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BTEC First Award Business; Unit 1 Enterprise in the Business World. BTEC First Award Business. Unit 1 Enterprise in the Business World. Below you can find a collection of resources that should help you with your knowledge and understanding of the Enterprise in third person Combe School, the Business World unit of your BTEC studies. This unit will be examined so you need to ensure that you are ready and as english, prepared for your coursework and good performance in this piece of coursework is critical to achieving your highest possible grade in your Business Studies course. Third Person Combe! A Know how trends and the current business environment may impact on writing Combe a business B Plan an essay writing Monkton, idea for a new business C Present a business model for a business start-up. A.1 Finding information. ? Sources of information, e.g. broadsheet and local newspapers, professional and trade journals, websites, business networking organisations. ? Reliability of business article Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS sources and bias and currency of information. A.2 Factors to consider in the current business environment. National factors political issues, level and type of government support for business, taxation, the economy, e.g. level of employment, inflation, exchange rates, cost of. ? Local factors location of business, requirements for resources, e.g. premises, staff, equipment, location of suppliers, competitors and customers. ? Impact of factors on a selected target group of customers, relevance to business.
A.3 Trends affecting business. Writing Monkton! ? Social trends, e.g.: o population changes, increasing life expectancy. o households and families, e.g. more couples cohabiting. o education, e.g. increasing achievements at GCSE. Grammar (Study Group)! o labour market, e.g. increase in flexible working. Third Essay Monkton School! o increasing travel for work, e.g. longer commutes to introduction for essay Braemar College work. ? Technology trends, e.g. increasing use of information technology, telephony and web. ? Environmental trends, e.g. increase in renewable energy and recycling. ? Ethical trends ethical concerns of potential customers, e.g. carbon footprint, sources of timber, child labour, inadequate pay, animal welfare, identification of. values of an organisation and ethical codes to address ethical concerns, contribution. of business to the community. A.4 Size of person essay Combe School business and type. Micro business up to 9 staff. ? SMEs (small and medium enterprises): o small enterprises between 10 and 49 staff. o medium enterprises between 50 and 249 staff. ? Large business more than 250 staff. ? Start-ups and existing businesses. Business Article Fraser College! B.1 How business ideas can be successful. Third Person Monkton Combe! ? Finding innovative solutions, e.g. Dyson. ? Meeting customer needs, e.g. products or services, filling a gap, doing it better than competitors. ? Identifying new needs, e.g. mentoring and coaching, using digital media (such as. social networking websites) ? Continuing to meet established customer needs, e.g. adapt when gap in provision, review and writing College, improve provision. Writing Monkton Combe! ? Being entrepreneurial ideas of writing for essay Braemar recent entrepreneurs, e.g. Tanya Budd, Rose Grimond, Mark Zuckerberg. ? Importance of having a strong vision and seeing it through, e.g.
Apple. ? Measures of essay writing Combe School success, e.g. financial, social, customer satisfaction. B.2 Business ideas. Researching the market and identifying gaps or opportunities. ? Selecting a product or service. ? Targeting customers, e.g. by age, location, interests, concerns. ? How a selected product or service will meet the need or demand of targeted. Business Fraser International College! ? Difference between ‘benefits’ and ‘features’ of a product or service. B.3 Assessing the suitability of a business idea. ? Estimating resources required to develop ideas, including: o own time, others’ time, skills and areas of expertise. Person Monkton Combe! o personal commitment. o finance, premises, materials, equipment. Introduction For Essay College! ? Selecting the most appropriate idea. ? Likelihood of success or failure, e.g. Person Essay Writing Monkton School! access to prospective customers, existing. demand, estimating profitability. ? Identification of major barriers for a start-up business, e.g. large start-up costs, cash flow, licences, competitors. B.4 Producing an article for kids Monkton Combe School, initial plan for a business idea. o a rationale for a realistic idea, including vision and concept. o supporting evidence, e.g. possible customers, possible routes to market, strategy. for dealing with competitors, ideas for third writing Combe School, financing, ideas for implementation. C.1 Choice of format. ? Definition, features, advantages and disadvantages of the following formats: o limited company. o public limited company (plc) o social enterprise. C.2 Sources of help and support in business College - NAVITAS, developing a new business. family members, Prince’s Trust), research (other businesses), independent advice. ? Support networks, e.g. Chambers of Commerce, trade associations, professional. bodies, friends and family, charities and voluntary organisations.
C.3 Business model. ? Components of a business model, including: o results of researching the market, including identifying potential customers. Third Essay Combe School! (businesses or individual consumers) and competitors. o goods or services make or buy. o means of article writing for kids Combe School delivering to customer, e.g. internet only, franchise, direct sales. o business aims the long-term visions or goals. o business objectives measurable targets to help achieve the overall aims of. a business, importance of making objectives SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-related) o stakeholders and their influence on the business, e.g. owners, employees, customers, financiers, suppliers, local community. o finances and third essay Monkton Combe, costs for start-up. o providing evidence to justify why the idea will succeed.
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Persuasive Anime Essays and essay Combe School, Research Papers. Anime in essay writing America Anime , or Japanese animation, is a style of animation most recognizable by characters with large eyes and . beautifully detailed backgrounds. Once people watch anime , they will find besides spectacular animation, anime has complex characters and essay writing Monkton School, deep stories, many of which teach morals and values. Anime is very popular in for kids Monkton School Japan; it has also gained a following in America and is beginning to hit the mainstream. Anime is third person Combe, gaining popularity in the United States as it is University/Fraser International College, shown. Anime , Hayao Miyazaki , Leiji Matsumoto 1396 Words | 4 Pages. watch anime ? How many know what it is? 1. Anime – Japanese Animation 2. Manga – Japanese Graphic Novel B. Third Writing Combe! Reason why I want to . talk about anime 1. Growing industry from neighboring country. An Essay Of Southampton! 2. Third Monkton Combe! Wanting to help an essay become anime director/manga artist C. Anime is invading all around the world, so to get an essay writing Monkton, idea of what it is, I’m going to explain the following: 1. As English Hebron! Beginning of anime (Japanese animation) 2. Famous mangakas (graphic novelists)/ anime directors 3. The anime industry today D. 1. Anime forming. Anime , Astro Boy , Dragon Ball 525 Words | 3 Pages.
Outline I. Introduction II. What Anime and Manga are? III. Third Essay Monkton School! Fundamental characteristics of the Anime IV. . English Grammar University Group)! Classification of the Anime . V. The Otaku VI. Japanese language problem. VII. Conclusion. ANIME IS NOT A CARTOON, BUT PEOPLE DON’T REALLY KNOW ABOUT IT!
Anime is the word for the Japanese cartoons but is third essay Monkton School, not as United States cartoons. Essays College! Anime is the term used in Japan to refer to animation in general. This is directed to all the public, from kids. Anime , Astro Boy , Hentai 1166 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jamell.C.Mclean Prof.Ludvigsen May,5,2013 Basilisk Review, By: jamell mclean Context: Basilisk: The Koga Ninja Scrolls) is a Japanese manga and . anime series. The manga was written and illustrated by Masaki Segawa and published in third person Monkton Combe Japan in 2003 and 2004, based on the novel The Kouga Ninja Scrolls by Futaro Yamada published in 1958. The anime , produced in writing introduction for essay Braemar 2005 by Gonzo Studios, closely follows the manga aside from a handful of distinctions.
The manga won the 2004 Kodansha Manga Award for general. Anime , Hattori Hanzo , Japan 734 Words | 3 Pages. Anime Evolution and Influence in America. BarbaraJean Chareunsack David Lon English 3 June 6th, 2012 Anime Evolving amp; its Influence in person essay Monkton Combe America As a child or young adult . growing up in the 1990’s you remember watching shows like Dragon Ball Z, Sailor Moon, or Inuyasha. Then you watch these shows later on in your life you notice that the movement of their mouths doesn’t fall into sync with the English language. If you ever noticed this then you later learn that it is for essay Braemar, because America adopted them from Japan, where it was first originated. Animation , Anime , Astro Boy 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Anime and their hidden meanings Everyone likes to person essay Monkton School watch cartoons or Japanese animations ( anime ) and help University, yet not all of us know . the latent meaning of the shows.
We only watch them for entertainment purpose or have a discussion about the Monkton Combe School plot, characters and other aspects of the shows. Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. By the 1930s animation became. Animation , Animax , Anime 836 Words | 3 Pages. The Development of Japanese Manga and Anime. The Development of Japanese Manga and Anime Manga is a Japanese word that is writing Lancing College, generally used to refer to comics or cartoons while . Anime is a term used to refer to animation, also originating from Japan. The origin of manga can be traced to the 18th century. The word was used for the first time in 1798 in Japan to describe Shiji no yukikai, a picture book. The term resurfaced again in 1814 when it was used as the title of books written by Akinwai Minwa; Hokusai Manga and Manga Hyakujo. Combe School! These books.
18th century , Anime , Astro Boy 1164 Words | 3 Pages. Anime : Parent of writing introduction College All Industry Anime is person essay writing Monkton, a Japanese art style that has become more widespread throughout the years, influencing . gaming, movies, and cartoons, making it the parent to the entertainment industry. Article Writing For Kids Combe! Even though it was a more obscure art form back in the earlier days, it was something that inspired many, which has made it grow into what is it today. There are many conventions across the person essay writing Monkton Combe world dedicated to them, the fandom around the whole culture is very dedicated and close knit, and it. Animation , Anime , Fandom 1629 Words | 5 Pages. My English essay on Lancing anime . Third Person Essay Monkton Combe School! that's persuasive Why do people watch anime ? Anime is a type of . animation that has originated from Japan. Writing Introduction College! Some animes first start out as a comic known as manga.
Moving from Japan, anime as been making its way across the globe, jumping from continent to continent. Third Writing! Now it is slowly becoming popular in America. Yet there are those who still think anime is something that should not be shown in America due to it being from another country. Also they do not bother to find. Anime , Astro Boy , Cosplay 770 Words | 2 Pages. Cartoon versus Anime Everyone wants to be entertained so people try and discover unique and remarkable . Business Article Simon University/Fraser International! entertainment depends on the taste of the audience. For example, Romans built a coliseum so they can watch spectacular gladiator fights, Japanese men dressed and acted like a woman and entertaining men who are drinking in a pub, Chinese invested fireworks so Chinese people will be fascinated by spectacular sky view with colorful lights within it, and in third person essay writing Combe School Philippines, Pilipino. Animation , Anime , Antagonist 1312 Words | 4 Pages. Why Anime Should Be a Part of narrative Lancing Education. Why anime should be a part of education Woodlawn is one of the third writing Monkton Combe few schools which have, for the first time, brought anime into . education and the result was a success. “Each year, seventh graders at Woodlawn School in Davidson, North Carolina, learn about Japan through a compilation of literature, history, and art”(Ruble, Lysen, 2010).
According to Ruble, a science and language arts teacher, and Lysne, an art history and science teacher, this was possible from watching anime . Although their work is. Anime , Culture of Japan , Japan 1126 Words | 3 Pages. animation, in general, has a significant amount of higher quality. Where to Begin? Where to Hebron be Going? To begin with, one of the major problems that has . hindered American animation is budget and time constraints.
On the other hand, in third writing Monkton Combe School Japan, anime has been allowed to flourish all over. Article Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS! When it comes to animation, it seems that Hollywood simply does not take it seriously and would rather throw its millions into live action films and essay writing Monkton, TV shows. As English Literature Hebron Academy! There is third person writing Monkton, only one company in Hollywood which. Animation , Anime , Astro Boy 2098 Words | 6 Pages. Behind the Scenes: How Anime Is Produced.
Anime is one of the few areas left where traditional animation is done. Traditional animation is a technique where each frame is drawn by writing Lancing College . hand. This method makes anime emphasized on how artistically it is made and allows more individuality to be expressed. Also, it clearly differentiates anime from cartoons, especially Disney animation which has more emphasis on the characters' movements. Even though computer animation is widely used these days as technology rises, the industry prefers traditional.
Animation , Animator , Anime 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Effects on Watching Anime on Individual Habits and Attitudes. Effects of Watching Anime Introduction I. Background of the Study Anime is a type of cartoon but rather, it is complex, . mature, broader, and even the animation drawing is on third person essay Combe a higher level than that of article writing for kids Combe School a mere cartoon. Anime , which originated in Japan, is drawn by person essay writing a “Mangaka” (artist) into manga (comic) drafts. These drafts are then rearranged, colored and synchronized by a hundred of staff. After the sequencing, a “Seiyuu” (Voice Actor) will give life to article writing for kids School the character. Essay Writing Combe School! One second of movement needs. Animation , Animax , Anime 1234 Words | 4 Pages.
I INTRODUCTION Most of the teenagers, children or even adults are watching anime . Some of them are watching Anime in . a private way that can make them understand and concentrate to the story, but there are times that it is watched by group, they say that it is more fun to watch Anime with friends or even strangers, but the more the article writing Monkton School audience the more the interruption. Japanese animation is called Anime . The word is the abbreviated pronunciation of animation in Japanese, where this term. Animation , Anime , Astro Boy 721 Words | 5 Pages. Title: Anime and Manga, Japanese Foreign Language Students, Authors: Spindler, William Jay . Pub.Date: October 2011 Source: Japanese Foreign Language amp; Literature;2011, Vol. Person Writing Monkton! 45 Issue 2, p408 Source Type: Academic Journal Doc. Type: Abstract . Anime , Culture , High culture 646 Words | 2 Pages. roughdraft WR 122 September 2 Anime subculture It was a chilly October afternoon and I saw something orange in the corner of my eye that . would change my life forever.
I found a crooked orange poster on University/Fraser College - NAVITAS a door window at the end of the person essay writing Combe School hallway. The poster read, “All is welcome, come join us in writing an essay University the Anime manga club.” Anime is a subculture developed around Japanese animation. Anime subculture help people obtain a more fulfilling life with its overly friendly environment; which allows all types of. Anime , Anime convention , Cosplay 1140 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech: Japanese fiction works are better than Western ones. individualistic, expressive and sentimental if we can judge them from their works of person School fiction who surpass our own in literature coursework Hebron various aspects Introduction: I. How . Essay Writing! other countries think of Japan II. Thesis statement III. Reminding the meaning of the essay writing of Groningen Group) terms manga and anime Body: I. First argument: Japan's tendency to mix various influences from all over the world A.Japan borrows various foreign things and merges them with other elements B.Example regarding religion of Japan C.This tendency in regards to fiction.
Anime , Culture of Japan , Japan 1769 Words | 7 Pages. Anime: Transforming American Pop-Culture. The modern age of Anime arrived in Japan in the 1960s, and over the course of the next decade or so boomed into the giant robot, space battle . genre bender that we would soon recognize as the anime of today. Evolving over the next 30 years or so, it reached a peak where it could begin to overtake and become an integral part of other cultures, much like the Hollywood of the writing Monkton 1930s quickly grew to encompass the rest of the world and inform their pop culture. In the same manner, American pop culture becomes. A.D. Vision , Anime , Anime Network 1220 Words | 4 Pages.
developing your characters through battles. Business Article Simon International College - NAVITAS! You could say that it was the third person essay writing Monkton Combe root of my interest in the otaku culture, in which it spawned an article for kids Monkton, eagerness to see . Essay Writing Monkton! what else it has to offer. Essays! In my experience I have discovered animes , such as Akira, and started renting VHS copies of writing Monkton Combe different anime movies. When I was even younger I collected and writing for kids Monkton Combe School, sold Pokemon cards, practically a Westernized-revolution in the late 1990s. I suppose I can consider myself an third essay writing Monkton School, otaku, however I regulate my interests and typically don’t. Anime , Cosplay , Hayao Miyazaki 2450 Words | 6 Pages. Types of Anime Convention Attendees. Ruby Perkins Mr. Townsend ENG 111-07 February 22, 2012 Anime Convention Attendees Thesis: Upon study of people who attend . anime conventions, besides the writing Combe School normal crowd, there are six types of person essay Monkton Combe people to watch for: The “Classic Cosplayer,” the “Homemade Cosplayer,”the “went all out,” the otaku, the parents, and an essay of Southampton, the “Total Redo.” I. Introduction A. Lead in B. Thesis II. The “Classic Cosplayer” A. Writing Monkton! Is particular about details B. Outfit is just like character’s down to shoes . Anime , Anime and manga terminology , Cosplay 1089 Words | 4 Pages. ? Goals and Objectives To determine the negative effects of watching anime . To determine the positive effects of watching . anime . TOPIC History of anime Why students like watching anime ? Factors that urge student to watch anime Anime Addiction: Causes and Effects on Students Why some students became obsessed after watching anime ? Positive and negative effects Introduction Anime is narrative essays Lancing, a type of cartoon but rather, it is complex, mature, broader, and even.
Anime , Comic book , Comics 927 Words | 5 Pages. Madman Entertainment NA Viz Media UK Viz Media Demographic Shonen Magazine Weekly Shonen Jump English magazine NA Shonen Jump (formerly) Weekly . Shonen Jump (currently) Original run November 1999 – ongoing Volumes 66 (List of volumes) Anime television series Directed by Hayato Date Written by Katsuyuki Sumisawa Junki Takegami Music by essay Musashi Project Toshio Masuda Studio Studio Pierrot Licensed by AUS Madman Entertainment NA Viz Media UK Manga Entertainment Network. Anime , Dragon Ball , Manga 827 Words | 6 Pages. Otaku : Its Effect to essays Teenagers Otaku is the people who obsessed with anime , manga and video games. These kinds of people usually are not . being ignored by other people and are called ‘freak’ and Monkton Combe School, ‘different’. Literature! Japan is person writing School, famous in College producing anime , manga and video games. Third Person Essay Writing Monkton School! For those who love watching these type of entertainments are called ‘otaku’ and this name was well-known around the english essay University (Study Group) world. Nowadays, many otaku are living among us although we did not even realize about third person essay writing, it. Most of otaku are children. Affect , Anime , Culture of business article Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS Japan 979 Words | 3 Pages. popularity of Japanese animation in America.
Japanese animation, also known as Japanimation or anime , the Japanese word for cartoon, . composes a major portion of the entertainment industry in Japan. It is a distinctive animation style, involving more detail and third person essay writing Monkton Combe School, precision in as english literature coursework making the human characters generally more realistic in appearance, behavior, and movement. In addition to the human characters, anime boasts a rather unique and rather large set of nonhuman characters, such as talking cats, aliens. Animation , Anime , Hentai 2702 Words | 7 Pages. geisha(??), ?It’s home of big companies such as Sony, Toyota and Nintendo. ?It’s home of the most known Role Playing Games such as Final Fantasy and . Third Essay Monkton Combe! Dragon Quest. Article For Kids School! ?Of its popular music. Japanese music is starting to trend world widely. ?Of the Anime . Being pretty popular; Ranma 1/2 , Shin-chan, Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and more ?Of the Manga, a Japanese comic, trends in its country and outside it. ?Japanese fashion styles are having a big impact in many countries. ?Of the feared Yakuza mafia. Anime , Cosplay , Culture of Japan 1619 Words | 5 Pages. The market also emphasize food, clothing and artisanal products reflective of the ethnicities in School their respective regions. One day, I gave the market . fashion style a little twist.
I wore my two Cosplay attire. School! I acted as a customer wearing my Anime costume, a school girl at first, and roam around the market. Essay Writing! After the school girl attire, I change my outfit into something more artistic, something like a warrior. I choose the help an essay gamer attire with a weapon. I greet the people with greetings like it. Anime , Clothing , Cosplay 974 Words | 3 Pages.
is not unusual to see genders switched because some are known for choosing characters to be portrayed based on the attractiveness of their costume and even . on how revealing it was. The characters chosen to be cosplayed are often based on manga’s, anime , comic books, video games and person Monkton, even films. (“Definition of Cosplay”, n.d.) Cosplay did not really start in Japan as most us knew and it is article Monkton Combe School, not an original concept of the Japanese. It is true that the actual word “cosplay” was coined by third person essay a Japanese reporter. Anime , Cosplay , Costume design 2041 Words | 11 Pages. other offices, but another means was put in use - products of pop-culture. According to Peng Er Lam, the production and global consumption of Monkton Combe . Third Person Essay Monkton! anime (cartoons) and writing introduction Braemar, manga (comics) was ruled not by person School the government. Their growing popularity and influence were very beneficial to Japan's economy. This in witnessed by one simple example -advance of the writing introduction anime Sailormoon. The anime's success favored not only the sale of manga and dolls featuring main characters but encouraged TV-Shows, Musicals and. Anime , Culture , Diplomacy 1497 Words | 5 Pages. How do story telling techniques in Japanese animation differ to the western tradition?
techniques in Japanese comic media differ to the western tradition? The differences between the Eastern, Anime and third person writing Combe, Manga and the Western, . Comic and Cartoon counterparts are clear from the article for kids Combe outset. Apart from the obvious contrast in styles, there are many more distinctions that can be made between the two. The words Anime and third person essay Monkton, Manga refer to two separate and help writing University of Southampton, distinct, but interrelated things. Person Essay Writing Combe! The word Anime is business article Simon, used to describe Animation of Japan, similar to the animation made popular in third School America, by companies. Anime , Comic book , Comic strip 2103 Words | 6 Pages. Manga and Its Impact on article for kids Monkton the World.
boost to third person writing Monkton Combe its economy. Writing Combe! Manga is not just limited to printed form. These series are converted into video mode and are broadcasted like any other serial. These . types of serials are known as anime and third person essay Monkton, they not only increase the channel viewership but also provide a great boost to their respective published works. Anime and manga are increasingly gaining acceptance and popularity in foreign markets like USA, France and UK, among others. As English Literature Coursework Hebron! 3.0 Educational impact Manga, just like other comics also has a huge. Anime , Comics , Graphic novel 948 Words | 3 Pages. Beyond Reality: It Has Its Own Imapcts. 12, 2013 Reaction Paper Eng 10 – TH3 The Impacts of a World beyond Reality Crunchyroll, one of the third person writing Monkton School biggest international online communities focusing on . Article International - NAVITAS! anime and manga, had a forum about the negative effects of anime in the lives of the members themselves. Essay Monkton Combe! Many participants answered that most of their time were spent at watching animes or reading mangas. As a result, they became sleep deprived.
In the worse case, they flunked at some of literature Academy their subjects in essay Combe school because of not putting enough. Adult Swim , Animax , Anime 871 Words | 3 Pages. Germany. It is capable of procedural and polygonal modeling, animating, lighting, texturing, rendering, and common features found in 3d modeling . applications. Writing For Essay College! This is a 4d animation ball found in third person essay writing Monkton Combe School the software “Create An eyeball” Which is used in most anime movies.
China and their Animation styles-Chinese animations today can best be described in two categories. The first type are Conventional Animations produced by corporations of well-financed entities. These content falls along the business article Simon University/Fraser International lines of traditional. 3D computer graphics , Animation , Anime 777 Words | 3 Pages. The Live-Action Films Based on Japanese Popular Manga. based on Japanese manga. It is well known all over the world that Japanese animation has high-quality CG skill and essay writing Monkton School, it is often awarded a prize.
Therefore, . Help Of Southampton! some producers or directors are motivated to create new films influenced by Japanese manga or anime culture. In addition, Hollywood can expend bigger budget for creating films than Japan, so they would get interest in making the live-action films based on manga sharing the unique view of the person writing Combe world. Grammar Writing University Of Groningen Group)! The live-action versions based on manga are created. Anime , Dragon Ball , Dragonball Evolution 2621 Words | 7 Pages. beautiful woman is pretty much always the same unless the age is radically different than the last or she is simply unattractive. Third School! Long black hair, big eyes, . a small nose, and a simple mouth are the standard for pretty women in this book, and unlike anime shows where characters have crazy orange hair and involve different ethnicities, here everyone looks very typically Japanese and uniform. I believe this harkens more to english grammar writing of Groningen (Study the older classic Japanese stories where drawings of third person Combe characters were all very.
Anime , Culture of english grammar essay of Groningen Group) Japan , Manga 1185 Words | 3 Pages. Purinsesu Sera?),Sally, also known as Little Princess Sara(h) is a 1985 Japanese anime series produced by Nippon Animation, based on Frances . Hodgson Burnett's novel, A Little Princess. Third Essay Writing Combe School! Spanning 46 episodes It was also aired in numerous countries worldwide and translated into writing narrative essays Lancing College several languages, including French, Italian, German, Arabic and Spanish. In the Pan-Arab region, it became the most successful anime based on a novel adaptation in the 90s with small variation in which the main character. A Little Princess , Anime , Boarding school 689 Words | 3 Pages. f Dragon Ball Z (???????Z(???) Doragon Boru Zetto?, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) is the long-running anime sequel to . the Dragon Ball TV series, adapted from the final twenty-six volumes of the Dragon Ball manga written by Akira Toriyama. Third Person Writing! The manga portion of the business article Simon International - NAVITAS series debuted in Weekly Shonen Jump in October 24, 1988 and lasted until 1995; the anime adaptation premiered in Japan on Fuji Television on April 26, 1989, taking over its predecessor's time slot, and ran until its. Akira Toriyama , Anime , Dr.
Slump 516 Words | 4 Pages. them. Tezuka doesn’t usually incorporate happy ending and his mangas often have a much deeper meaning such as nature and essay Monkton Combe School, peace between humans and the . environment. Tezuka was known as the writing for kids Monkton Combe “Master of Manga” in Japan and was the man who started the third person writing Combe School anime craze around the world and in his honour a museum has been set up in Japan, showcasing Tezuka’s best works and information about his early life and article for kids Combe School, work. Both of the third person essay School artists l have chosen may have been born 200 years apart and lived in different. Anime , Black Jack , Francisco Goya 1207 Words | 3 Pages. Japan Soft Diplomacy to Indonesia. culture, which has a unique characteristic is one example of a country that managed to spread its culture to different countries. Some examples of Japan's . Narrative Essays Lancing! cultural influence can be seen in other countries are the comics (Manga), a cartoon or animation ( Anime ), and Japan. Essay! With the uniqueness of each respective form of culture Japan managed to spread the influence of the culture not only in the region of East Asia, but also enter the narrative area of Southeast Asia, and one of the essay writing Combe countries in Southeast Asia that. Anime , Asia , Culture 1973 Words | 6 Pages.
Hayao Miyazaki's Spirited Away and Japaneseness. ?N. K. Narrative Essays! Sabherwal Japanese Culture 2.24.14 Hayao Miyazaki’s Spirited Away and Japaneseness Japan is a country rich in third person writing Combe tradition and culture. Hayao . Article Writing For Kids Combe! Miyazaki, the face of Japanese anime film world wide, has displayed this culture and Japanese value(s) throughout his career in many of his films. Spirited Away (2001) is arguably his most famous and successful film to date. Essay Monkton Combe! Throughout the as english literature Academy film, there are numerous displays of “Japaneseness.” The themes present in the film represent the value. Anime , Culture of Japan , Hayao Miyazaki 1341 Words | 7 Pages. Japanese comics/manga such as Dragon Ball, Detective Conan and essay writing Monkton Combe School, many more had been adapted into cartoons and literature, they had been called “ anime ”. . Japanese made manga, anime and video games as their industry which it spread to the whole world. The Americans, Europeans, Latinos, Asians and all races enjoyed anime or Japanese related games and manga. Compared to Korean, Japanese anime , manga and game products are more successful in many countries.
Furthermore, some successful manga were adapted into dramas such. Actor , Anime , Drama 876 Words | 3 Pages. Berserk Golden Age Arc I: the Egg of the King (2012) Film Review. recognised for its excellence in Japan and throughout the world, winning the outstanding award at the sixth installment of Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize in . 2002. It should come as no surprise that the manga has been constantly at the top of the best anime list globally. Beware, Berserk is third essay Monkton, not an ordinary series. It is hard, violent, and not easy to follow. There are no flashbacks constantly reminding you of what happened before, no fill-in episodes, no sweetening of the article for kids School pill. Third Person Writing Monkton! It is a solid punch.
A Story , Animation , Anime 1339 Words | 4 Pages. Japan: a Country of Changes (Rough Draft) between their way of living and ours are so extreme that elaborating on narrative them would be unquestionably captivating. In Quebec, the third essay Combe School Japanese culture is not . taught, nor considered important. Writing Narrative Essays Lancing! International sides of it are showed on television, such as Animes or movies but, what is mostly known about Japan is their peculiar modern culture. I believe educating people on this country’s history would surely bring understanding on third person writing Combe School the subject and hopefully encourage a more positive attitude toward the differences.
Anime , Edo period , Empire of Japan 2242 Words | 6 Pages. The Influence of Videogames on Global Cultures. Paradise The gaming culture is Fraser College - NAVITAS, so great in Japan that there is even an entire district of Tokyo dedicated to the videogame industry. Akihabara, Akiba for . short, is home to stores and third person essay writing Combe, shops that sell nothing but electronics, software, manga (comics), anime (cartoons), and videogames. One can virtually find anything in Akiba from writing for essay College, electronic junk to third Combe ancient mechanical parts to the latest technology (Machiyama 88). Electronic shops of every size can be found around Akihabara Station and down Chuo Dori. Anime , Culture of Japan , Game 2226 Words | 7 Pages. plots, compelling characters and breathtaking animation in his films have earned him international renown from Braemar College, critics as well as public recognition within . Monkton Combe! Japan. Miyazaki is probably one of the most influential directors of Japanese animation - or anime - of all time, with his distinctive drawing style and University/Fraser International, strong story-telling prevailing in all of his works to essay Combe date, hailing him as an writing for kids School, auteur. His distinguished style of directing is what sets him apart from other filmmakers giving almost all of essay writing Combe his.
Anime , Film director , Hayao Miyazaki 1129 Words | 3 Pages. Extemporaneous speech outline and speech with Cosplay as topic. to show their love for an anime , game, or whatever or whoever they are trying to portray. Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS! “First, it is an outlet or a channel of self . expression especially for otakus to person essay Monkton Combe School show their love for an anime , game, or whatever or whoever they are trying to business article University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS portray. As for person essay Combe me, my love for anime started with the influence of my brother during our childhood which I carried on until I discovered the wonderful world of cosplay. By then, through cosplaying, I show my love for anime . B. Cosplaying gives them. Anime , Cosplay , Crossplay 1696 Words | 5 Pages. The word anime , contrary to popular belief, is not the Japanese word for animation. Though the word is used in Japan to business Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS describe animation, . Writing School! it is actually derived from as english literature Hebron, a French word. Writing Monkton! Anime in the U.S. Article Monkton Combe School! refers specifically to Japanese animation, which in and of itself is a unique style of storytelling and film making. In the United States, where animation and film are separated mediums, in essay Monkton Combe School Japan they are one in the same.
The cinematography and further elements of professional film making are all. Animation , Anime , Dubbing 663 Words | 2 Pages. the love you have for a character by being them through costume. There are many misconceptions about cosplay. One of them is the misunderstanding that . cosplay is just about anime . I have mentioned earlier that cosplay is the writing narrative act of embodying a character or person you admire. It doesn’t have to be limited to anime . Since the start of the Star Trek fandom, there have been people dressed up as their favourite characters and acting like them.
Maybe even before that. As long as you have the true. Anime , Cosplay , Crossplay 1007 Words | 3 Pages. An Analysis of person essay Monkton Combe Anime Audiences Using Spectacle Reistance Paradigm. The Analysis of Anime audiences using Spectacle Performance Paradigm In this essay I shall be examining the Spectacle Performance Paradigm’s . (SPP) capability in successfully accessing anime audiences as a subculture and as users of alternative media. Writing Narrative Essays Lancing! Anime - “ Anime ” is the French abbreviation for animation, a word that the Japanese adopted to describe all animation.
In America, “ anime ” specifically refers to the Japanese product, and is used for both the singular and the plural, Leonard, S (2004:5). Anime , Anime and manga fandom , Anime club 2284 Words | 7 Pages. costume play, is a type of performance art in which the participants make and wear costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea. This . is essay writing Monkton, also considered a type of role playing. Favorite sources for these costumes include manga , anime , books, TV shows, comic books, video games, and films. In cosplay, even inanimate objects are given life and personalities, and it is not unusual to english grammar University of Groningen (Study see genders switched, with women playing male characters and vice versa. This is called crossplaying. Anime , Comiket , Cosplay 1075 Words | 3 Pages.
cartoon-like figure characters in third essay writing Monkton most of his work because he believed that there are “secret of market survivability” in introduction for essay the U.S. culture (Takashi) . Even . Essay Monkton School! though he studied Nihonga, which is traditional Japanese art, when he was young, he “combines Japanese anime and manga images, high fashion, and Nihon-ga (Japanese-style) paintings of the nineteenth” (208). Therefore, Murakami is often classified as a pop artist. He is inspired by popular culture, choosing subjects from such sources as cartoons, so his art. Anime , Edward Hopper , Emotion 1844 Words | 5 Pages. he worked as various roles in the animation industry. In 1968, Miyazaki met Isao Takahata while working as chief animator, concept artist, and scene . designer on the anime Hols: Prince of the Sun, whom became his valuable and intimate partner in his later career. In 1979, Miyazaki was finally able to as english coursework Academy direct his first feature anime film, Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro.
Lupin III: The Castle of person essay School Cagliostro may not be as famous as Miyazaki’s later works; however, it has brought Miyazaki the first. Animation , Anime , Hayao Miyazaki 1867 Words | 5 Pages. Animes *Disclaimer* Before? suggesting an Anime keep in as english literature coursework mind the third person Monkton anime should be able to fit ? YouTube’s . policies. Any animes suggested that are too violent or sexual will remain on the list, but will not be featured in a video. Try to writing of Groningen (Study suggest an anime I will enjoy ? and? react well too. Every anime on person writing Monkton Combe School The List has been looked into by me. This takes a lot of time out of my day, there are literally 50+ animes to grammar writing University go through so far, and I have to third person writing take time out of my day to look through each one.
Adult Swim , Animax , Anime distributed by Madman Entertainment 387 Words | 5 Pages. which are painted on for use in traditional 2D animation. It may be considered a 2.5D form of article for kids Combe School animation. True real-time cell-shading was first introduced in third person essay writing Monkton . 2000 by as english literature Hebron Academy Sega's Jet Set Radio for third person Monkton Combe their Dreamcast console. Besides video games, a number of anime have also used this style of animation, such as Freedom Project in Academy 2006.
CGI Animated humans Most CGI created films are based on animal characters, monsters, machines or cartoon-like humans. Third Writing! Animation studios are now trying to develop ways of creating. Animation , Anime , Computer animation 1176 Words | 4 Pages. ?The first years Anime dates back to the birth of Japan’s own film industry in the early 1900s, and help an essay of Southampton, has emerged as one of Japan’s major . School! cultural forces over the past century. Much of the business article Simon Fraser University/Fraser International work done in these early years was not the cel animation technique that would come to person writing Combe School be the dominant production technique, but a host of other methods: chalkboard drawings, painting directly on the film, paper cut-outs, and so on. One by one, many of the technologies used today were added to Japanese animated.
Animation , Anime , Hayao Miyazaki 5729 Words | 15 Pages. ?Introduction Anime refers to the animation style originated in Japan. Business Article Simon - NAVITAS! It is characterized by person essay School distinctive characters and backgrounds, . hand-drawn or computer-generated that visually and thematically set it apart from other forms of writing College animation. Storylines may include a variety of fictional or historical characters, events, and settings. Third Person Essay Monkton Combe School! Anime is aimed at writing introduction for essay College, a broad range of essay writing School audiences and consequently, a given series may have aspects of writing introduction for essay Braemar College a range of genres. Anime is most frequently broadcasted on television. Anime , Japan , Manga 464 Words | 1 Pages.
Anime (ah-NIH-may) is a term for Japanese animation. Anime often covers more serious topics than the typical cartoon. In America, . cartoons are considered a form of entertainment meant for children. In Japan, people of third person essay writing Monkton all ages watch anime . Most shows and movies are centered for writing introduction College kids, adolescents, or young adults, but there are also many anime that are made for the older crowd, even businessmen. There are many genres in anime with basic categories like comedy, romance, action, drama, and pornography. Animation , Anime , Art 448 Words | 2 Pages. HISTORY OF ANIME : Osamu Tezuka ________________________________________ (picture) Dr. Osamu Tezuka: Legend. by Brian . Cirulnick Walt Disney of Japan, God of Comics, A Legend in his Own Time. Many of these phrases will forever be used to describe Dr. Tezuka, but mere words cannot even begin to describe his work, or how it changed an industry, or even the incredible wealth of material produced by this one man. Third Person Essay Writing Monkton School! As I began to research this article, friends sent me copies of.
Animation , Anime , Astro Boy 2688 Words | 9 Pages. Neighbor Totoro . In 1958 Miyazaki became interested in help writing an essay University of Southampton animated movies, his imagination having been stirred by Hakujaden (Legend of the White Snake), a . motion picture that was produced by Toei Animation and was Japan's first color feature-length anime . At that time, however, Miyazaki wanted to be not an animator but a comic-book artist. He majored in economics and third person essay writing Monkton, political science at Gakushuin University, graduating in 1963, but his heart was in the arts, especially as they appealed to children;. Animation , Anime , Culture 672 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Japanese are well-known worldwide as the writing narrative Lancing original Gods of person essay Combe School anime ---- short of dynamism Coming from a nation concealed for many years . depressed of food oil after the writing essays World War-II, the Japanese had delivered their desire to be competitors of the world, their anime seriesGundam’s or giant robots, are designed to create destruction dehumanization of all evil forcesin the world, mirrors this attitude to a large limit.
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essay japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of third essay Combe School, a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an grammar essay University of Groningen Group), era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.
According to third writing Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Braemar College! Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period. Essay Writing Monkton Combe School! Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the english grammar University Group) century was one of third person essay Monkton School, unparalleled development.”
What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by for essay College (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on person Monkton School, politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the narrative essays Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of violence and conflict.
During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. By the person writing School end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).
Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Writing College! Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician. His talent and ambition had allowed him to essay rise from a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.
At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo).
Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to war once again in as english coursework Hebron Academy, 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the essay Monkton School roots of potential dissent and rebellion. In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by article writing for kids Monkton School dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.
The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in third person essay Combe, the way the early shoguns distributed land to introduction Braemar College their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).
Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the third person essay writing Monkton “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to of Southampton both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. Writing Monkton! In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. Article! For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and person essay writing, raw materials for the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and business University/Fraser International, children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in Edo. Third Monkton! There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the help writing an essay of Southampton same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit.
They issued their own law codes and third essay writing Combe School, administered justice. Writing Introduction For Essay! Some printed and person Monkton, circulated their own currency. The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Help Writing An Essay Of Southampton! Of these, perhaps none is person essay writing Monkton Combe School more striking than the contrast between the writing introduction Braemar College Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the third person writing Monkton School ideal economic system and Lancing College, the reality of economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the third Combe shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to Hebron Academy give a good portion of their products in tax to support the ruling classes.
Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in third Combe, the agricultural sector.
But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. The samurai class, who were forbidden from english grammar University of Groningen (Study Group) engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and person writing Monkton Combe, attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.
At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to essay University market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600.
Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the third person Monkton Combe years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only Braemar College farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to essay writing School increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the writing an essay University people. This trend can be seen in person writing Monkton Combe, the significant rise in business Simon Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the essay year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million.
The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million. These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in writing narrative College, the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the third essay writing Monkton Combe School early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus.
That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in narrative Lancing College, Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.
Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and person Monkton Combe School, eastern Japan. Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the writing Braemar minting and use of coinage and to standardize currency. Third Writing Monkton! In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy.
Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in article Fraser University/Fraser International College, headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Essay Writing Monkton Combe! Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades.
The emergence of castle towns and later of writing University of Groningen (Study Group), cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of essay writing School, their lords. The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into article for kids Monkton Combe School, urban areas.
Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to third person writing Monkton School fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and for kids Monkton, temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. Person Writing Monkton School! By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.
As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. English Writing (Study Group)! By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of third writing, China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. As English Literature Hebron! It grew to 120,000 in 1710.
Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by third essay Monkton 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in University (Study, trade, markets, and third person essay Monkton, urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in Hebron, rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.
This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Person Essay Writing! Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in writing introduction for essay Braemar, farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to person writing Combe School borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Article! Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to third person writing Combe School scrimp and save while merchants prospered.
Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to literature coursework Academy shore up the political and moral order by elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the third writing Monkton Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the writing Lancing College early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at essay School, the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at essays College, stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Writing Monkton! Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai.
More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of writing narrative essays College, power. Third Monkton Combe! These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the end, economic growth in writing Combe School, the Tokugawa period favored commoners over third person essay writing Monkton the elite.
The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about article for kids School, commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and third person Monkton Combe, food shortage. But the Hebron new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art. Person Combe! While the new style borrowed aspects of essays Lancing, elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in third Combe School, finery that exceeded that of introduction Braemar College, samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and person essay School, restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters.
However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Writing Narrative Lancing! Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the third person School mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for writing an essay University of Southampton a little extra cash. Then a merchant redeemed them and third person Combe, paraded around the article University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to person Monkton Combe School their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan.
Not until the Tokugawa period did the business Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by third person writing Monkton School the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.
Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and introduction Braemar College, professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in essay Combe School, plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to School meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and third person essay writing School, expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners.
Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to an essay University stay away, samurai were frequent clients in third person writing School, the pleasure quarters. They attempted to writing disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and third essay Monkton Combe School, sacrifice inherent in writing introduction Braemar College, such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an third, offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?
Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the for essay College early modern world, literacy varied widely.
Variations occurred by class and third person writing Combe, occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by english essay writing University gender. Writing Combe School! The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and help writing University, commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. Essay Writing Combe School! They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and writing, philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to third person essay Monkton School spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and University of Groningen (Study Group), women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.
These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Third Person Writing Combe! Learning moved out of the religious establishments and narrative Lancing, private academies and into much more accessible venues. Third Essay School! In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high. Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.
While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and writing an essay University of Southampton, poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of person writing Monkton Combe, thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and english of Groningen Group), widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. Third Person Essay Monkton Combe School! The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy.
Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the article writing Combe School population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. Third Essay Writing School! These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is writing unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of third essay writing Monkton School, great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class.
As we have noted, however, commoners in business article Fraser College - NAVITAS, the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of third essay, correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only english essay University of Groningen Group) among samurai, but also among the third writing Combe upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS! Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of third essay Monkton School, around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Grammar Essay Of Groningen (Study Group)! Their numbers varied over time and by region.
They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. Third Person Combe! The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and article writing for kids Monkton Combe School, understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and third person essay writing Combe School, education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.
In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for article for kids dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the third writing Monkton Combe samurai.
This kind of help writing University of Southampton, “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the Combe nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and article Combe School, death. Person Essay Combe! The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the writing essays Lancing country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the third School great Qing empire in help an essay, China was decimated by the British in essay writing School, the first Opium Wars of business Simon International - NAVITAS, 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.
The Japanese had already fended off advances by third person Monkton School the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the introduction for essay Braemar College Americans would try their hand at third person writing School, “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. Article Fraser University/Fraser International! naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from third person School U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Essay Of Groningen (Study! Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to third essay writing School trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the english essay writing University shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.
In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in essay Monkton, spite of the english of Groningen emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s. Writing Monkton Combe School! Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces.
Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in for essay, place of the Combe School old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. Essays! He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Third Essay Writing! Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).
Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on business article Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College, Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and third writing Monkton Combe School, Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from narrative essays Lancing College Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Combe School Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. Fraser University/Fraser! 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of third person essay Combe School, Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in article writing for kids Monkton Combe, aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is person Combe important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of grammar writing University of Groningen (Study Group), population or economy, varied considerably in terms of geographic region. Third Writing Combe! In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo.
By contrast, the most economically backward and an essay University of Southampton, poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in person essay Monkton Combe, the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and article writing Combe, Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and Monkton Combe School, the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of writing introduction Braemar College, popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. Third Essay Writing Combe! 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of business article Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, Europeans lived in writing Monkton School, cities of over writing introduction Braemar 100,000.
This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on third person essay, the debate on as english literature Academy, merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. Person Writing Monkton! 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to reproduce this essay for University of Southampton classroom use only.
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