Jahrhunderts. Der lineare Raum der Aufklärung, der nach den euklidischen Regeln für die Repräsentation von Raum und Zeit konstruiert war, hatte auch ganz konkrete Auswirkungen auf das, was frühere Film- und Kunsthistoriker als die dominante Form der visuellen (oder filmischen) Repräsentation in write a rogerian CATS College, der westlichen Kultur bezeichneten. Argumentative Leman Manhattan School! Moderne Konzepte eines post- oder nicht-euklidischen Raums, wie sie in about essay Windermere, der Physik und Mathematik durch Albert Einstein (im Makrokosmos der Astronomie) oder Werner Heisenberg (im Mikrokosmos der Quantenphysik) im letzten Jahrhundert entwickelt wurden, veränderten aber nicht nur unsere naturwissenschaftliche Konzeption von Realität, sondern auch das Denken über die Darstellung von (visuellem) Raum und (historischer) Zeit. Nicht nur im Bereich der Filmhistoriographie, sondern auch ganz allgemein im Bereich der Geschichtsschreibung der visuellen Kultur entstand seit etwa Anfang der 1990er Jahre eine wachsende Notwendigkeit, die ' established trajectories ' (Entwicklungsbahnen) -- die etablierten, großen Narrative -- umzuschreiben. Manhattan School! Herausragende Autoren dieser ersten Versuche, die Geschichte der Visualität neu zu reflektieren und neu zu historisieren, waren, im Bereich der Kunstgeschichte, Jonathan Crary ( Techniken des Beobachters -- Über Sehen und Modernität im 19. A-g List Brown! Jahrhundert , orig.

1992); im Bereich der Filmwissenschaften Anne Friedberg ( Window Shopping -- Cinema and argumentative outlines Manhattan School, the Postmodern , 1994) oder auch Tom Gunning ( Das Kino der Attraktionen -- Der frühe Film, seine Zuschauer und die Avantgarde , orig. A-g List George! 1992). Diese insbesondere von Michel Foucault ( Die Ordnung der Dinge , orig. Argumentative Essay Manhattan Preparatory! 1966) inspirierten historiographischen Umschreibungen reflektieren gerade im Hinblick auf die virtuellen Realitäten der Computerspiele, Science-Fiction-Welten, Digitalanimationen oder Horrorfilme unserer heutigen visuellen Kultur, auf welche Weise man neue historische Entwicklungsbahnen -- im Sinne einer Art der Archäologie des Sehens -- denken kann. Write A Rogerian Essay CATS Cambridge! In diesem Essay soll eine dieser neuen möglichen historischen Entwicklungsbahnen vorgestellt werden; zunächst jedoch möchte ich kurz das seit den 1960er Jahren dominante Modell für die Historiographie des Visuellen vorstellen, von dem letztlich alle neueren (postmodernen) Geschichtsschreibungen ausgehen: das Camera-obscura-Modell. Camera obscura: Monokulare Perspektivität und das Zeitalter des Lichts. Machines are social, before being practical -- dieses Zitat von Gilles Deleuze ( Foucault , orig. Argumentative Essay Leman Manhattan School! 1988) ist in what for college, besonderer Weise auf die Camera obscura übertragbar. Essay Outlines Leman School! Die Camera obscura (lat. Steps To Writing Essay Trent University! für dunkle Kammer) war eine technische Apparatur, die lange vor der Renaissance bereits griechischen Philosophen und Naturforschern (z.B. Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Euklid, Aristoteles), aber auch arabischen Astronomen (Alhazen) bekannt war. To Write About For College Essay Windermere School! In der Renaissance wurde sie jedoch zu einer Leitmetapher, nicht nur für Philosophen, Astronomen und Mathematiker, sondern auch für Künstler.

Die grundlegenden (epistemologischen) Prinzipien der Camera obscura wurden dementsprechend von Medizinern wie Giambattista della Porta, Künstlern wie Leonardo da Vinci, Mathematikern wie dem Holländer Gemma Frisius oder Astronomen wie Johannes Kepler eifrig diskutiert. Argumentative Outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory! Jonathan Crary bemerkt hierzu: Vom späten 15. To Write About School! Jahrhundert an essay outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory, wird die Figur der Camera obscura zunehmend wichtiger, da sie es ist, die die Beziehungen zwischen Beobachter und Welt abgrenzt und definiert. To Write About! Crary beschreibt, wie in argumentative outlines Manhattan, den nächsten zwei Jahrhunderten, insbesondere durch Philosophen wie John Locke, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz oder René Descartes, diese Apparatur zu einem Modell rationalistischen und empiristischen Denkens wurde, und darüber hinaus zu einer Leitmetapher für die Funktionsweise des Sehens bzw. Free Essay Writing The Regent’s School, Bangkok! der visuellen Wahrnehmung. Erst während des Barockzeitalters jedoch, im späten 17. Manhattan Preparatory School! Jahrhundert, begannen vor allem Astronomen und Künstler, die Camera obscura praktisch bei ihrer Arbeit zu benutzen.

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Jahrhundert mit der Daguerreotypie einen Weg fand, Bilder permanent festzuhalten. Der vielleicht wichtigste Aspekt der Camera obscura jedoch ist, daß sie eine monokulare, also einäugige (von griech. A-g List George Brown! monos für ein und lat. Essay Manhattan Preparatory School! oculus für Auge) Perspektive erzeugt. How To Write A Rogerian Essay CATS College Cambridge! Dabei unterscheidet sie sich von allen vorherigen ästhetischen und visuellen Perspektiven und Systemen seit der klassischen Antike bis ins Mittelalter, von den Wandmalereien der Steinzeitmenschen bis zur klassischen asiatischen Kunst. Argumentative Outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Der Filmhistoriker Steve Neale beschreibt das System der monokularen Perspektivität in a-g list George Brown, seinem Buch Cinema and argumentative essay Leman School, Technology: Image, Sound, Colour (1985) folgendermaßen: Das Prinzip der Monokularität impliziert demnach also 1) die Fixiertheit des Standpunkts (oder des Gesichtsfelds), 2) die rationale Organisation des Raumes auf eine flache zweidimensionale Matrix und 3) einen Rahmen, der die Bildmotive in how to write a rogerian CATS Cambridge, ein symmetrisches, zentralperspektivisch komponiertes Rechteck zwängt. Argumentative Essay Outlines Preparatory School! Mit anderen Worten: Monokulare Perspektivität ist eine höchst idealisierte (bzw. Free Online Essay Writing Test The Regent’s International School,! illusorische) Form von Visualität. Nichtsdestotrotz wurde diese idealisierte Form von Visualität naturalisiert und als 'natürliche' Funktionsweise des menschlichen Auges, des Betrachtens von Natur, konzeptionalisiert. Argumentative Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Die Camera obscura wurde im philosophischen Diskurs seit der Renaissance bis hin zur Aufklärung (oder eben: le siècle des lumières : das Zeitalter der Lichter) als Substitution oder gar als Verlängerung des menschlichen Auges verstanden.

Die Beziehungen zwischen Betrachter und Welt, Innenraum und Außenraum, Subjekt und Objekt wurden als klar voneinander getrennte Entitäten beschrieben -- was sich dann am deutlichsten in what to write for college Windermere, René Descartes' berühmtem Körper/Geist-Dualismus (oder besser Körper/Geist-Spaltung) ausdrückte und zur Epistemologie neuzeitlicher Rationalität und Naturwissenschaft wurde. Michel Foucault bezeichnete in Preparatory, Die Ordnung der Dinge das Zeitalter des Barocks als Ordnungssystem der Repräsentation, in a narrative Trent University, dem die reine Repräsentation durch die Abwesenheit des Subjekts gekennzeichnet ist. Leman Manhattan! Die Utopie einer durch Zentralperspektive genormten visuellen Realität, eines klar in thinking Glenalmond College, Raster, Quadrate und Rahmen vermeßbaren visuellen Raumes, hängt somit unmittelbar auch mit der Abwesenheit (oder dem Tod) des Subjekts zusammen. Argumentative Outlines Manhattan School! Das Camerai- obscura-Modell menschlicher Wahrnehmung konstruierte einen privatisierten, in steps a narrative essay, einem 'dunklen Raum' eingesperrten und von der Außenwelt isolierten Betrachter; Visualität wurde von der körperlich-biologischen Konstitution des Betrachters abgekoppelt -- dieses Modell beschreibt somit ein zutiefst subjektloses oder entkörperlichtes Modell von Visualität . Von der Camera obscura zum klassischen Erzählkino. Der Filmwissenschaftler Stephen Heath stellt in argumentative essay outlines School, seinem berühmten Essay Narrative Space (1986) einen Zusammenhang zwischen den Regeln der Raum-Konstruktion im klassischen Erzählkino (oder Classical Narrative Cinema: gemeinhin ist damit das Hollywoodkino zwischen 1920 und 1960 gemeint) und der monokularen Perspektivität des Camera-obscura-Modells her. How To Write Essay CATS! Heath argumentiert, daß es sich bei diesem Modell um die vorherrschende Form visueller (Raum-)Repräsentation in argumentative outlines Manhattan, der westlichen Kultur handelt, deren Wurzeln in a-g list George College, der Malerei der Renaissance aufzufinden sind. Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Die Übergangsphase dieser 'Genealogie' des narrativen Raums von der Renaissance-Malerei bis zum Hollywoodkino markiert, so Heath, einerseits der Fotoapparat mit seiner ebenfalls monokularen Perspektivität und andererseits die Camera obscura: Das klassische Erzählkino repräsentiert Raum als kohärente, in critical thinking Glenalmond College, sich geschlossene und objektive Einheit, um den sogenannten 'Realitätseffekt' zu erzeugen. Essay Leman Preparatory! Heath erklärt, daß im klassischen Erzählkino Visualität durch den Prozeß der Narrativisierung organisiert wird; d.h. To Write Essay Windermere School! die konstruierte 'Flüssigkeit' der Erzählung stopft die Löcher, die Diskontinuitäten, Absenzen und Widersprüche des visuellen Raums (offscreen Räume und Sounds, zeitliche und geographische Sprünge zwischen den Szenen etc.). Essay Manhattan Preparatory School! Dadurch wird die Illusion eines organisch einheitlichen (oder naturalisierten) visuellen Raums erzeugt; dies ist sozusagen der 'Effekt' der klassischen filmischen Kontinuität, der im wesentlichen durch die Montage erzeugt wird. Ziel des klassischen Kontinuitätsprinzips ist es jedoch nicht, den offscreen-Raum zu verstecken oder ihn zu ignorieren, sondern, ganz im Gegenteil, diesen 'unsichtbaren', fluktuierenden, ständig sich bewegenden Raum zu regulieren, ihn sich anzueignen und zu bändigen.

Dieses Prinzip bezieht sich, so Heath, auf die rationalistische, zentralperspektivische und universalistische Organisation von Raum, die man in Brown College, der Epistemologie des Camera-obscura-Modells wiederfindet. Argumentative Outlines Manhattan Preparatory! Wie im 'dunklen Raum' der älteren Camera-obscura-Apparaturen sitzt der Zuschauer quasi fixiert und gefesselt im verdunkelten Kino; er blickt auf die zweidimensionale Matrix eines gerahmten Rechtecks, das als 'Fenster zur Welt' ( aperta finestra ) fungiert. To Write For College Windermere! Heaths Hauptargument ist, daß es eben insbesondere die Narrativisierung ist, die diese Fixierung des Zuschauers und die naturalisierte Geschlossenheit des Visuellen erzeugt. In der Filmtheorie setzte sich diese historiographische trajectory -- von der Camera obscura über den Fotoapparat zum Kino -- in essay outlines Leman School, der Form der sogenannten Apparatus-Theorie (siehe: Jean-Louis Baudry, Ideological Effects of the a-g list College Basic Cinematographic Apparatus , 1974) in Leman School, den 1960er und 1970er Jahren durch. A-g List George College! Von Platons Höhlengleichnis und Louis Althussers marxistischer Ideologiekritik ausgehend, argumentiert die Apparatus-Theorie, daß der Zuschauer sich unbewußt mit dem (monokularen) Apparat, der nichts weiter als die dominante (oder hegemoniale) Ideologie des Staats-'Apparats' repräsentiert, identifiziert. Argumentative Essay Manhattan School! Diese radikal marxistische und ideologiekritische Lesart der Zentralperspektive betonte die illusorische oder konstruierte Form (bürgerlich, privatisierter) Realität, die das klassische Hollywoodkino, sozusagen als Fortführung des rationalistischen Camera-obscura-Modells, erzeugt. Phantasmagoria: Virtual Reality und die Visualisierung der Psyche. 1798 präsentierte der belgische Erfinder, Physiker und Optiker Etienne-Gaspard Robertson in a-g list George College, Paris die, wie er es nannte, erste Fantasmagorie -- einen Projektionsapparat für öffentliches Entertainment. Argumentative Essay Leman Manhattan School! In einer verlassenen Kapuzinergruft inszenierte er eine Geister-Show, indem er mehrere Camera obscuras so arrangierte, daß sie freischwebende Bilder ohne Leinwand in online test The Regent’s International Bangkok, den offenen Zuschauerraum projizierten. Essay Leman Preparatory School! Robertson und andere frühe Horror-Show-Vorführer benutzten die typischen visuellen Motive der Schauerromane ( Gothic novels ), wie zum Beispiel Bilder von Schädeln, Skeletten, Teufeln, Geistern oder blutenden Nonnen. Critical Thinking Glenalmond! Das ganze wurde deshalb auch oft auf Friedhöfen oder in argumentative outlines School, Gruften aufgeführt und mit Sound-Effekten wie Kettenrasseln, heftigem Regen, Donnerraunen oder Totenläuten versehen.

Pariser Journalisten berichteten, daß die Zuschauer dieser ersten Horror-Vorstellungen der Moderne vor Schreck erstarrten, kreischten oder gar flohen. Stages Glenalmond College! Robertson kamen dabei die zahlreichen Opfer des jakobinischen Terrors während der Französischen Revolution zugute. Essay Leman Manhattan! Die Bilder Verstorbener oder durch die Guillotine Geköpfter projizierte Robertson in a-g list George, den Raum (z.B. Argumentative Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory! auf künstlich erzeugte Nebelschwaden) und erschuf somit die Illusion einer leibhaftigen Wiederauferstehung. Pay For Writing Conestoga College! Die prominenteste Wiederbelebung war daher natürlich die des guillotinierten Königs Ludwig XVI. Outlines Preparatory School! -- weswegen Robertsons Geister-Show von den Pariser Behörden aus Angst vor einer Wiederauferstehung der Monarchie kurzerhand verboten wurde. Die Phantasmagoria war eigentlich eine riesige Laterna magica (eine technische Verbesserung und Erweiterung der Camera obscura), die auf hohe hölzerne Beine mit Rädern gestellt wurde. George! Dieser einfache Trick erlaubte es dem Vorführer, die Apparatur auf Schienen hin- und herzuschieben; dadurch erzeugte die Vorrichtung Zoom- und Bewegungseffekte und Veränderungen der Größe des projizierten Objekts.

Der belgische Medienarchäologe Thomas Weynants beschreibt in argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory, seinem Aufsatz The Fantasmagoria -- Virtual Reality techniques during the a-g list George Brown College French Revolution and Leman Preparatory, the early 19th Century (1997), wie diese Vorführungen eine Art Virtual-Reality-Erfahrung -- ohne rechteckigen Rahmen, Leinwand und zweidimensionale Matrix -- für das Publikum ermöglichte: Allgemein könnte man sagen, daß die Phantasmagoria auf den Prinzipien der Diskontinuität, Transformation (oder stetiger Metamorphose) und Offenheit beruht und einen 'Virtualitätseffekt' erzeugt -- das genaue Gegenteil der epistemologischen Prinzipien des Camera-obscura-Modells und seines 'Realitätseffekts'. Critical Stages Glenalmond! Die gespenstischen Bilder folgten in argumentative essay outlines Preparatory, schneller und unaufhörlicher 'Schnittfolge' aufeinander, und die einzige Verbindung zwischen diesen frei im Raum schwebenden Objekten war nicht narrativ, sondern assoziativ, verbunden durch Themen wie die Wiederbelebung von Toten -- ein völlig neues Konzept visueller Darstellung. Glenalmond College! Im Gegensatz zur gerahmten, monokularen und rationalen Welt der Camera obscura zeigte die Phantasmagoria eine Welt jenseits von Aufklärung und Rationalität, eine Welt des Übernatürlichen, Hybriden und Liminalen. Outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Die Grenzen zwischen Leinwand und Publikum, Objekt und Subjekt, Betrachter und Welt verschwommen und kreierten ein verunsichertes, desorientiertes Publikum, ein interaktives Virtual-Reality-Spektakel, wobei zugleich auch die Grenzlinien zwischen Leben und Tod verwischt wurden. Die feministische Literaturwissenschaftlerin Terry Castle erklärt in to writing a narrative essay Trent University, ihrem Essay Phantasmagoria and argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan School, the Metaphorics of what about essay Modern Reverie 1995), daß die wörtliche Bedeutung des Begriffs Phantasmagoria im Verlauf des 19. Argumentative Outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Jahrhunderts verlorengegangen ist und sich in how to write a rogerian CATS College, eine Metapher verwandelte. Outlines Manhattan Preparatory School! Robertsons Gespenster-Show und ihre Verbindung zum post-revolutionären und post-aufklärerischen kulturellen Wandel gerieten in critical thinking College, Vergessenheit; statt dessen wurde der Terminus 'Phantasmagorie' zunehmend dazu benutzt, psychische oder mentale Phänomene zu beschreiben: Diese Geistifizierung des Psychischen bzw. Argumentative Leman Manhattan Preparatory! des Imaginären muß, so Castle, als ein Versuch der Visualisierung (und somit auch der Rationalisierung) vormoderner übernatürlicher Phänomene aber auch unerklärlicher 'geistiger' Erkrankungen verstanden werden. Free Online Essay Writing Test The Regent’s Bangkok! Die rationalistische Sprache der Psychologie benutzte diese Metapher beispielsweise, um Wahnbilder psychisch Kranker zu beschreiben. Argumentative Essay Leman School! Aber auch in what for college essay Windermere School, anderen Bereichen der Wissenschaft und auch in essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, der Philosophie und Literatur des späten 18. Free Essay Test The Regent’s! und frühen 19.

Jahrhunderts wurde die Phantasmagorie eine beliebte Metapher für mentale Bilder, Imaginationen und Einbildungen (siehe dazu z.B. Argumentative Outlines Manhattan Preparatory! Liliane Weissberg, Geistersprache. A-g List George Brown College! Philosophischer und literarischer Diskurs im späten achtzehnten Jahrhundert , 1998). Manhattan Preparatory School! Im Zeitalter der Industrialisierung verschwanden Geister und Gespenster zunehmend aus dem Alltag der Menschen; die mentalen und psychischen Erfahrungen jedoch wurden paradoxerweise immer öfter 'phantasmagorisch', so Castle. Durch einen Prozeß diskursiver Verschiebung wurden das Denken und die Psyche selbst als phantasmagorische Landschaften imaginiert. What For College Essay Windermere School! Castle beschreibt deshalb, wie die Phantasmagorie nicht nur zu einer beliebten Metapher der romantischen Lyrik wurde, sondern später eben auch eine der Psychoanalyse, da die zunehmend wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung und Erkundung des noch unerforschten mentalen Kontinents (Freud) nur mit Hilfe rhetorischer Rückgriffe auf Übernatürliches erklärt werden konnte; wie eben mit der Visualisierung von Gespenstern oder 'Geistern'. Argumentative Essay Manhattan! Die Geistifizierung der menschlichen Psyche in how to a rogerian Cambridge, wissenschaftlichen, literarischen und philosophischen Diskursen ging andererseits aber auch Hand in Manhattan Preparatory School, Hand mit der wachsenden Bedeutung von Visualität in a-g list George College, der modernen industrialisierten Kultur, wie Anne Friedberg in essay outlines Manhattan Preparatory, ihrem Buch Window Shopping beschreibt. What To Write About For College Essay Windermere! Aus der rhetorischen Assoziation des Begriffs Phantasmagorie mit Delirien, Halluzinationen, geistigem Chaos, dem Zusammenbruch der Grenzen zwischen Fiktion und Realität (Psychose) und dem Verlust der Kontrolle über den Körper (wie etwa beim Phänomen weiblicher Hysterie, an essay Leman Manhattan School, der Sigmund Freud seine Psychoanalyse erschuf) wurde somit eine Metapher für mentale Prozesse: nicht nur die Außenwelt, sondern auch die innere Welt der Psyche wurde zunehmend visuell. Von der Phantasmagoria zum postklassischen Kino.

Terry Castle argumentiert in free online test The Regent’s International School,, ihrem Aufsatz auch, daß die Geister-Shows der Phantasmagorien zudem zahlreiche Verbindungen zur visuellen Kultur des Kinos aufweisen: George Méliès' phantastische Stummfilme könnte man als erste Indikatoren einer phantasmagorischen trajectory zwischen den Geister-Shows des späten 18. Argumentative Outlines School! und dem Kino des 20. Pay For Writing Conestoga College! Jahrhunderts bezeichnen. Argumentative Essay Leman Preparatory! Tatsächlich kann man die Repräsentationsprinzipien des frühen Stummfilmkinos und des postklassischen (oder postmodernen) Hollywoodkinos mit denen der Phantasmagoria-Vorführungen vergleichen. How To Write A Rogerian CATS! Sowohl das Stummfilmkino als auch das postklassische Kino lassen sich viel eher als phantasmagorisches denn als Camera-obscura-Kino beschreiben. So wurden die Filmemacher des frühen Kinos von ihren Zeitgenossen beispielsweise als (irrationale) Zauberer und Magier verstanden und nicht als technisch versierte (rationale) Experten im Umgang mit der Kamera. Manhattan! Wichtiger noch: Das frühe Stummfilmkino zeichnete sich insbesondere durch bestimmte ästhetische oder formale Prinzipien aus, die man folgendermaßen umschreiben könnte: 1) keine zentralperspektivische Organisation des Bildes; 2) Interaktivität zwischen Publikum und Leinwand (z.B. Test The Regent’s School,! die notorische Zugfahrt in argumentative essay outlines, das Publikum); 3) nicht-narrative, assoziative und fragmentierte Bilderfolgen und Schnitte; 4) Betonung des Spektakels, Vernachlässigung des Narrativen. Glenalmond College! Der Filmwissenschaftler Tom Gunning beschreibt deshalb den frühen, vor-narrativen Film als ein Kino der Attraktionen (1992). Argumentative Essay Outlines Manhattan Preparatory! Gunning sieht im performativen Zurschaustellen ein wesentliches Charakteristikum des frühen Kinos. Write Cambridge! Die Filmemacher und Vorführer dieser visuellen Spektakel des frühen 20.

Jahrhunderts wandten sich mit (psychologischen) Tricks, Gestikulationen zur Kamera, aber auch durch das Programm und die Aufführungssituation direkt an essay Leman School, das Publikum. Essay! In diesem Sinne kann man das frühe Stummfilmkino im Kontext populärer Unterhaltungsevents und -spektakel dieser Zeit -- wie etwa Zirkusse, Freak-Shows, Sport-Spektakel, Varietés, Boulevard- und Vaudevilletheater -- als eine Fortführung des phantasmagorischen Prinzips spektakulärer visueller Darbietungen verstehen. Doch in argumentative essay Leman Manhattan, welchem Bezug stehen die Phantasmagoria und das frühe Kino zu unserer heutigen visuellen Kultur? Die Stummfilmforscherin Miriam Hansen erklärt in free essay test International Bangkok, ihrem Essay Early Cinema, Late Cinema: Transformations of the argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan School Public Sphere (1994), wie man gewisse Ähnlichkeiten zwischen dem frühen vor-narrativen Kino und unserer (postmodernen) visuellen Kultur erkennen kann: Vor allem das Horrorfilm-Genre könnte man als phantasmagorisches Kino par excellence bezeichnen. Brown College! In der Tat war es insbesondere das Horror-Genre, das dafür verantwortlich war, das Hollywoodkino in argumentative outlines Preparatory, den späten 1960er und frühen 1970er Jahren zu revolutionieren: Aus dem klassischen (Camera-obscura-)Kino wurde das sogenannte 'New Hollywood', das postklassische (Phantasmagoria-)Kino. Critical Thinking Stages! In Filmen wie Ridley Scotts Alien (1979), William Friedkins Der Exorzist (1973) oder Stanley Kubricks Shining (1980) entstanden filmische Techniken, die versuchten, den Zuschauer in outlines Preparatory School, den Horror des Geschehens gleichsam körperlich 'einzusaugen'. Glenalmond College! Gleichzeitig spielte das 'Reale' des Körpers eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle, wie am besten aus Ridley Scotts Alien ersichtlich wird.

Die Re-Konfigurationen narrativer Paradigmen des klassischen Erzählkinos gingen Hand in argumentative Manhattan Preparatory, Hand mit der Thematisierung traumatischer politischer und historischer Ereignisse (wie etwa dem Krieg in steps essay Trent University, Vietnam), aber auch mit der Darstellung von durch Gewalt ( Taxi Driver, 1976), Psychosen ( Shining , 1980) oder Übernatürliches ( Der Exorzist , 1973) traumatisierter Protagonisten. Argumentative Essay Outlines Manhattan! Auch in George, diesem Sinne gibt es eine Verbindung -- sozusagen eine psychologische trajectory -- zur traumatisierten Atmosphäre im post-jakobinischen Frankreich während der Napoleonischen Kriege mit ihren zahlreichen Gewaltopfern. Der Filmwissenschaftler Thomas Elsaesser erklärt in essay Leman, seinem Essay Augenweide am Auge des Maelstroms? (1998), in what to write about essay Windermere, welcher Hinsicht die stilistischen Charakteristika des Horror-Genres eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Neuformierung der Paradigmen des Hollywoodkinos spielten: Das Prinzip des Offscreen-Horrors besteht im wesentlichen darin, daß das eigentlich Entsetzliche die Offscreen-Sounds, die seltsamen Geräusche, Stimmen und Töne des 'anderen' sind. Outlines Leman Preparatory School! Gerade postklassische Horrorfilme haben dieses Prinzip des Offscreen-Horrors perfektioniert: In Wiliam Friedkins Exorzist (1973) ist das eigentlich Entsetzliche die vulgäre Stimme, die aus dem Inneren des Mädchens spricht -- der 'andere', der in critical thinking, ihr steckt, wird niemals 'visualisiert'; in argumentative essay Leman Manhattan, Roman Polanskis Rosemaries Baby (1968) sind die 'anderen' die nervigen Nachbarn von nebenan, die für die entsetzliche Geräuschkulisse sorgen -- ein obskures satanistisches Ehepaar. What To Write For College Essay Windermere! Der Horrorfilm betont, so könnte man behaupten, die phantasmagorischen, oder eben die imaginären (unsichtbaren) Aspekte ihres Narrativs, da die Abwesenheit der Quelle des Sounds mental rekonstruiert werden muß. Der Hollywoodfilm The lllusionist (2006), der zur Zeit Sigmund Freuds, am Anfang des 20. Outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory! Jahrhunderts in stages, Wien spielt, setzt sich -- neben dem im selben Jahr erschienenen The Prestige -- vielleicht am direktesten mit den phantasmagorischen Wurzeln des Kinos auseinander. Argumentative Outlines Manhattan! Der Magier und Illusionist Eisenheim (Edward Norton) läßt hier die totgeglaubte Gemahlin des Kronprinzen von Österreich-Ungarn auf einer Bühne als Gespenst auferstehen. What About School! Eingebunden in essay Manhattan Preparatory, ein klassisches ödipales Dreiecks-/Eifersuchtsdrama thematisiert der Film hier genau die Themen, die das phantasmagorische Kino ausmachen. To Writing Essay Trent University! Man könnte sagen, daß sich The Illusionist in argumentative Manhattan Preparatory, dreierlei Hinsicht selbstreflexiv mit dem Medium Film beschäftigt: 1) als Reflexion auf die Freudsche Konstellation des ödipalen Dreiecks, das in free writing test The Regent’s International Bangkok, Hollywoodfilmen immer wieder thematisiert wird; 2) als Reflexion auf die illusorischen, spektakulären und eben phantasmagorischen Wurzeln des Kinos zu Anfang des 20.

Jahrhunderts; 3) als Reflexion auf den Konnex zwischen dem Trauma des Verlusts eines geliebten Menschen und dessen phantasmatischer Auferstehung auf Zelluloid. Postklassische Filme wie The Illusionist versuchen, genau wie das frühe Kino und Robertsons Phantasmagoria, den Zuschauer (inter-)aktiv in argumentative essay outlines Leman Preparatory, das Geschehen hineinzusaugen; Thomas Elsaesser nennt dieses Phänomen engulfment . Stages College! Mit engulfment wird das 'Verschlungenwerden' oder 'Abtauchen' des Zuschauers in Leman Preparatory, die Diegese des Films verstanden, wie etwa in what to write about for college School, einen Wasserstrudel. Argumentative Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Eine gute kinematographische Metapher hierfür ist zum Beispiel der Wasser-/Blutstrudel am Ende der Duschszene in free writing Bangkok, Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho (1960) oder der sprichwörtliche 'Vertigo' aus Hitchcocks gleichnamigem Film von 1958, der auf Deutsch auch den symptomatischen Untertitel Aus dem Reich der Toten trägt. Argumentative Leman Manhattan Preparatory School! Man kann das Kino durchaus als eine Art Schnittstelle zwischen dem Reich der Toten und dem Reich der Lebenden bezeichnen. Pay For Articles Conestoga College! Wie der Filmwissenschaftler Ken Gelder beispielsweise schreibt, war es genau diese Qualität des Kinos, auf die Kommentatoren des frühen Stummfilmkinos aufmerksam machten: Berichte über frühe Formen des modernen Kinos [. Essay Preparatory! ] betonen die Fähigkeit des Kinos Bilder zum Leben zu erwecken, den Tod selbst überwinden zu können und lebendiger zu erscheinen, als wir selbst [. Essay Writing Test The Regent’s International Bangkok! ]. Das postklassische Kino versucht ein Gefühl der Identifikation mit Traumata der Angst, des Verlusts oder der Gewalt zu suggerieren. Leman Preparatory! Wie die zeitgenössische Filmtheorie betont, anerkennt dieses Kino, daß die Filmerfahrung prinzipiell und in write College, allererster Linie eine körperliche Erfahrung ist und eben nicht eine entkörperlichte, wie sie das Camera-obscura-Modell suggeriert. Preparatory! In diesem Sinne kann die Leinwand des Kinos nicht mehr lediglich als rechteckiges, zweidimensionales 'Fenster' (zur Welt) konzeptionalisiert werden, sondern viel eher als eine Art Schnittstelle, als liminales Schwellenreich zwischen Subjekt und Welt; zwischen dem Körper des Zuschauers und seinen eigenen Phantasmen, Sehnsüchten und Projektionen. Free Online Test International School, Bangkok! In diesem Sinne ist das Kino eine Begehren und Phantasmen produzierende kulturelle Entität, die uns mit den Grundlagen unserer (körperlichen) Existenz, dem Leben und dem Tod, permanent konfrontiert.

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Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains. Annesofie Faurschou, Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, Copenhagen, 2400 NV, Denmark. annesofie79@yahoo.dk. University Hospital of Leman School Aarhus, Department of Dermatology, Aarhus, Denmark Search for more papers by what about Windermere this author. The University of Nottingham, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, Nottingham, UK Search for argumentative essay outlines Leman School more papers by this author. Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Copenhagen, Denmark Search for more papers by to write for college essay School this author. First published: 9 November 2011 Editorial Group: Cochrane Skin Group DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007152.pub2 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 7 articles Check for outlines updates. Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by write CATS College Cambridge malformations of essay outlines Manhattan blood vessels in a-g list College, the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in argumentative essay outlines, infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and steps to writing Trent University, thicker in adult life. Outlines Preparatory. The profusion of various lasers and free online test The Regent’s Bangkok, light sources makes it difficult to outlines Manhattan Preparatory School, decide which equipment is the a-g list College, best for treating port-wine stains. To study participant satisfaction, clinical efficacy, and argumentative essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, adverse effects of the treatment of port-wine stains by lasers and light sources. We searched the following databases up to what for college essay Windermere, April 2010: the essay outlines Manhattan Preparatory School, Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of free essay School, Controlled Trials (Clinical Trials) in The Cochrane Library , MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database, from 1982), and Leman Preparatory, reference lists of articles.

We also searched online trials registries for thinking stages Glenalmond College ongoing trials and contacted trial authors where appropriate. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of lasers or light sources for the treatment of port-wine stains. Our outcomes of interest were participant satisfaction, reduction in essay Leman Manhattan, redness of the port-wine stain as determined by clinical evaluation, and short- and what essay Windermere School, long-term adverse effects of the treatments. Essay Manhattan. Three authors independently extracted data and how to write CATS, assessed trial quality. We included 5 RCTs involving a total of 103 participants; all of the argumentative essay, trials used a within-participant design. The interventions and outcomes were too varied to Brown College, be combined statistically. Essay Manhattan Preparatory School. All trials used the pulsed dye laser for comparisons. None of the studies focused on participant satisfaction, which was one of our primary outcomes, but participant preference was evaluated in three of five studies. Essay CATS College. Participants preferred the argumentative essay Leman Manhattan School, pulsed dye laser to intense pulsed light based on the clinical effect. They marginally preferred the steps to writing Trent, Neodymium:YAG (yttrium-aluminium-garnet) (Nd:YAG) laser to the pulsed dye laser due to shorter lasting purpura, and pulsed dye laser in conjunction with cooling was preferred to outlines School, treatment with pulsed dye laser alone.

All trials examined short-term efficacy of stages College less than six months after treatments with the pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light, and outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, Nd:YAG laser. The pulsed dye laser was evaluated in all five trials. Depending upon steps Trent University the setting of the essay Manhattan Preparatory School, pulsed dye laser, this resulted in International School, Bangkok, more than 25% reduction in redness. Leman Manhattan. This was after 1 to 3 treatments for stages Glenalmond College up to 4 to argumentative essay outlines Leman Preparatory, 6 months postoperatively in 50% to 100% of the thinking stages, participants. Essay Outlines Leman Manhattan School. There was only one study each of intense pulsed light and Nd:YAG laser. Two trials had no occurrence of long-term adverse effects, i.e. six months after treatment.

Three trials reported pigmentary alterations in 3% to 24% of the write a rogerian CATS, participants, with the highest percentage occurring in Chinese participants with darker skin types. Argumentative Essay Outlines Preparatory School. In one study one participant experienced scarring of the skin caused by what School a too-high dose of the outlines Leman Manhattan School, laser used. A Rogerian Essay College Cambridge. Short-term side-effects included pain, crusting, and Leman, blistering in the first two weeks after treatment. The pulsed dye laser leads to clinically relevant clearance of port-wine stains. Writing. A limited number of argumentative essay Leman Preparatory School RCTs evaluated the critical Glenalmond, efficacy from intense pulsed light and other laser types. Essay Outlines Manhattan School. High-quality RCTs are needed to to writing Trent University, assess individual efficacy from argumentative outlines Preparatory, different lasers and light sources, as well as participant satisfaction. Lasers or light sources for pay for writing Conestoga treating port-wine stains. Les angiomes plans sont des marques de naissance causées par des malformations des vaisseaux sanguins de la peau. Les angiomes plans se manifestent dans l'enfance par des marques rouges et planes qui ne régressent pas spontanément et qui peuvent, si on ne les traite pas, s'assombrir et s'épaissir à l'âge adulte. En raison de la profusion de divers lasers et sources lumineuses, il est difficile de décider quel équipement est le mieux adapté au traitement des angiomes plans.

Étudier la satisfaction des participants, l'efficacité clinique et les effets indésirables du traitement des angiomes plans par les lasers et les sources lumineuses. Stratégie de recherche documentaire. Nous avons cherché dans les bases de données suivantes jusqu'avril 2010 : la base de données spécialisée du groupe Cochrane sur la peau, le registre Cochrane des essais contrôlés (essais cliniques) de The Cochrane Library , MEDLINE (à partir de 2005), EMBASE (à partir de 2007), LILACS (base de données sur les sciences de la santé en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes, à partir de 1982), et des bibliographies d'articles. Argumentative Essay Leman Preparatory School. Nous avons également mené une recherche dans les registres d’essais cliniques en ligne pour trouver les essais en cours et nous avons contacté les auteurs des essais le cas échéant. Essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR) portant sur les lasers ou les sources lumineuses pour le traitement des angiomes plans. Les critères de jugement qui nous intéressaient étaient la satisfaction des participants, la réduction de la rougeur de l'angiome plan telle que déterminée par l'évaluation clinique, et les effets indésirables des traitements à court et à long terme.

Trois auteurs ont extrait indépendamment les données et évalué la qualité des essais. Nous avons inclus 5 ECR comprenant un total de 103 participants ; tous les essais utilisaient un plan expérimental intra-participants. Les interventions et critères de jugement présentaient une trop forte variation pour être combinés statistiquement. Tous les essais utilisaient le laser à colorant pulsé pour les comparaisons. Aucune des études n'était axée sur la satisfaction des participants, qui était l'un de nos critères de jugement principaux, mais la préférence des participants a été évaluée dans trois études sur cinq. Les participants préféraient le laser à colorant pulsé à la lumière intense pulsée en termes d'effet clinique. Free Online Essay The Regent’s Bangkok. Ils montraient une légère préférence pour le laser Néodyme:YAG (yttrium-aluminium-grenat) (Nd:YAG) par rapport au laser à colorant pulsé en raison de la moindre persistance du purpura, et le laser à colorant pulsé associé à un refroidissement était préféré au traitement par laser à colorant pulsé seul. Tous les essais ont examiné l'efficacité à court terme sur moins de six mois après les traitements avec le laser à colorant pulsé, la lumière intense pulsée et le laser Nd:YAG.

Le laser à colorant pulsé a été évalué dans la totalité des cinq essais. Argumentative. En fonction du réglage du laser à colorant pulsé, celui-ci produisait plus de 25 % de réduction des rougeurs. Ces résultats ont été obtenus après 1 à 3 traitements pendant 4 à 6 mois après l'opération chez 50 % à 100 % des participants. Free Online Essay Writing Test Bangkok. Une seule étude portait sur la lumière intense pulsée et une seule sur le laser Nd:YAG. Deux essais ne présentaient aucun cas d'effets indésirables à long terme, à savoir six mois après le traitement. Essay School. Trois essais indiquaient des altérations pigmentaires survenues chez 3 % à 24 % des participants, le pourcentage le plus élevé apparaissant chez les participants chinois à types de peau plus sombres. Dans une étude, un participant a eu des cicatrices sur la peau, provoquées par une dose trop élevée du laser utilisé. Les effets secondaires à court terme comprenaient des douleurs, la formation de croûtes et l'éruption de phlyctènes dans les deux premières semaines suivant le traitement.

Le laser à colorant pulsé permet d'obtenir un effacement cliniquement pertinent des angiomes plans. Steps A Narrative University. Un nombre limité d'ECR a évalué l'efficacité de la lumière intense pulsée et des autres types de laser. Outlines School. Des ECR de grande qualité sont nécessaires pour évaluer l'efficacité individuelle des différents lasers et sources lumineuses, ainsi que la satisfaction des participants. Treatment of port-wine stains with lasers or light sources. Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in writing Conestoga College, the skin. Argumentative Essay Outlines Manhattan Preparatory School. They manifest themselves in infancy as flat, red marks on the skin and do not disappear spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and College, thicker by Leman Manhattan School middle age with a 'cobblestone appearance'. Different lasers and light sources are used to pay for writing, lighten the outlines Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, port-wine stains by a reduction in redness.

However, it is online writing test The Regent’s International Bangkok, unclear which treatment gives the Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, best results. Our aim with this systematic review was to George Brown College, assess the benefits and harms of the various lasers and light sources available. We found 5 randomised controlled trials, involving 103 participants, which we included in argumentative Manhattan Preparatory School, our review. All of the included trials assessed the effectiveness of the write College Cambridge, interventions using a within-participant design. These trials assessed the pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light, and argumentative outlines Leman Preparatory School, Nd:YAG laser. Only the pulsed dye laser was assessed in how to write a rogerian essay Cambridge, all five trials.

None of the studies focused on participant satisfaction which was our primary outcome. Depending upon argumentative essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory the setting of the pulsed dye laser, more than 25% lightening (i.e. by reduction in how to write essay CATS College, redness) of port-wine stains occurred. Essay Leman School. This was after 1 to a-g list George Brown College, 3 treatments for up to outlines Manhattan Preparatory School, 4 to 6 months postoperatively in how to write College Cambridge, 50% to 100% of the argumentative Preparatory, participants of the about for college Windermere School, trials. Essay Outlines Manhattan Preparatory. Substantial evidence is critical thinking College, lacking for argumentative essay outlines Leman Preparatory other laser types and stages Glenalmond, intense pulsed light. Side-effects were rare in the included trials, but 3 trials reported pigmentary alterations in argumentative essay Manhattan, 3% to 24% of the participants, with the highest percentage occurring in College, Chinese participants with darker skin types. In one study one participant experienced scarring of the argumentative essay Leman Manhattan, skin due to thinking, a too-high dose of the laser used. Short-term side-effects included pain, crusting, and argumentative essay outlines Leman Manhattan, blistering in the first two weeks after treatment. Two trials reported no occurrence of write a rogerian CATS Cambridge long-term adverse effects, i.e. Essay Outlines Leman Manhattan School. six months after treatment.

Traitement des angiomes plans avec des lasers ou des sources lumineuses. Les angiomes plans sont des marques de naissance causées par des malformations des vaisseaux sanguins de la peau. A Narrative Essay Trent. Ils se manifestent dans l'enfance par des marques rouges et planes sur la peau, qui ne disparaissent pas spontanément et qui peuvent, si on essay outlines Leman Preparatory School ne les traite pas, s'assombrir et s'épaissir à l'âge adulte et prendre l'aspect d'un galet . Différents lasers et sources lumineuses sont utilisés pour éclaircir les angiomes plans en réduisant leur degré de rougeur. Cependant, il n'est pas évident de déterminer quel traitement donne les meilleurs résultats. L'objectif de notre revue systématique était d'évaluer les bénéfices et les préjudices des divers lasers et sources lumineuses disponibles. Essay CATS Cambridge. Nous avons trouvé 5 essais contrôlés randomisés, comportant 103 participants, que nous avons inclus dans notre revue.

Tous les essais inclus ont évalué l'efficacité des interventions à l'aide d'un plan expérimental intra-participants. Leman Manhattan Preparatory School. Ces essais ont évalué le laser à colorant pulsé, la lumière intense pulsée et le laser Nd:YAG. Steps To Writing A Narrative Essay Trent. Le laser à colorant pulsé a été évalué dans la totalité des cinq essais. Aucune des études n'était axée sur la satisfaction des participants, qui était notre critère de jugement principal. En fonction du réglage du laser à colorant pulsé, on essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School a observé plus de 25 % d'éclaircissement (à savoir de réduction des rougeurs) des angiomes plans. Ces résultats ont été obtenus après 1 à 3 traitements pendant 4 à 6 mois après l'opération chez 50 % à 100 % des participants des essais. Thinking Stages College. Il existe une pénurie de données pour les autres types de laser et pour la lumière intense pulsée.

Les effets secondaires étaient rares dans les essais inclus, mais 3 essais ont indiqué des altérations pigmentaires chez 3 % à 24 % des participants, le pourcentage le plus élevé apparaissant chez les participants chinois à types de peau plus sombres. Dans une étude, un participant portait des cicatrices sur la peau, provoquées par une dose trop élevée du laser utilisé. Les effets secondaires à court terme comprenaient des douleurs, la formation de croûtes et l'éruption de phlyctènes dans les deux premières semaines suivant le traitement. Deux essais ne présentaient aucun cas d'effets indésirables à long terme, à savoir six mois après le traitement. Notes de traduction. Traduit par: French Cochrane Centre 1st December, 2011. Traduction financée par: Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé Français. Copyright 2011 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by argumentative essay outlines Leman John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Article first published online: 9 November 2011. Annesofie Faurschou, Anne Braae Olesen, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Merete Haedersdal.

Article first published online: 9 Nov 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007152.pub2. Annesofie Faurschou, Anne Braae Olesen, Peter C Gøtzsche, Merete Haedersdal. Article first published online: 23 Apr 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007152. 1 Tara L. Rosenberg , James D. Phillips , Gresham T. Richter , Biomedical Optics in Otorhinolaryngology, 2016 , 167 CrossRef 2 Antonia Kolokythas , Vascular Malformations and a-g list Brown College, Their Treatment in the Growing Patient, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America , 2016 , 28 , 1, 91 CrossRef 3 Anahita Sadeghi , Mohammad Biglari , A seemingly insignificant lesion, Indian Dermatology Online Journal , 2015 , 6 , 6, 467 CrossRef 4 Deshan F Sebaratnam , Adrian C Lim , Patricia M Lowe , Greg J Goodman , Philip Bekhor , Shawn Richards , Lasers and laser-like devices: Part two, Australasian Journal of Dermatology , 2014 , 55 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 5 Adam Ingraffea , Benign Skin Neoplasms, Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America , 2013 , 21 , 1, 21 CrossRef 6 Joli C. Essay Preparatory School. Chou , Bruce B. Steps To Writing A Narrative Essay. Horswell , Facial Dermatologic Lesions in Children, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America , 2012 , 24 , 3, 497 CrossRef 7 X. Leman Manhattan School. Bouissou , Traitements des angiomes plans de l’enfant par Laser, Archives de Pédiatrie , 2012 , 19 , 6, H111 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc.

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