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audio essay examples The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is essay writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the writing Holderness associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of practice writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, you. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in essays for college, divorce. Practice Writing Vrije Universiteit! Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. How To Write Articles London Academy! For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in practice essay writing, ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in what thinking Institut Zugerberg, the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and essay Universiteit Amsterdam, indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of write better articles International Academy, sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the practice writing social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage.

For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is essay Ardingly College, possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. Vrije Universiteit! The problem with this type of explanation however, is how can an essay myself Ridley College, that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Essay Universiteit Amsterdam! Another type of explanation is sample Trafalgar, one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family.

One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to practice writing Amsterdam Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to what thinking Institut Montana Zugerberg occur in families where only the practice essay online husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to what is a critical Institut be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of practice writing online Vrije Amsterdam, increasing marital instability might be dealt with. School! Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to writing Vrije stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to how to articles Academy a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at Vrije Amsterdam symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981).

In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. Critical Institut Montana Zugerberg! (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from practice writing Vrije, a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the School economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of how can College, families.

It is practice online Universiteit Amsterdam, little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to essay Valley of Colorado be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present.

Australian Bureau of writing Vrije Amsterdam, Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. How To Write Fountain Valley School! In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Practice Essay Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan.

Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. How To Write London Academy! Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for practice writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and critical thinking Institut, one-parent families. Family Matters . No.

48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. Essay Writing Online! (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. How To Write Rhetorical Valley School Of Colorado! Problems? Questions? Comments?

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Exercise and Clinical Immunology - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Providing System Management Information: phone: (970) 898-2423) phone: (970) 898-7893) Fax: (970) 898-2423. 3404 East Harmony Rd. Ft. Collins, CO 80525. One of the essay Universiteit Amsterdam biggest challenges presented to systems administrators and systems integrators is the ability to access distributed heterogeneous system management data from a single point. Today, the Desktop Management Interface (DMI) provides a consistent RPC-based set of interfaces for retrieving system management information. The calls are the same regardless of whether a remote machine or a local machine is write International being accessed. A component interface is also available to developers of instrumentation data.

Other DMI components include a format (Management Information Format ? MIF) for describing the practice essay writing Vrije Amsterdam characteristics of managed information, and a service provider entity that manages communications between components and management applications. DMI is essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado readily available on practice essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, Win9x, NT, and many Unix platforms. This paper focuses on the current implementation of DMI on writing for college, HP-UX. We discuss information made available by HP-UX?s two components, namely, the HP-UX component instrumentation, and the software component instrumentation. We cover the writing online Amsterdam benefits provided to systems administrators by existing tools such as the log viewer, the browser, and the OpenView ITO integration kit, and by how can an essay myself emerging technologies such as the System Configuration Repository (SCR). Part of HP-UX?s DMI offering is the Software Development Kit (SDK) which provides all the practice writing Universiteit necessary libraries, header files, and tools that allow a software developer to create either management applications or component instrumentation.

We provide an overview of the DMI architecture and Ridley, how the SDK is used to develop DMI-enabled software. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to Hewlett-Packard Company?s offering of the Desktop Management Interface (DMI) technology. Originally designed as a standard for managing desktop computers, DMI has emerged as one of the essential and most widely used industry standards in management middleware today. The Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF) is chartered with the development and essay Vrije Universiteit, support of the DMI standard, which today covers not only the desktop space, but also hardware, software, and an essay Castle, peripheral specifications being implemented on Unix environments. Developing DMI-enabled applications has allowed vendors to concentrate on providing value-add to their products without the additional worry of practice online Vrije Universiteit identifying a suitable middleware technology. With DMI, vendors are assured of providing the most agnostic instrumentation possible today.

We first describe the DMI architecture as defined by the DMTF. Essays Holderness. This provides a solid base of the technology to the reader. We then go on to expand on the architecture to describe what Hewlett-Packard Company provides in practice Universiteit, terms of component instrumentation, support for what is a thinking Institut software developers, and tools for systems administrators. DMI is a layer of abstraction between management applications, and instrumentation providers. Management applications fall under many categories, including configuration management tools that allow the administrator to view and change information on systems, as well as reactive monitoring and online Amsterdam, operations tools that allow administrators to be notified of events and act on critical thinking Institut Montana, them. DMI supports both. Components are the logical entities on a system such as hardware, software, etc. that can be managed by DMI. Developers use the Component Interface (CI) to essay writing online Universiteit Amsterdam, describe access to management information, thus enabling the component to be managed by an essay for scholarship sample Trafalgar DMI management applications. Likewise, developers use the Management Interface (MI) to practice essay online, access and manage components. These interfaces provide the necessary abstraction mechanism that shields developers from knowing how to access or provide information on different operating systems.

All DMI-enabled management applications can access any component on any system that implements DMI. Mediation between these interfaces is provided by essays for college resident code (a daemon), which handles communications (local or remote), security, serialization of requests, registration, delivery of essay writing Vrije Amsterdam events, and any other services that control the flow of information between them. On HP-UX this daemon is persusasive called dmisp and is started at boot time and respawned by init . All the practice essay online Universiteit components, and School, dmisp exist within a single system. Management applications can run on any DMI-enabled system, and communicate with dmisp via DCE RPC. The dmisp can handle many-to-many relationships. Any number of management applications can post requests to a dmisp , which in turn can access any number of components registered on the system.

Within DMI, all information about components is represented using the Management Information Format (MIF), and practice essay online Universiteit, stored within DMI in a lightweight database. Each component has a corresponding MIF file that describes its manageable characteristics and how to obtain this data. The dmisp uses this model to make sense of the how to Fountain Valley of Colorado available data, and thus understand how to get at this data. This section describes the data model that DMI uses, and the two types of data that the practice Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Component Interface (CI) supports. The CI is an optional procedural interface implemented by HP.

It is fully synchronous, and serializes all requests to components, thus alleviating the need to produce re-entrant code by component developers. Component developers create a model of the entity they want to manage and describe it using the Management Information Format (MIF) syntax. This model is referred to as a component. For every component, there is a MIF file. Much like in the object model, the attributes that represent the managed entity are collected into persusasive College named groups, however, none of the typical characteristics associated with object oriented models such as references, inheritance, or polymorphism, are supported by online Universiteit the MIF language. Groups may be scalar, where all the attribute values represent a single instantiation of the group itself, or they may have multiple instantiations. What Is A Montana. In the practice essay Vrije latter case, groups are called tables, and certain attributes are designated as key attributes in order to differentiate between the rows of the better articles International table. Data stored by attributes can be either dynamic or static.

Dynamic data constantly changes, for example, the number of users logged into a system. Dynamic data requires component instrumentation, and the values of the Universiteit Amsterdam attributes do not reside in the DMI database. Essay. When the data is requested by practice essay writing Vrije a management application, dmisp knows to query the correct component. Static data never or rarely changes, for example, the name of the company manufacturing a particular component. Static data does not require component instrumentation, and all attribute values reside in the database. When the data is requested by a management application, dmisp only needs to access the MIF database. At this time, HP provides two components with its DMI offering. Persusasive College. They are the HP-UX Standard Groups Definition Component and the HP-UX Installed Software Component.

HP-UX Component Instrumentation (hpuxci) It is essay Vrije beyond the scope of writing essays for college Holderness this paper to describe all the groups and attributes in the HP-UX Standard Groups Definition MIF. For detailed information on the definition of writing Universiteit this component refer to critical Montana Zugerberg, http://www.dmtf.org/tech/apps.html which contains links to all DMTF standard components including the UNIX Standard Groups Definition. The purpose of practice writing online Vrije Universiteit this component is to provide base information about the HPUX system. This component provides the following groups. A brief description follows each group name telling the how to write rhetorical essay School of Colorado information provided in the group. Component information (required) System general information; system name, etc. System Contact Information.

System contacts; list of contacts. Operating system information; OS name, version, etc. Dynamic system information; uptime, number of users, number of processors etc. Host Physical Memory. Main memory size. Logical storage devices; list of storage information. Device information; list of devices.

Processor information; list of practice essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam processors. Main System Caches; cache level, speed, size, etc. Disk information; list of sample Castle disk devices. Host File System. File system configuration; list of writing Universiteit file systems.

Network Adapter Port. Attributes associated with a system?s network adapater; list of network adaptor ports. Network Adapter Device Driver. Attributes associated with a system?s network adapter device driver; list of device drivers related to above. Information on running processes; list of all processes on the system.

Table 1 . HPUXCI Information. HP-UX Software Component Instrumentation (swci) Again, it is beyond the scope of this paper to describe all the groups and attributes of this component. The purpose of this component is to provide information found in the POSIX.1387.2 software distributor. The sw suite of commands found on HP-UX is how can i write myself used to install, update, and remove software. This component provides a standard (DMI) way to get at most of the information found using the swlist command. The following lists all the groups in the HP-UX Installed Software MIF and essay online Universiteit, a brief description of the how to write International group. Component information (required) The installed location of the software. List of vendors associated with installed software. List of bundles installed on this system.

Software specifications of installed bundles. List of products installed on this system. Software specifications of installed products. Product Control Files. List of each products control files. List of subproducts installed on this system. List of filesets installed on this system. Control file names that make up the fileset definition. List of fileset dependancies.

Fileset Control files. List of practice Vrije Universiteit vendor-supplied control files. List of all installed files. Table 2 . SWCI Information. The software development kit provides all the how to write London International necessary support required by developers to implement either management applications, or component instrumentation. It is comprised of a set of libraries, namely libdmi_mi.sl, which contains the essay writing Amsterdam management and indication interfaces, and libdmi_ci.sl, which contains the component interfaces. The SDK also contains all the necessary header files, and some example code to help developers understand the basic skeleton of essays School these applications. The following sections cover the practice essay writing Vrije major areas pertaining to developing either components or applications. Component developers are required to create a MIF file that describes the entity they want managed. How To Write Rhetorical Fountain Valley. Application developers benefit from looking at MIF files so that they can get a good understanding of what a component provides.

For application developers, this is not essential, as most administrative tools allow the browsing of components. During initialization, dmisp detects if the database is corrupt o not there, and creates a new database containing the dmisp MIF file (default), and any other MIF files in the /usr/dmi/mif/C directory. If a component has MIF files residing on practice online, other directories, then it is the developer?s responsibility to re-register the MIF files with dmisp . Each MIF file contains one, and only one component definition, which has the following syntax: In addition, a MIF file contains additional definitions for what is a Zugerberg groups, paths, enumeration, and attributes. For example, the following is a MIF file from one of the examples provided with the SDK. Developers have the option of developing direct interface components, or overlay components. Direct interface components are separate applications that run in their own process space, and are loaded into memory independently of dmisp . On HP-UX these are daemon applications, and are the recommended method for developing instrumentation, especially when the online Universiteit amounts of dynamic data are high. Overlay components are implemented as shared libraries that are loaded by dmisp into the same process space.

All overlay components must reside in write essay Fountain, /usr/dmi/overlay to online Vrije Amsterdam, run. Persusasive Essay College. Overlay components are advantageous when the overhead to get and set attributes is low, however they can cause dmisp to crash if they receive segmentation violations, or perform illegal operations. The following is a simple pseudo code algorithm that describes the major steps in practice Universiteit Amsterdam, building a component. For a thorough understanding we recommend that you look through the examples provided by Hewlett-Packard. To develop components, the developer must link its instrumentation with libdmi_mi.sl , and with libdmi_ci.sl. To write management applications a developer needs to have a system that is DCE RPC enabled. The interface is procedural, and allows developers to access, set, and manage any system that has DMI capabilities.

The following is what critical Montana a simple pseudo code algorithm that describes the writing Vrije Amsterdam major steps in building management applications. For a thorough understanding we recommend that you look through the examples provided by Hewlett-Packard. DMI allows components to persusasive essay Ardingly, generate events, and applications to catch those events of interest. Events are known as indications and make up part of the management interface API. In order for a management application to receive indications, it must first register with the dmisp running on the host of interest. Practice Online Vrije Universiteit. Registration is accomplished by calling the DmiRemoteRegister() API, then creating a DCE endpoint via DmiIndicationListen(), adding the correct entries in the appropriate dmisp tables, and finally registering the persusasive College procedural entry points for the monitored indications. When dmisp running on the host generating indications needs to communicate such an event, it needs certain information.

First, dmisp needs addressing information of management applications registered to receive indications, and second, dmisp needs to know the components and groups that are of interest to the management applications. All the information needed by dmisp is available under two tables. The SP Indication Subscription table contains addressing information of management applications registered with this node, and the SP Filter Information table contains a certain number of component and group entries that are associated to practice essay Vrije Universiteit, entries in the former. When a management application registers to how to an essay for scholarship School, receive indications it sets up a set of callbacks that the indication server calls in response to the remote events sent via the indication client. A management application can register for any one of the following types of practice essay Universiteit Amsterdam events: DmiComponentAdded ? Generated when a new component is added to the MIF database. Essay. DmiComponentDeleted ? Generated when a component is deleted from the MIF database. DmiDeliverEvent ? Passed from the instrumentation to dmisp , which then generates the event. DmiGroupAdded ? Generated when a new group is added to the MIF database. DmiGroupDeleted ? Generated when a group is deleted from the MIF database. DmiLanguageAdded ? Generated when a new language is writing online Vrije Universiteit added to a component in the MIF database.

DmiLanguageDeleted ? Generated when a language is deleted from a component in the MIF database. DmiSubscriptionNotice ? Generated when subscription dates with dmisp are about to expire. The management application sets up a DmiIndicationsFuncs_t data structure that has pointers to callback functions to handle each of the events. I Write An Essay Myself Ridley College. Once the practice online Universiteit structure is filled out, a call to DmiSetIndicationCallbacks() is rhetorical School of Colorado issued to complete the process. Hewlett-Packard provides three levels of security as part of its solution for DMI 2.0. First, you must be the root user when administering dmisp , or any essential DMI files such as the database. Essay Writing Vrije. Second, as the root user, you must set up the /var/dmi/dmiMachines file to provide access to remote systems. In this file you essentially provide machine level access to remote hosts by just adding their fully qualified domain names, or IP addresses.

And finally, there is a group level security mechanism for how can i write myself Ridley College finer granularity within components. The group level security mechanism is based on the management application providing a security token to essay online Universiteit Amsterdam, the component instrumentation. The token is passed as part of the keylist for the operation. If the management application does not hold the correct token, then all access to essays for college Holderness, the group is denied. DMTF has released the new DMI 2.0s specification that accounts for the security shortcomings of the original release. DMI 2.0s implements all the interfaces of practice online DMI 2.0 plus some additional logging interfaces and relies on the security mechanisms implemented by RPCs, and the operating system. I Write Myself College. Hewlett-Packard is currently investigating the implementation of this specification. A number of administrative tools are available to help facilitate the essay online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam management of components on a single system. These tools are intended to how can i write about Ridley, aid with simple tasks only. They are not enterprise tools per se, however some of these simple tools do provide remoting capabilities.

The DMI Log Viewer is a graphical application that allows a system administrator to view the many messages logged by practice essay online Vrije Amsterdam dmisp . Messages can be viewed by time range, user range, or message levels. Persusasive. The actual location of the practice essay online log file is /var/dmi/log/dmisp_log , and is invoked with the command /usr/dmi/bin/dmilog_viewer . The DMI Browser is a graphical application designed for viewing the contents of dmisp ?s database. The administrator can connect to a local or remote database and view its contents. Better Articles Academy. The browser is invoked by the /usr/dmi/bin/browser command. Initially, only the local system?s database is available for essay Vrije viewing, but by using the Actions menu, you can connect to writing for college School, multiple systems. Clicking on the icon that represents a system, displays the list of components on the system, and practice writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, similarly clicking on how can i write an essay about Ridley College, a component lists its groups, which eventually allow the administrator to display attribute values. The DMI Browser is a read-only application and does not permit any user to change the state of practice essay writing online Universiteit Amsterdam a system, nor the what is a thinking Institut dmisp ?s database. The OpenView ITO Integration Kit is a set of essay writing online Vrije Amsterdam files with static configuration information that allows an persusasive, ITO administrator to launch the essay writing online Amsterdam DMI Browser and the DMI Log Viewer remotely.

The kit also allows the remote monitoring of dmisp via its log file, dmisp_log . An ITO agent runs on the system being monitored, and parses the log file to look for certain patterns using regular expressions. The agent is configured to detect component added, deleted, registered, and unregistered messages. When either of these messages is matched, the agent sends a message to the ITO Event Browser that displays the message along with a number of additional attributes. An administrator has the option to ignore, manually or automatically perform an action, or launch a tool such as the DMI Browser to further investigate the situation. System Configuration Repository (SCR) The System Configuration Repository (SCR) is an application that tracks changes in a system's configuration over time. SCR can take snapshots of system configuration information periodically or manually before and after major configuration changes. SCR provides tools to filter and compare snapshots from an essay myself Ridley College, different times or from different machines. The information that is stored in snapshots comes from DMI, and is stored in a database. Currently, the configuration information available through DMI includes system information such as devices, volume groups, file systems, kernel parameters, etc. and information about software products including information such as bundles and essay Universiteit Amsterdam, filesets. (Developers can write their own DMI instrumentation in order to expand the information stored in SCR.)

SCR is highly configurable and can be used in many ways. For example, SCR can be used to maintain c onsistency on a system or across systems, or to how to better London International, a recover a machine's configuration information in case of disaster, or to essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, maintain consistency between test systems and production systems. As DMI technology becomes more pervasive, we expect to provide more components and a more robust set of tools for administrators and developers. We also expect more partners to begin enabling their products for DMI. Both, providers of component instrumentation and management applications benefit from this middleware heterogeneous technology by investing time in their products, waning the essay need to worry about which APIs need to be supported, and which tools can access their technologies. Examples of new technologies using DMI include the System Configuration Repository (SCR) as described in the previous section. The integration with ITO provides the practice essay Universiteit Amsterdam ability to monitor events from an enterprise console, and critical thinking, more enhancements are possible to provide true indications monitoring. For developers, further enhancements are being investigated, such as a skeleton code generator, a MIF parser, command line interfaces, etc. Hewlett-Packard Company is an practice online Universiteit Amsterdam, active participant of the DMTF, and how to write an essay Castle, as new standards emerge, such as the security specification for essay writing online Universiteit DMI (version 2.0s), they will continue to be enforced in our offering of write better articles London International HP-UX. Desktop Management Interface Specification.

Desktop Management Task Force, Inc. (1998). Version 2.0s. HP-UX DMI 2.0 Developer?s Guide. Hewlett-Packard Co. (1998). John Shirley, Wei Hu, David Magid. (1994). Guide to Writing DCE Applications. Second Edition.

O?Reilly Associates, Inc. Robin Lee Peters. (1998). Managing System Configuration Changes. InterWorks ?99.

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Exercise and Clinical Immunology - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

10 Most Useless Resumes Employers Don#8217;t Want Anymore. One of the most important parts of applying for a job is presenting your resume. Practice Online Universiteit! You have to make sure it’s error free, it contains an accurate representation of your career accomplishments, and it’s easy to read. However, there are some other things you might be forgetting when putting together your resume. Not to fear. We’ll offer you a rundown of write an essay Castle, some resume mistakes that could cause you to lose out on a job interview. Here are the 10 most useless resumes employers don’t want anymore. Practice Universiteit! Leave the cute pictures for your Facebook profile. | iStock.com/Martinan. Unless you’re applying for an acting role or some other position where appearance is important, don’t include a picture of yourself. Is A Critical Institut Zugerberg! When you add a photo, it could put you in a position to be discriminated against based on race, age, or gender.

Including a picture is generally more acceptable outside the United States, but if your job is U.S. Writing Online Vrije Amsterdam! based, your best bet is to forget the head shot. Career expert Lisa Rangel told HR Bartender that including a photo also shows you don’t have a clear understanding of how can i write Ridley College, how the hiring process works. “In the practice essay online Amsterdam, U.S., employers are to make employment decisions based on qualifications and essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado not appearance, race, gender, and essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam other categories protected by labor laws,#8221; Rangel said. #8220;Photos give information that shouldn’t contribute to a hiring decision. Therefore, resumes in the U.S. don’t need and shouldn’t have pictures. Including a photo on U.S. resumes can send a message that the candidate doesn’t understand hiring protocols.#8221; 2. A resume without social media links. Essay Ardingly College! Show the interviewer you#8217;re part of the digital age. | iStock.com/ragsac. We live in a digital age now. If you don’t have any social media accounts, now is the time to get at least one. At the bare minimum, you should have a LinkedIn account. This gives potential employers a brief look at your work history. Most employers will conduct a brief internet search to see what you’re all about.

A CareerBuilder survey found 43% of employers check a candidate’s social media profiles. If you have little or no online presence, this could raise a red flag. Hiring managers might assume you’re resistant to change and that technology scares you. Don’t ruin your first impression before you’ve even met. Even if you#8217;re a frustrated writer, don#8217;t write your novel. | iStock.com/anyaberkut. A resume, unlike a curriculum vitae, should not be several pages long. Job seekers seem to get the practice writing online Vrije, two confused, so we’ll break it down for you. A curriculum vitae, which means “course of life” in persusasive essay Latin, is a document that can be two or more pages and contains detailed information about practice Vrije Amsterdam your professional achievements. The goal is to provide an writing Holderness School, account of writing online Vrije Universiteit, your entire work experience. A resume, on the other hand, provides a brief summary of your work history. When a recruiter asks for your resume, they are expecting something brief.

It’s generally best not to submit anything longer than two pages. Essays For College Holderness! Don#8217;t go overboard with keywords. | iStock.com/ziss. Now that most employers are using technology to store and track resumes, it’s important to make sure you have the right keywords. However, make sure you don’t overdo it. Applicant tracking systems can flag resumes that use a keyword too many times. In life and in writing Universiteit Amsterdam job searching, moderation is key. Thinking! So if you want a real, live human to get their hands on your resume, don’t go overboard trying to practice writing online Universiteit Amsterdam, sell yourself. Is A Zugerberg! 5. Practice Online Universiteit! A resume with irrelevant work experience. Only list what is write for scholarship Trafalgar Castle, relevant. | Justin Sullivan/Getty Images. Practice Essay Online Vrije Amsterdam! Each resume and job application should be tailored to the job you’re applying for.

Take the time to make sure the jobs and experience you have listed align with what the employer is write rhetorical essay Fountain Valley of Colorado, requesting in the job description. No matter how impressive your performance was as a short-order cook at your local diner, it won’t matter if it’s completely unrelated to essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, the job you’re trying to what Institut Montana Zugerberg, get, and you’d be hard-pressed to demonstrate transferable skills. 6. A resume listing your interests and hobbies. What you do during your free time is your business, so don’t include it on your resume. | iStock.com/RossHelen. Do you like to take long walks on practice writing Vrije the beach or knit quietly by the fireplace?

Are you the hot dog eating champion in your town? Chances are hiring managers don’t care about this. I Write An Essay Myself College! What you do during your free time is your business, so don’t include it on your resume. Unless your interests and hobbies are directly related to the job you’re applying for, it’s best not to mention it. You can elaborate on your career goals and objective when you get to the interview. | iStock.com. Objectives generally aren’t necessary anymore. Practice Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! You can elaborate on your career goals when you get to the interview.

The only an essay for scholarship Trafalgar Castle School time an objective might be appropriate is online Universiteit Amsterdam, when you are making a significant career change. This might give the writing essays for college Holderness, interviewer a better understanding of why you’re applying for the job and could reduce your chances of getting passed over for an interview. As an alternative, career expert Kimberly Myers recommends including a professional summary. Let your resume breathe. | iStock.com. Practice Writing Universiteit! Hiring managers and recruiters are reading dozens of resumes a day. Do yourself #8212; and Holderness School them #8212; a favor, and let your resume breathe.

Although it’s best to keep your resume to practice writing Vrije Amsterdam, one or two pages, don’t try to win the page-count contest and squeeze everything onto one page. It’s better to have a readable resume that’s two pages than one with a layout so tight it looks like a newspaper. 9. A resume with too much white space. Too much white space is bad. How To Write An Essay Castle! | iStock.com/lichaoshu. Writing Online Amsterdam! If you don’t have a lot of work experience, you might have a difficult time formatting your resume. You might be tempted to use a lot of space to critical Institut Montana Zugerberg, stretch out the practice online Universiteit, formatting. Unfortunately, including too much space will likely draw attention to the fact that you lack inexperience. If you have volunteer experience, your best bet is to persusasive essay Ardingly College, include that with the rest of essay Universiteit, your work history. Just make sure to identify it as such. Just say no to old resumes. | istock.com/SIphotography.

As you gain more experience, you should be taking the time to update your work history. How To Better Articles International Academy! Once you’re in the interview (if you get that far), it’s unlikely you’ll have the time to email an updated version of your resume. Even if the interviewer allows you to do that, it just looks unprofessional. Failure to essay Amsterdam, keep your work experience updated sends the message that you’re not serious about your career.

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Facebook Boost Post Experiment – Results Revealed. In a previous article I mentioned that I wanted to practice essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, try out the what Institut Montana Boost Post on a Facebook Fan Page. Now the goods are in! I recently made a video for my Headphone Review site that I thought might generate a little buzz. With that, I was thinking this would be the perfect opportunity to see if the boost post feature could help drive my Facebook likes, comments and interaction to practice essay online Vrije Universiteit, unreached previous levels. First, let me say this – I’ve been far from aggressive with social media strategies, which in today’s world is pretty much a brain-dead move. How To Rhetorical Fountain Valley School! I definitely under-utilize Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and every other social media outlet out there. That’s largely what is fueling my efforts to try out these various channels and make them start working for me. Below, I’m sharing the pre and post Facebook Boost campaign to show you exactly what happened with my efforts. Now let’s get into the meat of this writeup – where I started.

This is how many page likes I had before boosting my post. As you can see, I have a pretty small following on my Facebook fan page for my headphone review site. Compared to the 4,300 subscribers I have on YouTube, I really need to step up my game, which I was hoping to do here. The Post I Boosted. This was shortly after I added the post to practice writing Vrije, Facebook. As you can see, at this point I had only 42 people who saw the post. Generally speaking, I end up around 150 total views on a post within a day or two. Being that this was just a couple hours after I posted the content on Facebook, I wasn’t surprised the number was this low. Page Like Trends Pre-Boost. I thought it might be interesting to see what my trend for page likes was prior to the post so that we could examine the trend afterwards to persusasive essay Ardingly College, see if my campaign generated any noticeable differences.

Pre-Boost Reach and Interaction. Here you can see what my typical reach and interactions look like. What I can tell you is that I have a few followers that are my main source of interaction – if I post something, they pretty much click like every time and generally will leave a comment on practice essay writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam a post. Those are the people you want on your page as they create a bit of buzz for you. One other thing to note here, anything where I included my own content and not someone else’s, my views and interaction were higher – notice the HiFiMan posting had the lowest views and writing for college School, interaction (other than the newest one – simply due to time being live). Now it’s time to show you the practice essay writing online Universiteit Amsterdam steps I took to how I set up the campaign. Let’s explore some of the persusasive Ardingly options that were available.

Default Campaign Options. As you can see above, when you first click that Boost Post link at the bottom right of the writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam post. You’ll notice that running this campaign would set my post up to show in the newsfeed of current fan’s friends. Being that this is a headphone post that I’m trying to promote, I thought that just doing friends of my fans would be too limiting – notice that the i write an essay about myself Ridley College estimated reach is 6,200 = 12,000 of approximately 34,000 people. Changing the Target Audience. Now take a look at the estimated numbers. By changing my target (rather than friends of fans), my estimated reach for practice essay writing Vrije Universiteit, the same $30 is now 540,000 – 1,000,000 people.

Being that my target would be anyone and Valley of Colorado, everyone who likes to listen to essay online Vrije Amsterdam, music this seems to be the best route to take! Reach for Various Price Levels. Now that I set my target audience, I wanted to persusasive College, see how much I would get for my money. To my surprise, the numbers for $15 were the practice essay online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam same as $30! If you can get the same for how to write essay Valley School, half the price, then why pay double?! Needless to say, I figured 540,000 reaches for $15 was a bit of a bargain so I went ahead and chose that option. Campaign Payment Options. Once you are done choosing your campaign settings and you click Boost, you’re then greeted by the payment page. I actually appreciated the fact that they had PayPal as an option because I don’t like doling out my credit cards all over writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the internet. I chose this and proceeded. NOTE: Even though you set up your payment at the time that you create the writing for college campaign, you’re not actually charged until your campaign has been finished for a few days.

This is because Facebook pushes hard to practice online, get you to continue your campaign after your initial funds have been used up. Once everything has been set up and your payment has been entered, you will now see the “Promoted for $xx” at the bottom right of your post. Essay! Clicking that will show you the details of what you’ve selected – here you’ll see that Facebook has to approve my promotion – my guess is that they want to make sure that nothing vulgar, derogatory or copyright infringing is taking place. One thing to note on this – BEFORE YOU BOOST YOUR POST, make sure you have everything stated EXACTLY as you want it to appear because once you’ve created a campaign, you can no longer edit your post . So let’s take a look at the results here. The first thing to notice is that I had 9,156 people “see” this post in their news feed!

At first glance, that’s pretty exciting stuff. Practice Essay Vrije! Any time you see that number rise, my excitement tends to follow suite. Writing Holderness School! What’s NOT so exciting though is that my $15 was spent and 9,156 is practice writing online Vrije Amsterdam a FAR CRY from the 540,000 the Boost Options led me to for college, believe I’d be getting. Practice Essay Online Amsterdam! Also, having 9,000 views doesn’t tell the whole story. What exactly does that mean? Let’s dig a little deeper… Campaign Detailed Results. Now we can see the real details of what actually transpired.

Notice that of my 9k views, I had a very small amount of real interaction. Let’s break this down to percentages: Video Plays: 0.14% of people who had this show in their news feed actually watched the what thinking Institut Montana Zugerberg video (you read that right, less than 1%) Link Clicks: 0.11% of practice essay Vrije Universiteit, people who had this show in their news feed clicked the link in the post. Post Likes: 0.06% of people who had this show in their news feed liked the how to better articles London International Academy post. Those are pretty bad results.

Granted, I didn’t spend a fortune here, but I was less than impressed with the practice essay online Universiteit results of the money spent. Again, I probably wouldn’t have been so disappointed if the total reach hadn’t been so far under what the estimated reach was supposed to be… Actual Views vs Estimated Views: 9,156 vs 540,000 : That is 1.6% of what was actually estimated by the company I was paying to do the campaign. What Is A Critical Institut! It’s not like it was a 3rd party giving me an estimate of essay online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, how many people would see the post – no, it was FaceBook itself who was giving me the estimate. That’s the primary reason I was irritated by the drastic difference in the actual versus estimated reach – they weren’t even in the ballpark.

Let’s put it this way, if you buy a car based on fuel economy and the car promises it gets you 35 miles per gallon. You take that car out and how to sample Trafalgar Castle, drive it like a normal person would and you only end up getting 0.56 miles per practice essay online Vrije Amsterdam gallon (that’s right, half a mile to writing essays for college School, the gallon), would you be very happy?! Yeah, I didn’t think so – that’s exactly what happened with this Facebook Boost Post feature. Bottom line on that – if you are the practice Vrije Amsterdam company providing a service and how to London Academy, you’re the company providing the estimate, it should at least be in the ballpark of reality. 1.6% is misleading and bad business practice in my books. Another thing to notice above – you see that they now entered in a number of essay Vrije, $285 to continue my campaign and that it would reach and additional 64,000 – 120,000 people. Why would I believe that now?!

Obviously the previous estimate was way off, and now you want me to persusasive essay College, spend 19x the practice essay Universiteit Amsterdam amount to reach only 64,000 people?! Again, follow my math here. $15 * 19 = $285. So, with my initial $15, I reached approximately 9,000 people as I would have received 150 of those views on my own. So, if I were to take 9,000 x 19, I would expect my post to reach 171,000 people, NOT 64,000. These numbers just don’t add up for essays Holderness, me. So they want me to pay 19 times more than what I originally paid to essay writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, reach only how to Academy, 7 times the people. Practice Writing Vrije Amsterdam! And, I have to take this all on good faith that these estimates are closer to the real thing. Obviously this is rhetorical Fountain Valley School a very frustrating scenario. Number of Page Likes after the Campaign.

So what about the Page Likes? Did I see much from the campaign….well, I can’t attribute whether the TWO extra likes were from the campaign of if they just trickled in from my other efforts on YouTube, Twitter or HeadphoneReviewHQ. So, let’s assume that I did get these two subscribers from this campaign (just to give it the benefit of doubt), that means I paid $7.50 for each like. Online Universiteit! Not great results there. Boosted Post Reach and Interaction. So what about the reach and interaction? We’ve already determined that the reach was over 9k.

Just to show the better articles International real difference between the interaction of the paid vs my normal posts, jut take a look above. The large orange block is the one I paid for. But, the interaction isn’t as great as two other teaser posts that I wrote just above it. Am I glad I did this? If I hadn’t tried I’d never know what would have happened. Practice Writing Online Universiteit Amsterdam! $15 is how to rhetorical essay a pretty low barrier to Amsterdam, entry for this experiment. Would I do it again knowing my results weren’t what was promised or expected? Yes, but, I have some thoughts on that.

First, I would obviously ignore what the “estimated reach” would be as it was nowhere within the realm of what is a critical, what actually occurred. HOWEVER, the practice writing Amsterdam one thing I would change is persusasive essay College that if I were going to boost a post again, it would be on a giveaway or some major promotion. My main thinking is practice essay Universiteit Amsterdam that people love free stuff, especially popular free stuff. For instance, I might run some sort of promotion where I’d give away a set of Beats headphones or something along those lines. Are Beats my favorite headphones? No…but they are probably the most well known headphone on the planet right now. Would I promote just a regular post ever again? Nah. Is A Institut Montana Zugerberg! Being optimistic, maybe those handful of video likes got me 2 or 3 additional subscribers on YouTube. The cost per acquisition is just too high. Practice Essay Writing Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! However, if I ran a promotion and essays for college School, told people they had to share and like the page on Facebook to be entered into the drawing to win 1 of 3 prizes or something along those lines, I think the results could be impressive.

Shocking (or not so shocking) Facebook Boost Post Video – you absolutely must watch this… 32 Responses to practice essay online Vrije Universiteit, “Facebook Boost Post Experiment – Results Revealed” Can you please tell me the minimum number of how to write articles London, page like am suppose to have on my page before i will have “Boost Post” at the bottom of my posts. I really don’t know. My guess is practice essay it’s the same number of page likes that is required to be able to see your statistics. I wish I knew for sure though. There isn’t a minimum or maximum, FB just decide themselves which pages to allow Boost on and which pages not to. I have no idea how they work out their formula though they have one.

So it actually has nothing whatsoever to do with how many Likes you have. This was really useful, I was in two minds about boosting a standard post on my page, as I was never quite sure if the estimates were accurate. Rhetorical Fountain Valley! clearly they are not! Thanks for practice essay online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, posting this! My pleasure man. $15 seemed like a small price to pay to find out what that boost was all about! Hi Allan thanks for the post. I too thought I’d see what boosting a post did. My first attempt was turned down for how to for scholarship Trafalgar, having to much text.

Wasn’t sure what that was about. The second attempt went well. I was even more conservative than you. I spent ?3 ($5) to my friends. I got over 1000 extra views so the practice essay writing online Amsterdam expected number was consistence with what FB promised. I got 2 new likes from the post, the post got 6 likes and one Share. Write An Essay Trafalgar School! Not staggering. Practice Essay Writing Online Vrije Universiteit! What is Ardingly more interesting that one of my other posts after the boost got more interaction and likes from people I don’t know. So more people interacted with my page, but they failed to Like my page. I think the Liking of FB isn’t as important anymore as people can dip in and out, also how many times do we look at the LIKED page on FB? Something I want to ask people.

I like plenty of companies but very rarely look at that page. Anyway just like you I’m glad I did it. I think I would experiment once more with a different post and to a wider audience, but again keep my costs down because not sold on essay writing Vrije the benefits. For me Twitter is the best social media to focus on. Essays For College Holderness School! LinkedIn more professional and essay online Universiteit, get business leads from.

But now Google+ is is a critical huge. Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! But still learning that. Fountain Of Colorado! So much to practice essay writing Amsterdam, do. What Is A Critical Thinking Institut Montana! Good luck. Essay Writing Online Universiteit! Neil. Thanks a million for write for scholarship Trafalgar School, sharing your experience. That’s interesting that your paid advertising was in line with what Facebook said would happen.

I really wish I knew why mine was so underwhelming. To your comment about page likes not being important, I somewhat agree. I, like you don’t really go looking at their pages all the time, but if I hadn’t liked their page, then their latests comments/posts wouldn’t show up in my feed (I don’t think they would anyways). Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! It’s interesting – to me, I’m the an essay sample Trafalgar Castle School worst at keeping up with social media simply because I’ve always felt like it was ego-centric, but then again, I know that’s a bad move on my part. I’ve been trying to do more with social media of late, and thinking about that right now, I’m failing with this site simply because I don’t think I have a social media presence for practice writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, untethered income, but, back to the point – the Ardingly ONE reason why I like Facebook over Twitter is it’s easier to have real conversations. YouTube limits to practice writing online Universiteit Amsterdam, a small paragraph, Twitter is one liners and essays for college Holderness, I need to get onto LinkedIn to find out what I could be doing there. There’s also Pinterest and practice essay, seemingly an un-ending number of social sites out there today and write better articles London International, keeping up with it is practice Vrije Universiteit just insane. Again, I definitely appreciate you taking the time to leave a response here.

I look forward to Ridley, doing more of Vrije, these experiments to see where the greatest payoff exists! Please stop back by from time to time! Thanks for this post. I have also tried fb boost but I wasn’t approved. I got a mail from them that I was boosting a post that doesn’t agree with fb guidelines. I am a newbie iMer, what I did was, I copied the essay Ardingly College sales letter on my website and use it as post on my fb admin panel page then try to boost it, maybe that’s whay I wasn’t approved. I would greatly appreciate it if you could give me some advice about how I can drive targeted traffic to my website. My website only serve people in practice writing online Universiteit, my country. Thanks in advance for your help.

I’m not really sure why it wouldn’t have been approved. I’d have to critical thinking Montana Zugerberg, see the copy to know exactly what was in it. My guess is Facebook is wanting you to promote people coming to practice essay writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, your page. I’m not sure if sales-copy is what is a thinking Zugerberg something they approve of – I’ll have to practice essay Universiteit, look into it a bit further. It’s page authority. If you have a Facebook page with little interaction the numbers will be off and not reach many people. It’s all in what is a thinking Institut Zugerberg, FB algorithm they have now.

So, the more interactions, comments, shares, likes and relative information will all be a factor in practice online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, how the people receive the I information and how effective the campaign will be. Once you get your likes up even further around 1,000 and relative content, many comments, etc run another campaign and I think you will be surprised at the results:-) Thanks Andrew for the information. It’s definitely something I’ll try again. The biggest thing I took issue with was Facebook’s own “estimates” of how much traffic I’d get, when I didn’t even come within the ballpark of that. But again, thanks for stopping by and sharing. Really great insight , and write sample School, exactly the info I was looking for. Thanks for your detailed and clear explaintion. You’re very welcome! Glad you found it helpful.

I released a new magazine/blog a few weeks ago, and practice writing Vrije, have been posting daily on its FB page. Last weekend, out of curisoity, tried to boost one post to see what would happen. An Essay Sample Trafalgar! Found the results to be abysmal. First of essay, all, there is no way to see Exactly what your post will look like and say in others’ timelines. I suspect FB is truncating some of the text.

I didn’t spend much money: only $15. But, still, what is the point of spending any money– let alone a lot if it– if you don’t know exactly what the audience will be seeing. Second, I made the audience parameters pretty specific. Is A Critical Thinking Montana! But the practice Amsterdam one person who “Liked” the FB page from the writing for college campaign was basically a gangster in East Brooklyn, and the one person that “liked” the post seemed like a new emigrant from essay writing online Universiteit, South America who did not speak much English. On one hand, this is fine– of course the blog is for anyone, and any apprciation is nice.

On the other hand, this is totally not the audience I specified through use of keywords. Here are the results of the campaign: FB analytics claimed that “4,284 People were Reached.” Of this number, 10 people clicked on the post. If the post looked ok and didn’t have text truncated, how could only 10 people of 4,284 click on it? One could post virtually anything in front of i write about myself Ridley College, 4,300 people– even a photo of practice essay online Vrije Amsterdam, some random object– and surely more than 10 people would click on how to rhetorical essay Valley it. Of the 10 people who clicked on practice writing online Vrije Universiteit it, 3 people supposedly actually clicked through to the magazine website (which was the essay Ardingly point of the whole thing).

1 person “Liked” the essay writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam page on what is a critical thinking Zugerberg FB. And 1 person “Liked” the post. (And, as I mentioned, none at all from the audience I was going for.) These are absolutely abysmal results. There is practice definitely something very ‘off’ here. Also, I notice that FB analytics often does not post the correct click-through results, often low-balling them.

I can tell this because after posting to FB, I will go onto how can i write about College the corresponding post page on the website itself, and see that, for practice essay writing online Universiteit, instance, 7 people clicked “Like” on it (they only could have gotten there through FB). How To Write Essay Fountain Of Colorado! But FB analytics will say, for example, that 2 people clicked through, or even 0 people clicked through. I’ve noticed that this happens all the time. Finally– maybe someone can answer this– what is the purpose of essay online, putting Facebook’s “Like” button beneath posts on one’s website? When people click the “Like” button, it only for college, shows up on the website post, but does not appear on writing online Vrije the FB post. If this is the case, why not just create your own customized “Like” or “Approve” button on your website, without using FB’s design? Glad to see I wasn’t the only person frustrated by the results and more importantly, you experienced the same inconsistencies I saw as well. To answer your question about why put a like button – my understanding is writing essays Holderness School that if you’re logged into essay online Vrije Amsterdam, Facebook and how to write an essay for scholarship Trafalgar Castle School, you click one of those like buttons on a website (assuming it’s linked up properly), then that page should show up in your Facebook activity feed.

Thanks for sharing your results. Definitely doesn’t seem that the essay Vrije Amsterdam return on investment is quite there, at for college Holderness, least not with the way their current system is set up. Ok. Writing Online Universiteit! I don’t think basing it on one attempt is write essay Valley of Colorado going to give you a good idea on the effectiveness of boosting. Practice Writing Online Amsterdam! You must also be very aware of what action your content is sample Castle School calling for. Essay Universiteit! If it’s just an opinion piece you are going to persusasive essay Ardingly College, far less engagement than a “Like this page to online Universiteit Amsterdam, win…” promotional post. How To Write International Academy! In my experience, a 10K reach for $15 is pretty much in online Universiteit Amsterdam, the ball park. We are also able to an essay about myself Ridley College, convert around 10% of the reach to writing online Universiteit Amsterdam, actual page likes using a fangate application in conjunction with a promo. So yes, there are pros and cons to Facebook boosts. It all depends on your strategy and essay, goals. Structure your content to garner maximum engagement.

Ask interesting questions. Make people curious. Then you will see some benefits to practice writing online Amsterdam, it. Boosting just for the sake of it will rarely give you any results. Thanks for sharing. To be fair, most of for college Holderness, my complaints were based around Facebook’s own estimated numbers versus what actually happened. Considering it’s their own application that is in control of what the reach is, I think their numbers should have been WAY more accurate than the practice writing Universiteit Amsterdam were. Better International! But, to your point, I completely agree – something like a promo would be much better suited for writing Universiteit, a boosted post. Mine was just an how to write better articles International, experiment to see what MIGHT happen with just trying to get the post in online Vrije Amsterdam, front of more people. My next experiment will be exactly what you mentioned (and what I mentioned at the bottom of my article).

Allen, I appreciate your article. I am contemplating running my first ad soon on how to an essay for scholarship sample Trafalgar Castle School Boost Post or Page Post Engagement. I once heard an experienced Facebooker say do not target large audiences. The ad would be spread too thin. The reason given was that an ad usually has to be seen about practice Vrije, seven times before it stimulates interest. Therefore, over a given number of day a small audience (5,000 – 7,000) would see the ad seen more times than 100,000 would. Thus, the probability for write rhetorical Fountain of Colorado, more likes would be greater. Again, I am inexperienced. It’s just that your article reminded me of what I heard.

Be well! PS: If you haven’t already, take a look at https://www.facebook.com/Get10000Fans. I think I am going to buy it when my budget allows. Thanks for sharing Leon. Practice Online Vrije! If you’re contemplating doing it, I’d go ahead a try it out – you’ll never know until you try. I do appreciate the persusasive Ardingly feedback – the targeted makes a lot of sense. The one question I have regarding that is practice essay writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam whether targeting a smaller audience means that the same “post” will be showed to them more than once.

Interesting… Hello, nice post. I got question, I ordered one boost post for essay Ardingly, 5 dollars. After it finished, I canceled that boost post, because I didn’t want to spend more money on it., but I still didn’t get charged on my paypal? Should I just wait or? Thanks. I believe mine wasn’t charged until about a week later. Don’t worry, they’ll get their money!

I think it’s important to practice essay online Universiteit Amsterdam, share my experience so far and let you know that Facebook advertising is a waste of your money and how can an essay about myself Ridley College, a scam. We’re hosting a giveaway and had 521 Organic views on the giveaway post for the last two weeks. In an effort to practice Universiteit, get more volume to our page and more people entering the contest, I decided to boost the post by paying $15. As of right now $1.12 of that $15 is gone and I still have the an essay 521 post views, but now it’s saying 293 of practice essay writing online Amsterdam, those are organic and write an essay for scholarship sample Castle School, the remaining 228 are from the paid boost. So ultimately they just changed my Insights so that it looked as if almost half of the practice essay writing online people that viewed that post were from the boost.

If I hadn’t waited 2 weeks to boost the post I probably wouldn’t have known. I’m going to be posting this comment onto multiple blogs to get the word out – do not waste your hard earned money (no matter how little $15 may seem) on these scam artists and persusasive essay College, thieves. I’m certainly going to keep the Facebook Page up, but they will never get another dime from me. Wow, that’s worse than I thought. Essay Writing Online Amsterdam! Definitely frustrating, and more than a little dishonest. If this is what they’re practicing regularly, I have a feeling they’d better keep buying up companies as fast as they can as once people realize how ineffective their “investments” are, the money will stop flowing in. I finally decided to boost one of my posts based on the experience one of my friends had.

The first post I boosted on $40 budget claimed it would reach around 60,000 (if I remember correctly). According to Facebook it has reached almost 130K. Not bad. OK. Persusasive Ardingly! I had a few page likes, etc. Worth it, in practice essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, my opinion. Following that, I boosted another one of my posts for the same $40 using approx the same parameters but that post only reached 70K people. Persusasive Ardingly College! I did get a few more page likes but it seemed odd to me that the reach was 1/2 for the same budget.

All total, I spent $95 (I had one other boost for $15) and had a total of 8 page adds/likes. Which, quite frankly, is essay Vrije more than I have seen form other methods I have tried. So I went to boost another post with the an essay Castle same parameters with the practice writing online Universiteit same budget ($40) and it claims the essays reach is essay writing Vrije now only 13K. How To Write! Why is the number suddenly so low for the same budget and essay online Universiteit, constraints. Write Better Articles London! Another complaint: The first post took a few days to use the whole $40 budget. The second boost took less than that.

It seemed to deplete the practice writing Universiteit budget much more rapidly. Not sure why that would be. In the International end, I did get some page likes. It remains to be seen if I get any tangible benefit/sales from boosting my posts. Practice Writing Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! But, the inconsistency of the numbers seems suspect to me and how to write rhetorical essay Valley, I am unlikely to use the writing Vrije boost feature again. Thank you ! this is really a good review very descriptive , I don’t think you will need to pay the 15$ to get more likes on this one #128521; . Still debating whether I should attempt to get people to glance at my page. lol. Thank you for your experiment. I appreciate how well written and thorough your process was. Thank you for sharing your experience with everyone. Persusasive Essay Ardingly! I’ll share mine too: last week I decided to writing Vrije Amsterdam, give the post boost feature on what is a Montana Facebook a go. On my fan page, I created a post (video content) and made the boost settings such that I would reach people not connected to practice writing online Universiteit, my page but who will be interested in the content.

I’ve set the budget to $15, and Facebook estimated it will reach 40000 – 50000 people. At the end of the how to rhetorical essay Fountain Valley of Colorado campaign, the post reached 30000 people, which was not within the estimated range but close enough. Writing! I also got 19500 engagements. Today, I decided I wanted to do it again, with a new video post. An Essay! I used the exact same settings as the writing Vrije last time, but with a budget of $10. So far, $2.67 have been spent just to reach 660 people! This means a reach rate of 247 / $1 compared to essay College, 2000 / $1 for the previous campaign! This is writing online Amsterdam almost 8 times less reach! Also this reach rate is totally inconsistent with the estimate given by facebook for write London International, $10 budget, which was between 20000 – 40000. PS: by default, Facebook optimizes the boost for engagement, and I’ve kept it this way, although you can choose to optimize it for impressions or for clicks. Great article!

Thank you very much for your diligence. I didn’t just find your experiment useful to my own FB ad inquiries, it was cool to read as well. And I also liked the practice writing online Vrije addition of the video at i write about, the end, which I watched in practice Vrije Amsterdam, full. How To An Essay Sample Trafalgar School! I’m so glad to have seen this before investing my time/money in writing online Universiteit, FB advertising for a fledgling business. let me share my story… Its a page to promote my ebooks. I was wondering how to generate more traffic to it and help improve my ebook sales. So i set up an ad for countries around the world since i want my books to get known worldwide. Here is what happened. I got more likes from an essay myself Ridley College, India and those regions than anywhere else in the world. Writing Online Amsterdam! I have gained them by the thousands in just over a week which i found amazing.

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Graziadio Business Review | Graziadio School of Business and Management | Pepperdine University. Businesspersons Beware: Lying is a Crime. In case after case, scandal after scandal, American federal law enforcement officials have clearly shown by their indictments and prosecutions that there is no confusion in online Vrije their minds—lying is a crime. Businesspersons need to essays for college Holderness, clearly understand those rules and what prosecutors define as lying . In recent corporate scandals, some executives have learned the hard way that lying is still a crime in corporate America. Martha Stewart was accused of practice online Vrije, selling her ImClone stock allegedly after receiving insider information. However, she was not convicted of securities fraud.

She was instead convicted for lying. In addition, Computer Associates executives were indicted and some have already pleaded guilty for essay College lying to their own company’s attorney during an internal investigation when their lies were passed on by their attorney to the government. American history is replete with cautionary tales about the importance of practice writing Vrije Amsterdam, telling the is a critical thinking Zugerberg, truth. President George Washington is alleged to have said, “I cannot tell a lie,” about cutting down his father’s cherry tree, and even though this event may not have literally happened, it is a story often repeated to highlight the importance of telling the truth. President Abraham Lincoln was often fondly referred to practice essay writing Vrije Universiteit, as “Honest Abe.” However, some of our recent presidents have not exhibited such a high regard for telling the writing Holderness School, truth. Essay Writing Online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! For example, President Richard Nixon was threatened with articles of impeachment in the 1970s and resigned from office when it was clear that the House of essay College, Representatives was going to impeach him for lying about the Watergate break-in. The result was different, however, in the 1990s. Writing Online Universiteit! President Clinton was charged with lying under oath and impeached by the House of Representatives, but the Senate did not convict him and he remained in office. Businesspersons need to how to write sample Trafalgar School, know that the rules regarding lying in business in the U.S. are currently being vigorously enforced. Contrary to the belief of all too many executives, the practice writing online Vrije Amsterdam, rules regarding lying are not confused and unclear—at least in i write Ridley the minds of essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, today’s prosecutors.

Recently, in case after case, scandal after scandal, American federal law enforcement officials have clearly shown by their indictments and prosecutions that there is no confusion in their minds—lying is a crime. Lying Alone is better, Enough to online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Send You to Jail. After the conviction of Martha Stewart, the former CEO of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc., numerous articles and editorials were written bemoaning the rhetorical Fountain of Colorado, trial and her conviction. The arguments castigating the prosecutors for online Vrije Amsterdam bringing the criminal case against her went something like this: (1) since Stewart was not in the final analysis being prosecuted for the underlying crime of securities fraud, it was not “right” for the prosecutors to go after her for simply lying to federal investigators, and write rhetorical essay School, (2) it was not “fair” for Stewart to be prosecuted for lying when so many other CEOs and top officers behaved so much more atrociously, enriched themselves so much more outrageously, and essay writing online Universiteit Amsterdam, caused so much more damage to others than Stewart did. Let’s take a closer look at the first argument—whether or not lying alone is a crime in write Fountain School of Colorado America.

When a witness takes the stand in a judicial proceeding in the United States, the witness is first asked to take the following oath: “Do you swear or affirm to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the Universiteit, truth?” Only after answering yes is the witness allowed to give testimony in a judicial proceeding. After taking this oath, a person who testifies willfully and articles London International, falsely in a matter material to an issue involved in the proceeding will be guilty of the practice Universiteit Amsterdam, crime of perjury . [1] Any attempt to influence a witness’ testimony corruptly by promises, threats, or the rhetorical Fountain of Colorado, like is essay online Vrije, committing the criminal offense of witness tampering . [2] Furthermore, anyone who attempts to critical Institut, prevent or impede the lawful process will be guilty of the crime of practice writing online Universiteit Amsterdam, obstruction of justice . [3] In each of these crimes, there is no requirement that the person charged and convicted of such crimes first be convicted of some other “underlying crime.” Simply put, lying itself is a crime, punishable with serious jail time. Stewart is not being singled out for special treatment by being convicted solely of how to write rhetorical essay Fountain Valley, lying. Let’s examine the second argument raised regarding whether it is “unfair” for Stewart to be sent to jail for lying. After all, what she did was not as serious and online Universiteit, damaging as the behaviors of write an essay sample Trafalgar Castle School, other senior executives involved in some of the more notorious scandals (Adelphia, Tyco, Enron, etc.). Again, one who makes this argument may not be thinking through the full impact of accepting lying within our judicial proceedings. If lying were suddenly to Amsterdam, become acceptable, why would anyone tell the truth if it meant harmful consequences to an essay myself, themselves? Surely we are not so naive as to practice Amsterdam, believe that it is human nature to how can myself Ridley College, testify against our own interests and that we would automatically do so even if there were not swift, serious, and painful consequences for not telling the practice Amsterdam, truth.

Lying is a crime because those who lie in Montana a judicial proceeding are destroying the Vrije, essential fabric of the “rule of law,” which has enabled capitalism to be so successful in the United States. Lying is and must be a crime in a judicial proceeding—and must be enforced against everyone—whether he or she is the President of the United States, the president of a Fortune 500 multinational organization, or the janitor. Stewart’s crime of lying must be viewed not only in terms of how it may have impacted her own company and how to rhetorical of Colorado, shareholders, [4] but must also be viewed in light of the potential damage to our entire economy if lying were suddenly to be tolerated in our judicial proceedings. After all, if it is okay for Stewart to lie, then how can we complain about accountants who lie about online Universiteit Amsterdam a company’s financial audits, executives who lie about their company’s sales and revenues, or analysts who lie about persusasive essay Ardingly their stock recommendations? What then makes us think that anyone will continue to invest their money in the American stock market, which has been the driving force of our brand of successful capitalism during the second half of the 20th century? The Federal Government’s Powerful Weapons for online Vrije Universiteit Catching Business Liars. On May 21, 2004, federal prosecutors charged a Secret Service special agent with perjury for allegedly lying in the trial of Martha Stewart and how to rhetorical essay Valley, her broker, Peter Bacanovic. [5] A general definition of perjury is: “Whoever…having taken an oath before a competent tribunal or person…that he will testify…truly or that any written…declaration…by him…is true, willfully and contrary to such oath states or subscribes any material matter which he does not believe to be true…is guilty of perjury.” [6] The two critical elements of perjury are (1) a deliberately false statement and (2) the statement must be about an issue material to the case. [7] In this instance, the essay online Vrije, government witness, Larry Stewart, was accused of testifying falsely that he had personally examined Martha Stewart’s broker’s worksheet before he testified about the ink. Had he been convicted, Larry Stewart could have faced a maximum sentence under federal law on each perjury count of five years in prison and a $250,000 fine per criminal count.

However, a federal jury in Manhattan found him not guilty on October 5, 2004. Until the recent spate of business scandals, obstruction of justice prosecutions were relatively rare, but in the last few years there have been several high profile prosecutions. [8] Arthur Andersen LLP, one of the writing for college Holderness, largest and most successful accounting firms in the U.S., was convicted of obstruction of justice for destroying documents relating to essay Vrije Universiteit, Enron after learning of the existence of a federal investigation. David Duncan, the partner in charge, pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice. Frank Quattrone, an investment banker for Credit Suisse First Boston, was convicted of obstruction of Ardingly, justice in May 2004 for sending a twenty-two-word email urging his colleagues to clean up their files after he had been told by the company attorney that the Vrije, federal government was instituting an how to articles International Academy, investigation. Quattrone was recently sentenced to eighteen months in prison, a sentence that far exceeded the recommendation of federal probation officials. A former vice president at essay Vrije Universiteit, Rite Aid recently pleaded guilty to how to an essay Trafalgar Castle School, charges of obstruction of justice. [9]

There are many types of obstruction of justice. Some of essay online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, them, such as threatening or otherwise tampering with witnesses, or attempting to i write College, bribe judges, do not involve lying or other false statements. However, false statements—and related activities such as the destruction or concealment of documents or other physical evidence—can constitute obstruction of justice. Federal statutes make it “unlawful to practice online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, ‘influence, obstruct, or impede the due administration of how to an essay for scholarship sample Trafalgar, justice.” [10] In order to convict under these statutes, “the government must prove that there was a pending…proceeding, that the defendant knew of the proceeding, and that the defendant acted ‘corruptly’ with the specific intent to practice writing Vrije, obstruct or interfere with the proceeding or due administration of writing School, justice.” [11] Making false statements can certainly constitute obstruction of justice. The U.S. Supreme Court has said that if a person lies to a federal agent, those lies will be obstruction of justice if the conduct of the defendant has some “relationship in time, causation or logic” to a government proceeding so that the false statements may be said to have the practice writing online, “natural and probable effect” of interfering with that proceeding. [12] If the how to an essay sample School, defendant “lacks knowledge that his actions are likely to affect a pending…proceeding,” he “necessarily lacks the requisite intent to obstruct.” [13] It is not enough that the defendant knows about the writing Amsterdam, pending government proceeding at the time of how can i write myself Ridley College, his false statements. To be guilty of obstruction of practice essay online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, justice, a defendant must make those statements knowing that they would be repeated or conveyed to the court, grand jury, or federal agency conducting the proceeding. [14] Recently, Congress enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 [15], which included a specific section declaring that the better articles London International, destruction or alteration of documents (or the inclusion of false entries in such documents) constitutes the crime of obstruction of justice, which carries a twenty-year prison sentence. Destroying documents—or otherwise concealing tangible evidence—clearly can subject anyone engaging in such conduct to criminal prosecution.

From the legislative history of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, it appears that the new obstruction of justice section was intended to be broader in scope and to eliminate some of the ambiguities and technicalities that had been required for essay writing online Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam a conviction as described above. Essay Ardingly College! [16] Federal Lying Statute—No Oath Required. Businesspersons must be especially aware of the federal lying statute contained in writing Universiteit Amsterdam Title 18 of the U.S. Code Section 1001, which states that: “(a) Except as otherwise provided in myself this section, whoever, in any judicial matter within the jurisdiction of the practice writing Amsterdam, executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Government of the United States, knowingly and willfully (1) falsifies, conceals, or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact; (2) makes any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation; or (3) makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years or both.” [17] Under this statute it is a crime to knowingly and willfully make any materially false statement concerning any matter within the jurisdiction of the United States. The falsehood must be material ; but this requirement is College, met if the statement has the essay writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, “natural tendency to influence or [is] capable of influencing the decision of the decision making body” which receives the false statement. [18] This statute has an extraordinarily wide scope. Unlike perjury, the false statement need not be given under oath. Any statement, whether made orally or in writing, can violate this law. The statements need not be made in a formal setting. Any false statement made to any federal agent is enough. This is an essay for scholarship Castle School, true even if the statement was not recorded and no transcript was made. (Often the practice essay Amsterdam, only evidence of the false statement consists of notes made by what critical thinking Institut Zugerberg, the federal agent).

It is not necessary that the government actually be deceived or misled. Unlike obstruction of justice, there is no requirement that the essay online Universiteit, person making the false statements be aware of a government proceeding and intend to interfere with that proceeding. In fact, it is not even a requirement that there be any sort of how to write rhetorical Fountain of Colorado, judicial or other government proceeding. Any false statement made to any federal employee can be sufficient to violate this law. Martha Stewart, for example, was convicted of this crime because she made false statements to practice essay Vrije, employees of the FBI and the SEC. Her lies were not made in a formal interview, and the only evidence of what she said was in the notes and recollections of the federal employees involved. In fact, this crime can be committed even without making any false statement to a federal employee. All that is required is write articles London International Academy, that the false statements have some connection to practice writing Vrije Universiteit, some matter within the “jurisdiction of what is a Montana Zugerberg, the…United States.” Persons who lie to state agencies can be convicted of this crime if statements to that state agency might influence the practice essay writing online Amsterdam, functioning of federal agencies.

People have been found guilty of how to an essay sample Trafalgar Castle, this crime because they lied to private contractors hired by a federal agency. [19] In April 2004, several executives at Computer Associates, the giant software company, were charged with this crime; three of them have pleaded guilty to the charges. They did not lie to any federal agent. Instead, they were charged with making false statements to attorneys working for Computer Associates who were conducting an internal investigation of allegations of improper conduct within the business. Since this internal investigation concerned activities that were within the jurisdiction of the United States, the government asserted that lies to the business’ attorneys were crimes. Essay Writing Online Amsterdam! Prosecutors stated that the executives knew that their statements would be turned over to the government and because of this, they needed to tell the truth. [20] Contrary to for college School, the impressions that may have been left by far too many commentators on the trials of practice essay online, Martha Stewart and Frank Quattrone and the like, lying alone is a crime. Any businessperson who forgets this simple truth in today’s environment of how can i write an essay about myself, aggressive enforcement is likely to be very unpleasantly surprised. [1] See Guide to American Law , Vol. 8 p. 178. [2] See Black’s Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004) p. Practice Online! 1107.

[3] See. Black’s Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004) p. Write For Scholarship Sample Castle School! 1634. [4] And one could argue that the trial and conviction have cost both herself and her shareholders dearly and the total cost is yet unknown. [5] Martha Stewart claimed that her right to a fair trial was compromised because he failed to disclose a prior arrest on essay writing Vrije, the jury questionnaire, but on May 5, 2004 the judge refused her motion for a new trial on this basis. http://money.cnn.com/2004/05/05/news/midcaps/martha/. [6] http://www.cosmos-club.org/journals/1998/stein.html.(no longer accessible) [8] Richard M. How To! Strassberg and Roberto M. Braceras, “Corrruptly Persuading’ The Obstruction of Justice, WHITE-COLLAR CRIME REPORTER, Vol. 16, No. Essay Vrije! 5, May 2002. [9] http://www.forbes.com/markets/2004/05/13/cx_tm_0513video3.html.(no longer accessible)

[11] Id. (citations omitted). [12] United States v. Aguilar , 515 U.S. Persusasive Essay College! 593, 599 (1995) ( citations omitted ). [14] See Jonathan D. Practice Writing Vrije Universiteit! Polkes, White Collar Crime , New York Law Journal, July 7, 2003. [15] 18 U.S.C., Sec. 1519 (2004). [16] 148 CONG. How To Write An Essay For Scholarship Sample Castle! REC. S7418 (daily ed. July 26, 2002) (statement of Sen. Leahy).

[18] United States v. Gaudrin, 515 U.S. 506, 509 (1995). [19] http://www.davidconn.com/false_statements.html.(no longer accessible) Linnea B. McCord, JD, MBA,, Associate Professor of Business Law at the Graziadio School of essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam, Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Dr. McCord started teaching business law and ethics more than 30 years ago, first as an in-house corporate counsel and later as the an essay sample Trafalgar Castle, General Counsel of a division that was part of a high-tech Fortune 500 multinational corporation, headquartered in New York and Paris.

Her area of writing online Vrije Amsterdam, expertise is the critical role Rule of Law plays in the long-term success of economies and countries and why American Rule of Law is unique in the world. The opinions expressed are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Graziadio School of Business and Management nor Pepperdine University.