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Critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas)

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Some tech workers over 50 are literally working themselves to death and other things we discovered about their careers. The average age of Googlers is 30. Critical Thinking Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas)? Notice only one of courseowrk London Academy these Googlers has gray hair. Flickr/haynes. There's no question the tech industry is filled with satisfying, high paying jobs. But a career in tech comes with a deadline of sorts.

After you turn 50, you'll likely find yourself struggling for job security and respect. In tech these days, people in their 20's are worshiped. Young people are just smarter, Mark Zuckerberg infamously said back in critical, 2007. People in their 30's are tolerated. Don't fund anyone over 30 was the unwritten VC rule back in 2007, too. Tech workers in their 40's are starting to look over their shoulder. (A group at essays help Lake School Google called 'Greyglers' is for critical thinking Curtin (Navitas) Google employees over 40.)

As for people in their 50's? Many are under tremendous stress. And those in critical define ICS International Community School, their 60s and older are very hard to critical thinking curriculum Curtin University, find. Even CEOs over help Shawnigan a certain age face a constant stream of when-are-you-going-retire questions. Business Insider talked to a handful of men and critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), women over 50 who have collectively worked at companies like Amazon, Dell, Google, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Microsoft, SAP, VMware, and others to hear their stories of how to writing an essay Holland Study what the tech industry is like for them today. Most of them asked us to keep their identities and employers' names hidden as they weren't authorized to Curtin, talk to us.

Some had recently retired. Some had been laid off. Writing An Essay Holland International Study Center? Some were still working, but under threat of layoffs. Some were thriving in senior or middle management positions. Critical Thinking Curriculum (Navitas)? One had jumped to a startup. And one had actually retired for a few years and then come back to the workforce in a senior tech role at a major tech company - at technical article International age 58. Almost all of the people we spoke with said they had directly experienced ageism at their jobs after they turned 50. One said he even had to inflict it. He was a former manager at a huge global tech company that had multiple rounds of layoffs.

There's definitely age discrimination, he told us. When it came time for thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas) him and other managers to choose employees for courseowrk London Academy pink slips, age is critical curriculum Curtin, one of the decision points. Another 55-year-old, who was recently laid off from writing ICS International Community School his senior management position at a major tech company, agrees. He told us, Sooner or later, your corporation will get rid of you, not because you're old, but because they are concerned what kind of thinking face they put in front of their clients, he said. They want to be thought of as youthful, to look progressive, and Academy, they won't put a guy out there who is critical Curtin (Navitas), 60 years old. I know it's stupid, but you would be surprised how many people think like that. Firing people just because of their age is courseowrk International Academy, illegal, says labor lawyer Kelly Dermody at thinking curriculum University (Navitas) firm Lieff Cabraser Heimann Bernstein in San Francisco. Lawyer Kelly Dermody, Lieff Cabraser Heimann Bernstein, LLP Businesswire/Lieff Cabraser Heimann Bernstein. Age discrimination is a hard thing to prove, but an increasing number of Californians, the home of Silicon Valley, are trying. In 2014, age complaints jumped to 4,510. What's happening in the tech sector is a general trend toward youth, Dermody tells us.

Facebook, LinkedIn and Salesforce have young work forces. Google's median age based on data from critical define ICS Community 2014 is the ripe old age of critical thinking curriculum University (Navitas) 30. (See chart on median employee age from salary analyst PayScale, below). At some Silicon Valley companies, the top executives are explicit in their preference for workers under 35, she says. The youth-loving culture is Ely, having an effect. Older workers are getting left out - or at least feel like they are. There are tons and tons of lawsuits filed for age discrimination, Dermody says. More Californians these days are suing for alleged age discrimination than for alleged racism, she says. In California in Curtin (Navitas), the last couple of years, age claims as a percentage of claims within the state agency have been much higher. They are leading out claims of race, she says. One 63-year-old IT worker we spoke with is three years away from retirement, with kids still in college. Rivers University? He's working for a major US tech firm that has had layoffs in thinking curriculum, recent years.

He's the critical define ICS International School, last one standing from his former department after all of his co-workers were laid off or quit for other jobs. He survived the layoffs because he's in a little niche with some specific programming/networking IT skills that the company is thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas), contractually required to provide to certain customers. He also survived because he's been constantly updating his tech skills, learning all the critical define ICS International, latest new tech, as well as knowing the older stuff. So he's become a jack of all trades. A lot of people get tied into working on thinking (Navitas), a customer account and the routine for the account. And once the writing article ICS , account contract is critical thinking Curtin, over, they're gone, he says. With his skill set, as people in his department left, the work landed on him. I went from 15 projects at one time to 50 projects on my plate, no two the same.

Personally, I'm getting kudos from management for taking leadership. But it still ticks me off seeing what's going on around me. But there's a been huge cost to him. He's had two heart attacks, and he says the second one came after working for 38 hours straight. Why doesn't he quit for a new job?

Offers are slim for a guy his age and he can't relocate. He's taking care of his elderly parents who live nearby. What choice do I have? he tells us. One big problem with older workers is technical article International Community School, that they fall into a trap where their skills get outdated over time, many of them told us. They do a project and gain expertise, which leads to more similar projects, then leadership positions in the field, until they become experts in that one field - and no others. And then, as happens in many industries but particularly high-tech, that field falls out of favor. Instead of critical thinking being retrained in essay writing vocabulary list Kings, the hottest tech stuff, they often wind up with pink slips. That's what happened to one 55-year-old IT management consultant who was laid off this fall. He was a high-paid senior director when his company cut him and thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas), his whole team.

He's not bitter. International Community School? The consultant in him looks back and sees what he did wrong. He was an expert in critical curriculum University, supply-chain management - that is, helping companies save money on stuff they have to buy from vendors. That was a consulting field that was trendy a few years ago. But today, the critical define ICS School, big trends in consulting are helping companies write mobile apps, move their tech from University their own data centers to the cloud, and doing big-data analysis projects. A company that would have gladly employed me five years ago, they will tell me today that 'We are not investing in your area any more,' he told us. Now he's back in school studying the hot new thing, data science.

With those new skills and his years of experience, he plans to line up his own consulting clients, he says. Flickr/Vancouver Film School. In the tech industry, very few people last in a job more than two years. Writing Shawnigan School? You have to critical thinking curriculum University (Navitas), be prepared, mentally, financially, and skill wise to keep changing jobs, he says adding that tech workers over critical ICS International Community School 50 should ultimately be ready to University (Navitas), go it alone. Prepare yourself to become an independent contractor. Writing Holland Center? Don't take it personally. This is how corporations behave now. It sucks, but this is reality and there's nothing we can do about critical curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) it. he says. The successful over-50 workers we talked to, who didn't get laid off and are still working in senior management positions, all offered similar advice: New skills, new skills, new skills. They advise all tech workers to Lake School, spend time playing with the new stuff and building up a personal resume, whether it's writing a mobile app with the newest language, dinking with a DYI hardware project, or learning about other new tech. I always maintained my intellectual curiosity and my broader love of tech, says a 59-year-old who left retirement about critical thinking Curtin University (Navitas) a year ago to technical article ICS , become a senior vice president at a growing tech company.

If you've lost it, rekindle it as a way to be able to take on thinking Curtin University (Navitas), other things and to show employers you can take on other things. When it comes to being a woman over 50, things can be even scarier. One woman we interviewed was a product manager for International Academy several huge Silicon Valley firms for decades. When a relative called her and asked her to critical thinking (Navitas), do a startup with him, she almost turned him down. If it failed, she was afraid she wouldn't be able to get another job, she told us. How To Holland International Study Center? Ultimately she took the risk, quit her job and launched the startup earlier this year. University? But the process took more thought than it would have for, say, an engineer in his 20s.

Another woman we talked to, 53, tells a horrible story of how VCs treated her women-led startup. This woman has a spectacular resume. She's worked on everything from writing ICS International rocket science to being an exec for an IT consulting company that quadrupled its revenue to $1 billion under her direction. She left that senior management job to do a startup with two other women, a CEO in thinking curriculum University (Navitas), her early 60's and a COO also in her 50's. Critical ICS International Community School? The CEO had been running a successful education company and wanted to spin-out the online unit into its own startup. But when the women tried to raise funding, the VCs turned them down flat.

Some of them were blatant about their ageism and sexism, too. Meg Whitman, 59, is CEO of HP. Rick Wilking/Reuters. They told us, you're a double whammy. You're three women cofounders and you're all in your 50's or older, not a startup being run by a 20-something guy. Curriculum Curtin (Navitas)? They were blatant about it. They didn't pull any punches. They weren't trying to hide their reasons for saying no, or be subtle, this person told us.

In the end, the critical define ICS International Community, CEO didn't raise the money and shut down the critical curriculum, startup. The 53-year-old IT consultant went back to the corporate world, taking a job for an iconic Silicon Valley company. As a woman in tech, she shrugs off that experience and has not been deterred by writing essays help Shawnigan Lake it, she says. She's been fighting, and critical curriculum Curtin (Navitas), winning, this kind of thing her whole career, she says. As a young woman it was almost worse, she says. She was constantly being told she was too young (or too young looking) to get choice assignments or promotions. That didn't stop her either.

I had to fight for it, she said. Essay Writing List Ely? I had to be assertive. I had to raise my hand a couple of times and curriculum University (Navitas), say, 'I want a chance to do that!' She still thinks she'll do another startup one day, but won't do it if she has to depend on write University, VC money to get it going. I'm going to retire in a couple of years. My plan is to critical thinking Curtin University, be out at 55. I might do some startup stuff, something of my own, she says. The VCs' negativity wouldn't stop me. Another woman we talked to, now retired, landed a job at a very desirable tech employer when she was 55. She had made a name for herself at a big, iconic Valley hardware company, where her age had worked in technical article ICS International Community, her favor, and critical (Navitas), was poached away.

As you got older, at [my old company] your accumulated wisdom was more respected, she told us. She hit culture-shocked at her new employer, a company where the median worker age was about 30, and where the company valued energy and write my essays Thompson, unique ideas more than it valued what I'll label as 'wisdom,' she told us. While no one made snide age-related remarks to her, and she liked the work, her younger co-workers didn't want to critical thinking curriculum University, listen to her feedback or ideas. They started to view her as a party pooper if I'd say I'd 'been there, done that' and that their idea doesn't work. Write My Essays Thompson Rivers University? People didn't take it well, she said. After a while, she simply stopped sharing her experience and gave up on the idea of climbing high in this company. I ended up realizing that what it would take to get ahead was both physical and critical curriculum Curtin University, emotional energy. I had plenty of physical energy, but had trouble getting the emotional energy. The way I looked at it, they were paying me nicely. I'm happy with the London Academy, work I'm doing.

I'm going to thinking (Navitas), stay at this level, she said. The secret benefit of getting older. Despite all the stress that many older tech workers feel, getting older isn't an automatic kiss of death for International Community a tech career, successful ones tell us. We talked to thinking curriculum (Navitas), a couple of people who were thriving. One benefit of getting older is that you have a vast network of essay vocabulary list people throughout the industry. You also understand office politics and can work them to critical curriculum University (Navitas), your benefit. One example is Peter Greulich, who worked for IBM for 30 years and retired from the company in how to an essay Holland Center, 2011, and critical curriculum Curtin University, wrote a book about his experience called A View from London International Academy Beneath the Dancing Elephant. In it, he tells the story of how he was about to be laid off and narrowly escaped it by working all his many contacts inside IBM until he found a manager to critical curriculum University (Navitas), hire him. Greygler is an actual common term referring to critical, older Googlers. Here's one of the oldest and best-known Googlers, Vint Cerf.

Google. From that experience, he learned that the critical thinking curriculum Curtin University, responsibility was on me for 30 years in my career to always train myself for essay list Kings Ely my next job, he told Business Insider. He sought out projects that would allow him to move inside the company, doing everything from marketing to sales to product management to technical roles. He learned to read the (Navitas), tea leaves and jump to new jobs. Another successful older worker we talked is 58 today, and technical article International, landed at a startup a few years ago after spending decades at a global tech firm. He says the biggest mistake he sees from thinking other older workers is ignoring their network until its too late and they've already lost their jobs. He told us he made the same mistake. When he felt dissatisfied with his old company and wanted a new job, I had one LinkedIn connection.

I didn't know what LinkedIn was. He studied up and now I have almost 1,000. And he brushed up on essays help Shawnigan School, everything else to make himself more current, too. I have a Galaxy Note, I have an iPhone, a Twitter account. I have Facebook, I'm even on on Google+. I delve into thinking curriculum Curtin University, the tech as much as I can, he adds. The upshot is, tech workers need to understand that they'll be fighting the perception of being outdated as their careers mature. As long as they can show that they are masters of the new stuff as well as the old, ageism will be more like an annoying fly, something to swat away, than a deadly virus. Says the International Academy, guy who ditched retirement to go back to work: If you have the energy, passion, and curriculum Curtin, desire to change the world, then doing exciting things in tech in help Shawnigan, your 50s or even in your 60s is possible.

Don't be afraid. You can bridge the gap.

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Final Draft Victoria#8217;s Dirty Little Secret. There are a number of different methods in which a specific ideological message can be delivered. A manner of delivery that falls into article ICS Community School the category of polite speech is, sadly often ignored. Because of this, bombastic, over curriculum Curtin (Navitas), the top approach is utilized to deliver the message. While certain individuals will present bombastic messages with no regard to tact, there are those who possess a faculty of creativity that allows them to present a clear message in an over the top manner that will shock people into confronting the truth of the message. Such is the Shawnigan Lake School case with Forest Ethics campaign to awaken the public in regards to critical thinking curriculum Curtin, Victorias Dirty Little Secret. So what is Victorias Dirty Little Secret? Basically, the lingerie company Victorias Secrets publicized its inventory by way of a large print catalogue that itemizes the multitude of clothing items that they offer for sale. Of course, the catalogue is printed on paper and there are literally tens of thousands of catalogues printed every year. Since the production of paper requires the deforestation of list rain forests, the purpose of Forest Ethics ad campaign is to raise public awareness by shocking the public with the true facts as to the devastation that the catalogue printing business is causing. Critical Curtin? This places a great deal of onus on those individuals who patronize Victorias Secret in a manner which forces them to actualize their complicity in the horrors that deforestation can cause. Ultimately, there needs to be a clear examination as to whether or not this is an effective ad campaign. In short, is the ad a great ad?

To answer that question, one must provide a twofold answer. First, is the ad great on an aesthetic level and secondly, is the advertisement effective in bringing about the proper response that the how to writing Holland International ad is supposed to bring. Critical Curriculum Curtin (Navitas)? Much of the ad is effective in article ICS International Community School, the way it parodies the classic 1970s style sexist ads. It is effective in critical Curtin, the way it throws those conventions out and takes what is supposed to be visually stimulating and turns it into a visual nightmare. Granted, it is a bit over the top, but it still manages to my essays Rivers, be effective. The ad is creative, shocking and effectively delivers an expository message.

In other words, it is very clear in what it seeks to present. If there was a negative to the ad, it would be that the ad is a bit too expository in its design, but similar ads targeting the critical curriculum (Navitas) cigarette makers were quite effective in terms of changing public opinion about smoking, so perhaps an writing essays help Shawnigan overly expository message is Curtin, not as bad as it would seem. As for the second part, the effectiveness of the how to writing an essay International Study Center ad is contingent on the personal feelings of curriculum (Navitas) those who see the ad. In other words, there will be certain people who put their personal purchasing freedoms above any political or environmental advocacy and have no real interest in the problems of deforestation. However, the ad will be successful if it reaches a decent segment of the writing an essay Holland International population and is able to convert a portion or percentage of said demographic.

To that degree, the ad can be extremely successful. To a certain degree, the effectiveness of the manner in which the ad advocates change rests on the ability of the ad to force those who see it to confront their (possible) hypocrisy. That is to say, if a customer who has purchased a great deal of critical thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas) inventory from courseowrk Academy, Victorias Secrets is an individual who is sympathetic to a platform that endorses environmental advocacy, then the thinking Curtin (Navitas) individual must make a decision as to whether or not actually commit to ICS International Community School, revoke support for a business that is an enemy of the state as far as environmental disasters go, or to reverse ones purchasing decisions as a means of convincing the power to be at Victorias Secret to reverse their policies and, perhaps, expand online catalogue distribution as opposed to the traditional paper method. Also, by publicly exposing the Victorias Secrets company the ability for consumers to claim plausible denial about the deforestations the company has been responsible for is greatly reduced if not outright eliminated. While the advertisement is a bit excessive in the manner in which it presents its subject matter and thematic concerns, it is a creative ad that can help sway opinion and drive people to action simply by presented a very bombastic message that is virtually impossible to ignore.

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cardiac case study Anesthesiology: Problem-Oriented Patient Management. CASE 15: Cardiac Tamponade. Manuel L. Fontes. Quick Links to Sections in this Chapter. Related Links in other Resources. Four days following two-vessel coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure and replacement of a mitral valve, this 69-year-old woman presented with a chief complaint of shortness of breath, inability to lie supine, oliguria, and overt weakness.

On examination, she appeared anxious and diaphoretic with the following vital signs: respiratory rate 38 breaths/minute, heart rate (HR) 120 beats/minute [normal sinus rhythm (NSR)], and thinking systemic blood pressure 115/66 mm Hg. A pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) was placed and revealed: pulmonary artery (PA) pressures, 55/15 mm Hg; pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), 14 mm Hg; central venous pressure (CVP), 23 mm Hg; and a cardiac output (CO) of 2.7 L/minute. Both the critical ICS School prothrombin and the partial thromboplastin times were elevated. Medical Disease and Differential Diagnosis What is the differential diagnosis of critical curriculum University, low cardiac output (CO) postoperatively? A. Medical Disease and write Thompson Differential Diagnosis. A.1. What is the differential diagnosis of low cardiac output (CO) postoperatively? CO is determined by the product of stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) during 1 minute (CO = HR x SV). Thus, a low output state can occur when SV and/or HR decrease.

Tachyarrhythmias of either ventricular or atrial origin can also cause a low output state (i.e., atrial fibrillation). Critical University (Navitas). To more accurately determine the etiology of a reduced SV, it is necessary to explore whether there has been a change in the preload, the afterload, and/or the contractile state. Either too much preload (ventricular overdistention) or too little preload can lower the CO. Similarly, a significant reduction in afterload (vasodilators, anesthetics, sympatholysis) or an writing Shawnigan increase in afterload (arterial resistance) can diminish SV. The latter, however, is only seen in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction whereby the heart can no longer compensate for increases in afterload. Myocardial contractility can be compromised by either direct causes (myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, myocardial stunning, or myocardial hibernation) and/or by critical thinking (Navitas), indirect causes (mechanical factors as in cardiac tamponade; pharmacologic agents; and by toxins, namely, inflammatory cytokines and bacterial endotoxins). A combination of hemodynamic disturbances can coexist in the same patient. For example, a patient can have both a decrease in contractility and a reduced preload to account for the low output state. Correcting one problem alone may not produce the optimal hemodynamic condition.

Fontes ML. Hines RH. Pharmacologic treatment of perioperative left and right ventricular dysfunction. Kaplan JA, Reich DSN, Konstadt SN, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: Grune Stratton, 1999:11551191. A.2. Courseowrk. What is cardiac tamponade? Enumerate the common etiologies of cardiac tamponade. Cardiac tamponade is defined as significant compression of the heart by accumulating pericardial contents. These include blood and clots (postcardiotomy, chamber perforation, dissecting aortic aneurysm, trauma, anticoagulant therapy), exudative effusions (malignant states, infective pericarditis, idiopathic pericarditis), nonexudative effusions (uremia, systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic, radiation), and thinking air. How significant cardiac tamponade is depends on whether the definition is critical define ICS International Community School, clinical versus physiologic.

That is, tamponade is a pathophysiologic continuum that on one extreme may be clinically insignificant whereas on another extreme presents as a life-threatening condition requiring emergent surgical attention. Clinical tamponade is critical University, frequently associated with marked increase in pericardial pressure relative to intracardiac pressures (atrial and ventricular) such that SV progressively declines resulting in systemic hypotension and in cardiogenic shock. Braunwald E, Heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine 6th ed. International. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2001:1498. Fowler NO. Thinking Curriculum. Gabel M. Buncher CR. Cardiac tamponade: a comparison of right heart versus left heart compression. Write My Essays Rivers. JACC 1988:12:187.

Kaplan JA, Cardiac anesthesia 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999:847. Spodlick D. Pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade. Chest 1998:113:13721378. A.3. What is the critical thinking curriculum University difference between acute and delayed cardiac tamponade? In the setting of cardiac surgery, cardiac tamponade can occur acutely over minutes, hours, or after a few days postoperatively. Writing Article School. The reported incidence of acute cardiac tamponade is 0.5#37; to Curtin, 5.8#37;.

The typical patient has significant chest tube output (more than 200 mL/hour) in the immediate postoperative period associated with or without hemodynamic signs of inadequate CO. Alternatively, the chest tubes may become clogged by blood clots impeding mediastinal drainage. Delayed tamponade has been arbitrarily defined as cardiac tamponade occurring greater than 5 to 7 days after pericardiotomy. The incidence is 0.3#37; to 2.6#37; and is often misdiagnosed because of a low index of suspicion and because the clinical signs and symptoms can be comparable to those of congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and generalized fatigue (i.e., failure to London International, thrive postoperatively). The most common culprit in delayed cardiac tamponade is anticoagulant therapy with coumadin, heparin, and/or platelet inhibiting agents.

Effusion after cardiac surgery is common. Critical Curriculum. Using echocardiography, Weitzman et al. evaluated consecutive patients postoperatively and demonstrated that 103/122 (84#37;) had pericardial effusions. International. Generally, effusions reach their maximum size by the tenth postoperative day and regress spontaneously thereafter. D'Cruz IA. Overton DH. Pai GH. Pericardial complications of cardiac surgery: emphasis on critical thinking curriculum, the diagnostic role of echocardiography.

J Card Surg 1992:7:257268. Nelson RM. Jeson CB. Smoot WM. Pericardial tamponade following open-heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1969:58:510516. Weitzman LB. Tinker WC. Vocabulary List. Kronzon I, et al.The incidence and natural history of thinking curriculum University, pericardial effusions after cardiac surgery: an courseowrk International echocardiographic study.

Circulation 1984:69:506. A.4. How is the Curtin (Navitas) diagnosis of courseowrk London, postcardiotomy cardiac tamponade made? The diagnosis of cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery is often difficult and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, proficient knowledge of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) derived measures, physical examination, and diagnostic tools such as echocardiography and chest x-ray film. Often, the diagnosis is made in the operating room whereby evacuation of curriculum Curtin, clot and write my essays Rivers University blood from the critical Curtin mediastinum is associated with drastic improvement in hemodynamics. Relying on one modality alone for diagnosis can lead to inaccurate management decisions and increase patient morbidity. For example, the courseowrk International PAC is an important device for monitoring cardiac function; however, its measures can be misleading postcardiotomy unless the critical Curtin clinician is cognizant of such limitations.

The classical teaching of equalization of diastolic blood pressures in cardiac tamponade [central venous pressure (CVP) = pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PAD) = pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP)] is infrequently observed postoperatively because the pericardium is left open. As such, blood or clot or both do not distribute around the heart homogeneously to produce equalization of pericardial diastolic pressures. Generally, the CVP is elevated but the writing help Shawnigan Lake PAD and the PAOP can be normal, elevated, or, in some cases, reduced. With significant compression of the right heart, reduced blood flow to the pulmonary artery (PA) and to the left heart can yield lower pressures that would be inconsistent with classical tamponade physiology. Russo and thinking curriculum Curtin colleagues found that only 33#37; of patients with the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade had right heart catheterization findings that reflected equalization of diastolic blood pressures. Essays Help Lake School. Overall, 90#37; of patients with postcardiotomy cardiac tamponade had either atypical clinical, hemodynamic, and/or echocardiographic findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of postoperative cardiac tamponade should be considered whenever hemodynamic deterioration is encountered, particularly when reduction in CO or blood pressure or both are not readily responsive to (Navitas), conventional management. Furthermore, in delayed tamponade the complaints tend to be vague and less hemodynamic data is available (i.e., PAC) to allow prompt diagnosis of tamponade.

Whenever, the patient is not progressing as expected postoperatively with some signs of end-organ dysfunction [fall in writing list Ely urine output and or increase blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine], an echocardiogram should be obtained to rule out critical thinking curriculum Curtin cardiac tamponade. Russo A. O'Connor W. Writing Essays Help Shawnigan Lake School. Waxman H. Atypical presentations and echocardiographic findings in patients with cardiac tamponade occurring early and late after cardiac surgery. Chest 1993:104:7178. Spodlick D. Critical Thinking University (Navitas). Pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade. Chest 1998:113:13721378. A.5. What is regional cardiac tamponade? Regional cardiac tamponade occurs when one or more cardiac chambers become compressed by blood or blood clot or both compromising forward flow.

Postcardiotomy, diastolic regional collapse of the right atrium or the Rivers University right ventricle is the most common echocardiographic finding in early cardiac tamponade. Postoperative right atrial hematoma often become localized to curriculum, the anterior and lateral walls, whereas left atrial clots are more commonly found behind the left atrium where they become encysted in the posterior space in the oblique sinus. Selective hematoma compression of the right heart becomes less prominent in delayed tamponade as the right heart becomes adherent or tethered to the anterior chest wall. As discussed in the previous answer, the diagnosis of tamponade is often misdiagnosed because classical features of tamponade are often absent because of uneven distribution of Community School, blood and blood clots around the heart. The clinical presentation may be mistaken for critical Curtin University (Navitas) congestive heart failure, acute left or right ventricular infarction, septic shock, or pulmonary embolism. Chuttani K. Pandian NG. Mohanty PK, et al.Left ventricular diastolic collapse. An echocardiographic sign of regional cardiac tamponade. Circulation 1991:83:19992006. Fowler NO. Gabel M. Essays Shawnigan. Regional cardiac tamponade: a hemodynamic study.

J Am Coll Cardiol 1987:10:164169. Hutchins GM. Isolated right atrial tamponade caused by hematoma complicating coronary artery bypass graft surgery [Letter]. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1980:104:612614. Jadhav P. Asirvatham S. Craven P, et al.Unusual presentation of late regional cardiac tamponade after aortic surgery.

Am J Cardiac Imaging 1996:10:204206. Kochar GS. Jocab LE. Holter MN. Right atrial impression in postoperative patients: detection by transesophageal cardiography.

J Am Coll Cardiol 1990:16:511516. Russo A. O'Connor W. Critical Thinking Curriculum (Navitas). Waxman H. Atypical presentations and echocardiographic findings in patients with cardiac tamponade occurring early and late after cardiac surgery. Technical Writing ICS Community School. Chest 1993:104:7178. Sandifer DP. Gonzalez JL.

Refractory postoperative hypoxemia associated with regional cardiac tamponade and patent foramen ovale. Crit Care Med 1997:25:16081611. A.6. What is pulsus paradoxus? What is critical thinking University, Kussmaul's sign?

Normally, there is an inspiratory fall of less than 10 mm Hg in the arterial systolic pressure and an accompanying inspiratory fall in the venous pressure. However, a paradoxical pulse differs from the critical ICS International normal situation in critical thinking curriculum Curtin two aspects: (a) the inspiratory fall of the arterial pressure exceeds 10 mm Hg and writing help Shawnigan School (b) the inspiratory venous pressure remains steady or increases (Kussmaul's sign). Echocardiographic studies of patients with cardiac tamponade by D'Cruz et al. described phasic respiratory changes whereby both left ventricular and mitral valve excursion decreased during inspiration. In contrast, right ventricular dimensions increased in association with a shifting of the interventricular septum toward the curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) left ventricle. Of importance, pulsus paradoxus is writing Ely, not unique to curriculum University (Navitas), cardiac tamponade.

The phasic respiratory changes in ventricular dimensions with exaggerated decrease in systemic systolic arterial pressure during inspiration can be present in Shawnigan Lake a variety of clinical conditions whereby intrapleural pressure is significantly diminished. Thinking Curriculum Curtin. That is, the magnitude of paradoxical pulse is Thompson Rivers, directly proportional to the inspiratory decrease of left ventricular dimension, diastolic volume, and SV. This physiologic process is often present in respiratory distress, airway obstruction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary embolism. Although a prominent feature of critical thinking, cardiac tamponade, pulsus paradoxus may not be present at all in patients with chest wall trauma, neuromuscular disease, and pneumothorax because they cannot produce sufficient negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration to produce the typical changes in chamber dimension and fall in writing Lake left ventricular SV. Similarly, those who are receiving positive pressure mechanical ventilation (early postoperative period) and Curtin patients with severe aortic regurgitation do not exhibit pulsus paradoxus. D'Cruz IA. Article ICS International School. Overton DH. Critical Curriculum Curtin University. Pai GH. Vocabulary Ely. Pericardial complications of cardiac surgery: emphasis on the diagnostic role of echocardiography.

J Card Surg 1992:7:257268. Frey B. Curriculum University (Navitas). Freezer N. Diagnostic value and pathophysiologic basis of write my essays Thompson, pulsus paradoxus in infants and children with respiratory disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 2001:31:138143. Jay GD. Onuma K. Davis R, et al.Analysis of critical thinking curriculum, physician ability in the measurement of pulsus paradoxus by International, sphygmomanometry. Chest 2000:118:348352. McGregor M. Pulsus paradoxus. N Engl J Med 1979:301:480.

Tsang TS. Barnes ME. Hayes SN, et al.Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of significant pericardial effusions following cardiothoracic surgery and outcomes of echo-guided pericardiocentesis for management: Mayo Clinic experience, 1979#150;1998. Chest 1999:116:322331. A.7. Critical Curriculum Curtin. Describe ventricular interaction in cardiac tamponade.

Ventricular interaction is how to writing an essay International Study Center, extremely important for maintenance of adequate cardiac performance. Under normal conditions, the average SV of the right ventricle equals the SV of the left ventricle; however, cyclical respiratory differences in left and thinking curriculum right ventricular SV do occur. During the essays Shawnigan inspiratory cycle, negative intrapleural pressure is generated facilitating venous return to critical thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas), the right heart, whereas venous return to the left heart is diminished for writing essays Shawnigan Lake the following reasons: (a) lung expansion increases its reservoir for blood and (b) the increase in right ventricular filling causes the interventricular septum to bulge leftwardly reducing left ventricular dimension and altering its compliance and filling (ventricular interaction). During exhalation, the reverse process occurs. In the case of cardiac tamponade, ventricular interaction also involves the critical thinking University (Navitas) interventricular septum but it can involve other chamber and processes depending on my essays Rivers, the etiology of the tamponade (fluid vs. clot, regional vs. global tamponade). Fundamentally, as intrapericardial content increases, it will reach a point whereby the parietal pericardium cannot stretch commensurate with the rising pressure. Because of the fixed space within the pericardium, cardiac chamber dimensions become smaller. First, the thin-walled and more compliant atriums progressively get compressed followed by the right ventricle and lastly the thinking curriculum University (Navitas) left ventricle.

Overall, the writing essays School physiology of critical thinking University (Navitas), ventricular interaction in clinical cardiac tamponade becomes complex as the pressure-volume relationship of mediastinal and chest structure alters with each heartbeat and from respiratory and neuroendocrine influences. Spodlick D. Technical ICS International. Pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade. Chest 1998:113:13721378. A.8. How is coronary blood flow affected in cardiac tamponade? In the absence of coronary artery disease, coronary blood flow is reduced in cardiac tamponade but this reduction is not sufficient to add an ischemic injury to the myocardium because there is a proportionate decrease in (a) ventricular preload (underfilled) and (b) ventricular afterload (underafterloaded). Consequently, both myocardial work and oxygen consumption are reduced. In contrast, patients with coronary artery disease may be at critical thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas), increased risk for myocardial ischemia or infarction or both. Reddy PS.

Curtiss EL. Otoole JD, et al.Cardiac tamponade; hemodynamic observation in man. Article ICS International. Circulation 1978:58:265272. Spodlick DH. Threshold of University (Navitas), pericardial constraint: the pericardial reserve volume and auxiliary pericardial functions.

J Am Coll Cardiol 1985:6:296299. A.9. What are the courseowrk International electrocardiographic abnormalities associated with cardiac tamponade? Electrocardiographic changes may occur in the settling of cardiac tamponade. These include nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities, low voltage QRS complex, signs of myocardial ischemia and pericarditis, and electrical alternans ( Fig. 15.1A ). The latter is seen in patients with large effusions and is characterized by thinking curriculum Curtin, interbeat shifts in electrical axis. This beat-to-beat alteration may be due to increased distance between the heart and the chest wall resulting in a pendulum like motion of the write my essays University heart. However, it has been shown that with minimal amount of pericardial fluid removal, the presence of critical thinking Curtin, electrical alternans can be abolished while the pericardial space remains enlarged. Thus, the electrocardiographic change of electrical alternans may reflect a hemodynamic pathology rather than an anatomic abnormality.

This finding, although sensitive for cardiac tamponade, is writing School, not very specific (very few patients with tamponade present with electrical alternans). Figure 15.1. Thinking Curtin University. Depiction of electrical alternans in a patient with cardiac tamponade. The images demonstrate significant pericardial effusions (PE) obtained during transthoracic echocardiography. Note the image of the left ventricle (LV) during systole and diastole. (From Longo MJ, Jaffe CC. Images in writing an essay Holland International Study clinical medicine. Electrical alternans. N Engl J Med 1999;341:2060, with permission.) Figure 15.1. Depiction of electrical alternans in a patient with cardiac tamponade. The images demonstrate significant pericardial effusions (PE) obtained during transthoracic echocardiography.

Note the image of the critical thinking Curtin left ventricle (LV) during systole and diastole. (From Longo MJ, Jaffe CC. Images in clinical medicine. Electrical alternans. N Engl J Med 1999;341:2060, with permission.) Fox JJ. Writing Kings. McHarg JL. Critical Thinking Curriculum University. Gilmour RF Jr. Ionic mechanism of electrical alternans. Courseowrk London International. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002:282:H516530.

Kosta E. Kronzon I. Electrical alternans in cardiac tamponade. Echocardiography 2000:17:(6 Pt 1)575576. Kronzon I. Cohen M. Winer H. Thinking Curriculum University. Contribution of echocardiography to the understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983:1:11801182. Longo MJ. Jaffe CC. Images in clinical medicine. Electrical alternans. N Engl J Med 1999:341:2060. A.10. What roentgenographic and echocardiographic findings are noted in cardiac tamponade?

On standard anterior-posterior chest roentgenography, the cardiac silhouette may appear normal in size or extremely enlarged depending on the acuity and article ICS Community chronicity of the tamponade process. Normally, the pericardial fluid amounts to 15 to 25 mL. Acute tamponade physiology can arise with as little as 150 mL of effusion, whereas chronic effusions may exceed 1,000 mL before clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade manifest. On chest x-ray film, the cardiac silhouette will appear widened with or without features such as obscuring of the critical thinking curriculum University pulmonary vessels at writing, the hilum and a globular or water bottle configuration of the heart. Transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography can differentiate between cardiac dysfunction arising from direct myocardial injury versus cardiac dysfunction associated with mechanical processes.

Pericardial effusions can be readily seen and semiquantitated. Likewise, pericardial blood clots can be demonstrated to compress the respective chamber. Critical Curriculum University (Navitas). Additional echocardiographic signs observed in tamponade include (a) diminished left ventricular dimension and mitral valve excursion during inspiration, (b) shifting of the interventricular septum toward the left ventricle, (c) changes in transvalvular (mitral and aortic) flow characteristics seen by Doppler techniques, (d) diastolic posterior motion of the right ventricular wall, and write my essays University (e) in some cases, a systolic notch on the right ventricular epicardium ( Fig. 15.1B and C ). Although many of the findings of both x-ray film and echocardiogram can be suggestive of cardiac tamponade, no one sign is thinking curriculum University, 100#37; sensitive and specific. Braunwald E, Heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2001:1490. Kaplan JA, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999:932, 1250.

Singh SM. Wann LS. Technical ICS International School. Schuchard GH, et al.Right ventricular and right atrial collapse in patients with cardiac tamponade. Circulation 1984:70:996. A.11. What is in critical thinking curriculum (Navitas) the differential diagnosis of postcardiopulmonary bypass (post-CPB) bleeding? Significant bleeding following cardiac surgery requiring surgical exploration bring-back occurs in approximately 3#37; of cases. My Essays University. Often, the thinking Curtin (Navitas) source of bleeding cannot be ascertained and its etiology is ascribed to writing Shawnigan Lake, a coagulation defect.

Procedures that require CPB are known to adversely affect the hemostatic mechanisms including vascular endothelium, fibrinolytic and coagulation factors, platelet, plasminogen, and inflammatory pathways ( Fig. 15.2 ). Under normal settings, these systems (and others yet unknown) act in concert and in opposition with one another (a) to prevent bleeding by promoting clot formation at the site of endothelial injury (procoagulant effects) and critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (b) to prevent or destroy clot formation (anticoagulant effects#151;either directly or indirectly via inhibitory mediators). Define International Community School. Once blood elements come in contact with a nonendothelialized surface (bypass circuit), the procoagulant system becomes activated resulting in consumption of platelets, coagulation factors, and fibrinogen. The potential for postoperative bleeding will depend on the degree of activation and preexisting levels of the procoagulants as well as other factors such as the duration of CPB, systemic hypothermia, comorbid states (renal and liver insufficiency), type of surgery (reoperation, circulatory arrest, combined procedures), and prior or current treatment with anticoagulant (platelet inhibitors, coumadin, heparin). Figure 15.2. The coagulation cascade, illustrating the coagulation factors required for various screening tests. HMWK, high molecular weight kininogen; PK, prekallikrein; PL, phospholipid by platelets; PT, prothrombin time; PTT, partial thromboplastin time; TCT, thrombin clotting time; TTPL, tissue thromboplastin. (From Coleman RW, Hirsch J, Marder VJ, et al, eds. Critical Curriculum University. Hemostasis and writing ICS International Community School thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987:1052, with permission.) Figure 15.2.

The coagulation cascade, illustrating the coagulation factors required for various screening tests. HMWK, high molecular weight kininogen; PK, prekallikrein; PL, phospholipid by critical curriculum University, platelets; PT, prothrombin time; PTT, partial thromboplastin time; TCT, thrombin clotting time; TTPL, tissue thromboplastin. (From Coleman RW, Hirsch J, Marder VJ, et al, eds. Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987:1052, with permission.) Platelets play an important role in the coagulation process.

Once activated, they secrete several types of granules. Granules, containing peptides such as fibrinogen, thrombospondin, factors V and VIII, and -thromboglobulin, are reduced in courseowrk London International Academy both number and critical curriculum Curtin content during CPB. Of greater importance is the loss of several membrane glycoproteins (IIb-IIIa) that interact with fibrinogen and other cellular elements allowing for platelet conjugation and propagation of clot formation. Overall, postcardiotomy bleeding is due to (a) a qualitative and a quantitative platelet defect, (b) factor deficiency, and Thompson University (c) surgical bleeding. Critical Thinking University (Navitas). The latter can arise from either venous or arterial sources that were undetected before closure of the chest. Attentive and meticulous effort to surgical hemostasis can significantly reduce the incidence of bring-backs. Despotis GJ. Avidan MS. Hogue CW Jr. Mechanisms and attenuation of hemostatic activation during extracorporeal circulation. Essays Help Lake. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:S18211831.

Harker L. Malpass TW. Critical Thinking Curriculum Curtin. Branson HE. Mechanism of article ICS International Community, abnormal bleeding in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: acquired transient platelet dysfunction associated with selective alpha-granule release. Blood 1980:56:824. Kojima T. Gando S. Morimoto Y, et al.Systematic elucidation of University, effects of International School, tranexamic acid on fibrinolysis and thinking Curtin University (Navitas) bleeding during and after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Define School. Thromb Res 2001:104:301307. Levy JH. Pharmacologic preservation of the hemostatic system during cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:S18141820. A.12.

What is the curriculum Curtin University mechanism of essays help Shawnigan School, action of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)? LMWHs are fragments of unfractionated heparin produced by controlled enzymatic or chemical depolymerization processes yielding chains having molecular weight of about 5,000 daltons. The parent compound is a heterogeneous mixture of critical thinking curriculum, polysaccharide chains with molecular weight of 3,000 to 30,000 daltons. The mechanism of action is similar for both unfractionated heparin and write my essays University LMWH. Binding of the thinking curriculum Curtin University pentasaccharide to antithrombin (antithrombin III) results in a conformational change in antithrombin that accelerates its interaction with thrombin and factor X (factor Xa) by 1,000-fold. Whereas unfractionated heparin causes a comparable inhibition of factor Xa as LMWH, its inhibition of thrombin is much more profound than LMWH. To inactivate thrombin, heparin has to bind to both antithrombin and thrombin forming a ternary complex. Heparin pentasaccharide sequences (randomly distributed along heparin chains) of my essays Rivers University, 18 units or more is required for critical curriculum University (Navitas) the formation of this ternary complex. Essays Help Shawnigan Lake School. Approximately 50#37; of LMWH lack the adequate length necessary for thinking (Navitas) binding antithrombin and thrombin. Furthermore, only an essay International, 15#37; to 25#37; of chains of LMWH contain pentasaccharide sequences. Curriculum Curtin University. Therefore, LMWH has greater inhibitory effect of factor Xa, whereas unfractionated heparin exerts an equipotent effect against both thrombin and factor Xa.

Lastly, both LMWH and unfractionated heparin cause release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor from vascular endothelium, which then forms a complex with and inhibits factor Xa. This complex in turn inactivates factor VIIa. Clark SC. Vitale N. My Essays Thompson. Zacharias J, et al.Effect of low molecular weight heparin (fragmin) on critical University, bleeding after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2000:69:762765. Danielsson A. Raub E. Lindahl U, et al.Role of ternary complexes in which heparin binds both antithrombin and proteinase, in the acceleration of the reactions between antithrombin and thrombin for factor Xa. J Biol Chem 1986:261:15461573. Gohlke-Barwolf C. Anticoagulation in valvar heart disease: new aspects and management during non-cardiac surgery.

Heart 2000:84:567572. Harenberg J. Pharmacology of low molecular weight heparins. Semin Thomb Hemost 1990:16:1218. Kondo NI. Maddi R. Ewenstein BM, et al.Anticoagulation and hemostasis in cardiac surgical patients.

J Card Surg 1994:9:443461. Weitz JI. Drug therapy: low molecular weight heparins. Writing An Essay Holland Center. N Engl J Med 1997:337:688698. A.13. Describe the advantages of LMWH over curriculum (Navitas), standard heparin therapy. There are several clinical and pharmacologic advantages of LMWH over unfractionated heparin.

The plasma half-life of LMWH is courseowrk Academy, two to four times longer than unfractionated heparin, which undergoes a dose-dependent elimination by the liver and the kidneys. Critical Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas). A significant amount of unfractionated heparin is bound to plasma proteins, vascular endothelium, and macrophages resulting in less bioavailability and an unpredictable anticoagulant effect. Consequently, careful laboratory monitoring is my essays Thompson University, required. Additional benefits of LMWH over unfractionated heparin include less bleeding (less platelet inhibition and less propensity for critical curriculum University increasing microvascular permeability). Several clinical trials have demonstrated both improved efficacy and London safety of LMWH over unfractionated heparin.

Of note, LMWH is critical, not recommended in the setting of renal failure, and its anticoagulant activity may be measured by assaying factor Xa levels. There are, however, many different types of LMWH available in the market, each having slightly different pharmacologic effects (bioavailability, anticoagulant effect). Lastly, our understanding of the anticoagulant mechanism of LMWH continues to writing article Community School, evolve, and, although its indications continue to broaden, there may be safety concerns that ought not to be dismissed. Alban S. Gastpar R. Plasma levels of total and free tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) as individual pharmacological parameters of various heparins. Thromb Haemost 2001:85:824829.

Cohen AT. Bailey CS. Alikhan R, et al.Extended thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin reduces symptomatic venous thromboembolism following lower limb arthroplasty#151;a meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost 2001:85:940941. Huse DM. Cummins G. Taylor DC, et al.Outpatient treatment of (Navitas), venous thromboembolism with low-molecular-weight heparin: an economic evaluation. Am J Managed Care 2002:8:(1Suppl)S1016. Kleinschmidt K. Charles R. How To Writing An Essay Holland Study Center. Pharmacology of low molecular weight heparins [Review]. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2001:19:10251049. A.14.

What is critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)? How is the diagnosis made? HIT is a serious complication of heparin therapy that is predominantly immunemediated by critical define ICS , a binary complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4). Critical Curtin University. The reaction is commonly caused by an immunoglobulin (IgG) antibody that binds and activates platelets in the presence of heparin. Other immunoglobulins may also potentiate HIT. HIT exists in two forms. A benign form of HIT, type 1, is observed in approximately 10#37; to 20#37; of patients receiving unfractionated heparin. This mild form of thrombocytopenia (rarely less than 100 x 10 3 / L) occurs after 1 to 4 days of London International Academy, therapy and generally improves despite continuing heparin administration.

In contrast, type II HIT is a life-threatening condition that develops 5 to 10 days after initiating heparin therapy and critical curriculum (Navitas) is associated with devastating thromboembolic processes (most commonly arterial thrombosis resulting in limb ischemia, cerebrovascular events, and critical ICS International myocardial infarction). The platelet count falls to less than 50 x 10 3 / L and in severe cases to University (Navitas), less than 5 x 10 3 / L. The incidence of essay list, HIT in patients receiving full-dose heparin ranges between 0#37; to 30#37;. Although there is no randomized prospective study looking at the true incidence of HIT, the expected incidence is estimated to be less than 5#37;. Those patients who have had a previous exposure to heparin (recent and in some cases remote history) may develop HIT earlier after institution of heparin therapy as compared with those with no previous exposure. Thinking Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas). The frequency of HIT is also higher in patients receiving porcine mucosal heparin compared with bovine lung heparin. The diagnosis of HIT should be entertained in writing an essay International Study any patient with a significant fall in platelet count while on heparin therapy (less than 150 x 10 3 / L or a 50#37; or greater decrease in platelet count after 5 days of therapy). Critical Thinking Curriculum. The definitive diagnosis requires the following steps: (a) thrombocytopenia while on heparin, (b) exclusion of writing Kings Ely, other etiology of thrombocytopenia, (c) improvement in platelet count following cessation of heparin therapy, and (d) presence of thinking Curtin, heparin-dependent platelet antibody by an in vitro test.

In most cases, the diagnosis is made on clinical findings. Gerotziafas GT. Define School. Elalamy I. Lecrubier C, et al.The role of platelet factor 4 in platelet aggregation induced by the antibodies implicated in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Blood Coag Fibrinolysis 2001:12:511520. Robitaille D. Carrier M. Cartier R, et al.Successful management strategy for mechanical assistance and heart transplantation in patients suffering from heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II. J Heart Lung Transplantation 2001:20:12371240. Shea SI.

Sands JJ. Nudo SA, et al.Frequency of anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibodies in hemodialysis patients and correlation with recurrent vascular access thrombosis. Am J Hematol 2002:69:7273. Warkentin TE. Dunn GL. Cybulsky IJ. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for curriculum Curtin acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:17301732. A.15.

What is the therapy for HIT? Because HIT type II is Community, a potentially lethal condition, the most effective therapy is discontinuation of heparin. The thrombocytopenia should improve progressively. Although tempting, the need for platelet transfusion is discouraged because bleeding occurs infrequently and vascular thrombosis may be potentiated. Several agents have been recommended for critical curriculum University (Navitas) use in HIT. Write My Essays Thompson Rivers. These include direct thrombin inhibitors (hirudin, argatroban), LMWH, LMW heparinoid, ancrod, and antiplatelet agents. Critical Curriculum Curtin University. Most of these agents are not available in the United States for use; others are under clinical investigation. Hirudin has been extensively used in Europe with demonstrable benefit and safety. The LMWH have been shown to have cross reactivity with unfractionated heparin approaching 100#37; [C-serotonin release or by heparin-induced platelet aggregation (HIPA) assays] and should not be used in the setting of HIT unless there are demonstrable negative cross reactivity assays with standard heparin.

The ancrod is courseowrk London International Academy, a defibrinogenating agent (not available in thinking University the United States) extracted from the Malayan pit viper and is immunologically distinct from critical define ICS School heparin. It acts by cleaving fibrinopeptide A from curriculum University (Navitas) fibrinogen and its activity can be measured by assaying for plasma fibrinogen concentration. Lastly, in the setting of HIT, a synthetic analogue of prostacyclin (iloprost#151;a potent inhibitor of platelet activation) has been used successfully during cardiac surgery to my essays Thompson University, prevent further reduction of platelet count. Cheng-Lai A. Critical Curtin (Navitas). Cardiovascular drug highlight: hirudin. Heart Dis J Cardiovasc Med 1999:1:4149. Deitcher SR. Carman TL. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: natural history, diagnosis, and management.

Vasc Med 2001:6:113119. Gill J. Kovacs MJ. Successful use of danaparoid in treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia during twin pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1997:90:(4 Pt 2)648650. Koster A. Article ICS School. Meyer O. Fischer T, et al.One-year experience with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist tirofiban and heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001:122:12541255. Robitaille D. Carrier M. Cartier R, et al.Successful management strategy for thinking curriculum University (Navitas) mechanical assistance and write my essays Rivers heart transplantation in patients suffering from thinking (Navitas) heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II. J Heart Lung Transplantation 2001:20:12371240. Warkentin TE. Courseowrk International. Dunn GL. Cybulsky IJ. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:17301732. A.16. Can HIT be caused by LMWH?

Based on confirmed laboratory tests, the prevalence of HIT is Curtin (Navitas), 2#37; for patients receiving unfractionated heparin. Writing Holland International Center. Although the critical thinking incidence of write my essays Thompson Rivers, HIT is critical curriculum University, infrequent in the setting of LMWH, it is not zero and avoidance of the latter is recommended for patients demonstrating signs of HIT while receiving unfractionated heparin. Fabris F. Luzzatto G. Stefani PM, et al.Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia [Review]. Haematologica 2000:85:7281. Kleinschmidt K. Charles R. Pharmacology of low molecular weight heparins. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2001:19:10251049. Warkentin TE. Critical Define ICS International Community School. Sheppard JA. Horsewood P, et al.Impact of the patient population on the risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Critical Thinking Curriculum Curtin. Blood 2000:96:17031708.

A.17. What is the International Academy mechanism of heparin antagonism by protamine? Heparin is thinking curriculum University (Navitas), a large glycosaminoglycan molecule consisting of chains of alternating residues of D -glucosamine and my essays Thompson University uronic acid. It is highly negatively charged, whereas protamine is mostly positively charged. The two combine irreversibly to form a heparin-protamine complex that does not have the ability to critical curriculum Curtin (Navitas), bind to thrombin or factor Xa. Once neutralized, the complex of heparin and protamine is eliminated. Kimmel SE. Sekeres M. Berlin JA, et al.Mortality and adverse events after protamine administration in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 2002:94:14021408.

A.18. My Essays Rivers. What is heparin rebound? The ACT is used to confirm adequacy of heparin neutralization by protamine. The concept of critical, heparin rebound and coagulopathy following protamine reversal may occur as follows: first, heparin that is sequestered in courseowrk International Academy tissues that are poorly perfused (i.e., fat) may not undergo neutralization by thinking curriculum Curtin, protamine and article ICS International second, the half-life of thinking Curtin University (Navitas), heparin is longer than that of protamine (45 minutes) such that as heparin is essay list Kings, mobilized back into circulation it can inhibit thrombin formation and predispose post-CPB bleeding. Studies in which 1 mg of protamine is given per 100 units of heparin (total dose) found no evidence of heparin rebound. Thus, bleeding in the postoperative cardiac surgical patient is unlikely to be from heparin rebound. Heller EL. Paul L. Anticoagulation management in a patient with an thinking curriculum Curtin acquired antithrombin III deficiency. J Extra Corpor Technol 2001:33:245248.

Subramaniam P. Skillington P. Tatoulis J. Heparin-rebound in the early postoperative phase following cardiopulmonary bypass. Austr N Z J Surg 1995:65:331333. Woodman RC. Harker LA. Bleeding complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood 1990:76:1680. A.19. How does coumadin affect the coagulation system? What is the therapy for reversing its effect? Coumadin remains the most commonly used anticoagulant agent in the outpatient setting (atrial fibrillation, prosthetic valves and International devices).

Its predominant pharmacodynamic effect is inhibition of synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors (II, VII, IX, and X) in the liver and critical thinking (Navitas) its clinical efficacy is monitored by measuring the PT or more specifically the international normalized ratio (INR). The safe or efficacy levels of either INR or PT is technical Community, variable due to multiple factors, including hepatic, nutritional, drug interaction, age, and presence of other comorbid conditions. Thinking University (Navitas). On average, it takes several days of therapy to achieve the desired INR (2 to 4); consequently, administration of either LMWH or unfractionated heparin may be necessary for vocabulary Ely initiating anticoagulation. Complications occur either because of inadequate anticoagulation (thrombosis) or because of excessive anticoagulation (bleeding and hemorrhage). Critical Thinking University. To reverse its effect, coumadin should be discontinued several days (more than 3 days) to allow levels of the aforementioned factors to my essays University, normalize. Acute reversal is achieved with FFP. Administration of vitamin K is often necessary to accelerate the synthetic process. Erban S. Initiation of warfarin therapy: recommendations and clinical pearls. J Thromb Thrombolysis 1999:7:145148. Henderson MC.

White RH. Curtin (Navitas). Anticoagulation in the elderly. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001:7:365370. Horton JD. Bushwick BM. Warfarin therapy: evolving strategies in anticoagulation. Am Fam Physician 2002:65:172. Keller C. Matzdorff AC. Kemkes-Matthes B. Pharmacology of essay writing vocabulary list Kings Ely, warfarin and clinical implication. Sem Thromb Hemost 1999:25:1316. A.20.

What do the Curtin University (Navitas) following measure: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, activated clotting time (ACT), bleeding time? PT measures the activity of the extrinsic pathway: factors I (fibrinogen), II (prothrombin), V, VII, and X ( Fig. 15.2 ). Deficiencies of factors V, VII, and X (50#37; of normal) significantly prolong the PT. Much lower concentrations of fibrinogen and prothrombin are required to prolong the list Kings Ely PT. Activities of three of the four vitamin K-dependent factors (II, VII, IX, and X) are measured by the PT. Normal values are less than 12 seconds. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time.

Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measures the activity of the intrinsic pathway: factors XII, XI, IX, VIII, V, X, prothrombin, and fibrinogen ( Fig. 15.2 ). The aPTT is prolonged by concentrations of less than 20#37; to 30#37; of thinking University, these factors. Normal values are 25 to essay vocabulary Ely, 40 seconds. Thrombin time measures the conversion of fibrinogen to thinking curriculum University (Navitas), fibrin by thrombin#151;the final step in an essay Holland Study Center the coagulation cascade ( Fig. 15.2 ). The thrombin time is decreased in the presence of low concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin. Heparin prolongs the thrombin time, whereas coumadin has little effect. Normal values are less than 10 seconds. Activated Clotting Time.

ACT measures the general function of the coagulation system. It is critical thinking curriculum University, used primarily to measure the technical writing International Community adequacy of heparinization during CPB and protamine reversal of critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), heparin following CPB. Prolonged ACTs may be due to heparin, low levels of my essays Thompson, coagulation factors, or thrombocytopenia. It is, however, not particularly specific for platelet or factor deficiencies. Normal values are 110 to 140 seconds. Bleeding time measures platelet activity, including both platelet number and critical thinking curriculum Curtin aggregation.

The bleeding time becomes prolonged with platelet counts less than 50 x 10 3 / L and in essay vocabulary list Kings Ely the presence of inhibitors of critical University, platelet aggregation such as aspirin. Normal values are less than 5 minutes. The bleeding time has not been shown to be predictive of postoperative bleeding and is no longer performed routinely preoperatively. Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK, Clinical anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams Wilkins, 2001:219224. Braunwald E, Fauci A, Kasper DL, et al., Harrison's principles of write Thompson Rivers, internal medicine 15th ed.

New York: McGraw Hill, 2001:354358. Colman RW, Hirsh J, Marder VJ, et al., Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice 2nd ed. University (Navitas). Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987:1048. A.21. How is the vocabulary Ely anticoagulant effect of LMWH monitored? There is no evidence that monitoring the dose improves the clinical efficacy. Critical Curriculum Curtin (Navitas). In contrast, any overdose increases the risk of hemorrhage. Because the write my essays Rivers kidneys play a significant role in the elimination of LMWH, therapeutic use of these agents should be monitored with an antifactor Xa assay, especially in patients who have renal insufficiency, are elderly, and have clinical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding. Boneu B. de Moerloose P. How and when to monitor a patient treated with low molecular weight heparin. Critical Thinking University. Sem Thromb Hemost 2001:27:519522.

A.22. Essay. What is thinking Curtin (Navitas), a thromboelastograph? What is a Sonoclot? The thromboelastograph is an article ICS School instrument that measures the development of blood clot viscoelastic strength over time. A rotating piston is suspended in a cuvette filled with heated blood. As clot formation proceeds, the rotation of the critical curriculum Curtin piston is affected and characteristic curves are generated ( Fig. 15.3 ). How To Writing An Essay Holland International. The etiology of a coagulopathy may be obtained by analyzing these curves ( Fig. 15.4 ). The Sonoclot similarly measures the critical thinking University development of clot viscoelastic strength. The Sonoclot piston moves vertically and write Thompson measures the impedance to vibration at Curtin University (Navitas), the tip of the probe. Sonoclot tracings obtained from essays help School platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma are shown in the Fig.

15.5 . Figure 15.3. Production of normal thromboelastogram and measured parameters. R, reaction time, 7 to 14 minutes; K value, 3 to 7 minutes; , clot formation rate, 40 degrees to 60 degrees, MA, maximum amplitude, 50 to 60 mm, A60/MA, amplitude 60 minutes after MA; whole blood clot lysis index, greater than 0.85; F, whole blood clot lysis time, greater than 300 minutes. (From Tumen KJ, Spiess BD, McCathy RJ, et al. Effects of progressive blood loss on coagulation as measured by thromboelastography. Anesth Analg 1987;66:856#150;863.) Figure 15.3. Thinking. Production of normal thromboelastogram and measured parameters.

R, reaction time, 7 to 14 minutes; K value, 3 to 7 minutes; , clot formation rate, 40 degrees to Shawnigan, 60 degrees, MA, maximum amplitude, 50 to 60 mm, A60/MA, amplitude 60 minutes after MA; whole blood clot lysis index, greater than 0.85; F, whole blood clot lysis time, greater than 300 minutes. (From Tumen KJ, Spiess BD, McCathy RJ, et al. Effects of progressive blood loss on coagulation as measured by thromboelastography. Anesth Analg 1987;66:856#150;863.) Figure 15.4. Critical Thinking Curriculum Curtin. Qualitative analysis of thromboelastograms. Figure 15.4. Qualitative analysis of thromboelastograms. Figure 15.5. Sonoclot tracings of how to an essay Holland International, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). A: lag period, B: primary wave, C: shoulder, D: secondary wave, E: peak, F: downward wave. (From Saleem A, Blifeld C, Saleh SA, et al. University. Viscoelastic measurement of clot formation: a new test of platelet function.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 1983;13:115, with permission.) Figure 15.5. Critical Define International. Sonoclot tracings of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP). A: lag period, B: primary wave, C: shoulder, D: secondary wave, E: peak, F: downward wave. (From Saleem A, Blifeld C, Saleh SA, et al. Viscoelastic measurement of clot formation: a new test of platelet function. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1983;13:115, with permission.) Avidan MS. Da Fonseca J. Parmar K, et al.The effects of aprotinin on thromboelastography with three different activators. Anesthesiology 2001:95:11691174.

Ellison N, Jobes DR, Effective hemostasis in the cardiac surgery Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1988:155. Forestier F. Belisle S. Contant C, et al.Reproducibility and interchangeability of the thromboelastograph, Sonoclot and Hemochron activated coagulation time in critical Curtin (Navitas) cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth 2001:48:902910. Koster A. Hansen R. Schulz J, et al.Assessment of the resonance thromboelastograph CS-3 for differentiation of writing Holland Center, coagulation disorders: a pilot in vitro investigation of simulated post-cardiopulmonary bypass coagulopathies. J Extra Corp Technol 2001:33:159166. Koster A. Kukucka M. Critical Curriculum (Navitas). Fischer T, et al.Evaluation of post-cardiopulmonary bypass coagulation disorders by differential diagnosis with a multichannel modified thromboelastogram: a pilot investigation. J Extra Corp Technol 2001:33:153158. Saleem A. Blifeld C. Saleh SA, et al.Viscoelastic measurement of clot formation: a new test of platelet function. Article International Community School. Ann Clin Sci 1983:13:115. Vig S. Chitolie A. Bevan DH, et al.Thromboelastography: a reliable test?.

Blood Coag Fibrinolysis 2001:12:555561. Vorweg M. Hartmann B. Knuttgen D, et al.Management of fulminant fibrinolysis during abdominal aortic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001:15:764767. A.23. How does desmopressin aid hemostasis? Desmopressin [1-deamino-8- D -arginine vasopressin (DDAVP)] increases von Willebrand's factor and factor VII activity in plasma. Thinking Curriculum Curtin University. von Willebrand's factor, which binds to platelets, is London International Academy, found in subendothelial tissue and is in part responsible for platelet adhesion to damaged blood vessels. DDAVP was initially shown to significantly decrease postoperative bleeding. Dobkowski WB. Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas). Murkin JM.

A risk-benefit assessment of technical ICS International Community School, aprotinin in cardiac surgical procedures. Drug Safety 1998:18:2141. Kondo NI. Maddi R. Ewenstein BM, et al.Anticoagulation and hemostasis in cardiac surgical patients. J Card Surg 1994:9:443461. Serradeil-Le Gal C. Nonpeptide antagonists for vasopressin receptors. Pharmacology of SR 121463A, a new potent and critical University highly selective V2 receptor antagonist.

Adv Exp Med Biol 1998:449:427438. A.24. What is fibrinolysis? Fibrinolysis is fibrin breakdown in thrombi. Plasmin, derived from plasminogen, is the how to an essay Holland Center enzyme involved in this process. Physiologic fibrinolysis involves clot remodeling and removal during the thinking curriculum healing process. Write Thompson. Pathologic fibrinolysis occurs when fibrin in a thrombus is broken down before healing. Although elevated concentrations of plasminogen activators are found during CPB, their half-lives are very short after bypass. Curtin (Navitas). In cardiac surgery, fibrinolysis is a rare cause of postoperative bleeding.

Hackman T. Gascoyne CD. Naiman SC, et al.A trial of desmopressin to reduce blood loss in uncomplicated cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med 1989:321:1437. Salzman EW. Weinstein MJ. Weintraub RM, et al.Treatment with desmopressin acetate to reduce blood loss after cardiac surgery. My Essays. N Engl J Med 1986:314:1402. A.25. What is aminocaproic acid?

Aminocaproic acid (Amicar) is an analogue of critical Curtin University (Navitas), lysine. Its primary mechanism of action is inhibition of plasmin, resulting in less breakdown of fibrinogen, fibrin (fibrinolysis), and other clotting components. Aminocaproic acid has been effective in writing School treating coagulopathy in the setting of critical thinking curriculum Curtin, heart surgery, portocaval shunts, hematologic disorders such as aplastic anemia, abruptio placentae, hepatic cirrhosis, and neoplastic diseases. Compared with placebo, both tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been shown to reduce blood loss by writing Holland International Center, 30#37; to 49#37; as well as reduce homologous blood transfusion. When compared with aprotinin, in high-risk patients, high dose-Amicar has also been shown to have favorable results related to reduction of blood loss and transfusion requirement.

Considering the low cost associated with aminocaproic acid therapy (less than $12), many cardiac surgical centers use this agent routinely for uncomplicated open-heart procedures. The standard intravenous preparation and dosage for cardiac surgery include 5 to 10 g of aminocaproic acid diluted and infused over 1 hour, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 1 g per hour. Higher infusion rates may be used. There are several adverse events that include thrombosis (early graft closure, myocardial ischemia and infarction), agranulocytosis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Although rare, bradycardia and mild reduction in blood pressure have also been reported. Levi M. Cromheecke ME. de Jonge E, et al.Pharmacological strategies to decrease excessive blood loss in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of clinically relevant endpoints. Lancet 1999:354:19401947. A.26. What is critical thinking University, aprotinin? Aprotinin is a complex polypeptide molecule belonging to the family of serine protease inhibitors that is technical International Community School, extracted from critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) bovine lung. After intravenous administration, aprotinin undergoes rapid total extravascular distribution with a plasma half-life of approximately 150 minutes.

It is filtered by the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. The terminal half-life is essay vocabulary, approximately 10 hours. The basis for its efficacy is not fully understood but consists of a complex activation-interaction of the thinking Curtin following systems: kallikrein resulting in kinin generation, complement and inflammatory pathways, coagulation (intrinsic and extrinsic), fibrinolytic, angiotensin, and others not yet determined ( Fig. 15.6 ). Initial contact between blood elements and the nonendothelialized surface of the CPB circuit promote contact activation of both humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The coagulation system may be the first to be activated by contact generating factor XIIa from factor XII, which then interacts with prekallikrein and define International Community high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) to thinking University (Navitas), form kallikrein as well as promote the help Lake activation of the other coagulation factors. Once activated, kallikrein functions to critical Curtin University, stimulate and accelerate the generation of an essay International Study, bradykinin from critical curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) HMWK, factor XIIa, angiotensin, and an essay Holland International Study Center complement activation. Factor XIIa, in turn, also interacts with fibrinogen to produce plasmin ( Fig. Thinking University. 15.7 ). Figure 15.6. Contact activation and the role of the kallikrein system. Factor 12, XII; activated factor 12, XIIa; high-molecular weight kininogen, HK; prekallikrein, PKK; factor 11, XI; activated factor 11, XIa. (From slide set no.

3, tryaslol slide library [online]. Bayer, 2000. Available at essay writing Ely, http://www.trasylol.com/slides.htm with permission.) Figure 15.6. Contact activation and the role of the critical Curtin University kallikrein system. Factor 12, XII; activated factor 12, XIIa; high-molecular weight kininogen, HK; prekallikrein, PKK; factor 11, XI; activated factor 11, XIa. (From slide set no.

3, tryaslol slide library [online]. Bayer, 2000. Available at http://www.trasylol.com/slides.htm with permission.) Figure 15.7. Involvement of the critical define ICS International Community various components of coagulation including the coagulation factors, kallikrein system, complement activation, kinin generation, angiotensin system, and the fibrinolytic system. C1, complement; HMW, high molecular weight. (From slide set no. 3, tryaslol slide library [online]. Bayer, 2000. Available at: http://www.trasylol.com/slides.htm with permission.)

Figure 15.7. Critical Thinking University (Navitas). Involvement of the various components of coagulation including the coagulation factors, kallikrein system, complement activation, kinin generation, angiotensin system, and the fibrinolytic system. C1, complement; HMW, high molecular weight. (From slide set no. Writing Help School. 3, tryaslol slide library [online]. Bayer, 2000. Available at: http://www.trasylol.com/slides.htm with permission.) Aprotinin has been shown to markedly reduce the aforementioned humoral processes thereby mitigating the coagulopathy associated with CPB-related procedures. In addition, aprotinin may reduce blood loss by preserving platelet function.

The mechanism of this relates to preservation of platelet surface glycoproteins (IIb/IIIa), which is necessary for critical thinking curriculum Curtin University platelet-fibrinogen interaction and clot formation. The inflammatory properties of aprotinin (both cellular and humoral) have been shown in animal and in some human studies; however, clinical outcome trials addressing this effect have not been conducted. International. In contrast, clinical trials comparing Aprotinin to placebo and/or to Amicar have consistently shown greater efficacy related to thinking University (Navitas), reduction in blood loss and essays Shawnigan School transfusions of critical thinking University (Navitas), blood elements. Concerns regarding prothrombotic potentials, including myocardial infarction and renal dysfunction, have since been dismissed. The infarction rate and the incidence of renal dysfunction are comparable to those of placebo ( Table 15.1 ). Article International School. Aprotinin does compete with creatinine for excretion and, in some patients, there may be a mild increase in serum creatinine. Rarely, if aprotinin is used in critical curriculum Curtin patients with protein C or S deficiency, they may experience life-threatening thrombotic events shortly after protamine neutralization of heparin. Another important aspect of aprotinin use is the type of reagent used to monitor adequacy of heparinization (ACT). Kaolin is the writing International Center recommended agent to be used to thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), assess ACT when aprotinin is writing Lake School, used (greater than 480 seconds). If Celite is used, the ACT value should be more than 750 seconds before initiation of CPB. Critical Curriculum Curtin. Aprotinin is not an antithrombotic agent, and, therefore, adequate amount of heparin must be given.

Because it is a serine protease inhibitor, it interacts with antithrombin III to writing help Shawnigan School, inhibit the thinking curriculum Curtin action of all intrinsic and common pathway factors resulting in prolongation of measures of coagulation such as ACT. Aprotinin has a very good safety profile but serious anaphylaxis or shock can occur. This risk is increased in write my essays Thompson Rivers patients who are reexposed to aprotinin within 6 weeks. Most of the cases reported occurred within 200 days of critical curriculum, exposure. It is recommended that a test dose of 1 mL be given when it is possible to emergently perform cannulation for instituting bypass. Whether use of histamine antagonists or steroid lessens the incidence is not known.

The following dosing regimen is suggested: 1 mL [10,000 kallikrein inactivator units (KIU)] test dose is administered intravenously at least 10 minutes before the loading dose, followed by close observation for signs of an allergic reaction. A loading dose of 2 million KIU should then be given over 20 to 30 minutes. Courseowrk. An additional 2 million KIU dose is added to the priming solution. The maintenance dose is thinking curriculum Curtin, a constant infusion of 500,000 KIU/hour for the duration of surgery. It may be beneficial and cost effective to continue the infusion of the remaining amount of the drug while the patient is transferred and recovering in the ICU. A half-dose regimen has been proposed and entails reducing the previously mentioned recommendation in half. Cosgrove DM III. Heric B. Lytle BW, et al.Aprotinin therapy for reoperative myocardial revascularization: a placebo-controlled study. Ann Thorac Surg 1992:54:10311038. Dobkowski WB.

Murkin JM. Technical International School. A risk-benefit assessment of aprotinin in cardiac surgical procedures. Drug Safety 1998:18:2141. Fujii S, Kinins V, Part B. Critical Thinking Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas). Advances in experimental medicine and biology vol 247B: New York: Plenum Press, 1989:3542. Hoffmann H. Siebeck M. Thetter O, et al.Aprotinin concentrations effective for the inhibition of critical Community, tissue kallikrein and plasma kallikrein in vitro and in vivo. Abe K, Moriya H, Landis RC, et al., The antithrombotic and antiinflammatory mechanisms of action of aprotinin. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:21692175. Murkin JM. Thinking Curriculum University. Attenuation of Community School, neurologic injury during cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:S18381844.

Orchard MA. Goodchild CS. Prentice CRM, et al.Aprotinin reduces cardiopulmonary bypass-induced blood loss and inhibits fibrinolysis without influencing platelets. Br J Haematol 1993:85:533541. Peters DC. Noble S. Aprotinin: an update of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in open-heart surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery. Drugs 1999:57:233260.

Serradeil-Le Gal C. Nonpeptide antagonists for vasopressin receptors. Pharmacology of SR 121463A, a new potent and critical highly selective V2 receptor antagonist. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998:449:427438. Wahba A. Essays Help School. Black G. Critical Thinking Curtin University (Navitas). Koksch M, et al.Aprotinin has no effect on platelet activation and write University adhesion during cardiopulmonary bypass. Thromb Haemost 1996:75:844848. B. Preoperative Evaluation and Preparation. B.1. Interpret the hemodynamic findings of this patient. The patient has an critical thinking Curtin (Navitas) adequate blood pressure; however, this appears to be maintained via compensatory mechanism including increase in both arterial resistance [systemic vascular resistance (SVR)] and HR. Define School. The PA systolic pressure is curriculum Curtin, consistent with pulmonary hypertension arising most likely from chronic mitral valvular disease (either stenosis or insufficiency). Both the PAD and the PAOP suggest that the left ventricular end diastolic pressure#151;a correlate of left ventricular preload#151;is within the normal limits.

Pressure measurements are more representative of the ventricle's state of compliance than the ventricle's volume status. Thus, a PAOP of writing vocabulary list, 14 mm Hg could represent hypovolemia, normovolemia, or hypervolemia depending on the compliance of the left ventricle. A CVP of 23 torr is suggestive of right ventricular or biventricular dysfunction, tricuspid stenosis or insufficiency, or obstruction and thinking curriculum (Navitas) compression of the right atrium. The CO is inadequate. The derived SV of 22 mL (CO/HR), combined with the other derangements (elevated CVP and PAOP of 14 mm Hg), strongly reflect right heart dysfunction. Write Thompson Rivers University. Taking into consideration the patient's overall presentation (physical examination and critical thinking curriculum Curtin laboratory findings), the differential diagnosis includes right ventricular ischemia and or infarction, pulmonary embolism, atrial or ventricular septal defect (most likely left-to-right), and cardiac tamponade. An echocardiogram should be performed to assist in the diagnostic process and clinical management. Fontes ML. Technical Writing Article International Community. Bellows W. Ngo L et al. and McSPI Research Group.

Assessment of ventricular function in critically ill patients: limitations of critical University (Navitas), pulmonary artery catheterization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999:13:18. B.2. Courseowrk London International. How would you treat the low output status of this patient? Although the HR is critical thinking Curtin, elevated, it may be unwise to Shawnigan School, attempt to normalize it before correcting the SV. The latter is critical University, a function of the preload, the courseowrk Academy afterload, and the contractile status of the Curtin University (Navitas) myocardium. Writing Essays Help Shawnigan Lake. Whereas the preload of the right heart may be excessive (CVP = 23 mm Hg), the preload of the left heart may not be adequate despite a PAOP of 14 mm Hg.

While waiting for the echocardiogram to be performed, a fluid bolus can be attempted. If there is a positive response (i.e., the blood pressure and or the CO increase), additional fluid bolus can be administered until the thinking limit of the preload reserve has been reached (operating on the flat end portion of the Frank Starling's curve). In the setting of define ICS , right ventricular failure, it is critical thinking curriculum University (Navitas), customary to fluid load the patient maintaining the CVP in the 20s. Essay Writing Vocabulary. It is important to note that fluid challenge alone will not improve cardiac performance without addressing the contractility and the afterload that, in this patient, appear to be deranged. Because there is thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), no knowledge of the exact etiology of the low output state, it would be rational to institute inotropic support (initially, the choice of the critical Community School inotrope is critical thinking Curtin University, not that important despite the tachycardia). With regard to the afterload, both systemic and pulmonary afterloads are elevated. On the right side, PA hypertension can be improved with the nitrossovasodilators (nitroglycerin or nitroprusside) but the associated systemic hypotension would prohibit their use. In fact, most vasodilators with the exception of nitric oxide would compromise the systemic pressures. Alternatively, an courseowrk London International Academy inotrope that has vasodilatory properties (phosphodiesterase inhibitors#151;milrinone or amrinone#151;or dobutamine) would be better choices. The SVR is a derived number (mean arterial pressure minus CVP divided by the CO and critical thinking (Navitas) multiplied by a factor of 80). Thompson Rivers. It is important to identify and treat the cause of the altered CO (i.e., change in HR or SV) and not to react to changes in SVR.

For example, if the critical curriculum Curtin University CO is low because of vocabulary list Kings, a rhythm issue or a reduced preload, it would be inappropriate to administer a vasodilator to correct the high SVR. In summary, a rational management of the hemodynamic findings presented would include administering fluid (crystalloid or blood products as indicated), giving inotropic support, obtaining an echocardiogram, and addressing the other systemic complications (pulmonary, renal, and critical thinking coagulation). Fontes ML. Hines RL. Cardiogenic shock. Murray MJ, Coursin DB, Pearl RG, et al., Critical care medicine: perioperative management New York: Raven Press, 1997:295306. Fontes ML. Hines RH.

Pharmacologic treatment of perioperative left and right ventricular dysfunction. Kaplan JA, Reich DSN, Konstadt SN, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: Grune Stratton, 1999:11551191. B.3. How would you evaluate this patient's coagulation status? A complete blood cell count and a complete coagulation panel should be performed.

Assuming that both the hematocrit and the platelet function are adequate, attention should be directed to the elevated PT and the aPTT. The most obvious etiology for the existing coagulopathy is anticoagulation therapy. The patient has a prosthetic valve and it would be appropriate to surmise that she has been taking anticoagulants. The most common agent to be used 4 days after surgery is Shawnigan School, warfarin (coumadin). Critical Curriculum University. This agent affects the vitamin-K dependent factors (II, VII, IX, and X) whose synthesis occurs in the liver. Measuring the PT and or the INR assesses the status of its anticoagulant effect. Why is the aPTT also elevated? This coagulation measure reflects the function of the London International Academy following factors: V, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, prothrombin, and fibrinogen. It can also be surmised that the elevated aPTT is due to anticoagulant therapy (e.g., excessive coumadin therapy, use of unfractionated heparin, or a combination of treatment with heparin and coumadin). The latter approach is standard practice in cardiac surgery for patients requiring prolonged anticoagulation (i.e., valvular replacement) and can account for critical thinking University (Navitas) elevations of both the courseowrk London International Academy PT and the aPTT.

Other etiologies to consider include liver disorder, sepsis, and other hematologic dysfunction. Boneu B. de Moerloose P. How and Curtin University when to monitor a patient treated with low molecular weight heparin. Semin Thromb Hemost 2001:27:519522. Ellison N, Jobes DR, Effective hemostasis in cardiac surgery Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998:195. Keller C. Matzdorff AC. Kemkes-Matthes B. Pharmacology of warfarin and clinical implication. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999:25:1316. B.4.

What do fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate contain? FFP contains the writing vocabulary Kings Ely labile factors V and VIII as well as the stable coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, XI). In addition, FFP contains other plasma proteins and lipids normally found in human plasma. Cryoprecipitate is derived by thawing FFP at 4C. It contains factor VIII, von Willebrand's factor, and Curtin University (Navitas) fibrinogen. Ellison N, Jobes DR, Effective hemostasis in cardiac surgery Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1988:69. Levy JH. How To An Essay. Montes F. Szlam F, et al.The in vitro effects of critical curriculum Curtin (Navitas), antithrombin III on International, the activated coagulation time in patients on heparin therapy. Anesth Analg 2000:90:10761079. Nuttall GA. Oliver WC.

Santrach PJ, et al.Efficacy of critical thinking, a simple intraoperative transfusion algorithm for nonerythrocyte component utilization after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 2001:94:773781. , discussion 5A#150;6A. B.5. What are the indications for transfusing FFP, platelet concentrate, and cryoprecipitate? Blood usually coagulates appropriately when coagulation factor concentrations are at School, least 20#37; to critical thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas), 30#37; of normal and courseowrk London when fibrinogen levels are greater than 75 mg/dL. Although laboratory values such as PT and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) may be abnormal, The American Society of Anesthesiologist Task Force on Blood Component Therapy discourages conventional use of FFP for perioperative treatment of bleeding because there are few clinical circumstances whereby coagulopathy arises from factor deficiency. Whereas massive blood replacement can produce prolongation of PT and/or PTT, the task force states that a true dilutional coagulopathy does not ordinarily occur until more than 100#37; of the patient's blood volume has been replaced.

It supports the critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) use of FFP in patients having vascular bleeding with PT and ICS International School PTT values greater than 1.5 times the laboratory's normal value. Curriculum (Navitas). FFP should be administrated in doses calculated to achieve a minimum of 30#37; of plasma factor concentration (i.e., 10 to technical article ICS International Community School, 15 mL/kg of FFP). Recommended indications for critical thinking curriculum (Navitas) FFP: Replacement of factor deficiencies. Reversal of Academy, coumadin effect. Massive blood transfusions. Treatment of antithrombin III deficiency in patients who are heparin resistant requiring systemic anticoagulation with heparin. In 1994 the College of American Pathologists recommended platelet transfusions after CPB in patients with normal coagulation values and platelet count below 100,000/ L when major unexplained bleeding occurs.

Transfusion of one platelet concentrate will increase the platelet count by approximately 5 to Curtin, 10 x 10 3 / L in the average adult. The usual therapeutic dose is one platelet concentration per an essay Holland Center 10-kg body weight. Platelet concentrate is indicated in critical thinking Curtin (Navitas) the following: Active bleeding associated with thrombocytopenia. Massive blood transfusions.

The American Society of Anesthesiologist's Task Force on list Kings Ely, Blood Component Therapy recommends the administration of critical University (Navitas), cryoprecipitate for. Prophylaxis in nonbleeding perioperative or peripartum patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiencies or von Willebrand's disease unresponsive to DDAVP (whenever possible, these decisions should be made in consultation with the courseowrk London International Academy patient's hematologist) Bleeding patients with von Willebrand's disease. Correction of microvascular bleeding in massively transfused patients with fibrinogen concentrations less than 80 to 100 mg/dL. One unit of critical Curtin, cryoprecipitate per 10-kg body weight raises plasma fibrinogen concentration approximately 50 mg/dL in the absence of continued consumption or massive bleeding. Bleeding following cardiac surgery without demonstrable abnormalities of coagulation is technical writing International, not considered to be an indication for transfusion of FFP, platelets, or cryoprecipitate. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Critical Curriculum (Navitas). Guidelines for blood component therapy.

A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Blood Component Therapy. Anesthesiology 1996:84:732747. Despotis GJ. Levine V. Saleem R, et al.Use of point-of-care test in identification of patients who can benefit from desmopressin during cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 1999:354:106110. Dietrich W. Luth JU. Kormann J, et al.Intraoperative blood requirements and allogeneic blood transfusion in cardioanesthesia. Ely. Data analysis of 7729 patients in 12 cardiac surgical clinics. Anaesthesist 1999:48:876883. Goodnough RL. Rutman RL.

Silberstein LEL. Guidelines for transfusion support in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg 1990:50:675683. Murray DJ. Pennell BJ.

Weinstein SL, et al.Packed red cells in acute blood loss: dilutional coagulopathy as a course of Curtin (Navitas), surgical bleeding. Anesth Analg 1995:80:336342. Shore-Lesserson L. Manspeizer HE. DePerio M, et al.Thromboelastography-guided transfusion algorithm reduces transfusions in complex cardiac surgery. My Essays Rivers. Randomized controlled. Anesth Analg 1999:88:312319. Stover EP. Siegel LC. Parks R, et al.Variability in thinking (Navitas) transfusion practice for coronary artery bypass surgery persists despite national consensus guidelines: a 24-institution study.

Institutions of the Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. Anesthesiology 1998:88:327333. Wilhelmi M. Franke U. Cohnert T, et al.Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery without the routine application of blood products: is it feasible?. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001:19:657661. B.6. What are the complications associated with blood component transfusions? Complications associated with transfusions of blood elements include transmission of infectious agents (e.g., hepatitis, HIV infection), hemolytic and nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, immunosuppression, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, and alloimmunization to platelet-specific antigens and the Rh antigen (resulting from erythrocyte contamination because they are stored at room temperature). Platelets in particular may contain proliferating bacteria.

Finally, in essay vocabulary Kings Ely the immunosuppressed, graft-versus-host effects may occur following platelet transfusion. Ford SA. Kam PC. Baldo BA, et al.Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001:15:684688. Frere MC. Critical Thinking Curriculum Curtin. Rapaille A. Bouillenne C, et al.Analysis of 516 reports of reactions after the transfusion of labile blood products. Transfusion Clin Biol 2001:8:333342. Fresh frozen plasma: indications and writing risks. NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement 1985:5:(5)1.

Lacritz EM. Sullen GA. Aberle-Grasse J. Estimated risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus by screened blood in thinking Curtin University (Navitas) the United States. N Engl J Med 1995:333:17211725. Nightingale SD. Department of Health and writing help Shawnigan Lake Human Services Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and critical University (Navitas) Availability. Universal WBC reduction. Transfusion 2001:41:13061309. Platelet transfusion therapy.

NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement 1986:6:(7)1. Sazama K. Reports of 355 transfusion-associated deaths: 1976 through 1985. Transfusion 1990:30:583590. B.7. What is the risk of acquiring HIV from blood exposure? The risk of HIV infection in the United States is technical writing article ICS International, 1/200,000 to 1/2,000,000 per unit transfused. However, with the implementation of donor screening tests for HIV-1 antigen, there is an expectation of preventing up to 25#37; of the window period cases (the period between viral infection and its detection by tests for the presence of critical thinking Curtin University, antibodies). Perhaps the immunoviral agent most transmitted by blood transfusion is cytomegalovirus.

Bartlett JG. Report from IDSA: symposium on healthcare worker issues. The. Write My Essays Thompson Rivers University. Hopkins HIV Report: A Bimonthly Newsletter for Healthcare Providers 2000:12:(1)3, 8. Goodnough LT. Brecher ME. Curtin (Navitas). Kanter MH, et al.Transfusion medicine: first of writing essays help Shawnigan Lake, 2 parts#151;blood transfusion. N Engl J Med 1999:340:438447. Lacritz EM.

Sullen GA. Aberle-Grasse J, et al.Estimated risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus by curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), screened blood in the United States. N Engl J Med 1995:333:17211725. Lowe KC. Farrell K. London International Academy. Ferguson EM, et al.Current perceived risks of transfusion in the UK and relevance to thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), the future acceptance of blood substitutes. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 2001:29:179189.

B.8. How To Writing An Essay Holland. In what situation might aminocaproic acid improve hemostasis? Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) inhibits plasminogen activation by binding to plasminogen. Critical Curriculum University. It inhibits primary fibrinolysis, which is caused by excessive plasminogen activation by endogenous plasminogen activators (e.g., urokinase, tissue-type plasminogen activator) occasionally seen in urinary tract bleeding and critical define ICS School subarachnoid hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm. Primary fibrinolysis is rarely a cause of bleeding in the postcardiac surgery patient. Butterworth J. James RL. Lin YA, et al.Gender does not influence epsilon-aminocaproic acid concentrations in curriculum University adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 2001:92:13841390. Chauhan S. Kumar BA. Rao BH, et al.Efficacy of aprotinin, epsilon aminocaproic acid, or combination in technical writing International cyanotic heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg 2000:70:13081312.

Colman RW, Hirsh J, Marder VJ, et al., Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice 2nd ed. Critical Curtin (Navitas). Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987:1026. Ray MJ. London. O'Brien MF. Curtin (Navitas). Comparison of epsilon aminocaproic acid and low-dose aprotinin in cardiopulmonary bypass: efficiency, safety and cost. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:71:838843. B.9. Assuming that she has cardiac tamponade, how would you prepare this patient for surgery?

As with any patient undergoing surgery, the following steps should be taken: first, a complete review of the patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory findings are mandated; second, key areas of concern should be identified and write Thompson appropriate steps taken to curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), address them; third, an anesthetic plan that is tailored to cardiac tamponade is devised; last, communication with the technical article ICS International respective medical (surgeons, nurses, perfusionist, blood bank) and paramedical staff to ensure readiness and teamwork. The patient's presentation suggests that she is in thinking curriculum University some degree of respiratory distress. Initially, management should consist of supplemental oxygen, review of chest x-ray film, and help Shawnigan Lake School assessment of arterial blood gasses. Shortness of breath and the inability to lie supine are frequent symptoms in patients having cardiac tamponade physiology and critical curriculum Curtin (Navitas) every effort should be made to provide comfort and lessen the associated emotional stress. Positive pressure ventilation should be avoided at all cost unless the London clinical picture indicates that the patient will have a cardiac arrest. The persistent oliguria most likely reflects prerenal or renal (acute tubular necrosis) process secondary to thinking, reduced CO and the associated vasoconstrictive state. As described in the previous answer, optimization of hemodynamics should also improve the renal function. Whereas some may administer diuretics in this setting, such management is vocabulary list Ely, strongly discouraged. The most effective management is surgical evacuation of the pericardial effusion or clot.

The hematologic issues include elevated PT and critical thinking curriculum University (Navitas) aPTT, blood loss, and how to writing Holland International Center the potential for further blood loss perioperatively. Critical Thinking Curtin University (Navitas). The coagulopathy should be corrected appropriately, the write patient's hematocrit and platelets should be checked and treated accordingly, and University sufficient blood (four to six units) will be required in the room before commencing surgery. Fontes ML. Hines RL. Cardiogenic shock. Murray MJ, Coursin DB, Pearl RG, et al., Critical care medicine: perioperative management New York: Raven Press, 1997:295306. Kirklin JK, Barratt-Boyes BG, Cardiac surgery 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1993:1685. Nelson RM. Courseowrk London International Academy. Jeson CB. Smoot WM.

Pericardial tamponade following open-heart surgery. Critical Thinking Curtin (Navitas). J Thorac Cardiovascular Surg 1969:58:510516. B.10. What premedication would you prescribe? Although it is important to reduce the critical define ICS Community School emotional stress preoperatively, in the setting of cardiac tamponade it would be unwise to administer any type of anxiolytic. Thinking Curtin University. The most effective approach is technical writing ICS , communication with the patient. Often, the curriculum physical appearance and the hemodynamics can be misguiding and catastrophic consequences can arise from premedicating patients in tamponade. A state of marked sympathoadrenal activation exists to support perfusion to vital organs. By partially blocking this compensatory effect with an anxiolytic, cardiovascular collapse may ensue and most efforts to resuscitate the patient would fail.

The chest would have to be opened emergently predisposing the patient to additional morbidity as well as mortality. C. Intraoperative Management. C.1. How would you monitor this patient during transport to the operating room? What emergency drugs would you bring with you? The patient must be under hypervigilance and vital signs must be continuously assessed including invasive monitoring of systemic blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and oxygen saturation.

In addition, emergency cardioactive and vasoactive drugs should be available during transport: Oxygen: increase the F IO 2 as needed. All necessary equipment for International Academy intubation should be present (laryngoscope and several blades, bag-mask units, and adult-size endotracheal tube) DC cardioversion unit: in case of thinking Curtin (Navitas), tachyarrhythmias. Phenylephrine: dose: bolus, 0.1 to 0.5 mg; infusion, 25 to 125 g/minute. Epinephrine: dose 0.01 to 0.1 g/kg/minute. Calcium chloride: dose 2 to 4 mg/kg. Lidocaine: 1 to 2 mg/kg. Atropine: 0.01 mg/kg. C.2. In this patient, what hemodynamic effects would occur from International intravenous induction with ketamine, thiopental, fentanyl, propofol, etomidate, and midazolam?

After intravenous administration, ketamine (1 mg/kg) has a rapid onset of action and (Navitas) achieves a peak plasma concentration in less than 1 minute. It also possesses a short duration of action. After the writing an essay Holland International Study initial dose, patients may remain unconscious for 10 to 15 minutes, but the critical thinking Curtin analgesic effect (somatic greater than visceral) persists for an additional 30 minutes or longer. Essays Lake School. Some of the hemodynamic effect of ketamine may include small increases in blood pressure, HR, CO, and myocardial oxygen demand. This response is mediated by a direct central sympathetic stimulation and by curriculum (Navitas), inhibition of writing essays help Shawnigan School, norepinephrine uptake into postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings. Ketamine has also been shown to have intrinsic depressant properties on the myocardium.

In clinical conditions whereby norepinephrine stores are reduced and in the presence of preexisting cardiac dysfunction (mechanical or myocardial), administration of ketamine can produce hemodynamic disturbance. Thiopental (4 mg/kg) has a mild to moderate negative inotropic effect as well as vasodilatory property. The hemodynamic response relates to the dose, coexisting diseases (hypertension, ventricular dysfunction), age, intravascular volume, and intactness of autonomic sympathetic responses. Generally, doses of 1 to 2 mg/kg do not cause significant hemodynamic disturbance; however, in patients with cardiac tamponade, thiopental should not be used for induction. These patients are, literally, on the edge of cardiovascular collapse. Fentanyl does not possess any depressant effects on myocardial contractility but because of its vagotonic effect (decreases in HR) and critical curriculum mild sympatholytic effect (central sympathetic outflow), a reduction in writing article ICS International Community School blood pressure may be noted. This response may be more profound in shock or preshock states and when fentanyl is used concomitantly with other induction agents (benzodiazepines, thiopental, propofol).

Propofol produces very similar effects as thiopental. It can cause significant reductions in systemic pressures (greater than 30#37;) and there have been several reports of thinking Curtin (Navitas), cardiovascular arrest in both adults and courseowrk London International Academy children following inductions with propofol. Propofol also has some antiarrhythmic effect on the atrioventricular (AV) node as well as on other conduction pathways. It should be used with caution when other agents that similarly slow down AV nodal conduction are present (calcium channel blockers, -blockers, digoxin). As with thiopental, the use of propofol for induction in cardiac tamponade is strongly disfavored. Etomidate has a very favorable hemodynamic profile and is the preferred agent to be used during induction when cardiovascular collapse is anticipated. With an induction dose (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg), etomidate may cause a slight decrease in mean arterial pressure but such changes are not attributable to myocardial depression as is typical of critical, propofol and ICS International Community School sodium thiopental. Pain at the injection site and involuntary muscle movements are the most common adverse events noted with etomidate. It also appears to reduce seizure threshold and enhance its duration when used during electroconvulsion therapy.

Midazolam may cause mild to moderate systemic vasodilation, particularly when used in combination with narcotics. Overall, of the agents discussed, etomidate would be the preferred agent for critical curriculum University induction followed by critical ICS , ketamine, and/or fentanyl; whereas, thiopental and propofol would be the least desired. Kaplan JA, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999:611626. Tweed WA. Minuck M. Mymin D. Circulatory responses to ketamine anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1972:37:612. C.3. Describe the induction process for cardiac tamponade. The patient should have standard monitors placed as well as invasive monitors to include indwelling arterial access for beat-to-beat displaying of systemic arterial pressures and for obtaining blood gases.

This patient has a PAC in place; however, its use in critical thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) this setting remains debatable. The actual induction should proceed ONLY in Community the presence of a surgical team that is ready and gowned and after the patient has been completely prepared and draped. Critical University. The choice of induction agents is limited to narcotics, muscle relaxant (depolarizing or nondepolarizing), and either etomidate or ketamine. Regardless of the induction technique, the anesthesiologist should expect and be prepared to manage ensuing circulatory collapse. Fontes ML. Hines RH.

Pharmacologic treatment of perioperative left and writing Holland International Study Center right ventricular dysfunction. Kaplan JA, Reich DSN, Konstadt SN, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: Grune Stratton, 1999:11551191. C.4. Following induction and intubation, the systemic blood pressure decreased to 55/30 mm Hg.

Describe the clinical events accounting for this perturbation and the management steps required for Curtin (Navitas) resuscitating this patient. Cardiac tamponade is caused by how to writing Holland International Center, significant pericardial pressure from accumulating pericardial contents (fluid, blood, and blood clots) that impede chamber filing resulting in a low CO state. The precipitous fall in curriculum Curtin (Navitas) blood pressure observed with induction can be accounted for by the define ICS International School following: first; most induction agents will have negative hemodynamic effects that are either direct or indirect; second, sympatholysis reduces arterial resistance as well as chronotropy and inotropy of the Curtin heart; third, the physiologic consequences of switching from negative pressure ventilation to positive pressure ventilation will further reduce cardiac filling by critical Community School, increasing intrathoracic pressure and thinking University afterload; and lastly, placing the patient in a supine position will also compromise atrial and ventricular preload (i.e., hydrostatic effects, loss of diaphragm, and weight of mediastinal structures on how to an essay, the heart). The management of hypotension will require use of thinking Curtin (Navitas), vasoactive drugs, cardioactive drugs, and/or fluid challenge. Reducing inspiratory positive pressure (i.e., lowering tidal volume or switching from ventilator-delivered breaths to hand ventilation) may also improve the London International hemodynamic status.

These would be merely temporizing measures; surgical relief of tamponade would be the definitive treatment of University, this problem. Fontes ML. Hines RH. Pharmacologic treatment of write my essays Rivers University, perioperative left and right ventricular dysfunction. Kaplan JA, Reich DSN, Konstadt SN, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Philadelphia: Grune Stratton, 1999:11551191. Thomas SJ, Manual of cardiac anesthesia 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1993:135. C.5.

What hemodynamic changes are frequently associated with opening the chest? Chest opening normalizes the pressure relationship between the pericardium and the heart chambers, thus relieving the tamponade and its hemodynamic effects. Unless the myocardium has suffered injury or is stunned, the expected hemodynamic change includes drastic improvement in blood pressure and SV. Most of the vasoactive and cardioactive agents being administered can be quickly weaned. In addition, oxygenation, acid-base status, and thinking University (Navitas) renal function (urine output) tend to critical define ICS School, improve significantly.

C.6. What is myocardial stunning? What is myocardial hibernation? The myocardium can exhibit segmental dysfunction or hypofunction related to injury (i.e., ischemia and infarction). It has also been noted that myocardial function can be coupled or uncoupled with tissue perfusion. Curriculum Curtin (Navitas). For example, following a period of oxygen deprivation and restoration of flow, the affected myocardium can resume normal function, diminished function, or no function (dysfunction). The term myocardial stunning represents a state of uncoupling between function and flow whereby myocardial flow is writing Holland International Study, normal but function is diminished or akinetic. Thinking (Navitas). In the setting of cardiac surgery, myocardial stunning can be a cause of ventricular dysfunction that generally resolves within the first 6 to 8 hours post-CPB. During this period, inotropic support has been shown to be effective. Myocardial hibernation, on the other hand, is a myocardial process that manifests after weeks or months and denotes a condition whereby both myocardial function and flow are reduced (coupled).

Perhaps this is an adaptive process that allows the myocytes to lower their metabolic activity and oxygen consumption to survive during states of oxygen deprivation. The definitive diagnosis of stunning and hibernation may be difficult to make because regional myocardial blood flow is difficult to assess or quantify clinically. Therefore, most cases of stunning and hibernation require a retrospective analysis. First, segmental myocardial dysfunction must be established; second, myocardial blood flow should be restored by revascularization (surgical, pharmacologic, or angioplasty/stenting); and third, improvement of regional function should follow revascularization. D'Ancona G. Donias HW. Bergsland J, et al.Myocardial stunning after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: safeguards and pitfalls. Ann Thorac Surg 2001:72:21822183. Fontes ML. Hines RH. Pharmacologic treatment of perioperative left and right ventricular dysfunction.

Kaplan JA, Reich DSN, Konstadt SN, Cardiac anesthesia 4th ed. Courseowrk International. Philadelphia: Grune Stratton, 1999:11551191. Lorusso R. Critical Thinking Curriculum University. La Canna G. Ceconi C, et al.Long-term results of coronary artery bypass grafting procedure in the presence of left ventricular dysfunction and hibernating myocardium. Eur J Cardio Thorac Surg 2001:20:937948. Shah BR. Writing International Community School. Velazquez E. Shaw LK, et al.Revascularization improves survival in curriculum ischemic cardiomyopathy regardless of electrocardiographic criteria for prior small-to-medium myocardial infarcts. Am Heart J 2002:143:111117.

Watzinger N. Saeed M. Wendland MF, et al.Myocardial viability: magnetic resonance assessment of functional reserve and tissue characterization. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2001:3:195208. D. Postoperative Management. D.1. How would you manage hypertension in the intensive care unit (ICU)? The management of hypertension depends on its etiology.

Rather than administering antihypertensive agents indiscriminately, the clinician should exclude the following conditions as causality of essays Shawnigan School, hypertension: hypoxemia, hypercarbia, acid-base derangements, and pain. The occurrence of hypertension is a common phenomenon during the first several hours in the ICU. In most cases, the etiology is uncertain and probably represents a state of marked sympathoadrenal activation. Once correctable causes of hypertension have been addressed, antihypertensive therapy can be achieved with a variety of thinking University, agents. Most often, sodium nitroprusside is used because of its potent effect and London International Academy titratability. Because the thinking curriculum University (Navitas) underlying mechanism of the hypertension involves endogenous release of norepinephrine (with minimal epinephrine), the most rational agents to use are the an essay Holland International Study -blockers.

Labetalol antagonizes both - and critical thinking University -adrenergic receptors and essay writing Kings Ely is an effective antihypertensive agent. Alternatively, metoprolol, atenolol, esmolol, or propranolol can be used particularly if the hypertension is associated with tachycardia. Unfortunately, these agents are used infrequently because of theoretical concerns of myocardial depression and bradycardia. Current cardiology practice strongly endorses the use of -blockers in the setting of thinking University (Navitas), moderate and severe ventricular dysfunction. In addition, the cardioprotective effects of -blockers have been shown in several perioperative trials whereby the courseowrk Academy incidence of myocardial injury and mortality (up to 2 years postoperatively) are significantly reduced in patients treated perioperatively with -blockers. Kotlyar E. Thinking Curriculum Curtin. Macdonald PS. Keogh AM, et al.Optimization of left ventricular function with carvedilol before high-risk cardiac surgery. J Heart Lung Transplantation 2001:20:11291131. Leslie J. Brister N. London International Academy. Levy JH, et al.Treatment of postoperative hypertension after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Double-blind comparison of thinking curriculum Curtin University, intravenous isradipine and sodium nitroprusside. Circulation 1994:90:(5 Pt 2)II256261. Lucas WJ. Boysen PG. Antihypertensive agents following cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med 1997:25:17701771. Wallace A. Writing Study Center. Layug B. Tateo I, et al.Prophylactic atenolol reduces postoperative myocardial ischemia. Anesthesiology 1998:88:717. Wood G. Critical Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas). Effect of antihypertensive agents on London International Academy, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and venous admixture after cardiac surgery.

Crit Care Med 1997:25:18071812. D.2. When would it be appropriate to extubate this patient? The timing of extubation depends on the following: Clinical stability (stable hemodynamics without need for significant inotropic or vasoactive support) Intact neurologic function (alertness and critical thinking curriculum Curtin ability to comprehend and execute simple verbal commands) Adequate pulmonary function (acceptable arterial blood gases and technical article ICS International School acid-base status and adequate weaning parameters#151;tidal volume, respiratory rate, vital capacity, and inspiratory effort) Normal body temperature and neuromuscular function (reverse paralysis if necessary)

Normal coagulation (bleeding less than 60 mL/hour and normalization of coagulation parameters) Following relief of tamponade, most patients can be extubated as early as possible assuming that the critical thinking Curtin University (Navitas) previously listed criteria have been met.

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Essay: Conflict between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. Conflict between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East is not just a modern day problem; it is a 5,000 year enmity with roots extending to Biblical times. After researching the history of the Middle East, I have come to the conclusion that peace in the region has not been achieved for several reasons. First, this issue has existed for thousands of years, with origins extending to events in the Book of Genesis. Secondly, there are modern day political dynamics involved between the Arabs and Israelis that make getting to the bargaining table difficult for the leadership of both sides. Additionally, Arab and critical curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), Muslim aggression towards the Jewish State since its founding in 1948 is define International School a leading contributor to hindrances in any peace process. On the other hand, Israels desire for territorial expansion has also hindered talks with its neighbors on brokering a lasting peace agreement.

Lastly, there are the fluid self-interests of the United States and other nation states that must be taken into Curtin University (Navitas), account when analyzing the stalemate in peace efforts in the region. The Arab-Israel conflict has its traditional roots in the Holy Bibles Book of Genesis. The issues began when two women, Sarah and Hagar, each gave birth to a son by the monotheistic patriarch, Abraham. In Genesis 16, Hagar gave birth to her son, Ishmael, and in Genesis 21 Sarah gave birth to essay writing vocabulary Kings, Isaac. The God of critical curriculum University, Abraham tells the Patriarch in Genesis 17 that He will make his covenant through his son with Sarah and that Abrahams descendants through Isaac will be given dominion over all the Land of Canaan, for perpetual holding (Genesis 17:8). The Biblical Land of Canaan encompasses the majority of modern day Palestine, giving way to International Academy, the Jewish argument that all of the thinking curriculum Curtin University (Navitas) territory rightfully belongs to them since it was given to Community, them directly by God.

These events in Genesis reach their climax when in Genesis 21, at the orders of Sarah and thinking curriculum University (Navitas), with the consent of God, Abraham expels Hagar and Ishmael from his household. God tells Abraham not to worry about Ishmael because He would make a nation of him also, because he is your offspring (Genesis 21:13). Ishmael and his offspring, known as Ishmaelites, are traditionally considered to courseowrk, be the ancestors of todays Arabs and Isaac and his offspring are the ancestors of modern day Jews. The great nations that God promises to each of Abrahams sons are the modern Muslim and Jewish religions where Abraham is considered to thinking Curtin University, be the define School first Muslim and the first Jew by the respective faiths. So it must be understood that discontent between these two peoples is critical thinking curriculum (Navitas) not a modern phenomenon with its origins in 1948, but that this is an writing essays help Shawnigan Lake School issue that has been occurring for thousands of years and that no lasting solutions for peace should be expected to happen easily. The famed Jewish writer and Curtin (Navitas), activist Elie Weisel sums up the ancient roots of the Arab-Israeli conflict in write my essays Thompson Rivers University one of his writings, titled Ishmael and Hagar, that if only critical thinking Curtin, Sarah could have shared her love between Isaac and Ishmael! If only she could have brought them together instead of setting them apart! Maybe some of todays tragedies would have been avoided. The Palestinian problem is rooted in the separation of these two brothers.

Secondly, peace in the Middle East has not been attained due to modern day political dynamics between the Arabs and Israelis that make even getting to the bargaining table difficult for the leadership of both sides. Most of these political dynamics, while religious sentiments may be underlying issues, seem to stem from disagreements based on land and security. Study Center! The idea of a Jewish state started in critical the latter part of the nineteenth century when rising anti-Semitism in continental Europe became a catalyst for writing essays Shawnigan the Zionist movement, which advocated for critical thinking curriculum global Jewry to return to the land of their ancestors and an essay Holland Center, create a Jewish state in curriculum Curtin the Holy Land. During this time period, the Holy Land was under the control of the Ottoman Empire, which would cease to exist after World War I due to its alliance with the Central Powers. After the Great War, the writing essays help Holy Land came under the authority of the British Empire and curriculum Curtin (Navitas), became known and the Mandate of Palestine. In their periodical on the past and present issues concerning the Arab-Israeli conflict, scholars Joel Beinin and Lisa Hajjar note that after the war, the British foreign minister, Lord Arthur Balfour, issued a declaration announcing his governments support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine (Beinin and Hajjar 3). Beinin and Hajjar go on to explain the details of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which was an essay vocabulary list Ely arrangement between Britain and France to divide the former Ottoman Empires Arab provinces in an effort to split control of the region. After World War I, the League of critical Curtin, Nations granted France a mandate over Syria and created a separate state, Lebanon, which contained a Christian majority. Britain obtained a mandate over Iraq and the present-day area of Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jordan (Beinin and write Thompson Rivers University, Hajjar 3). Other events that contributed to the twenty first century disagreements in the conflict include the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the Six Day War in 1967. Curriculum Curtin University (Navitas)! As a result of these two wars, Israel greatly expanded its territory into Arab majority areas such as the International Academy West Bank, Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal.

Presently, the top, political priorities for the Arabs are the creation of an independent state of Palestine that is comprised of the West Bank, Gaza, and other settlements within the current borders of Israel. Arab interests also include the return of the Golan Heights to Syria, the removal of Jewish settlers in Arab majority territories and the Palestinian national capitol being located in East Jerusalem. Israelis want a country where they feel safe and critical thinking curriculum University (Navitas), secure, access to their ancient, holy sites and for the Arabs in Palestine to live peacefully within the Jewish state. Conflict arises because Israel fears that any acquiescence to any of the Shawnigan Lake School Arab interests is a possible threat to its survival. For example, Israel will not give back the Golan Heights because it feels that they do not want to thinking curriculum Curtin, provide Shiite terrorists based in Syria the high ground to launch attacks. Additionally, the Israeli government is afraid that if the Palestinians are given complete sovereignty over the West Bank, Jewish citizens would be cut off from write my essays Thompson Rivers University their holy sites in Jerusalem and the surrounding areas. Palestinians fear that if a two state solution is not worked out that Arabs in Israel will forever be treated as second class citizens. Another impediment to peace in the Middle East has been Arab/Muslim aggression towards the Jewish state since its founding in 1948 and Israels desire for territorial expansion from Curtin University its original partition borders. Modern violence first broke out in Palestine in late 1947, after the announcement of the Rivers University United Nations Partition Plan that called for University an Arab and Jewish State to be created in Palestine. Define Community! The Jews accepted this UN plan while the Arabs did not. For the next few months, while under continuous attack from the thinking curriculum University (Navitas) Arabs, the regions Jews were regularly on the defensive with the courseowrk Academy occasional offensive retaliation (Morris 2008).

When the hostilities of the 1948 War came to an end between the Jews and Arabs, the State of curriculum Curtin University, Israel still controlled all of the territory that it was granted during the partition along with a large portion of the land that was set aside for the Arab state. Help Shawnigan School! Despondent about the outcome of the 1948 War, the Arabs were insistent on two major demands: that Israel withdraw its forces back to the original UN Partition Plan boundaries and allow Palestinian refugees to return to thinking Curtin University (Navitas), Israel. These demands were both rejected because Israel argued that the new borders were created on account of war and that the UN lines did not take into consideration the writing help Shawnigan School defense needs of the thinking curriculum Jewish state. Israel also rejected the Arab requests for Palestinians to Shawnigan, be allowed to critical Curtin University, return to Israel because doing so would alter the Jewishness of the new country (Sela 2002). The Arab-Israeli Six Day War in 1967 escalated the aforementioned reasons to unprecedented levels. The Six Day War broke out on Lake School June 5, 1967, when Israel preemptively attacked Syria and critical thinking curriculum University (Navitas), Egypt and destroyed a significant amount of their air and ground forces. Critical! This caused the critical thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas) Kingdom of Jordan to enter the fray, but they too were soundly defeated by the Israeli armed forces.

Within the next five days, Israel had taken control of the West Bank and the entire holy city of Jerusalem from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria and the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza from Egypt (Beinin and Hajjar 7). In the aftermath of the War, Palestinian nationalism, increased Arab hatred toward the Jewish state and Israels unwillingness to disengage from critical define Community School its newly occupied territories made the region even more of a powder keg. Since the 1967 Six Day War, there have been several more conflicts between Israel and its Arab neighbors such as the 1973 Yom Kippur War in which Israel was attacked on its religious Day of Atonement. Thinking! Other conflicts have taken place in Lebanon between Israel and terrorist groups such as the Iranian backed Hezbollah group in the last decade and Yasser Arafats Fatah organization in the 1980s. The roots of the present political disagreements between the Arabs and Israelis are the parameters for the creation of a sovereign Palestinian state. My Essays Rivers University! Also, the aftermath of the 2015 Israeli national elections have probably made things harder for peace talks with the critical University reelected Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu saying on the eve of the writing election that if he were to be reelected he would not be supportive of the two-state solution compromise with the Palestinians. Critical Curtin University! This has led to tensions with the Holland Study leadership of traditional allies of thinking curriculum University (Navitas), Israel such as the United States led by President Barack Obama. Another major issue that must be analyzed and understood when discussing the lack of progress towards mediating the Arab-Israeli Conflict is the fluid self-interests of other nations including the International Academy United States and Iran. In modern times, the Arabs and Israelis are not the critical thinking only two actors who have taken a vested interest in having peace, or lack thereof, in the region.

Ever since the end of Thompson Rivers, World War I when the British Empire took control over Palestine from the defeated Ottoman Empire, foreign nations have tried to impose their initiatives to establish a peaceful solution for living situation of the diverse groups of people living in such a small geographic location. As far as Great Britain is concerned, while present-day relations between Israel and the government of Prime Minister David Cameron are close, this has not always been so. After the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, Britain was seen as being pro-Arab by critical University, its maintaining of close ties to various Arab states (Black 2002). Another example is the once-cordial relations that the State of Israel had with the Iranians when Iran was under the rule of the moderate Mohammad-Reza Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty. Now, under the writing article ICS Community School rule of the Ayatollahs since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iran is widely considered to critical thinking University (Navitas), be Israels greatest antagonist, perhaps the largest sponsor of terrorism against the Jewish state. The Islamic Republic also boldly denies Israels basic rights to exist as a sovereign nation. Since Israels founding in 1948, the United States has undoubtedly been the writing article ICS International Community most influential foreign actor in its brief history. The United States was the first country to recognize Israel and has contributed billions of dollars in curriculum University (Navitas) foreign assistance (Mark 2002). American Presidents from Harry Truman to George W. Bush have always advocated for policies that seemed to be pro-Israel and support for Israel always seemed to be an issue that crossed partisan lines.

Today, however, support for Israel seems to be dependent on the political party with which a person affiliates with. Republicans tend to be more in favor of Israeli causes due to write, its policies of critical thinking curriculum Curtin, hawkish foreign policy and vocabulary list, its social conservative wing being pro-Israel for religious reasons. The Democratic Party tends not to let the religious dynamics be a part of its approach when dealing with the Arab-Israeli conflict, they have a more moderate outlook on foreign policy and like to take the thinking Curtin University viewpoint of the help Arabs into critical, account as part of the process for finding a solution to the ongoing dilemma. These differences of writing vocabulary, opinion between the political parties in the United States has contributed to why the peace process has stalled in the last few years. This dynamic has come to the forefront in recent months with the public hostilities that have taken place between President Obama and Prime Minister Netanyahu. Along with his election eve statement about not wanting a Palestinian state, a couple of weeks before the election Prime Minister Netanyahu spoke to the Republican-controlled American Congress about his opposition to the Obama administrations policies towards reaching a nuclear deal with the government of Iran. Thinking (Navitas)! This see-sawing of self-interests by foreign states, which is writing essays help School dependent on the policies of the critical thinking curriculum present government or party in power, has had destabilizing effects on the region due to a lack of having a consistent plan for how to writing an essay Holland International Center peace. Peace in the Middle East has not been attainable between the Arabs and curriculum Curtin University (Navitas), Israelis for several reasons. First, this issue has been going on since Biblical times with its roots taking shape due to essays help, events that take place in the Book of Genesis. There are also many modern day political dynamics that began in the late nineteenth century involving the Arabs and thinking curriculum Curtin (Navitas), Israelis that make getting to the bargaining table difficult for the leadership of both sides.

Also, Arab and Muslim aggression towards the Jewish State since its inception is International a leading contributor to hindrances in any peace process, along with Israels desire for territorial expansion that have also hindered talks with the Arabs on brokering a lasting peace agreement. Critical Thinking Curriculum! The fluid self-interests of the United States and other nation states such as Iran must also be taken into account when analyzing the stalemate in peace efforts in the region. Vocabulary Kings Ely! This dilemma has a lot of serious variables and it is going to take a lot of critical thinking Curtin, compromise on the side of all parties to establish a lasting peace in the region. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of Thompson, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to Curtin (Navitas), help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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