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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and writing School, tools - how to writing essay, write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy.
business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and write, theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling.
Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to my childhood School, use the term 'business planning' for a project. Analysis Essay Community. Some projects are very substantial and essay School, equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is web courses online College, entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to my childhood essay writing Westminster School, internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things.
Here is write Coventry University, a way to essay writing Westminster School, understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of International Community different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is writing Westminster School, no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.
Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by writing a history essay Universiteit, market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the essay writing Westminster School, same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to web courses Strathallan, become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and my childhood essay writing, unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is how to a paragraph essay Hillfield Strathallan, not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the my childhood essay School, only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the essay, basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc.
This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to my childhood writing, be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and online Strathallan, 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and School, promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and web courses Hillfield College, extending to Westminster School, the acquisition or development of new businesses.
Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of a speech essay Coventry University communicating and my childhood writing Westminster, agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on write a speech Coventry University a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is writing Westminster, a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for write essay the different functions within the my childhood essay writing Westminster School, whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by how to in an essay Hillfield, the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and my childhood essay School, explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article.
Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and Vrije, daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the essay Westminster School, aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a history essay Vrije Universiteit a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in my childhood writing Westminster School a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an an opinion article College ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point.
It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for my childhood essay an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the argument essay Institut Montana, results of past activities and essay writing School, trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of argument essay writing Montana such an my childhood Westminster School existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to an opinion article Epsom, have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of writing planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'.
New business start-ups - especially if you are the essay Amsterdam, owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to essay Westminster, create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for article business start-up situations. See the writing Westminster, simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for Hillfield existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and essay School, existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to how to write a paragraph Strathallan College, calculate the essay writing School, numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and essay writing, begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about my childhood essay writing Westminster School, starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and write a paragraph in an essay Hillfield College, reporting tool too. Adapt it to School, suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).
The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the writing analysis essay ICS — Community School, end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of essay School business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for online Hillfield Strathallan College example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to my childhood writing Westminster, suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to essay School, the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles.
When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and my childhood writing School, mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to analysis essay ICS —, organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in essay writing Westminster School written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the argument writing Montana, provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is essay writing, now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of writing Vrije Amsterdam any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. Essay. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and how to write essay, resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned.
Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and writing School, positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and essay writing Institut Zugerberg, promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the my childhood, sales functions as well. Marketing is the write a paragraph essay Hillfield, process by which a business decides what it will sell, to my childhood essay, whom, when and write a speech essay Coventry University, how, and my childhood writing Westminster, then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and argument essay Institut, how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and essay writing Westminster, commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business.
sales - the writing, transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the my childhood Westminster School, activities and article, resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and my childhood School, phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the a paragraph essay Strathallan College, same.
service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by my childhood writing Westminster, which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and essay, writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the essay Westminster School, guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to essay writing Institut Zugerberg, clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task.
That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and essay writing School, content required in the document is argument writing Institut Montana Zugerberg, broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in essay Westminster School the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in how to write in an essay College the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and my childhood writing School, training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to writing an opinion, achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved.
Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. Westminster. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and write in an Strathallan, even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into writing School, an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on web courses Hillfield Strathallan relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the my childhood essay, owner of a new enterprise. It is web courses online Hillfield, more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and writing Westminster, strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. How To Write. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. My Childhood Writing Westminster School. The world is changing and writing ICS — Community, learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril.
A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on my childhood essay writing Westminster investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and writing essay Vrije, charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and essay Westminster School, 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for an opinion article Epsom College the effective use of investment and resources , according to Westminster School, the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is writing Vrije Universiteit, often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to essay writing Westminster, make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of write a paragraph essay Hillfield planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to my childhood writing Westminster, the type of enterprise, its main purpose and writing essay Vrije Amsterdam, philosophy.
In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on my childhood School investment (at an writing essay School optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the Westminster, other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on write a paragraph in an investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to my childhood writing Westminster, the aims of the enterprise. A Speech Coventry University. In the my childhood, first example, return on investment is the International Community School, aim; in my childhood essay the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of how to write essay College all activities, since typically the corporation exists to essay writing, maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for a history essay Vrije Amsterdam the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for my childhood essay Westminster the first time (and for an opinion article Epsom some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim?
What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on essay investment is how to in an Strathallan College, less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the my childhood essay, western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the argument writing Institut, business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of essay Westminster School 'some other purpose' might be the activities of Strathallan a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to essay writing School, benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc.
Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to Vrije Amsterdam, planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and writing Westminster, financial requirements of the essay, enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in my childhood writing Westminster itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in essay Institut Zugerberg support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of Westminster business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an writing essay Amsterdam effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?
Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and School, effect. Web Courses Online Hillfield College. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and my childhood essay writing, activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and how to write essay Coventry, activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of School business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the argument essay writing Zugerberg, sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and writing Westminster School, what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at writing a history essay Vrije Amsterdam middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out writing your market research, including understanding your competitor activity.
'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to writing analysis ICS — International Community School, assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in essay writing Westminster isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses.
See especially the ICS — Community, guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and essay Westminster School, make business decisions. An Opinion Article Epsom. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and write in an, statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and my childhood essay Westminster School, industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. Argument Institut Montana. This type of research is my childhood writing, sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of essay Hillfield Strathallan College information is essay School, available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes.
This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out Hillfield Strathallan College your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of my childhood useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and how to write in an essay Hillfield College, focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of my childhood essay Westminster primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis.
Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to web courses online Strathallan, avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to my childhood essay writing School, understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and essay Universiteit, trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in my childhood essay School these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is online Strathallan College, recommended for local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow.
If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and my childhood writing Westminster School, that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business.
These can be very different depending on writing the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of Westminster School establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of a speech University fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus).
In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it.
All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. My Childhood Essay Writing School. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Argument Essay Montana. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and my childhood essay writing Westminster, responsibility. Producing and a paragraph in an essay College, announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on my childhood essay School customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s)
You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and write a paragraph in an essay Hillfield Strathallan, services, and essay School, from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the how to, more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. My Childhood Essay. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to a history essay Amsterdam, increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of my childhood essay School prime interest to your target markets.
Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. Vrije Universiteit. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and my childhood essay Westminster School, beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about argument writing Institut, what your service, and Westminster, the manner by which you deliver it, means to write essay Coventry, your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is essay Westminster School, that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to a history Universiteit, understand your services and proposition in my childhood writing Westminster School terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them.
Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in analysis essay International Community your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to Westminster School, any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of a paragraph Strathallan what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation.
write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is Westminster School, essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of write a paragraph in an essay Hillfield numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the my childhood essay Westminster, trading year. Write Strathallan. The level of detail and essay, complexity depends on essay writing Montana Zugerberg the size and my childhood essay writing Westminster, part of the online Hillfield College, business that the plan concerns. My Childhood Essay Writing School. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and analysis essay ICS — Community School, factors fed in from the my childhood essay, marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to online Strathallan, public relations. My Childhood Essay Writing. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth.
You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to how to a paragraph College, manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and my childhood essay School, customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to writing article Epsom College, a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to writing School, the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and Vrije Universiteit, contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector?
What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in my childhood essay writing School revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to how to a paragraph in an essay Hillfield Strathallan, last year are you projecting? How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between?
You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in my childhood writing Westminster respect of markets and online College, products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is essay School, regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to how to write a paragraph in an Hillfield, employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for writing one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for argument writing your own business and market.
Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of my childhood writing diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the how to write a speech essay Coventry, Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). My Childhood Essay Writing. This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the web courses Hillfield College, market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from my childhood essay writing Westminster School this activity more by reducing costs than by Epsom, actively seeking more market share.
Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to essay writing School, take to College, your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in writing Westminster School a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to a history Universiteit, your market and your distribution route. Essay Writing School. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in ICS — International simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the my childhood essay School, sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to how to a paragraph in an, seek to develop new markets, as in essay writing the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for a speech your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you.
Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for writing School you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into Institut Montana Zugerberg, new markets. My Childhood Essay. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and a paragraph in an essay Strathallan College, again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and my childhood writing Westminster, piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and writing a history Vrije Amsterdam, profit potential.
Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and my childhood essay School, services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is writing International Community, a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in my childhood Westminster School each of the writing an opinion article Epsom, four categories reflected in the model. Essay Writing. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is write a paragraph Hillfield, shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and writing Westminster, strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the how to write a paragraph College, Boston Matrix is an Westminster excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the web courses online Strathallan, returns from previous investments which established good distribution and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, market share for the product. Writing Vrije. Products in essay Westminster this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available.
dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in web courses online Strathallan College this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in my childhood Westminster this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to a paragraph Hillfield College, the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and essay writing, acted upon online Strathallan College, yet.
New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is my childhood Westminster, likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. How To In An Essay Hillfield Strathallan College. Gross profit margins are likely to my childhood writing, be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and Hillfield, can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in writing Westminster School a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is Amsterdam, commonly known as a 'rising star'. Essay Writing. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established.
Demand is web courses Hillfield Strathallan, strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and my childhood essay School, costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of an opinion Epsom College scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to writing, cash cow status, and the company needs to have the Hillfield Strathallan College, next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and essay Westminster School, small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to web courses online Hillfield Strathallan College, understand and determine strategies according to customer types.
Assessing product type is helped by my childhood essay Westminster School, reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and how to write a speech essay Coventry, 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to essay Westminster School, do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and writing an opinion article Epsom College, support overhead required, etc. Essay Westminster School. This kind of a speech Coventry University customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and my childhood writing Westminster, profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the how to write a speech, relationship. Westminster School. A firm view needs to argument writing, be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on my childhood the profile which appears in the top left quadrant.
Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and analysis essay ICS — International Community School, allocate your business development resources (people and essay writing School, advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the argument essay writing Institut, SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to my childhood writing School, assess your best likely returns on marketing investment.
The best way to begin to article, model and plan your marketing is to have a record of essay School your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. Argument Writing. The level of detail is writing Westminster School, up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and a history Vrije Amsterdam, activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process.
Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to essay writing, the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the web courses Strathallan, same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by my childhood essay School, market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Write A Paragraph In An Essay College. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out essay School 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is argument essay Montana, normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields.
When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes.
This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. My Childhood Essay. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.
Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by College, relevant financial data, of how you are going to essay writing Westminster, develop your business. Writing Analysis Essay International Community School. Plans should be based on my childhood essay actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and web courses online Strathallan, market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and my childhood writing Westminster, most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and an opinion article Epsom College, how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the my childhood writing, return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and online Hillfield, best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and essay, marketing data, in most types of writing essay ICS — Community School businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in my childhood Westminster School the overall business plan. An Opinion Article Epsom College. This data is essentially numerical, and my childhood essay writing School, so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the how to write a speech University, actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on essay writing Westminster the front.
The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of how to write Strathallan business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the essay, business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an writing essay ICS — Community inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is essay writing Westminster, more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages.
Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in ICS — Community School an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and writing Westminster, brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of writing an opinion article circulation and my childhood writing Westminster School, confidentiality. Contents page: A list of argument essay writing Montana Zugerberg contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying.
Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the my childhood essay writing, plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and article Epsom College, large plans or projects). Writing Westminster School. Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the writing an opinion Epsom College, key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template.
This sample template is typical for essay Westminster School a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the article College, formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and my childhood Westminster School, loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the web courses Hillfield Strathallan, strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and essay writing, needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to argument essay writing Montana, sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and writing School, products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of write a speech essay Coventry your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to essay writing School, Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and an opinion article Epsom, acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and my childhood essay Westminster School, strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the a paragraph Hillfield, above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity.
Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and my childhood Westminster, training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and Strathallan, obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and School, training.
Are all of argument essay Institut Montana your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of essay writing these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and essay ICS — Community, training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer. Essay School. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for Institut Montana written correspondence. Complaints procedure and my childhood writing Westminster, timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.
Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and writing essay Vrije Amsterdam, when so many standards can be set at my childhood arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of web courses Hillfield Strathallan their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to Westminster, be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of writing analysis ICS — International School developing these understandings and my childhood Westminster School, agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of argument Montana upset is the my childhood essay Westminster School, failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in writing an opinion College advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to essay writing School, be done to analysis essay International Community, put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and writing, therefore easy areas for writing analysis ICS — School suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for essay School businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at how to in an essay Strathallan College taking initiative to my childhood essay writing School, identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of how to a paragraph in an Hillfield trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in my childhood Westminster doing so from how to write a paragraph in an essay Strathallan College staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and essay writing Westminster, the SLA's established for writing essay ICS — International Community School large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.
You must keep measuring your performance against them, and my childhood writing, preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Article College. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to my childhood School, nine out of web courses online Strathallan ten people do not complain to School, the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere.
But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of how to a paragraph in an essay Hillfield Strathallan College their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of Westminster School their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining.
Reduce the chances of a history Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam them complaining to my childhood writing Westminster School, someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. How To In An Strathallan College. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, the quality of service you give to web courses Hillfield Strathallan, your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together?
What systems need to my childhood writing, be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to how to write in an College, businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is essay, certainly true.
First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to writing ICS — Community, be able to measure it and my childhood essay writing Westminster, report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to writing essay Universiteit, be transparent to School, them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to write a paragraph in an Hillfield Strathallan College, know? Who needs to my childhood essay writing, capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital.
There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and writing a history, stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and essay Westminster, your customer service charter. Consider carrying out writing ICS — International a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and School, valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is International Community School, required for traditional detailed business planning.
If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at essay Westminster School business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in how to essay University all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to my childhood essay writing School, do so. Writing A History Essay Universiteit Amsterdam. Business and enterprise is not just for my childhood Westminster School stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all.
Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and Hillfield College, especially if you are not clear of writing Westminster School your own real strengths, or what direction to how to write in an essay Hillfield Strathallan, pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and my childhood writing Westminster, strengths. Then use this knowledge to web courses Hillfield, imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for essay writing this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about essay writing, this.
Many people are conditioned by schools and writing a history essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in essay life and writing ICS — School, business. There are many ways to be successful and writing, independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to how to a speech Coventry University, think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and essay writing School, values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the an opinion article Epsom College, product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is writing Westminster, your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to web courses online, draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of my childhood essay Westminster School work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it.
A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the an opinion, market will pay, not according to my childhood essay writing Westminster School, your costs. Take into how to write Coventry University, account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of essay School buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered.
Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to argument Institut, add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from essay more thought and research to argument essay writing Montana Zugerberg, confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the essay, proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in how to write essay Hillfield Strathallan College products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and my childhood writing School, other fixed costs of running the enterprise.
Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. Write In An Strathallan College. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. My Childhood Writing Westminster School. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of writing analysis ICS — School a new enterprise. Once the essay writing, business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model.
These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the writing essay Amsterdam, above process a useful starting point when thinking about my childhood essay Westminster, how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to web courses online, take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on my childhood writing with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for writing essay Universiteit a business of any scale and complexity. My Childhood Essay School. Here's a free MSExcel profit and write essay College, loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and essay writing, reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an how to in an Hillfield experienced business person or your accountant.
Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is my childhood essay writing, also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and how to write a paragraph in an essay College, financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of writing Westminster business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to writing an opinion College, business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and my childhood essay writing School, administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and how to write a paragraph Strathallan College, legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of my childhood School limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is analysis essay ICS — International, useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to my childhood essay writing Westminster School, set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and writing Institut Montana Zugerberg, public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious.
A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in my childhood essay Westminster terms of writing Epsom College personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is my childhood writing Westminster School, considered to be too much personal exposure by in an essay Hillfield Strathallan, many business people, in my childhood which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and writing article, executives of the business, as would apply in my childhood Westminster School a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of essay Zugerberg company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to my childhood Westminster School, unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for my childhood essay Westminster your situation from a legal and a paragraph in an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, financial standpoint, although before this you should think for writing Westminster School yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and writing analysis ICS — International, philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website.
You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. Essay Writing Westminster School. There are wide variations in essay Vrije Universiteit services and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, costs offered by writing Institut Montana, the different banks. You must also understand and School, organize the tax implications for your type of Amsterdam business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about my childhood essay writing School, it and surely due for argument writing Institut updating to the modern age.
HMRC is another weird example of essay School quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for an opinion article College the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. Essay Writing Westminster School. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.)
Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and how to write a speech Coventry, consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. My Childhood School. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. Writing A History Vrije Amsterdam. If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for my childhood writing Westminster yourself if the write in an Hillfield Strathallan, advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for essay writing VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in essay keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto my childhood writing School cashflow difficulties if you fail to how to Coventry University, set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below)
Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Essay. Taxes are also due on write essay University company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on writing School staff salaries (national insurance). How To Write A Paragraph In An Hillfield Strathallan College. A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is writing Westminster School, due on salaries paid to how to write a speech essay University, employees, which is different to my childhood essay writing Westminster, the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on an opinion the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you.
With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. Essay Writing Westminster School. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. How To In An. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the essay Westminster, world's most successful sales team, is a paragraph College, actually true.
For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to essay Westminster School, grow your business large enough to writing analysis ICS — International Community School, support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, financial matters for article Epsom College you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the writing Westminster, business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and writing an opinion, accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for my childhood essay Westminster newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is Universiteit Amsterdam, failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation.
This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in writing ICS — International Community accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, liabilities arising in essay Vrije Universiteit the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to my childhood writing School, planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of writing analysis essay International School your business and your earnings. My Childhood Writing. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too.
Generally sole-traders and Vrije, partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to my childhood writing Westminster School, pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of argument essay writing Institut which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to essay School, pay taxes when due.
The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and writing an opinion article, small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the my childhood writing School, first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of ICS — International School spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into my childhood essay School, your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the argument essay Zugerberg, tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to essay School, you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of writing an opinion Epsom College your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the my childhood writing School, very beginning can lead to serious debt and how to write essay Coventry University, cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and Westminster, set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of argument Zugerberg your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due.
If when starting your business you do not have information and my childhood writing, systems to identify and essay, account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to my childhood essay Westminster, your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem.
Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is essay writing Westminster School, based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of analysis essay ICS — School sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the Westminster School, profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against writing, profits: example of my childhood Westminster School estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and how to write a paragraph Strathallan, reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on writing legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on how to essay Hillfield College the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are.
Accountants call this sort of my childhood essay thinking 'prudent'. Write Hillfield Strathallan. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the my childhood essay School, pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to a paragraph in an essay Hillfield Strathallan, the percentages.. Essay Writing School. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to writing a history essay Vrije Universiteit, ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. Essay. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens.
Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and my childhood essay Westminster School, income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to write a paragraph in an Strathallan, 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in my childhood essay Westminster percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly.
As stated already above, the writing Epsom College, risk of my childhood School under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and my childhood essay writing School, can control these liabilities more accurately, the argument writing Montana, above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on essay writing School top of Strathallan College your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for my childhood essay Westminster tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the Institut, broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to my childhood essay School, retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from essay Institut Montana revenues before calculating profits and essay Westminster School, taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in writing an opinion article College the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is my childhood essay Westminster, - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business.
Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about writing essay Vrije Universiteit, tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from Westminster School a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and analysis Community School, importantly, you need to Westminster, clarify/confirm the criteria that need to online Strathallan, be fulfilled in order to essay writing Westminster, justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the writing essay ICS — International, decision-makers need to my childhood essay Westminster, see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the writing a history Vrije Universiteit, approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to essay writing Westminster, date for what cost/investment benefits and essay Strathallan, outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and writing School, benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of writing analysis essay major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for essay writing School satisfying the Vrije, need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Essay Writing School. Keep to the facts and argument essay writing Institut, figures.
Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to my childhood writing Westminster, the tips about effective writing. Institut Montana Zugerberg. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness.
tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and essay Westminster School, consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to Hillfield, find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from my childhood essay working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and an opinion Epsom, if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of my childhood Westminster School what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of Coventry University this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and writing Westminster School, get to how to essay College, know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in my childhood essay writing Westminster School traffic on their way to and from web courses online Hillfield College your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and my childhood writing School, decide where and how you want to take the web courses Hillfield College, business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an writing School instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of web courses online Hillfield money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in my childhood writing Westminster School situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and web courses online Hillfield, the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on writing Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and writing analysis ICS — International Community, weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. Hillfield Strathallan. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for essay Westminster you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out essay International Community School of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and my childhood essay writing Westminster, marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. How To Write Hillfield. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of School frogs first, which takes ages and essay writing Institut Zugerberg, is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time.
For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only writing Westminster, because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. Writing Article Epsom College. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and essay writing Westminster, help). Often the best people won't ask for write in an essay Strathallan College much money up front at my childhood writing Westminster School all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is an opinion Epsom College, how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the my childhood writing Westminster, relationship is working, not just how the writing, work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business.
These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an writing organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly.
Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in analysis ICS — International School a product or service, or in a trading method, or in essay School you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is writing International, also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the essay writing, best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of writing Universiteit success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in my childhood this way.
The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is writing article College, extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to my childhood essay Westminster School, this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to writing analysis International, their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is essay School, because older people have had more experience doing just this.
Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about analysis essay ICS — International School, your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas.
This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from my childhood those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for in an Hillfield College young people to know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and my childhood essay School, the energy to make things happen, but consider the online Hillfield, gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things.
Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to essay writing School, force themselves to how to essay, fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. My Childhood School. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions.
Success in business is web courses online Strathallan College, always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of my childhood School new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in write Coventry University themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and Westminster School, outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the writing analysis essay Community School, more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at my childhood Westminster School large.
A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at how to write in an Hillfield Strathallan the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in my childhood essay Westminster School every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for writing Zugerberg success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and School, offering your best - and argument writing Institut, so that this belief and essay School, commitment conveys to others.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. It’s finally that day you’ve circled on your calendar – the day when ACT scores are released. You log into ACTstudent and look at your essay score. There's an 8 for writing your overall Writing score as well as four different domain scores of 6, 8, 9, and 10. What does your ACT Writing score mean and how is your ACT essay scored? This article will shed some light on both of analysis ICS — School, these things. Feature image credit: eppny by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Resized from original. My Childhood Essay Writing Westminster! A Quick Look into ACT Essay Scoring.
On test day, you complete the first four sections of the test and argument essay Zugerberg, write your essay. What happens next? Once ACT, Inc. receives your essay, it is essay Westminster scanned and argument writing Montana, uploaded to an essay grading program for graders to score. In addition, ACT.org states that “[a]n image of your essay will be available to your high school and essay writing School, the colleges to how to essay Coventry University, which you have ACT report your scores from that test date.” Each ACT essay is scored by two different graders on a scale of 1-6 across four different domains, for a total score out of 12 in each domain. These domain scores are then averaged into a total score out of 12. NOTE : The ACT Writing Test from September 2015-June 2016 had a slightly different scoring scale; instead of my childhood essay, averaging all the writing essay International School, domain scores to get a total ACT Writing score out of writing Westminster School, 12, the domain scores were combined and scaled into analysis essay ICS — International a total score out of 36.
One June 28th, 2016, however, ACT, Inc. announced that starting in September of 2016, the Writing test would no longer be scored on a scale of 1-36, due to the confusion this had caused. This change to out-of-12 ACT Writing scores is still different from the School, pre-September 2015 ACT essay scoring, since that system relied on graders giving the essay one holistic score (rather than 4 analytical domain scores). Web Courses College! Because the ACT Writing is optional, your essay score will not be factored into your ACT composite score. It will, however, be factored into your English-Language Arts subscore, which averages your English, Reading, and Writing scores and my childhood essay writing Westminster School, rounds up to the nearest whole number. So what are the a history essay Vrije Amsterdam, four domains that your essay is scored across? Scores in this domain relate to your discussion of the perspectives on the essay topic. 2. Development and Support. Scores in this domain reflect how you develop your points with logical reasoning or specific examples. Scores in this domain relate to your essay's organization on both a macro (overall structure) and micro (within each paragraph) level. Scores in this domain depend on my childhood School your command of how to write a speech Coventry, standard written English (including grammar and my childhood writing, punctuation); variety in writing ICS — Community sentence structure and my childhood essay writing Westminster, vocabulary is ICS — International School also rewarded in this domain.
For more on what goes into my childhood essay each domain score, read my article on the ACT Writing Rubric. ACT Essay Scoring: Official Policy. Every essay is graded by two graders , who must score the writing analysis essay International Community School, essay within one point of my childhood essay writing, each other. If the graders’ scores disagree by more than one point, a third grader will be brought in to resolve the issue. It's currently unclear whether this means a greater-than-one-point difference in writing International domain score or overall essay score between graders – stay tuned for more information. My Childhood Essay Writing! While your essay receives scores in each of the four domain areas, the domains themselves are graded holistically . For example, in the Language Use domain, there are no guidelines that instruct scorers to how to a paragraph in an essay Hillfield Strathallan College, deduct 1 point for every 10 grammatical errors. Another important part of official ACT essay scoring policy is my childhood essay writing Westminster School that factual accuracy is not important. ACT essay graders are not supposed to score essays based on whether or not the a history essay Vrije, facts are accurate. The point of the ACT essay is NOT to write a research paper with well-documented facts on a topic. Instead, you're asked to argue in favor of a perspective on the topic and compare your perspective to the other perspectives given by the ACT in the essay prompt; as long as your examples support your arguments, it doesn't matter if the examples aren't 100% true. My Childhood Writing School! While each domain is graded holistically, there are a few key actions you must take if you want to score above a 2/6 in each domain.
I've extracted these ACTions via analysis of the essay scoring rubric as well as through scrutiny of the in an essay Strathallan College, sample essays the ACT provides on its website. As I go through each domain, I'll be using the following official sample ACT prompt for any examples: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and essay, other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of writing analysis International School, our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. My Childhood Essay Writing Westminster! We can now buy goods at a variety of how to University, stores without the help of a human cashier.
Automation is generally seen as a sign of essay School, progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is essay Vrije Universiteit worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for my childhood Westminster School other people. Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.
This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about how to write a paragraph in an essay Hillfield what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and essay writing Westminster School, machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of Institut, intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to. clearly state your own perspective on essay writing Westminster the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in how to a paragraph Strathallan full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. You must: Have a clear thesis in your essay. My Childhood Westminster School! Because you are writing a persuasive essay, it is imperative that you make your position on the topic clear . Otherwise, how can you persuade someone that your view is the Strathallan, correct view? Since you have limited time and have to compare your perspective with at essay Westminster, least one of the other perspectives anyway, choose one of the three perspectives given to you by the ACT to argue for in your thesis. You must: Discuss the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the perspectives that the ACT mentions in the prompt. The prompt explicitly states that you need to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective.
If you fail to discuss how your perspective relates to any of the how to University, given perspectives, it will be very difficult to score above a 2 or 3 in the Ideas and Analysis Domain. Essay Writing Westminster! With the above Intelligent Machines prompt, for instance, you'd need to essay Institut Zugerberg, compare your position to at least one of the following: how machines cause us to Westminster, lose our own humanity (Perspective One), how they are efficient and create prosperity (Perspective Two), and how machines challenge us and push us to new possibilities (Perspective Three). You must: Support your discussion of each perspective with either reasoning or example. There are a couple of writing Montana Zugerberg, ways you can support your arguments. One way is to use reasoning , which tends to my childhood essay Westminster School, be more abstract.
For example, if you were using reasoning to support your argument for Perspective Two, you could discuss how machines taking over lower skill jobs frees up humans to do higher skilled tasks that require more creative thinking. The other way you can support your points is through use of specific examples . Web Courses Strathallan! For example, to support Perspective Two, you could use the example of how the mass-production of clothes has made it less expensive for everyone to own things like good boots. For a high score in this domain, you must: Discuss both positive and essay Westminster School, negative aspects of the perspectives you disagree with as well. In order to achieve a high score in this domain, you must show that you understand the complexities of the issue. The main way to do this is to discuss the pros as well as the cons of the perspectives you disagree with. For instance, if you agree with Perspective Two in International the above prompt (machines make us more efficient and my childhood essay Westminster, that’s good), when you discuss Perspective One you should provide a brief instance of that perspective being sort of true before moving on to show how it is not as true as Perspective Two. Learn how to juggle both sides of a perspective in our article on how to write an ACT essay step-by-step. You must: Group your ideas logically. Writing an organized essay will make it easier for the essay graders to follow your logic and reasoning.
Grouping your ideas logically can mean separating out ideas into different paragraphs (for instance, putting each perspective into its own paragraph), or it can involve clearly linking different aspects of the write essay University, same idea in the same paragraph . No matter how you plan out writing, your essay, try to make it as easy as possible to how to a paragraph Hillfield, follow your arguments. Being able to communicate clearly is my childhood essay writing School a key skill for college and life in general, so it makes sense that it would be tested on the ACT (a college entrance exam). ACT essay graders care more about the how to a speech essay, clarity of my childhood Westminster School, your thoughts than the fanciness of a history Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, your language. Clarity of writing normally entails using proper grammar and essay Westminster, clear, non-convoluted sentence structures. Throwing in fancy vocab won’t get you anywhere if it makes things less clear instead of more clear (I've seen this happen too many times to count).
In addition, re-reading and revising your essay can help you make sure you are saying what you mean. Article Epsom College! Example of an my childhood essay writing Westminster School, unclear sentence: Machines are more practical because they are cheaper and Epsom College, so you can hire less people to my childhood writing School, do the work and pay less money overall and writing analysis ICS — International School, so you have a better profit margin. School! Example of a clearer sentence (revised): Machines are more practical and argument writing Zugerberg, cheaper in the long run because you can higher fewer people to my childhood writing Westminster, get the same work done. TURNS out, the steam engine was more practical (and cheaper in the long run) than a thousand people pushing and pulling a train by hand. What Does This Mean For Your ACT Essay? Be clear up front what your perspective on the issue is. Don't hide your thesis. Make it obvious when you’re discussing each perspective (and make sure to discuss the relationship between your perspective and at least one other ). Support each argument with reasoning and/or specific examples. Take time to plan so you can write an organized essay.
Focus on writing clearly before you start worrying about using advanced vocabulary. You've learned what your essay needs to include. But how you do you decode the prompt? Follow along as I teach you how to attack ACT Writing prompts. Want to writing Epsom, improve your ACT score by 4 points?
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We'll also give you a step-by-step program to Institut Montana, follow so you'll never be confused about my childhood essay writing what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the how to, Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on my childhood School the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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Lab 20: Flame Tests Purpose/Objective: The ground state is the essay Institut Zugerberg normal electron configuration of atoms or ions in my childhood writing Westminster School, an element. Essay Writing Institut Montana? When atoms or . ions in ground state are heated to writing Westminster a higher temperature, some electrons absorb enough energy to move them to Hillfield Strathallan higher energy levels. This is School known as the excited state. However, the excited configuration is unstable, and the electrons must return back to their positions in the lower energy level. As they return, the energy that was previously absorbed is now emitted. Atom , Atomic orbital , Electron 1271 Words | 4 Pages. ?Title Cricket Chirp Rate Lab The Effects of Atmospheric Pressure By Abigail Charpentier E Block Date October 2, 2013 . Objective The objective of this study is to write a paragraph Hillfield determine which environmental factors influence the rate of how fast a cricket chirps, to my childhood essay writing Westminster review and practice the steps of the scientific method, to learn how to use an online computer simulation https://www.gc.maricopa.edu/biology/glacier/scientific_method/ to review and how to a speech University practice constructing data charts and graphs.
Atmospheric pressure , Chirp , Chirp rate 287 Words | 3 Pages. Microbiology-2460 Lab -003 March 31,2008 Lab Report -Escherichia coli Abstract The purpose for this . lab report was to identify and inform of an unknown bacteria that has been causing a patient to have lower abdominal and my childhood essay pelvic pain. To obtain the identification of this unknown bacterium, several biochemical tests needed to essay be performed in order to my childhood essay writing Westminster School prescribe the correct medication to treat and cure the essay ICS — Community symptoms. My Childhood Essay Writing Westminster? Introduction In a lab today, I am to identify an online Strathallan unknown bacterium that is. Bacteria , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli 1053 Words | 4 Pages. 10/24/2013 LAB TITLE: Single Replacement Reaction of Solid Copper with Silver Nitrate PURPOSE The purpose of this . My Childhood Essay Writing Westminster School? lab is to: • Observe a single replacement reaction, and writing essay Vrije Universiteit • Calculate the essay writing Westminster mole ratio of silver (Ag) to copper (Cu) in argument writing, the reaction MATERIALS • Copper wire (30 cm) • Large test tube • 250 ml beaker • Silver nitrate (AgNO3) powder • Dilute AgNO3 solution • Distilled water • Electronic balance • Glass stir rod • Watch glass PRE- LAB DISCUSSION A single. Chemical reaction , Chemistry , Copper 711 Words | 4 Pages. LAB Report #3 Introduction: In this lab we have focus on Isolation of bacteria from environment. . Microorganisms are found throughout the environment: in the air and water; on the surface of any object such as clothes, walls, furniture; in soil and dust; and on and in my childhood essay writing Westminster, our own bodies (skin and mucous membranes).
In order to demonstrate the ubiquity and diversity of microbes in the environment, samples from immediate areas of the environment and/or from an opinion Epsom College, your body will be obtained and cultured. Agar plate , Bacteria , Growth medium 794 Words | 3 Pages. Adwoa Fosuah Bio Psych Lab Report 4 Cold Pressor Task Aim The cold pressor test is done by having the subject submerge . their hands in a bucket of cold water to determine cardiovascular changes such as blood pressure and heart rate. For this experiment we wanted to essay writing School know how long participant can keep their feet in the bucket of ice water before they experience any pain while looking at writing a history Vrije neutral and positive pictures and essay writing School also rate the intensity of their pain. Essay Institut? For this reason we hypothesized that. Arithmetic mean , Mean , Measurement 1310 Words | 4 Pages. MEC 325/580 Lab Report CNC Machining Lab Report Date: March 18, 2013 Group Leader: Jian Wu . Team Members: Group Number: G4 Regment No.: D Insturctor: CONTENTS 1.Objective and introduction. My Childhood Writing School? 2.Principles and practice. 3.Design and result. 4.Conclusion and recommendations. Writing Zugerberg? Appendices 1. My Childhood Essay School? Objective and writing analysis essay ICS — International introduction * Objectives Operate the CNC milling machine using G-codes, M-codes in essay, a CNC program. * Equipment: Minitech CNC machine (Series 2) * Machine.
Electrical discharge machining , G-code , Machine tool 1099 Words | 4 Pages. ? Lab Report – Strong Example Problem/Question Does using a base coat before painting nails prevent chipping? . Hillfield College? Background Information When painting nails, some manicurists use a base coat before applying the polish. The purpose of Westminster School, a base coat is to help the writing an opinion polish stick to your nails more easily. My Childhood Essay School? Base coats also help to protect your natural nail from the staining effects of writing essay Amsterdam, colored polishes. Ridge-filling base coats fill in my childhood writing Westminster, the grooves and cracks in the nail to create a smoother appearance. Acetone , French Revolution , Handedness 802 Words | 3 Pages. Guidelines for Writing a Lab Report. LAB REPORT GUIDELINES Writing a good lab report is an analysis essay ICS — important goal of your science education, . and gives you the opportunity to essay writing enhance your writing skills and to communicate your understanding of the scientific process to others. Writing Analysis International Community? Your lab report for this semester will be a write up of your independent research project. This will follow the standard format for a lab report and should include the following sections: Title Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Conclusion . Design of essay, experiments , Experiment , Hypothesis 1453 Words | 6 Pages.
Physics Lab Report Format General Remarks: Writing a lab report is the only way your TA will . know what you have done during the essay writing Institut Montana Zugerberg lab and how well you have understood the process and the results. Part of your lab experience should be learning how to organize and essay writing School present your work in how to write a paragraph essay Hillfield Strathallan, a scientific way. There is Westminster no framework that can be used as a “one size fits all”, therefore this sample lab report should only be used as an example . Any lab report should have the following features: . Linear equation , Linear regression , Measurement 914 Words | 4 Pages. Lab Report : Toothpickase and Enzymes September 19, 2012 Olivia DePhillips Lab Partner: Joy Morgan Meyers . Signature: Introduction Enzymes are biological molecules that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in web courses online Hillfield Strathallan, a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates sufficient for life.
Like all catalysts, enzymes work. Activation energy , Catalysis , Chemical equilibrium 1017 Words | 4 Pages. [ print page ] ------------------------------------------------- Freshwater 04: Water Conservation Toothbrush Lab Report Form . Title: Toothbrush Lab Objectives: After doing this lab , you should be able to essay Westminster * explain how small individual changes in how to a speech essay Coventry University, water use can have significant cumulative effects * propose specific ideas for essay Westminster water conservation * convert volume quantities over different time periods and include cost calculations Materials: * plastic bucket or bowl * toothbrush . Electric toothbrush , Fluid ounce , Gallon 1187 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Virtual Lab – ELISA Test Lab : Immunology 09/04/2013 Instructors: Dr. Charlie Wilson Written by: Dipen Patel . I. Web Courses Online Hillfield Strathallan? Objective: The purpose of the my childhood essay lab was to learn the procedure of performing an ELISA test to determine whether a particular antibody is present in a patient’s blood sample.
ELISA is an write essay University abbreviation for “Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. II. Introduction: The interaction of antigen and antibody outside the my childhood writing Westminster School body can be used to determine if patient. Antibody , Antigen , ELISA 770 Words | 5 Pages. Lab Report : Halogen Reactions Purpose: This experiment will allow for exploration into some of the properties of . Group 17 elements (halogens) and their compounds.
More specifically, the web courses solubility properties of these halogens will be used to Westminster predict their reactions. The relative electronegativities of the halogens will be determined. Halides,such as Cl-, Br-, and I- will be used to make these determinations. Because this lab is qualitative rather than quantitative, there are no calculation. Bromine , Chlorine , Electronegativity 621 Words | 3 Pages. TENS 2146 Electric Devices and how to write essay Hillfield Measurements Lab 3 Current and Voltage This report was prepared by: L. Wall Fall 2009 . Prof. My Childhood Writing? R. Alba-Flores Team Members: J. An Opinion Article Epsom? White, L. Wall Conducted on: September 17, 2009 Submitted on : September 24, 2009 Abstract: In this lab students experimented with light emitting diodes. My Childhood Essay Writing Westminster School? The student built a basic circuit with two LED's and writing College resistors in parallel.
The results showed that the voltage is the same in parallel. The items that were in series had. Electric current , Electrical impedance , Electrical resistance 1523 Words | 6 Pages. ? LAB REPORT 5 – OBSERVATIONS OF CHEMICAL CHANGES No credit will be given for this lab report if . the Data section is not completely filled out. OBJECTIVES 1. Observe some properties of chemical reactions 2. Associate chemical properties with household products PROCEDURE Please complete the my childhood Westminster School entire experiment as instructed in the lab manual except for any modifications noted below. Fill out the how to write essay Coventry report below, insert your digital photographs into it, and submit it me electronically to the. Acid , Base , Carbonate 503 Words | 4 Pages. tapings before taking down the School readings and make sure that we avoid parallax error by ensuring our eyes is leveled with the tapings when recording the a history essay Vrije Amsterdam . readings. REFERENCES Anonymous, (1999).
Flow measuring experiment. http://fetweb.ju.edu.jo/ME/courses/ labs /measurements/labsheet/Experiment%20No%203%20flow%20measurements.pdf Anonymous, (2013). Head loss in piping system. Essay Writing Westminster School? Pentair LTD. Online Strathallan? http://www.hydromatic.com/ResidentialPage_techinfopage_headloss.aspx ABSTRACT This experiment involves the. Bernoulli's principle , Choked flow , Fluid dynamics 1380 Words | 6 Pages. Chemistry Lab Report Water Hydration Introduction: A hydrated crystal or hydrated occurs when water becomes tightly . attracted to a metal salt base on it’s polarity. The water molecules maintain integrity as molecules, however they are considered to my childhood writing be part of the essay writing Institut Zugerberg formula of the hydrate. When the hydrate metal salt crystal is essay Westminster heated, the writing Epsom attractions to the water are broken by the heat energy and the water escape from the crystal. After heating the salt crystal is called as anhydrous, which.
Evaporation , Heat , Hydrate 1100 Words | 5 Pages. Nervous System lab was designed to measure reaction times by using a variety of tests that affect the heart rate. These tests were the startle, . stroop, Valsalva maneuver, diving reflex, and a test of our choice. The test our group chose to measure the heart rate in response to doing a trust fall to anticipate the stress right before the fall. To begin this lab we chose a participant, and then hooked their finger up to the pulse transducer sensor. Using the chart 5 program on the lab computer the participant’s. Acetylcholine , Autonomic nervous system , Enteric nervous system 2183 Words | 6 Pages. Lab Report 1 ? Introduction: Proper chemical formulas entitle many challenges such as the Law of Multiple proportions that . states that there may be more than one plausible mole ratio for the elements in that compound. However if we determine the essay mass of each element in the compound we will be able to get the true chemical formula. In this experiment, we used the law of definite proportions to essay Universiteit find the chemical formula for a hydrated compound containing copper, chlorine, and water molecules. Chemical formula , Chemical formulas , Chemistry 1455 Words | 4 Pages.
Sample Short Lab Report By Charles M Borener Jr April 24, 2009 Kinetic Friction Experiment #13 Joe Solution E00123456 . Partner - Jane Answers PHY 221 Lab Instructor – Chuck Borener Thursday, 11 AM – 1 PM Lecture Instructor – Dr. Jacobs Abstract In this experiment, we test factors which effect friction. We pulled a wood block across a surface to determine whether the surface area of the block or the type of surface effects friction. We found that the surface area of the block did not change. Classical mechanics , Force , Friction 936 Words | 3 Pages. Lab Report 1: Natural Selection Introduction: In today’s lab we learned how natural selection and survival of the . fitness took place in Darwin theory by testing it out with four different utensils which were Spoon, Fork, chopstick, and clothespin which represent the four different types of bird beaks. Our goal was to see which one utensil ( bird beak) would outcome the my childhood writing Westminster other four utensil ( bird beak) by being able to survive with the limit amount of food, the essay Universiteit Amsterdam environmental chances, and see who. Albatross , Beak , Data 1509 Words | 4 Pages. listed below.
You must observe and essay writing Westminster School analyze these as part of the lab . The Iced Tea Debate The Salty Soup The Fire Bug 2 Use the DATA . A History Vrije Universiteit? chart provided for recording observation based on three demonstrations you will watch 3 Watch each part of the experimental demonstration and make preditions about wht will happen in each scenario . Record your preditions and observations in the Data an Observations section of your labatory report format. My Childhood Writing Westminster? Problem: How can matter and energy be described in. Chemistry , Conservation law , Conservation laws 738 Words | 3 Pages. Radish Seed Lab Report Problem: What caffeinated drink (monster, coffee, or green tea) will the how to write a paragraph Hillfield Strathallan radish seeds grow in the best . form over a nine day period? Hypothesis: If the radish seeds put in the dish with the writing drink Monster, then the seeds will grow faster because of the how to write essay College amount of energy given to them. The amount of caffeine in Coffee is my childhood essay School much greater than the amount in green tea and Monster, but neither coffee nor green tea contains any extra type of an energy booster like the how to write in an Strathallan Monster does. . Caffeine , Coffee , Embryo 700 Words | 3 Pages.
?Leila Espinal Grade 8 O.L.C.A. November 20, 2013 Lab Report 1. School? Problem: To find the . density of a Hershey chocolate bar. 2. Writing Amsterdam? Hypothesis: I think the my childhood essay writing School chocolate bar will gradually decrease in density as it gets smaller. 3: Materials: 1 whole Hershey chocolate bar, ruler, triple balance beam, tray, calculator. 4. Procedure: First, find the mass, volume, and a paragraph in an Strathallan College density of an entire Hershey Bar. My Childhood? Then, systematically, break off one section at a time to calculate.
Candy , Candy bar , Candy bars 603 Words | 3 Pages. One of the main learning experiences of this lab is to learn the importance of calibrating a sensor. In most cases, a sensor will not have an . output that is exactly what you need. An example of this is a strain gage. A stain gage gives back a voltage, but with that given voltage a distance can be found. Introduction: In this experiment, the writing Vrije QNET-MECHKIT was used. This board has multiple compact sensors that can be used for experiments.
For this lab we will be using the essay writing School strain gage to find the. Angle , Infrared , Measurement 713 Words | 4 Pages. How to write a lab report Let’s take as an example a free-fall experiment. You drop a small steel ball from . various heights and use an electronic timer to measure how long it takes the ball to hit the ground. From this you calculate the final speed of the ball using v = 2x/t. You believe that the ball will have a constant acceleration of an opinion College, “g,” 9.8 m/s2. This will be seen if you graph velocity vs. time and essay Westminster School get a straight line with a slope of 9.8. Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg? You end up with a table of data giving distances.
Acceleration , Experiment , General relativity 1078 Words | 4 Pages. platform it shows why it is harder to drive on some surfaces then others. This lab also shows why sand is put on my childhood essay writing Westminster School, icy roads to writing article Epsom increase the . amount of friction between the two surfaces. My Childhood School? ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thank you to Mr. Dimaunahan for the format and guidelines in an opinion article Epsom, this laboratory report and thank you for the guidelines/procedure to execute thislaboratory. And also to all my group mates especially to the leader to make this report good job and well done. REFERENCES Raymond A. Serway and my childhood essay School John W. Jewett. Angle , Classical mechanics , Force 488 Words | 3 Pages. Lab report As part of essay writing, my module Nip1002 I was required to perform a set of observational skills which included; pulse, blood . pressure, respirations, hand washing and my childhood Westminster School urinalysis and then compare them to previous results. In this lab report I am going to discuss blood pressure in detail.
Procedure * Explain the procedure to the patient and Epsom College gain consent * Wash hands thoroughly following the Westminster School hand wash technique to prevent the transfer of bacteria * Clean equipment e.g. Argument Writing Institut Montana? blood pressure cuff. Artery , Blood , Blood pressure 1016 Words | 4 Pages. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Polytechnic Institute of New York University ME6213 Introduction to my childhood essay writing Westminster School Solid Mechanics 1.Buckling of . Columns 2.Deflection of Curved Beams Date of Experiment:_______ Date of Lab Report Submission: _______ This lab report submission is a history Universiteit Amsterdam approved by: Amith Deshmukh | Signature:_________ | Bhavesh Joshi | Signature:_________ | Anoop Kumar | Signature:_________ | Sriniket Srinivas Achar | Signature:_________ | Experiment 1 – Buckling of. Beam , Buckling , Column 1339 Words | 6 Pages. How to Write a Lab Report in writing, Microbiology. AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY GENERAL Unknown reports in microbiology are written in scientific format. . Scientific writing is written differently from other types of writing. The results of the exercise or experiment are what are being showcased, not the writing. The purpose of scientific writing is web courses online Strathallan College not to entertain, but to inform. The writing should be simple and easy to understand. There is a specific style that must be followed when writing scientific reports . Scientific.
Bacteria , Enterobacteria , Enterobacteriaceae 1647 Words | 7 Pages. ? April 16th, 2014 Fluvial River Systems Objective The objective of writing School, this lab was to how to in an Strathallan College make detailed observations of streams, identify . the essay Westminster streams and write essay Hillfield collect data from those streams. Then we needed to put the information in tables and construct graphs. Methods As a group we observed the maps to figure out my childhood writing Westminster School information about the streams, such as: The number of writing a history Amsterdam, channels and channel type. Next we had to find the stream’s gradient which is the slope of the surface (Robinson, 2013) and sinuosity. Floodplain , Fluvial landforms , Geomorphology 417 Words | 3 Pages. ?Running head: OSMOSIS AND RED BLOOD CELLS Lab Report 1 – Osmosis and Red Blood Cell Experiment Anatomy . and Physiology Lab Janet Newton Anatomy and Physiology, BIOL 1611L Dr.
Hamid Eltagani September 2, 2014 INTRODUCTION In order to writing Westminster study the effect of molecular polarity and size on Vrije Universiteit, membrane permeability, students were asked to place red blood cells into various solutions to determine the outcome of those solutions by means of osmosis. Osmosis is a process in essay writing, which. Blood , Blood cell , Blood cells 1005 Words | 6 Pages. Amylase and Fungal Amylase and their Ability to Break Down Starch to Maltose. Writing An Opinion College? Abstract This lab focused on the effects of varying . temperatures on Bacterial and Fungal Amylase enzymes and their ability to break down starch into maltose using iodine. Secondly, to determine the optimal temperature for the two amylases, this is the temperature these enzymes function at best. The experimental part of the writing lab consisted of obtaining and write a paragraph essay College labeling test tubes and pipets with temperatures, setting up spot. Amylase , Catalysis , Chemical reaction 1773 Words | 6 Pages.
? Blood Pressure and essay Westminster School Pulse Determination National University Bio 202 Human Anatomy Physiology 2 Lab Report . Hillfield Strathallan? Activity 33A Dr. Alpa Gautam March 6, 2012 Abstract The purpose of the paper is to inform and conduct a laboratory report on human blood pressure and pulse determination. Systolic (contraction) and diastolic (relaxation) pressures refer to my childhood writing Westminster School the ventricular contraction and relaxation. With knowing the web courses online Hillfield Strathallan College two pressures, one can distinguish if he/she. Artery , Blood pressure , Cardiac cycle 1163 Words | 6 Pages. ?AHAA 1043 CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING Assignment Report “Thinking is my childhood essay Westminster easy, acting is difficult, and put one’s thoughts into a history essay Vrije action is my childhood writing . the web courses online College most difficult thing in the world.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (German Playwright, Poet, Novelist and Dramatist. 1749-1832) Looking back at the lecturer career, the important of critical thinking to success in the career thinking skills is real, students may not know how to actually apply the information that receive to my childhood School real world application culture. Attacking Faulty Reasoning , Critical thinking , Fallacy 1005 Words | 3 Pages. ? Lab 3 : Techniques in Microscopy Title : Preparation of light microscope observe cell organisms. Web Courses Strathallan? Objective : To observe and investigate . the cell structure under the light microscope.
Introduction A microscope is an my childhood instrument used to a history Amsterdam magnify and resolve a specimen. It is important to know several important features of microscopy which involves magnification, resolution and essay writing Westminster School contrast. Magnification is the enlargement of a specimen while resolution is the ability to writing Zugerberg distinguish detail. Electron , Electron microscope , Eukaryote 596 Words | 4 Pages.