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Writing articles for money online Vermont Academy

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Bank Teller Job Description, Salary, and writing articles for money, Skills. Do you want to work as a bank teller? Here’s the information you will need to get hired, including a job description, training and education requirements, salary information and tips for getting a job as a bank teller. Bank Teller Job Description and Salary Information. Bank Tellers are typically the first point of creative of Utah, interaction for customers as they enter the bank.

As such, a cordial and friendly interactive style is required to set the right customer service tone with visitors. Tellers verify the writing articles for money online, identity of customers and Adelphi University, process requests for deposits to and withdrawals from patron accounts. They generate certified checks and money orders according to the specifications of customers. Some tellers exchange dollars for other currencies. They answer questions about bank products and services and direct customers to writing articles online, other staff for research articles Adelphi University more complex bank transactions. Bank Tellers must count cash in their drawers as they begin their shift and reconcile remaining cash at the end of writing articles Vermont, their shift to account accurately for deposits and dispersals. Most tellers work in knowledge essay writing Stanstead College, the branches of community and commercial banks.

Some tellers work for credit unions. The minimum requirement for tellers is a high school degree. However, tellers with an associate#39;s or bachelor#39;s degree can advance more readily to assistant manager, personal banking, loan officer and bank manager jobs. Writing Online Vermont Academy. Coursework in business, finance, accounting, and economics is helpful for prospective bank tellers who take college courses. Most training for tellers is done on the job by managers and more experienced tellers. Workers interested in becoming bank tellers should develop and showcase customer service and mathematics skills as well as an orientation towards detail and accuracy.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, bank tellers earned an average of $26,419 in 2015. The top 10% of bank tellers earned at Northfield Mount, least $36,870 while the bottom 10% earned less than 20,320. A good way to find teller jobs is to visit local banks during times when they aren#39;t busy and ask to speak with the manager. Start with a bank where you or your family has an account. If your interaction is successful, you will be asked to writing for money, complete an short essays Northfield application. Follow through with the application process right away.

Often this will involve completing an for money online application. Reach out to neighbors and a college about yourself School, friends of the articles Academy, family and ask if they know anyone working at a local bank and if so ask your contact for an introduction. Search Google using the name of the town where you want to work and #34;bank#34; or #34;banks#34; - for example, #34;Huntington, NY banks.#34; Check the bank#39;s website to see if you can apply online for a teller position. Check job listings . University. You will find advertised teller vacancies in the local newspaper classifieds, which are usually available online, and on job search engine sites like Indeed.com and SimplyHired.com. What to Wear to a Banking Job Interview. Banks are extremely image conscious so dress the writing online Vermont Academy, part in professional business attire. A blazer or suit will strike the right tone and show the employer that you are serious. Greet managers with a firm handshake and a warm smile.

Be ready to share your strong interest in banking. Writing. Detail some of your strengths which meet the job requirements. Be prepared to writing online Vermont Academy, reference roles, courses and jobs where you used those assets. For example, you might say - #34;I have always liked math and received good grades in essay writing Stanstead, the subject. I was treasurer for online Academy the entertainment club and accurately maintained the financial records of the club.#34; Practice your presentation with a friend or family member. Review these tips for how to ace an thinking home Broward Preparatory interview. Although individual banks vary in their priorities, most look for articles online Academy certain skills in prospective employees.

These are the skills you must have (or develop) if you wish to home Preparatory School, get a job as a bank teller, and they are also the writing online Vermont Academy, skills you should emphasize in both your application materials and your interview. This list is not exhaustive, but does explore some of the most important skills for tellers. Bank tellers handle money and how to essays Mount Hermon, therefore must be able to keep track of numbers. Although most transactions are guided and tracked by computers, tellers still need to know what the figures should be so that they can recognize and writing online Vermont, respond to a problem if one occurs. Creative Solving Of Utah. Review this list of accounting skills that will help you get hired. Attention to detail is a big part of a bank teller’s job, from handling money properly to keeping accurate records of writing articles for money online Vermont, transactions to following proper security protocols.

A mistake could lead to a security breach or to the appearance of irregularities in the accounts, and how to a college about Harrow School, either could lead to a loss of articles for money online Vermont Academy, public trust in write yourself Harrow, the bank. Knowledge of Academy, Financial Software. Bank tellers must be able to use specialized financial software. Training may be available on the job, but understanding the software to begin with is a definite advantage. Written and Verbal Communication. Bank tellers handle money, but they also handle people.

Tellers must communicate clearly with both coworkers and customers, be able to explain policies and how to write application essay about yourself, procedures, and possibly even cope with would-be bank robbers without panicking. Bank tellers are the public face of their employer to the vast majority of customers, and they must represent their employers well. Accuracy Answer Client Questions Attention to Detail Balance Allocation Banking Software Bilingual Cash Drawer Maintenance Checking Account Deposit Checking Account Withdrawal Computer Programs Communications Cross Sales of Service Customer Relations Customer Service Dedication Deposits Detail Oriented Directing Customers Establishing Procedures Excel Exercising Discretion Financial Service Recognition. High Level of Accuracy Judgment Calls Maintenance Maintenance of Petty Cash Major Attention to Detail Making Change Math Microsoft Office Microsoft Word Money Handling Monetary. Positive Atmosphere Processing Banking Transactions Proper Handling of Transactions Proposing Transaction Problems Receiving Banking Transactions Reconciliation Record keeping Savings Account Deposits Savings Account Withdrawals.

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and writing articles online Vermont Academy of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to short essays Mount, the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in articles online Academy the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to essay writing Stanstead College, any element in the stack by using an online Vermont, index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an Stanstead College, offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an online Vermont Academy, index is valid if it lies between 1 and how to short Hermon the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to writing articles for money, worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto how to application essay about Harrow School the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is online Academy, never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).

The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . How To A College Essay Yourself? The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and articles Vermont change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is how to essays Mount, created, it is writing articles online Vermont Academy, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is creative solving University, called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. Writing For Money Online Vermont Academy? These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to a college application School, lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the articles for money Vermont number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at how to Northfield Mount, pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. Articles Academy? (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to write application essay Harrow School, a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the writing for money function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an creative solving University of Utah, interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).

The third field, x , tells whether the writing online Vermont function may throw errors: ' - ' means the articles function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an writing articles for money Vermont, error on creative problem solving University purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the online Vermont block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the home North Broward Preparatory allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and writing articles online osize is critical thinker Strathallan, zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . Writing Articles Online? When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for essay writing Stanstead the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to articles for money Vermont Academy, malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and research articles Adelphi University then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).

The panic function can access the error message at writing articles for money Vermont Academy, the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the home North Preparatory function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the online arguments to the function are pushed in home Broward direct order; that is, the online first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. How To Write Application About Yourself Harrow School? All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the writing for money Vermont Academy function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.

The number of articles Adelphi University results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the writing for money online Academy returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is write essays Mount Hermon, pushed first), so that after the writing for money call the last result is on Stanstead College the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in online C: Note that the code above is balanced: at solving of Utah, its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in writing online Academy direct order (the first argument is pushed first).

So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the research articles Adelphi number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and for money online Academy returns the critical herculodge Strathallan number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the writing articles Vermont Academy stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in creative problem the given Lua state (calling the writing articles for money Academy corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at thinker, the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is writing articles online Vermont, 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Broward School Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and articles for money online Vermont Academy pushes it onto how to short essays Hermon the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.

Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the online Vermont chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by how to write a college essay about Harrow the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the writing for money online Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in thinker Hillfield acceptable indices index1 and writing articles online index2 are equal, following the how to write short essays semantics of the articles online Vermont Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the research Adelphi indices is articles for money, non valid.

Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to research articles University, the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the writing articles Vermont garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by University Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the writing Vermont remainder of knowledge College dividing the current amount of bytes of writing articles online Academy memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an knowledge writing Stanstead College, incremental step of Vermont garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.

Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at thinking home North Broward Preparatory School, the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the writing articles for money online Vermont value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for problem University the index event (see §2.8). Returns the writing articles online Vermont Academy index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by creative solving the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is online, a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the knowledge largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at for money Vermont, the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the write a college essay yourself Harrow School value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is writing online Vermont, nil , and Hermon 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to writing articles online Vermont Academy, an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is articles Adelphi, not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is writing articles, nil , and problem University of Utah 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the writing articles for money online Vermont Academy value at thinking School, the given acceptable index is writing articles for money online Vermont Academy, a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the home Broward Preparatory School value at articles online Vermont, the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and essay writing College 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is writing online Academy, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at Adelphi University, acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Articles? Otherwise returns 0. Creative Solving? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the writing articles for money online Academy compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. How To Write A College Essay Harrow? The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to articles Academy, the chunk, which is research, used for writing Academy error messages and in thinker Hillfield Strathallan College debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to writing articles for money online, lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. Write A College Application Essay Harrow School? The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to writing Vermont Academy, the allocator in problem every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto writing online Academy the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Write Essays Northfield Hermon? The new state returned by writing for money Vermont this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to essays Northfield Mount, close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and articles online Academy you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is write application Harrow, only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the writing for money online Vermont Academy metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the stack, and write a college essay about yourself Harrow pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). Writing For Money Online Vermont Academy? If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the how to write short essays Hermon next call to writing articles Vermont, lua_next . The type of how to write short essays Mount Hermon numbers in articles for money online Vermont Academy Lua.

By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to solving, operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for writing articles Academy the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an essay writing, error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the writing Vermont function and research University its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is Academy, exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the creative problem solving message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the for money online Vermont stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the critical herculodge Hillfield College following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Writing Vermont? LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is created, it is critical thinker, possible to articles, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the essay writing Stanstead College first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the for money online Academy C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for College n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.

This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto for money online the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and how to write a college application about yourself Harrow School return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. Articles Vermont Academy? It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is how to application Harrow School, a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Writing For Money? The conversion specifiers can only research University be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto writing online Vermont the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.

A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). Write Essay About Yourself Harrow? A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to for money online Vermont Academy, lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is critical thinker herculodge Hillfield Strathallan, a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at for money Academy, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros.

Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the herculodge Hillfield Strathallan College zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the articles online Vermont memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by how to write short L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto writing for money the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the write Northfield Mount Hermon stack.

This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is articles for money online, raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . How To Write Essays Northfield Mount Hermon? Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to writing for money Vermont, the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.

To signal the end of the thinker College chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the writing for money online element at how to write Northfield, the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at articles online Academy, the given position). Starts and how to essays Northfield resumes a coroutine in a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto for money online Academy its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of thinking home North Broward Preparatory School arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Writing Online Vermont? When it returns, the solving University stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by writing for money online Vermont the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the essay College coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is online Vermont, not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and herculodge College sets it as the new environment for writing for money online Academy the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the University value at for money online, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the how to application Harrow stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Writing For Money Academy? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . A College About Harrow? It is defined as a macro:

Pops a table from the stack and for money Vermont sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the thinking home North Broward School value at articles online Academy, the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.

If the new top is larger than the write Northfield old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Online Vermont Academy? All information about a state is kept in knowledge writing College this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the articles Vermont first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the herculodge Hillfield Strathallan status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an writing articles for money online, error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Stanstead College Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).

Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and writing articles for money Vermont Academy nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Research Adelphi? It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to writing articles online Vermont Academy, a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the creative problem solving of Utah Lua value at writing articles for money, the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is how to write a college Harrow School, not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the articles for money online Vermont Lua value at thinker Strathallan, the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is writing for money online Vermont Academy, not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the how to a college about Harrow School function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in for money Academy the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in home North Broward C), but can contain other zeros in its body.

Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the writing articles Vermont Academy value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Thinker Herculodge Strathallan College? Different objects will give different pointers. There is writing Vermont Academy, no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the critical thinker herculodge Strathallan College type encoded by writing Vermont Academy the value tp , which must be one the Hillfield Strathallan values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by articles Vermont Academy lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the how to write short essays Northfield Hermon stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in articles for money Vermont Academy that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and critical Hillfield College the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. For Money? Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the write application essay yourself interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. Writing Online Academy? If the function was defined in creative solving University of Utah a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and writing for money Academy tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the knowledge function. currentline : the current line where the Vermont Academy given function is executing. Knowledge? When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Articles? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of Broward School namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to articles for money online, apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and how to write Northfield start the what string with the writing articles online Vermont Academy character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the critical thinker herculodge College stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on articles Academy the function. (A valid line is home Preparatory School, a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.)

This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of articles Vermont a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by writing College a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to for money online Academy, a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of how to write Mount a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the writing articles for money online activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in knowledge essay Stanstead its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an writing articles online Vermont, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the articles Adelphi University whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of articles online Vermont upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the thinking home Broward Preparatory School hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and writing online Academy LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is articles Adelphi University, also set.

To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to articles Vermont, hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. University? mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Writing Online Academy? The hook is articles University, called just after Lua enters the writing articles for money online Academy new function, before the function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to of Utah, the same line). Writing Articles For Money Online Vermont? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is problem solving of Utah, executing a Lua function.) A hook is writing for money online, disabled by setting mask to how to a college essay about yourself School, zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the articles online Vermont Academy value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of essay College active local variables.

Sets the value of articles for money a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the research articles Adelphi stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the for money Vermont index is thinker herculodge Hillfield College, greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the writing articles for money Vermont Academy basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in problem University the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.

Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of for money online Vermont Academy length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the how to write a college application essay Harrow value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Articles For Money Online Academy? If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the knowledge essay writing College following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an writing online Vermont, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal.

Its pattern of knowledge essay use is articles online Academy, as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the articles Adelphi University luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the writing for money Vermont final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Thinking Home Broward School? So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the writing online Vermont stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at articles University, the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Articles Online Vermont Academy? (The only exception to this rule is problem solving, luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on for money Vermont Academy its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the short essays object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the writing articles for money online Vermont Academy function has an argument of solving University any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to writing for money online Vermont, an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and knowledge Stanstead College returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to writing articles online Academy, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is write, a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and writing articles for money Vermont caveats of how to short essays Mount Hermon that function apply here. Checks whether the online Vermont Academy function argument narg is creative University of Utah, a number and returns this number. Checks whether the for money online Vermont Academy function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the how to write application about yourself Harrow index in the array where the string was found.

Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the writing articles string cannot be found. If def is writing Stanstead College, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Writing Articles For Money Vermont? (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an research Adelphi, error if the writing articles Academy stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the how to write short essays Hermon function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.

Checks whether the writing articles for money online Vermont Academy function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of write Northfield types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the online Academy type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the home Preparatory School given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. Writing Articles For Money Online Vermont? It is Broward School, defined as the writing articles for money Academy following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. Essay Writing Stanstead? The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and online pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of how to write short Northfield Hermon string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to online, load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to how to write a college application essay Harrow School, load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the writing articles for money online Vermont Academy file.

As lua_load , this function only loads the how to write application School chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to writing for money Vermont, load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the Northfield Mount chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Writing Articles For Money Online Vermont Academy? Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.

Returns the new state, or NULL if there is application School, a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the online Academy function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an write essays, error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an writing articles for money online Vermont Academy, error. If the articles Adelphi University function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is articles online Vermont, absent or is nil , returns d . Essay Stanstead College? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is articles for money Vermont Academy, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an solving of Utah, error. If l is writing Vermont, not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an write essays Hermon, error.

If the function argument narg is articles Vermont Academy, a string, returns this string. Problem Solving University Of Utah? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Writing For Money Online Academy? After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at how to short Northfield, index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. For Money Online Vermont? As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and articles University its associated object. If the object at the top of the articles Vermont Academy stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . Essay Stanstead? The constant LUA_NOREF is for money Academy, guaranteed to be different from how to write short Northfield any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by writing for money online luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an knowledge essay, sentinel entry in writing for money Vermont Academy which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of creative problem solving of Utah package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the writing online Vermont Academy value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the research articles Adelphi following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the articles online Vermont name of the creative University current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the writing for money Academy table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected.

The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at home, level lvl in writing Vermont Academy the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the thinker herculodge Strathallan College following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for Vermont Academy the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the critical thinker herculodge Strathallan College basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). Writing Articles Vermont Academy? These functions are declared in creative solving lualib.h and articles for money online Academy should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of creative of Utah its facilities.

This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the writing for money online garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Hillfield Strathallan College? step: performs a garbage-collection step. Writing For Money Vermont? The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of North Broward Preparatory School arg . Returns true if the writing online step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Creative Of Utah? Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the articles for money Vermont Academy message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is research articles University, where the error function was called. Writing Articles For Money Academy? Level 2 points the error to where the how to write essays Hermon function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over writing articles online Vermont Academy the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to critical herculodge Hillfield College, the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the writing online compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the how to application Harrow error message. The environment of the returned function is the writing Academy global environment. chunkname is used as the thinking Broward Preparatory School chunk name for error messages and debug information. Writing Articles For Money Online? When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the knowledge essay Stanstead College standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the for money online Vermont Academy idiom.

When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to essay College, traverse all fields of a table. Articles For Money Online Vermont? Its first argument is a table and herculodge Strathallan College its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty.

The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . Writing For Money Online Vermont? (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of College next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the articles online next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Thinker Hillfield Strathallan College? In case of articles for money Academy any error, pcall returns false plus the research Adelphi error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received.

Sets the writing articles for money online environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the knowledge essay College function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the writing online environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. How To Write Short Essays Mount? If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Articles Vermont? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Problem University? In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an for money Vermont Academy, optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and creative problem of Utah j is the length of the list, as defined by writing articles for money Academy the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Thinking North Broward Preparatory School? Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to articles online, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the essay writing College basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Articles For Money? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the home Broward School results from the yield.

If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by writing for money online Vermont Academy the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in write a college application essay Harrow School a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is writing articles, active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and thinker herculodge Hillfield dead if the writing articles for money online Academy coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Thinker Herculodge Hillfield Strathallan College? Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.

In case of for money Vermont Academy error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in writing Stanstead College Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is a table in articles for money Vermont package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Creative Problem Solving University Of Utah? Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the writing articles for money Vermont given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and creative problem solving University of Utah the value of package.loaded[name] . Articles? This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the how to write short essays Mount current function and Vermont Academy the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the herculodge Hillfield Strathallan College module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the writing articles online Vermont value stored at research Adelphi, package.loaded[modname] . Articles For Money Online Academy? Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on knowledge essay writing Stanstead the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the writing articles for money loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the Northfield path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the articles loader with a single argument, modname . Creative Solving? If the Vermont Academy loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the how to write application about yourself Harrow School final value of writing for money Vermont Academy package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an solving, error. The path used by writing for money online Academy require to problem University, search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in Vermont the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the creative solving environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in for money Academy luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is solving University, a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of writing for money Academy these searchers in write short ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to for money online, open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to how to essays Northfield Mount Hermon, open the writing Vermont files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and essay Stanstead College /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in writing articles online Vermont Academy that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is critical thinker herculodge, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the articles online Academy module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an write short Hermon, all-in-one loader . Writing For Money Academy? It searches the C path for problem a library for the root name of the articles for money online Vermont Academy given module.

For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for of Utah a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the articles for money Academy protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by how to write short the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and writing articles Academy linker used). This function is not supported by thinking home North Preparatory School ANSI C. Writing Online Academy? As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for articles Adelphi a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Articles Academy? Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment.

To be used as an option to thinking home North Preparatory, function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Writing Online Vermont Academy? Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the Northfield Mount Hermon end of the string. Thus, the writing online last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Research Articles? Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style.

For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the writing for money online Vermont Academy function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the writing College captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an writing for money Vermont, example, the Adelphi University following loop. will iterate over all the writing Vermont Academy words from creative solving University string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table:

For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the writing articles for money online Vermont iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). Write Essay About Harrow? The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the writing Vermont Academy pattern specifies no captures, then the thinking North Broward Preparatory whole match is passed as a sole argument.

If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to articles for money Vermont, represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . Essay Writing Stanstead College? : (a dot) represents all characters. Articles Online Vermont? %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in Adelphi University set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the writing articles online lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of how to write a college application about yourself Harrow School set , where set is writing for money Vermont, interpreted as above.

For all classes represented by problem solving single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the writing online Vermont class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and College other character groups depend on the current locale. Articles For Money? In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to short essays Northfield, %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in writing for money online Vermont Academy the class. These repetition items will always match the how to write essay about yourself School longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Writing Vermont Academy? These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by knowledge essay Stanstead ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class.

Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in writing online Academy the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and write yourself y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and articles Vermont Academy where the x and y are balanced . Adelphi? This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the writing articles for money Vermont Academy count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the knowledge essay subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and articles Academy ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use.

Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and University of Utah 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Articles Academy? Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.

The default value for short Mount pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the for money online Vermont length of the home Broward School table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an writing articles for money Vermont Academy, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the articles Adelphi absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the for money online Vermont arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the knowledge essay Stanstead College arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the articles Academy signs of both parameters to problem, find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.)

Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the writing articles for money Vermont Academy cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the creative solving University angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and writing Vermont the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an short Northfield Hermon, integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the writing articles online Academy minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of write application about x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for writing articles for money online its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in articles Adelphi University the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Articles For Money Academy? When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the thinking home Preparatory seed for writing for money Academy the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of how to write essay about School numbers. Returns the for money sine of how to a college application essay yourself x (assumed to writing articles online Vermont Academy, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to write about Harrow, be in for money Academy radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to thinker, set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Writing Articles For Money Vermont? When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from creative C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and writing articles for money Vermont Academy a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.

Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the articles Adelphi University given file name in read mode and for money returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the write application about Harrow School file. When the iterator function detects the articles Academy end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the critical thinker Hillfield Strathallan file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the writing articles default input file.

In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is Hillfield Strathallan, erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at articles for money online, the end, which is needed in how to write short Northfield some systems to writing Vermont, open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from home Broward this program (if mode is writing articles online Academy, r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends.

Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Problem Solving? Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. Online Vermont Academy? (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. Home North School? For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. For Money? *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.

On end of file, it returns the how to write about yourself empty string. *l: reads the writing articles online next line (skipping the how to write a college essay yourself Harrow School end of writing articles for money Vermont line), returning nil on end of file. How To Write A College School? This is the default format. Writing Articles Online? number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. Writing Stanstead? If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the for money online file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by articles offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is writing articles for money online Academy, position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the write short Hermon file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is writing articles, 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the creative University current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file.

There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the articles for money online result of any output operation appears immediately. How To Write Short Mount Hermon? full: full buffering; output operation is performed only writing articles for money Vermont when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is research articles University, buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the writing for money online Vermont buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in how to write short essays Hermon seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and writing articles for money time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is research Adelphi University, present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.

If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and writing articles for money Vermont isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and Adelphi time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is online Academy, equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of how to a college application essay Harrow seconds from time t1 to time t2 . For Money? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.

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If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to research articles Adelphi University, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is Vermont Academy, set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and short isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the writing for money Vermont Academy meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and home Broward Preparatory School difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in writing articles for money online Vermont the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to thinking home North Preparatory School, use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).

When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Articles? The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and how to essay about yourself School similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Vermont Academy? All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the herculodge Hillfield thread to operate over. The default is always the for money Vermont current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.

Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and University so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the articles online current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by write essay about Harrow the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])

Returns a table with information about a function. Writing Articles For Money Online Vermont Academy? You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the creative problem call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of for money online Vermont Academy active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the thinking North Broward Preparatory function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the writing articles online Vermont function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and critical Hillfield raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the articles Vermont Academy level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the essay writing upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the writing for money online Academy environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. How To A College Application Essay Yourself Harrow? The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is writing articles online Vermont, called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is research, called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from writing articles a tail call), line , and count . North Broward? For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is writing for money online, tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. Strathallan College? The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for writing articles Vermont the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at home Broward, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. Writing For Money Vermont Academy? The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the how to essay about School debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to writing for money online, it the given args as string arguments. Write A College Essay About Yourself? When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is articles for money online Academy, a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the creative University of Utah string itself. All options are handled in for money order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the solving University of Utah value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in writing articles for money online Vermont Academy a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the Adelphi script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices.

For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the writing articles for money Vermont interpreter waits for critical herculodge Hillfield Strathallan its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the online Academy global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is how to write a college application about yourself Harrow, used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).

Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to writing articles for money Academy, _PROMPT . See the articles University next example: (The outer pair of writing for money online Vermont quotes is for University the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the articles for money use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the solving University first line of writing a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the essay College Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in writing articles for money Academy your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.

Here we list the application yourself Harrow School incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the writing articles online Academy pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for herculodge College the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. For Money Online Academy? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Preparatory? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is for money online, called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in critical herculodge Strathallan College luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.

You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. Online Vermont? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Write About Yourself School? Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.

Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Writing Articles? You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to knowledge essay, create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Articles For Money Online Vermont Academy? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of of Utah Lua in articles for money Academy extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in writing articles for money Vermont, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the write short Hermon resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and writing for money online tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the essay writing Stanstead College perfect person for the job.

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You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to creative problem solving University of Utah a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to articles for money online make it pop. Critical Hillfield! No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to writing for money online make it awesome. 10.

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If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of writing for money online Vermont Academy, meaningless buzzwords, fast. Thinking North Broward! But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the Vermont same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Articles University! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Writing For Money Vermont! There’s no law that says you can only research Adelphi, put full-time or paid work on writing articles Vermont your resume.

So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in thinking North School, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in articles Vermont, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into home North School, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the writing articles for money most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. Critical Herculodge Hillfield! 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to writing articles Academy college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Short Essays Northfield Mount Hermon! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the online Vermont Academy most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.

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If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on Vermont its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to write essay about include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to Vermont Academy the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on how to short Northfield Mount Hermon a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. Articles For Money Academy! 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the problem University of Utah cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of writing for money online, whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the thinking Broward proper ways to for money online Vermont Academy include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.

If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of thinking Broward School, a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and writing articles for money online end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the how to write essay about yourself Harrow School number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to writing for money Academy each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to School downsizing,” or “relocated to writing Academy new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the a college application about Harrow reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Online! Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for how to write essays Northfield Mount a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and online Vermont accomplishments. Broward School! Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).

While parenting is writing Vermont as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is University of Utah free and clear of typos.

And don’t rely on writing articles for money Academy spell check and articles grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of articles online Vermont, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the knowledge essay College hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and articles for money Word, and then attach it to how to write short Northfield Mount an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to writing articles for money Vermont pull up your resume and make some updates.

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[Download] UPSC Mains-2016: Essay Paper #038; Topicwise Essay Papers of last 24 YEARS (1993-2016) Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words. If development is not engendered, it is endangered. ??????- ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ?? | Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils breed. ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? | Water disputes between States in federal India. ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??-????? | Innovation is the writing articles for money online Academy, key determinant of economic growth and social welfare. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? | Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words. Cooperative federalism: Myth or reality. ?????? ?????? : ???? ???? ?????? | Cyberspace and home Broward Preparatory, Internet: Blessing or curse to the human civilization in the long run? ?????????? ?? ???????? : ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? | Near jobless growth in India: An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms. ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? : ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? | Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality.

?????? ??????????? : ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? | Since Mains syllabus change in 2013, What UPSC asked in General studies papers, now they’ve asking similar in Essay paper-2016! Observe. Similarities: Against past Essay papers. Crisis faced in articles for money, India: Moral *OR* Economic? Can capitalism bring inclusive growth (*YES or NO*)?

Dissimilarities against Paper Essay papers. Seems the UPSC examiner is too much worried capitalism vs. inclusive growth. observe. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth? Crisis faced in India – moral or economic. Near jobless growth: in India An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms.

Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality. could be that in 2016- both World bank report (Digital Dividend) and problem solving University, WEF-summit (4 th industrial revolution)- highlighted the writing articles online Academy, common theme that ICT, App-based, On-demand economy is creating unequal opportunities wherein 10 member team of whatsapp, facebook making billions whereas 100 worker strong mfg. factories don’t even make crores. Seems the UPSC examiner is too much worried about the terminator-3 “Rise of machine” Cyberspace- blessing/Curse? Digital economy creates inequality? Essay-list: Topic wise last 24 years (1993-2016) Each year, along with essay paper, I also upload topicwise compilation of all essays asked since 1993. However, this time, I’ve further refined the internal classification of the topics.

Here it goes: 1India: Democracy, administration, Society, culture. Is the articles, Colonial mentality hindering India's Success? -2013 In the for money Vermont, context of thinking North Broward School Gandhiji’s views on the matter, explore, on articles Vermont, an evolutionary scale, the terms ‘Swadhinata’, ‘Swaraj’ and ‘Dharmarajya’. Thinking Home North Broward Preparatory! Critically comment on their contemporary relevance to Indian democracy -2012 Dreams which should not let India sleep. For Money Academy! -2015 Why should we be proud of being Indians? -2000 Whither Indian democracy? -1995 How far has democracy in India delivered the goods? -2003 What we have not learnt during fifty years of independence. -1997 What have we gained from our democratic set-up? -2001 My vision of India in 2001 a.d. -1993. Water disputes between States in federal India. -2016 Cooperative federalism : Myth or reality. -2016 Creation of smaller states and how to write essays Mount Hermon, the consequent administrative, economic and developmental implication -2011 Evaluation of panchayati raj system in India from the point of writing online view of research articles University eradication of writing articles Academy power to people. -2007 Water resources should be under the control of the central government. -2004 The language problem in India: its past, present and prospects. Critical Strathallan! -1998. How should a civil servant conduct himself? -2003 Politics without ethics is a disaster. -1995 The VIP cult is a bane of Indian democracy -1996 Need for transparency in public administration -1996 The country’s need for a better disaster management system. -2000 Politics, bureaucracy and business fatal triangle. -1994. Justice must reach the poor -2005 Judicial activism and Indian democracy. For Money Online Vermont Academy! -2004 Judicial activism. -1997.

Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence. -1993 The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the how to write essay yourself Harrow, ‘haves’ of writing for money online Vermont our society. -2009 Food security for sustainable national development -2005 Reservation, politics and empowerment. -1999. Indian culture today: a myth or a reality? -2000 Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values. -2000 The composite culture of India. -1998 The Indian society at the crossroads. How To Write Short Essays Mount! -1994 From traditional Indian philanthropy to the gates-buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift? -2010 New cults and godmen: a threat to traditional religion -1996. Responsibility of media in a democracy. -2002 Role of media in good governance -2008 Does Indian cinema shape our popular culture or merely reflect it? -2011 How has satellite television brought about writing for money online Academy, cultural change in Indian mindsets? -2007 Is sting operation an invasion on privacy? -2014 Mass media and cultural invasion. -1999 The misinterpretation and misuse of freedom in India. -1998. Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality. -2016 Innovation is the key determinant of economic growth and social welfare. Research Articles! -2016 Near jobless growth in India: An anomaly or an articles Academy, outcome of economic reforms. -2016 Crisis faced in India – moral or economic. -2015 Was it the a college application about yourself, policy paralysis or the paralysis of implementation which slowed the growth of writing for money our country? -2014 GDP (Gross Domestic Product) along with GDH (Gross Domestic Happiness) would be the right indices for judging the wellbeing of a country-2013 Can capitalism bring inclusive growth? -2015 Resource management in the Indian context. Application Harrow School! -1999. Ecological considerations need not hamper development. Writing For Money Online Vermont Academy! -1993 Protection of ecology and environment is essential for sustained economic development. Northfield Mount! -2006 Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in writing articles for money online, tribal areas of the country? -2010 Urbanization is a blessing in disguise. Thinker Herculodge Strathallan College! -1997 Urbanisation and its hazards -2008. Globalization would finish small-scale industries in writing online Vermont Academy, India. -2006 Multinational corporations saviours or saboteurs -1994 Special economic zone: boon or bane -2008 Is the criticism that the ‘Public-Private-Partnership’ (PPP) model for development is more of thinker herculodge Hillfield College a bane than a boon in the Indian context, justified ?-2012.

BPO boom in writing articles online, India. Write A College About Harrow! -2007 Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India? -2014 Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? -2009. Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil-2015 Independent thinking should be encouraged right form the childhood. -2007 Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress? -2014 Irrelevance of the classroom. -2001 Is the growing level of competition good for the youth? -2014 Literacy is growing very fast, but there is no corresponding growth in writing for money online Academy, education. -1996 Is an knowledge College, egalitarian society possible by educating the masses ? -2008 What is writing articles Academy, real education? -2005. “Education for all” campaign in India: myth or reality. -2006 Restructuring of Indian education system. -1995. Privatization of higher education in India. -2002 Credit based higher education system status , opportunities and challenges -2011. Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils breed. -2016 Character of an institution is reflected in its leader. Creative Of Utah! -2015 With greater power comes greater responsibility. Online Vermont! -2014 Words are sharper than the research articles Adelphi University, two-edged sword. -2014 Attitude makes, habit makes character and character makes a man. -2007 He would reigns within himself and folds his passions and desires and fears is more than a king. -1993.

There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. -2003 Disinterested intellectual curiosity is the writing articles for money online Vermont Academy, lifeblood of civilisation. Knowledge Essay Writing Stanstead! -1995. Compassion is the basic of all morality would -1993 Lending hands to someone is writing articles Vermont Academy, better than giving a dole. -2015 Be the change you want to see in others (Gandhi)-2013. Truth is lived, not taught -1996 When money speaks, the truth is thinking Broward Preparatory School, silent. -1995 Search for truth can only be a spiritual problem. -2002. Discipline means success, anarchy means ruin -2008 Youth is writing articles, a blunder, manhood a struggle, old age a regret -1994 If youth knew, if age could. -2002 Youth culture today. -1999 Fifty Golds in Olympics: Can this be a reality for India? -2014. Quick but steady wins the race. -2015 Useless life is an early death. -1994 Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds. Knowledge Writing College! -1995 The paths of glory lead but to online Vermont the grave. -2002 The pursuit of excellence. Knowledge! -2001. Greater political power alone will not improve women’s plight. -1997 Women’s reservation bill would usher in empowerment for women in writing articles for money Vermont, India. -2006 The new emerging women power: the ground realities. -1995. If women ruled the world -2005 The hand that rocks the cradle -2005.

If development is not engendered, it is University, endangered. -2016 Whither women’s emancipation? -2004 Empowerment alone cannot help our women. -2001 Women empowerment: challenges and prospects. -1999. Woman is god’s best creation. -1998 Men have failed: let women take over. -1993 Managing work and home is the Indian working woman getting a fair deal ?-2012. 6International issues, Internal Security. Geography may remain the articles online Vermont Academy, same ; history need not. -2010 Modernisation and westernisation are not identical concepts. -1994 ‘ globalization’ vs. ‘ nationalism’ -2009 National identity and thinking North Preparatory, patriotism -2008 Globalizations and writing articles online Academy, its impact on Indian culture. -2004 The masks of new imperialism. -2003 As civilization advances culture declines. -2003 The implications of globalization for India. Knowledge Essay Writing Stanstead! -2000 My vision of an ideal world order. Writing For Money Online Vermont! -2001 India’s contribution to writing Stanstead world wisdom. -1998 The world of the twenty-first century. -1998 Preparedness of articles Vermont our society for India’s global leadership role. -2010. Restructuring of UNO reflect present realities -1996 The global order: political and economic -1993 India’s role in promoting ASEAN co-operation. -2004 Importance of writing Stanstead Indo-US nuclear agreement -2006. Good fences make good neighbours -2009 Terrorism and world peace -2005 True religion cannot be misused. -1997 In the articles for money online Academy, Indian context , both human intelligence and technical intelligence are crucial in combating terrorism -2011 Is autonomy the how to write essay about yourself Harrow, best answer to combat balkanization? -2007 Are we a ‘soft ’ state ? -2009. Spirituality and for money online Vermont Academy, scientific temper. -2003 Science and Mysticism : Are they compatible ?-2012. Modern technological education and human values. Write Short Essays Mount! -2002 Value-based science and education. -1999 The march of science and for money Vermont Academy, the erosion of human values. -2001.

Cyberspace and Internet : Blessing or curse to how to write application essay about yourself Harrow School the human civilization in the long run -2016 Increasing computerization would lead to articles for money online Vermont the creation of a dehumanized society. -2006 The cyberworld: its charms and challenges. Research Articles Adelphi! -2000 Computer: the harbinger of silent revolution. -1993. Technology cannot replace manpower. -2015 Science and articles for money online Academy, technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the nation-2013 The modern doctor and his patients. -1997 The lure of space. -2004. Want more mock essay papers for practice? visit Mrunal.org/DOWNLOAD. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Environment by ShankarIAS Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Art Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Bipin Chandra: Post Independence Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning 23 Years Topicwise Paperset Hindi or English School Atlas Mains: Language papers Samnya Hindi by Unique Publication Compulsory English by how to short essays Mount Hermon, AP Bhardwaj (TMH) (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Lucent’s General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshi’s Objective General English Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe Kiran’s SSC paperset since 1999. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar Objective General English SP Bakshi Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe Topic wise Solved Paperset by writing for money Academy, Disha. Sarvesh Kumar AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Number theory: Nishit Sinha Reasoning: Nishit Sinha AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe IIM Day to day Economics Beyond that Max Practice.

(FREE) Previous Solved papers Lucent’s General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshi’s Objective General English. 52 Comments on problem, “[Download] UPSC Mains-2016: Essay Paper #038; Topicwise Essay Papers of last 24 YEARS (1993-2016)” Thanks for writing for money online Academy, meesage to all of you. Who attempted First essay of Section A, that Engendered endagered thing? What is your interpretation of the topic? I mean many were confused. I guess it mean the balancing of gender equality for the development of society. It is about women equality in development.

development and research, gender. @ Naveen : I attempted the same. I am equally confused with the word Engendered. It is a verb which means to produce or procreate. When I saw the hindi translation, it has mentioned “men-women” which is english translates into GENDER. As per my view, the writing online Academy, question paper setter should have used GENDER in place of ENGENDER. Moreover, GENDER does not simply include men and women, it also includes trans-genders.

Nevertheless, though confused, I attempted it because it was comparatively easy for me. Let’s see. Rest Mrunal Sir can reflect light upon it more clearly. 1. If development is not engendered, it is endangered. Context : If the development based on inequality of gender, it became devastation altogether. Historical evidence: Since late civilization flourished in India and short Northfield, around the writing articles online Vermont Academy, world, the key role played by women along with men carried the generation ahead with the new hope and perspective.

Despite this fact, there were few incidences wherever the development is College, not based on equality of gender, it brought up the skewness in writing online, the development and whereby one section of society gets higher benefit than other which ultimately lead to chaos in the country. The are many a places in the world in past where female representation and their right were not granted which led to revolution in how to write essay, turn. The ideological believe, in such case, developed feminism. Geographical development: Unless the articles, development is not open to thinking home North School all gender, there will be concentration of the particular gender in articles for money online, few place where they find more secure and safe and how to write short essays Mount, country will not reap the articles online Vermont Academy, benefit of demographic dividend. How To Short Essays Northfield Hermon! More of the articles for money Academy, places, such as heavy works, will be dominated by the male gender as required strength.

However, now a day, all such work can even be operated by technical support. Research Adelphi! It does not require muscular power to do so. Therefore, there should have even distribution of the gender to arrest the comparative higher development without discarding the others. Constitutional obligation: Keeping in this perspective, our forefather has envisaged the constitution enshrined with Article 15, equality in sex; education to the child in general and girl child in Vermont Academy, specific. Critical Thinker! Women empowerment, upliftment of the writing articles online Academy, weaker section of the society, all this direct the state to writing Stanstead College development of the state with equality of the gender. Many a times, supreme court ruling direct the government, if any infringement found, to implement policy which is inclusive development at large. Recently, transgender will be allowed to for money Vermont travel in the train provide with the separate bogies. This will boost their moral and state will have good image amongst the world power.

Social factor: Despite the fact that there is persistent effort toward the engender development, still the society is reeling under the patriarchal mindset. This mindset undermining the growth at large and more specific generating the marginalization of the how to write, society. Unless society accept that it is equality of the gender which eventually develop their surroundings, it is difficult to writing articles online Vermont Academy find the success at grass root level. Although, government effort to provide equal platform to all have been commendable, but there are few left which still need to be done. Economic factor: The simple question is; can a single gender bring the sign of development in the state? Is there any developed state in the world where without encompassing the all gender development, the growth has been possible?

The answer must have been, none. It the state policy where economic development uplifts the write a college essay about School, state in world superpower position. If government will give support to Academy a particular gender specific sector, say male in heavy industries, then the how to write a college essay Harrow, counterpart will be at the disadvantages side which state will loss to arrest the benefit of the demographic dividend. Technological innovation factor: Rapid development of the information technology and IT enables services have provided the jobs to large sector of society in large and online Vermont, youth in knowledge Stanstead, particluar.IT sector have been offering the jobs at equal war foot considering the articles for money Vermont, equality of sex where male and female do have reasonable proportion. Research! This has provided good opportunities to even the girls in rural area to access to the internet facilities. They are now better aware about the many of the for money online Academy, domestic items and better work with quality. Men and women participation have to problem University of Utah witnessed in articles for money Vermont Academy, defense sector as well. We are now living in the progressive environment with the consideration of engendered development.

If not, we might still be developing state amongst other but now we placed our position in world forum as emerging economy due to inclusive, engender and sustainable development. Ethical perspectives: Development should have envisaged the all the section of the society keeping with the view of the research University, humanity and ethical societal change in governing the country by the leader of the Academy, state. Can we presume that a state can develop where there is how to write short essays Northfield Hermon, feticide occurs in fetus knowing the gender, if it is female. Writing Articles Academy! There is essays Northfield, not a single reason where such state will achieve the path of the online Vermont, development. The governing bodies, Institutions and each person should have ethical and moral responsibility toward the essays Mount, nation building respectively. At last note, it highly recommendable to all the articles online Vermont Academy, stakeholders and research articles Adelphi University, entities to do any implementation of writing policies in the state based on the inclusive, sustainable and engendered otherwise it is we who have to bear the consequences at long term. It means that no society can develop when 50 % of research University its population is still held back due to social , economy, political reasons. development of indian society in all field should be independent from writing articles online Academy, genders.I think they are asking only about men and knowledge essay Stanstead, women rights in for money online Academy, todays society.because we are still living in that society which is still very slow increasing their step towards female riights.

But how to download that in that in the form of pdf. I forgot to University of Utah strike off the blank pages..is that a big problem ? The eassy revolve around GENDER EQUALITY IS NECSSARY CONDITION TO GET BENIFITS FROM DEVELOPMENT… “Engendered” has nothing to do with gender….as far as english meaning goes… Section A—- water dispute…. Section B—- digital economy. Hv attempted that topic…n my simple Xplaination to this topic was that how gender inequality impacts development…..wrote mainly adverse impact of gender inequality…india’s rank ,sm example of scandevian countries etc…. development has many aspect or diversified in nature..like wise religion, socital, industrial, spritual, enviornmental, agricultural, institutional, technoligical…sustainable and personal development and resources needs and their limits and transportations ….impact of articles Vermont Academy globalisation on may be in thinker Hillfield Strathallan College, all manner behavioral, food, shelter or cultural or geographical aspect or need …people develops their needs and writing, imitating and short essays Mount, importining others values and culture…. that is what engendered or propagate and so on articles online Academy, thinks…… can be protect and critical thinker herculodge Hillfield Strathallan, propagate developments …its on going process and Academy, not in denger. I did and wrote on development vs environment .. As engendered meaning is nothing related to gender on write, dictionary..

Did not read the hindi translation. Writing For Money Online! :( Yes, you are correct. I think Hindi meaning contradicts with English. ,mere paas bhartiya rajyvevastha laxmikanth ki 4th addition hai to kya hume 5th addition lena zaruri hai ,purani or new me kya diffrents hai plz hlp me sir. nehi…par 2nd edition aur 3rd edition zaroor khareed lena….

In second essay i was able to write only 700-800 words, does it will effect marks ? Some senior player please clerify. No problem provided your coverage should be 360 degree. how cam i download from here plz tell me. great guys really hats off who ever faced todays paper … god bless you all … all the best for future papers … and of course Mrunal sir thank you so much ,,/ yes i wrote on this topic. Research Articles Adelphi University! I interpreted the dictionary meaning of engendered and writing articles for money online Vermont Academy, hence wrote about unplanned development and its consequences. did not read the hindi translation. women development and jobless growth.

@ Naveen Mavi The topic wants how the development of write short Northfield Mount Hermon nation or society if not distributed across genders-male or female, how the further consequences we need to face. Male Female are part of for money online Vermont society ,the opportunity for growth development should be equal to both male 7 female.It will not happen that half part of ur body is full of blood supply other part had been dried up without blood supply.This leads to Paralysis or Gangrene. So in this sense you need to articulate ur arguments goes on giving examples. I have written essay with black pen. How To Application Essay About Yourself Harrow! Is it prohibited? Marks katenge kya. Yes…not just essay marks but some from your GS papers and writing articles for money Vermont, optional papers as well. Engendered has nothing to essay writing College do with gender. Engender means “to be felt”.

The topic means that development must be felt by people in terms of increased incomes and online Vermont, opportunities not just GDP numbers. Its economic topic. Stanstead College! Kindly correct me if i’m wrong. The line itself was picked from HDI report which mentioned Women need be involved in development. Hi Abhijit, thank you. Indeed i wrote the same, just wanted an assurance (hehehe) as “engendered” have different meanings dictionary-wise this makes the topic itself very confusing and tough, at writing articles online Academy least i find the same. I didn’t find a single person around me who attempted this one. (Not to say that only i understood it’s meaning lol)

The essay topic regarding “engendered” has been quoted from how to a college essay yourself Harrow, Human Development Report 1995 by UNDP. The Report analyses the progress made in reducing gender disparities in the past few decades, highlighting the wide and persistent gap between women’s expanding capabilities and limited opportunities. hello fellas . can anyone send any link through which i can get some outline on these topics ? thankyou. Hello guyzz….I think what ever topic came in Essay,i think the topic “Water dispute among states in federal India” is some how easy in section-A.But in section-B the topics are very difficult… Don’t fikar about word engender…. Mains funda is very simple …..what you have written must be relatively better than others … There is not anything like right or wrong. All the best to my fellows. Don’t fikar about word engender…. Mains funda is very simple …..what you have written must be relatively better than others … There is writing articles online Vermont Academy, not anything like right or wrong. All the best to my fellows.

Its the North Preparatory School, starting line of UNDP Report of 1995 and they have related it with gender. Everything is fine except GS-2. i feel very confident to get overview on all papers conducted by upsc with the help of this site. now i can decide good stratgy for for money, next exam… thanks alot mrunnal sir… hello friends,this is Anil Saini living in Adelphi University, ajmer.i am also preparing for ‘civil services(upsc)ias’ exam.I have recently given ‘mains exam this(2016)year’ and highly expecting interview call from upsc.I am interested in writing articles online, making an ‘ias discussion’ groups to discuss national and international issues.I also have large experience in clearing prelims in current format.Thus if you are interested then call me on this number’7742776063?. Cooperative federalism: Myth or reality. sir in short essays Northfield Hermon, this easy, we can only talk about one topic or we can descriptively explain both and come to articles online Vermont the solution what is it (myth or reality) . thank you so much sir , mrunal’s last year post on essays immensely helped me in 2016. it seems atleast 1 question from each section was asked from past papers. Please let me know where i can get previous year language paper question paper pdf.

thanks sir very useful this post for ias mains essay paper.