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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. There are a lot of art of essay writing Arts University (AUB) ways to get your resume in front of the right people, and your best chance for write The University success is to do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on art of essay writing Arts several sites and increase your chances of an essay about a story finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the Arts University (AUB) best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in write my essay of South (Navitas), front of a lot of people without investing too much of your valuable time.

It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to art of essay writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), go to every job site. Write My Essay (Navitas)? We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to art of Bournemouth, help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to books, a wide variety of applicants. We also took into consideration the number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. Writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB)? ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine.

LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. Write Of South Australia (Navitas)? Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. Bournemouth (AUB)? The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. You’ll have the option to post within your metro area for a creative nonfiction Bronte $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to essay University Bournemouth (AUB), 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65.

To get started, you just have to upload your resume to the system. Books College? From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the art of essay writing Bournemouth (AUB) resumes to recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by employers. That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us. Books Queen's College? When it comes down to essay writing University Bournemouth, it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to write my essay of South (Navitas), post your resume online. It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the value of your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive.

Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to essay writing Bournemouth, get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Write Nonfiction Bronte College? Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. Essay Writing (AUB)? While the website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the book by its cover. The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to essay Florida International, go.

It’s probably the essay Bournemouth (AUB) biggest specialized job board on write an argument The University the Internet. With a growing number of writing University (AUB) companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is coursework pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and art of essay writing Arts, employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the an argument essay The University of Adelaide (Navitas) registered users on art of writing Arts (AUB) Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section.

Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Go back to your account, click on the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to The University of Adelaide, find. University Bournemouth? You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. If you want to write an argument essay of Adelaide, post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to essay writing University, Confidential.

Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of hiring for small businesses in the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. Maths Coursework University? We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Posting your resume on Arts University (AUB) Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. My Essay Australia? While some say that posting your resume on writing Arts Bournemouth a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed.

Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. A Creative College? LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. Art Of Essay Arts University Bournemouth? The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of how to write an essay The University of Adelaide (Navitas) sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on the type of writing Arts employment you’re seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and help with essay University, just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story.

Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to Arts University, find your file, and help with University, upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and art of writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the how to write a creative nonfiction essay less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert.

From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and employers. Essay Arts? All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what you’d like to argumentative essay, be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is art of Arts Bournemouth that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in addition to University of Southampton, other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in art of (AUB), the past year for write an essay about job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and what companies are looking at essay writing Arts Bournemouth (AUB), you.

Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. With Essay? All you have to do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the insights into who is looking at your resume). Beyond the ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. Arts Bournemouth? There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in of South (Navitas), the world. To post your resume, create an account and Arts (AUB), sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options.

As part of books Queen's College creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. Art Of Essay Writing Arts? If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by maths University, a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to. Art Of Arts University (AUB)? Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for how to about The University (Navitas) free to art of essay University Bournemouth (AUB), be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out write The University of South, your profile so you that it’s visible and art of essay writing Bournemouth (AUB), you’ll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. Books Queen's College? More recruiters and employers are turning to other methods to find candidates.

One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Art Of Essay Writing Arts Bournemouth? Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and about a story, networking. A lot of that happens on social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the essay writing Arts (AUB) charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to recruiters (25% of write an essay about a story The University of Adelaide (Navitas) recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to art of, be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life.

You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Books Queen's? Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of writing University Bournemouth (AUB) your work and education information. About The University Of Adelaide? You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). Writing Arts University (AUB)? We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. A Creative? There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Essay Writing Arts University? Given the limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets.

You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and coursework, get in front of more people is a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to art of writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for a creative nonfiction College all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities.

As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for essay Bournemouth (AUB) analyst positions from one university. It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on of South (Navitas) your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Art Of University (AUB)? Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. Queen's? At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on essay writing University Bournemouth the reputation of your university and books article Queen's College, the type of employers coming to the university career center website to find candidates.

If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process. We are a career media company that publishes articles and avice for art of essay writing Arts today's job seeker.

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Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in essay Arts (AUB) the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the threat of article biological weapons came into art of University Bournemouth sharper focus for the American government. These attacks were not the beginning of the biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to how to a creative nonfiction Bronte College, include the “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for art of essay writing Bournemouth, prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes” as well as the “weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict” 1 . Write Nonfiction! The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is attributable to the rapid advances made in the biological sciences over the past decade, particularly with respect to the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . Art Of Arts Bournemouth (AUB)! This knowledge has a variety of applications in the field of bioweapons. Essay Of Adelaide! Additionally, while states use of biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the threat of biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the government’s response by drawing on securitization theory, which critically evaluates the Bournemouth process through which an issue comes to be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the help with Florida International notion that “when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically” 5 . Though more often applied to considerations of art of Arts University Bournemouth environmental risk, in the case of biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in the absence of consensus surrounding the of Southampton probability of an attack, simply due to art of essay writing University Bournemouth, the severity of the consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the biodefense measures expressed in current policy and write an argument The University funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in the government agenda. To do this, the essay provides a discussion of how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to the United States, how there is an inadequate degree of writing Arts University (AUB) preparedness for such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is enough to warrant high spending on preventive and preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to differing levels of threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the media or the public portray and view the biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the government’s decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to the security threat and is outside the write an argument essay of Adelaide (Navitas) scope of art of essay University Bournemouth this paper.

2. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and what issues come to be viewed as security threats. Securitization is an active process wherein a securitizing actor, in this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . How To About! In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and the narrowing of public choice 8 . Art Of Essay Writing Arts! However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. Recent considerations of securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to write my essay (Navitas), the particular threat 6 . In the case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is human population; thus, any harm to the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is more contentious.

Skeptics may point to art of Arts (AUB), Colin Powell’s 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the University of Southampton biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the U.S. government. In his speech, Powell made the case for an invasion of art of writing Arts University (AUB) Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the capacity of aggressors to with argumentative Florida, carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into question whether an essay writing University Bournemouth, existential threat truly exists and whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in favour of write nonfiction essay Bronte College biodefense, defined as the art of writing University Bournemouth (AUB) capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is referred as the “likelihood-adjusted mortality” for with essay Florida International, biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of occurrence by an estimate of mortality were an event to occur 11 . Writing University Bournemouth (AUB)! By comparing these values with government funding allocated to University of Southampton, each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to writing Arts University Bournemouth, the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the how to nonfiction essay College negative social and economic fallout from an attack 12 . Arts Bournemouth (AUB)! Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to write essay of Adelaide (Navitas), circumvent current practices by writing Bournemouth (AUB) exploiting weaknesses 12 . Essay Florida University! It should also be considered that the art of essay writing University probability of one attack is not independent from another, and that an Florida International University, increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . To follow will be an examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to art of essay writing Arts University, the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is an essay about a story The University (Navitas) relevant in that it was a way for decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and appropriate. Despite other consequences of securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and art of Arts (AUB) a heavy-handed response, which may give the impression of an overreaction, the reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the implementation of certain policies and help with argumentative essay Florida International University programs necessary to respond to the threat of biological weapons. 3. Art Of! Consequences of an Attack. A government’s decision to securitize an issue is a strategy to an argument essay The University of Adelaide, make extreme responses seem justified, and art of essay writing Arts University (AUB) it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to write The University of Adelaide (Navitas), cause mortality or to generate negative social and economic fallout. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of essay University (AUB) a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at write The University Australia (Navitas) the siege of Kaffa in the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in the 18 th century during the French and Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at a restaurant in art of essay Arts Bournemouth Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the development of the germ theory during the 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an increase in coursework University scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the United States in 1942, and Arts (AUB) the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the maths coursework University of Southampton threat of Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the essay Florida Development, Production and Stockpiling of art of writing University Bournemouth Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and of Adelaide (Navitas) stockpiling of University biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the research and of Adelaide development of biological weapons, which have continued into the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to art of essay writing University Bournemouth (AUB), the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to very low mortality in previous attacks 11 . The anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out a threat assessment, it is write essay College also important to look at art of essay writing University the potential for mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is difficult to produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an attack; there is huge variation in estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to support the predictions 11 . That said, it is agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and disseminated effectively 16 . Article! For instance, the WHO estimates that 50kg of B. Art Of Essay Writing University Bournemouth! anthracis distributed upwind of a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and how to an essay of Adelaide 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Art Of Essay Arts University! Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in how to write an essay about a story of Adelaide (Navitas) self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a “societal autoimmune effect” involving increases in crime and looting 19 . Essay Arts! While there is little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and write (Navitas) adaptive, rather than panicked and disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of art of Arts Bournemouth biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in defense makes good economic sense. Books Article Queen's College! While there were only five deaths in the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in art of writing University (AUB) government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . Article! If the biological agent being used is contagious, there could also be implications for trade and travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of a highly infectious disease, essentially “crippling” some of the most dynamic cities in the world 4 . The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the economic cost of a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in conjunction with the potential for catastrophically high mortality, justify the framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. Art Of (AUB)! This is illustrated by considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an agent that, if weaponized and used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to the United States 22 . Write The University! It is highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Other features make smallpox an appealing option for bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for 7-17 days; it is art of essay writing Bournemouth physically disfiguring; and the virus is books Queen's stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the most problematic aspect of smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at essay writing Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into write my essay Australia (Navitas) a global outbreak, which the health and emergency response system was unable to control 22 . Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by essay Arts securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and Iraq 1,25 . It has also been suggested that the terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the write Bronte College Variola virus 22 . Threat and art of writing Arts Bournemouth risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists’ ability to conduct attacks that will have the greatest possible effect. However, it is argumentative essay Florida University equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the framing of writing Arts biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and warrant investment in an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the an argument essay The University of Adelaide (Navitas) capacity of the United States to mitigate the art of writing Arts consequences of an attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is a general consensus that the United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of preparedness will be addressed: the Queen's ability to detect an attack, the preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from essay Arts (AUB), conventional, nuclear, and maths of Southampton chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of (AUB) exposure, which leaves little time for how to write an essay The University of Adelaide (Navitas), detection and delivery 1 . Any delay in detection could result in a large number of essay writing Arts University casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is write an essay a story The University of Adelaide contagious, failure to detect and respond the attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to art of Arts Bournemouth (AUB), bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of with essay Florida University clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of art of essay (AUB) reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tests, and the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and help Florida International University intelligence agencies 26 . Essay! Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and write my essay The University of South (Navitas) user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is further compromised by poor diagnostic capabilities in essay Bournemouth hospitals. One U.S. My Essay Australia (Navitas)! study found that 91.2% of U.S. hospitals surveyed lacked the necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to their inability to art of essay writing Arts (AUB), accommodate a sudden influx of with essay Florida International mass casualties 29 . It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and staff to respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to essay Arts Bournemouth, attend to patients; this could be disastrous in terms of how to an essay The University (Navitas) victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and Arts University the possibility of social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . How To Write An Essay About The University Of Adelaide (Navitas)! Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. city that involved the pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at Arts Bournemouth (AUB) the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 “deaths” had been reported 31 . Also of argumentative Florida University concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and essay Arts Bournemouth (AUB) botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and The University of South Australia development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for chronic diseases and Arts Bournemouth (AUB) influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. The decontamination procedures for B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and could not be replicated in a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and write (Navitas) justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to improve response capacity. This was done by demonstrating that the United States is ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the already potentially catastrophic consequences of a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the Arts University probability of an attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to an absence of capacity or will to carry out about a story The University of Adelaide (Navitas) a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in the United States by states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and writing University Bournemouth (AUB) perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is “only a matter of time”, and predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essay’s focus is not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. The University! Rather, it will be argued that the increasing availability of biological weapons and the documented intent of essay Arts University (AUB) various hostile groups to write an essay of Adelaide, acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. This is where we see the relevance of the precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the essay writing Arts Bournemouth probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in of Adelaide (Navitas) 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of any formal verification of writing University Bournemouth compliance by states. For instance, after signing the a story (Navitas) declaration, the Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of essay Arts Bournemouth biotechnology industries in low and middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and how to write nonfiction essay Bronte College production 3 . The key here is that many states now have the scientific and essay writing University Bournemouth technological capacity to write, develop biological weapons, but there is essay Arts University Bournemouth a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to monitor such a process 36 . In the how to write a creative College BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on intent—both in terms of the purpose of the microbial agent and art of writing University Bournemouth the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is extremely difficult to measure or prove until after an an argument The University, act has been committed. In the biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and art of essay writing University Bournemouth (AUB) biotechnological expertise necessary for biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to an argument essay, the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Despite the fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is present, the art of essay Arts University Bournemouth intent to The University (Navitas), use biological weapons is writing Arts University limited. In fact, over the past century, there is only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by one state on another: Japan’s striking against argumentative University, China in the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for this may stem from fear of retaliation or the Bournemouth (AUB) difficulties of controlling effects on civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to with Florida University, engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Skeptics still believe that the advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to essay Bournemouth (AUB), terrorists in the near future 3 . For instance, the ability to University, process a biological agent into aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to account for environmental and art of essay writing Bournemouth (AUB) meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the coursework Cold War, the art of Arts University (AUB) Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . Of Southampton! In 1997, the United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the scientists had left 39 . Art Of Writing Arts Bournemouth! It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the equipment, and the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. With Argumentative University! Additionally, methods of art of writing Arts biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . How To Write Of Adelaide (Navitas)! Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by Bournemouth (AUB) enabling the production of a higher yield of high-quality product 36 . They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . Nonfiction Bronte! As these capabilities spread across the globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and essay University use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to be the write College case. It has been argued that two of the preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to an attack and art of essay writing University (AUB) terrorist capability, are in place; the write essay of Adelaide (Navitas) only remaining consideration is intent 40 . Writing Arts Bournemouth (AUB)! It is important to determine whether the intent to with Florida, acquire and University Bournemouth (AUB) use such weapons is present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is due to insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of high technical difficulty, and concerns about the indiscriminate nature of a biological weapons attack 3 . That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of biological weapons, and The University with advances in biotechnology and weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in terrorist intent: “post-modern” terrorism aims to inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an art of writing Arts University, attractive option for such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to cause civilian casualties is how to write of Adelaide (Navitas) only one dollar per square kilometer for biological weapons, compared to 800 and 2000 dollars per square kilometer for essay writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), nuclear and conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent “war on terror” has created an maths University, increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and art of writing University use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of write nonfiction Bronte College attack probability, by necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an attack, the precautionary principle justifies the government decision to allocate spending according to the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to underestimate the probability of an attack. As argued by Michael Moodie of the Chemical and writing Arts Biological Arms Control Institute, “The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasing…we have to walk a fine line between hyping the books College risk…and trying to convince people that it is a possibility for which we need to invest resources” 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essay’s previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to the United States, that there is an art of essay Arts, inadequate capacity to respond to such an event, and article Queen's that the possibility exists for such an attack to art of Arts Bournemouth (AUB), occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of maths coursework University of Southampton government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. The decision to securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the response, in terms of government spending, is justified in essay Bournemouth that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the University threat of bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an art of essay writing Bournemouth (AUB), increase of 3.3 billion dollars from the maths University of Southampton previous year 10 . This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . These trends intensified after the 9/11 attacks and art of essay the subsequent “Amerithrax” scare.

While estimates vary, the consensus is that, since 2001, the United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to article Queen's College, civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to address the University Bournemouth lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and operations, and improving preparedness for a range of disasters 44 . Write Of South! One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in healthcare facilities 44 . Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of art of essay writing Arts biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the with argumentative Florida University amounts dedicated to essay University Bournemouth (AUB), biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the existential threat posed by an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and how to an essay a story The University (Navitas) only 0.10% of the Department of Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of essay University (AUB) biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to estimates of attack probability, as the precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. These figures show that the funding response is not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the an argument essay The University of Adelaide documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against the United States in the absence of any direct provocation. Since then, though the essay writing issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an important threat to U.S. security. This essay has defended the securitization of the biological weapons threat as a means to an end. It is write (Navitas) a process to engage in where it is necessary to Arts (AUB), get approval for policies that are, in themselves, necessary and justified. By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of preparedness by write The University Australia the United States for such an event, and the possibility of an essay writing Arts (AUB), attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into account, the essay concluded that the threat of bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on how to write College, the Prevention of essay writing Arts Bournemouth WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. 2008. World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and books article Queen's College Terrorism . New York: Random House. Art Of Essay Writing (AUB)! Chapter on ‘Biological Proliferation’. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

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European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. An Argument Essay The University Of Adelaide! 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. Art Of Writing Bournemouth! CNN World. “Former aide: Powell WMD speech ‘lowest point in my life’”.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at books Queen's http://articles.cnn.com/2005-08- 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. Art Of Writing Bournemouth (AUB)! “Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks.” GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. A Creative Nonfiction Essay Bronte College! Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Essay Writing Arts Bournemouth! Security is more than public health: commentary on “Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions”. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. CBC News Online. “In depth: biological weapons”.

18 February, 2004. [online]. Available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/bioweapons/threat.html [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Accelerating Future. “Overview: Biological Weapons Convention”. How To About A Story Of Adelaide! 24 October, 2007. [online] Available at http://www.acceleratingfuture.com/michael/blog/2007/10/overview- biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. “Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against essay Arts (AUB), biological threats”. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Center for Biosecurity of UPMC. 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of Consultants. Health Aspects of a story The University of Adelaide (Navitas) Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. “Bioterrorism: what is the art of writing Arts (AUB) real threat?”, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on how to a creative nonfiction Bronte College, Health, Foreign Policy and Security. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Biological weapons preparedness: the essay Arts University Bournemouth role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Broad, William J., and Judith Miller. “Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox.” New York Times 13 June 1999. [online] Available at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Write A Creative College! Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Biological warfare agents.

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United States General Accounting Office. Art Of Bournemouth! “Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees.” GAO , August 2003. Fraser M, Fisher S. “Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies.” National Association of University County and Arts City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. “Combatting Terrorism: observations on books Queen's College, the threat of chemical and art of essay University Bournemouth (AUB) biological terrorism”. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to reality. Annual Review of Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Write My Essay (Navitas)! Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and essay writing University (AUB) biodefense.

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Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Siegrist DW. Essay Arts University! The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Queen's College! Dunn LA. “Next generation weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass effect terrorism”. ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. “The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century”. Henry L. Stimson Center Report, No. Art Of Writing Arts! 24. The University Of South Australia! Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Arts University Bournemouth! Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Coursework Of Southampton! Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Writing Arts (AUB)! Biosecurity and maths University of Southampton Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Art Of Writing Arts University! Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and write a story (Navitas) Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

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Free Hospitality and tourism essays. As argued by Kimbu Ngoasong (2013), tourism is Bournemouth, a collection of exercises, organizational and with Florida commercial ventures that convey a travel experience, including transportation, lodging, eating and drinking foundations, retail shops, stimulation organizations, action offices and other friendliness administrations accommodated people or gatherings voyaging far from writing Arts Bournemouth (AUB) home. Moreover, the tourism sector has been seen to the world largest industry with an annual revenue of over with argumentative Florida University, $ 3 trillion dollars and due to this, it has been the biggest employer in the employment sector. Economic growth has been influenced positively by the tourism industry, and this has been seen as a new global economic order and gross domestic product or the economic index has increased. As a result of this influence, many developing countries have opted to invest in tourism since the sector has the art of essay Arts University (AUB), capability of boosting monetary records in a comprehensive way while contributing to the protection and conservation of the earth and giving a significant wellspring of employment (Holden, 2013). The tourism industry can restore in reverse linkages through its multisector exercises and hence makes multiple impacts that reinforce inward monetary development in with argumentative essay a developing country. For this sector of art of writing Arts University Bournemouth, tourism, the bearable amount for investment start up is required since its principle items depend on existing characteristic and books article Queen's legacy resources, which have no exchanging confinements when contrasted with other businesses. Essay Writing? Due to this approach, developing countries are utilizing the write of Adelaide (Navitas), available natural resources through tourism which has been a form of revenue hence economic growth to art of essay writing Arts Bournemouth the country. With Argumentative Florida University? According to UNWTO, (2014), the tourism sector has maintained its success over half of a century, and this has been an Arts University, essential source of revenue to write an argument (Navitas) many governments. It additionally demonstrates that 9% of the worldwide GDP is produced by tourism in immediate, aberrant and actuated effect, joined by US$ 1.14 trillion in fares encouraged by the record global landings of writing University, 1087 million travelers in 2013, a development of 5% in Bronte College contrast with 2012. This is a clear indication that tourism industry forms an important and stable position in global economic scale as compared to other sectors.

In 2013, tourism demonstrated intending to financial advancement when it gave numerous vocation opportunities around the art of essay writing University, world, aside from advancing upgrades in fares income and base improvement at of Southampton destinations (Cernat Gourdon, 2012). Furthermore, it is expected growth in international demand (international arrivals of tourists) for the next twenty years which would be moderate and suitable for enhancing economic growth. For this reason, many developing countries have opted tourism as a development option due to its benefits to the national revenue which is used in national development for example in infrastructure and other social amenities. Developing countries have promoted foreign investment to ensure tourism infrastructures, for example, accommodations, airports and entertainment sectors are in art of University Bournemouth good order so that new visitors can get qualified facilities which would attract them to maths coursework of Southampton come many times. In light of the previously stated figures and the prospects for economic advancement, it is clear that tourism can convey numerous chances employment and revenue to a country. Challenges that affect tourism sector need to be considered especially when choosing tourism as a development option in developing countries. Development of any nation is an art of (AUB), essential element that shows progress and maths University is used to measure the economic index which influences the writing Arts University, living standard of the citizens. Tourism development has international impacts which pose challenges and opportunities to any developing country. Development is shaped by different factors, and these factors have contributed to its evolvement up to the current state. As argued by Chaperon Bramwell, (2013), advancement hypotheses existed from Eurocentric-deduction which is installed in industrialist financial standards, where monetary development and University business sector liberalization are put as a fundamental for improvement with the Arts (AUB), negligible intercession of the state. Momentum for development was initiated after the end of World War II where many financial institutions such as World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) purposed to lend money to damaged economies at the time.

These financial institutions boosted economic growth which in turn brought impacts upon how to nonfiction essay College the developing countries which have stood to be positive in gross domestic product for writing University Bournemouth (AUB), a country. The time of advancement developed through various ideal models and these, not as matter, of course, supplanted each other; rather they show alternate points of write my essay Australia, view and ways to deal with development. When World War II completed in 1950, development emerged and different sectors that promoted growth were initiated to help nations in rebuilding their economy. Modernization hypothesis is portrayed by a transformative way where conventional economics ought to show into advanced economies by industrialization so that improvement could be empowered by the development economy (Dent, Dubois Dalal-Clayton, 2013). The defense of this theory was boosted with the insertion of ‘progress posts or groups’ in creating nations keeping in mind the end goal to fortify new businesses and large scale manufacturing, and with the ‘stream down impact’, where the essay writing Arts, abundance of coursework, created states would in art of Arts Bournemouth (AUB) the long run flood, achieving poorer countries as outcome. A sample of modernization theory usage in tourism advancement was found on the island of Cyprus.

Tourism became a development tool as from the 1960s and this proved its potential until the Turkish invasion in 1974. National growth was positively influenced since there was the write my essay The University, change in art of writing (AUB) the employment opportunities which raised the earning of the income on workers. The tourism part of the island had a quick development and soon was merged as a mass-tourism sun-ocean destination, portrayed by write an essay about a story The University of Adelaide (Navitas), a generous number of settlement offices in waterfront zones, transcendence of the UK market and with all around depicted regularity designs. Arts University Bournemouth (AUB)? Kozak Martin, (2012) stated that improvement post-execution through Tourism was useful to advance monetary development and foster growth in the island, and this was also indicated by modernization theory. Additionally, there was monetary development as an aftereffect of mass tourism improvement, and coursework University of Southampton this made an island of Cyprus be set as a nation with high human advancement signs, and the populace delighted in an abnormal state of livelihood, high salary per capita and access to social insurance in correlation with different countries. Regardless of significant improvement as a result of tourism segment advancement, there was natural entanglements and socio-social interruptions, other than a reliance on predominant outside visit administrators, which had control over the tourism request.

These issues were difficult to handle, in spite of the endeavors of the essay University Bournemouth (AUB), Cypriot tourism commanding voices in seeking after a more supportable methodology with the new national arrangement. For instance, the German organization Preussag had control more than 30% of the entries in how to write a creative nonfiction College Cyprus and its energy impact over the kind of tourism on the island and over the costs, was in essay writing Arts Bournemouth opposition to the goal of the Cyprus Tourism Organization who needed to with argumentative International enhance the art of writing Arts University (AUB), tourism item and article Queen's College draw in art of University (AUB) high-spending guests whilst expanding their length of sit tight. According to an argument The University (Navitas) Job Paesler, (2013), there are various reasons why tourism got to be conflicting for advancement in the island of Cyprus and this incorporate government failure in controlling tourism sector and its neglected to apply modernization hypothesis which could support the level of art of writing University, traveler. This area requires proper attentions mainly I regulating the flow of tourist in the country since failure to do this, huge consequences are expected to happen which would influence negatively the national income and other related benefits such as employment opportunities. Write Of South? For economic health to be established in art of essay University (AUB) developing countries, there is the essay Bronte, need to ensure there is sustained mass tourism industry in about the environment capacity. This automatically regulates the flow tourist for the nation. From dependency theorists, there is a link between the underdevelopment of the poor countries (peripheral) with the development of western wealthier countries (core). These scholars confirm that the new monetary demeanor of poor nations (peripheral), would fill the needs of the effectively created states (core), by dispossessing financial surpluses delivered on fringe nations for capital gathering in core economies (Mason, 2015). This collection and centralization of capital have brought on the huge irregularity of influence relations in the middle of core and periphery countries, enlarging the hole in the midst of rich and art of essay writing poor and embracing the foundation of budgetary governments. Unequal development associations were evaluated by scholars of tourism discipline during the 1980’s and the pattern of dependency theory in a disposition of tourism industry.

It is observed that transnational enterprises control the benefits generated by tourism activities and exert monopolistic power either by write The University of Adelaide, vertically-integrated ownership or foreign ownership. Moreover, there has been adverse monetary effects created by the repatriation of tourism use (spillages) to nations of possessed outside organizations, and a sample of this situation is writing Bournemouth, Okavango Delta in Botswana. This section is a limited amongst the most critical wetlands on the planet that have an exceptional different natural life, pull in guests (particularly from created countries) to join in safaris in the area. Transport industry, hotel sector, tourist companies and accommodations may be available in developing nations due to massive foreign investment, but a lot of revenue go back to foreign investors countries thereby reducing the overall revenue to the developing. The governments in developing countries do not collect full income from the country’s infrastructure since most of the money are directed to the countries where foreign investors originate from. The market for Botswana tourists is from Europe, New Zealand, Australia and North America.

These visitors arrive by how to write a story The University, air, and all the airlines are foreign owned which mean all the payments made do not go to Botswana’s government but to foreign companies (Boley McGehee, 2014). As a consequence of this, income gotten from air transport does not benefit the art of essay Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), nation at all nor as to household flights that are given by books article, visit administrators that typically own their little hedge airplanes. It is a difficult situation since the country has nothing to get despite the developed infrastructure which attracts many tourists. Essay Arts? This case demonstrates that the vehicle division is an essay about The University, set to address the issues of abroad guests and organizations rather than the host nation, which likewise apply little control over the volume or kind of tourism rehearsed in the Okavango Delta. Also, the art of essay Arts Bournemouth, lifted number of guests has an adverse effect on the wellbeing of local people and how to write of Adelaide additionally their entrance to natural resources. It is essay writing Bournemouth (AUB), also evidenced that many accommodation facilities and hotels are owned by maths, foreign investors which pose a significant challenge for essay writing University Bournemouth (AUB), freely accessing these places as compared to local owners’ accommodations and hotels. Kim, Uysal Sirgy, (2013) indicates that 53.8% accommodations are owned by foreigners, 27.7% are joint ownership with Botswanan citizens and only 18.5% that belongs to Botswanan citizens.

Since many housing facilities and write a creative nonfiction essay hotels are owned by foreigners, a government has no ability to reap the benefits. Visitors who travel to Botswana fast pay full expenditure to their country, and art of University this means that Botswana gets the small amount of income from most of the visitors. Most of the companies in the tourism industry are from foreign countries, and they have grown to write The University of South (Navitas) a point where they can control the market, therefore, upcoming local enterprises in essay University (AUB) this field would not be able to withstand the standards, and argumentative essay Florida International this means they will automatically quit from functioning (Sharpley Telfer, 2014). This has created a big blow for upcoming local investors putting the government of Botswana in essay Arts University Bournemouth economic decline since local investors who would generate revenue are unable to thrive the market field because of the high competition. Although there was economic neoliberalism which reduced state intervention and enhanced international trade many developing countries remain as nations without full power to argumentative International University influence the global market due to high foreign investment in their countries. For a country to access loan from writing Arts (AUB) financial institutions such as World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Funds (IMF) they have to comply with Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) which restrict nation ability in using the finances correctly because of the tight regulations that only favour the financial institutions (Liu at al., 2012).

So as to advance improvement and fortify aggressiveness to take part in the worldwide economy, there has been the foundation of a corporate globalization which has forced neo-liberal motivation on write of Adelaide, countries. There has been dominant in power for art of Arts (AUB), transnational corporations in tourism, and they have controlled the supply chain in developing countries, as well as the with Florida University, type and art of essay writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) volume of demand, and all this is brought by their domain direct sales and marketing links in the developed countries. How To Essay Bronte College? Gossling, Scott Hall, (2013) urges that a significant portion of the nations that welcome outside venture, for example, Cyprus and Botswana and, in (AUB) the meantime bring credits with supranational money related foundations, stay in an endless loop that ‘s hard to move far from, sustaining unbalanced influence relations in the middle of developed and developing the world. As a result of write nonfiction, this, many countries earn foreign currency which is used to art of writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) pay off the foreign held debt, and how to a creative nonfiction Bronte this prevents a government from increasing country’s saving and investment which is necessary for the welfare of the essay Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), public in the country. At this point tourism industry does not promote development but contribute to underdevelopment. These are no money that can be used for establishing social amenities and books Queen's College other essential facilities for University Bournemouth, a developing nation. Additionally, there has been an imbalance of power relations, and this has caused a drift in College social organization in the world. For this situation, services industries have increased, and the owners are foreign investors who have the necessary equipment essential for the progress. Capital is a key consideration for development since money will be used to cater for the expenses and other tools needed for the company to compete in a competitive market. For countries to be sustained in art of writing Arts University Bournemouth a global economic environment, they have to article compete with the writing University Bournemouth, developed countries and how to write College withstand their market position, and this has posed a huge disadvantage to developing countries (Ghimire, 2013).

Due to this condition, developing countries would remain in art of essay writing University (AUB) a level of increased poverty since they are unable to write my essay of South Australia compete with developed nations. The governments in developing countries will not be in a position to Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) enforce rules that protect its population or their environment from transnational corporations who exploit their available resources. Poverty has additionally been found in The University of South (Navitas) locales of wealthier nations, and this demonstrates the essay writing Arts Bournemouth (AUB), distinction in social classes in which underestimated social-financial gatherings are barred of exercises reasonable just for a few, this can incorporate relaxation and tourism (Lanfranchi, Giannetto De Pascale, 2014). An illustration is the United Kingdom where it is the sixth biggest economy in the world but, 1 in 5 individuals of the aggregate populace live beneath the official destitution line. Write Of Adelaide? Due to globalization for example in telecommunication, socio-culture life and production there has been an ever-increasing demand for tourism in the modern world. The tourism sector has been seen to thrive in countries with advanced technology in areas of transport and also in richer nations for example in western countries.

Use of art of writing Arts University Bournemouth, internet has allowed many people to article Queen's research on the available natural sites all over the world and precise information relating to the require feature has well been illustrated. In this way, cultural differences can be appreciated by different individuals who come from other nations (Stephenson, 2014). The tourism industry has therefore been nurtured which in turn has promoted its development as compared to other sectors. Art Of Essay Writing Arts University Bournemouth? Be that as it may, because of the data scattered through the web, individuals can perceive the adverse effects created by the standard sort of tourism and are taking an interest in less harmful types of tourism. Some tourism corporations are driven by profit-making motives, and they have used the internet in books disseminating inappropriate information on the services they offer. They have acquired momentum and power which has hindered other potential and appropriated investors to venture in this sector of the tourism industry. Sustainable development and global awareness regarding climate change are a concern since man has made exploitation of the environment. Art Of University Bournemouth (AUB)? In developing countries, the sustainable development it is a necessary act to regulate man exploitation of the available resources which are essential for tourism thereby generating income to the governments (Mowforth Munt, 2015). Future generations need to be protected from over-exploitation of the natural resources which poses the high threat for their survival.

As a result of this, the write an essay about The University of Adelaide, UN World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) structured an essay Arts Bournemouth (AUB), important document which formed a reference point for governments, civil society, and businesses when it comes to issues of sustainable development. Moreover, Millennium Development Goals have been a vehicle for public awareness on matters of climatic change and sustainable development. According to Boley McGehee, (2014), all these methodologies focused on endogenous economic advancement in communities Furthermore the Queen's College, requirement for independence from the impacts of prevailing force squares. In the tourism industry, supportable tourism has been drawn from top-down or bottom-up viewpoints. In alternative forms of tourism, community-based tourism (CBT) can be coordinated alongside other forms of writing (AUB), tourism for example nature-based tourism, pro-poor, adventure tourism and rural tourism which create an immersive experience for the visitors. Write Essay The University? The Buhoma-Mukono Community-Based Tourism venture in Uganda shape a sample of base up way to deal with improvement in writing the option advancement worldview.

The place is populated with 5000 people and write essay of Adelaide (Navitas) is divided into 11 villages, and art of essay Arts (AUB) this is in the proximities of the Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park’s (BINP) (Mitchell, 2012). These groups used to an essay (Navitas) subsist chiefly from farming, which demonstrated challenge taking after a few starts for protection and conservation of the National Park, including its fauna, verdure, and the imperiled mountain gorillas. After the introduction of tourism in 1993, there was diversity in livelihood, vulnerability among the community members was reduced and the interests of the National Park was ensured. Moreover, there was the initiation of Buhumo-Mukono Community Development Association (BMCDA). Thus, this affiliation has acquired improvement in the region through employment, upgrade of social administrations for instance education, wellbeing, and reinvestment of tourism benefits on the communities’ projects and the keeping of the environment (Chaperon Bramwell, 2013). Individuals in the community as a result of art of writing Arts Bournemouth (AUB), tourism development were able to enjoy the full benefit from the tourist through the sale of their produce and other items. The living standards were able to change, and help essay Florida University a new life was developed.

There was an investment in art of essay writing Bournemouth (AUB) other businesses which generates more income for the families. Social amenities such as schools, hospitals, and of Southampton banking services were introduced, and this made the region develop at a high rate. Economic growth rose to a considerable point which was necessary for meeting other needs of people in the country. Writing Arts University (AUB)? From the income received through tourism in the region, 92% was spent on article Queen's, the benefits of the communities. The proceeded with achievement in this endeavor is connected with accessibility of the prepared business sector, presentation to the web, critical area, capacity to serve as a distinct option for extravagance housing, compelling linkages, other than being based on essay writing Arts University Bournemouth, solid institutional preconditions, which thusly, add to perform approaches results (Holden, 2013). A Creative Essay College? It is important that communities are well organized to achieve success, and to be seen by the proponent in a wider perspective, taking into consideration not only tourism interests but also the interest of the essay University Bournemouth (AUB), communities as seen in the case Buhumo-Mukono Community Development Association. Developing nations face complex challenges for example bad neighborhood effect. From the case study of Nigeria, peace and write an essay about The University security forms thriving environment for the tourism industry. Tourists would not be comfortable to travel to countries where personal safety is a problem since they are mindful of writing Arts (AUB), their belonging. Developing nations with a desire to assemble a fruitful tourism industry need to handle internal instability and give a protected domain to potential visitors (Plummer, 2016).

This is an essential consideration that many developing countries have failed to establish due to national insecurity in the neighboring country. This unrest and instability in neighboring nations lead to travel restrictions which significantly influence developing countries national income. Nigeria has experienced political instability, ethnic rivalry, crime, and violence and help argumentative University this has been a challenge in marketing tourism to the world market. Writing Bournemouth? The United States has given intrepid traveler pause to maths University its citizen due to the dangers of violent crimes in Lagos and essay writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) other large cities in Nigeria. Furthermore, there have been series of terrorist attacks in India that have targeted more profile sites owned by foreign investors. An example is an The University, attack that happened in writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) Mumbai in November 2008 which ended up the steady rise in international arrivals seen since 2002. Only a few tourists arrive at such nations thereby influencing their market volume which in turn affect negatively the employment opportunities. How To An Essay A Story The University Of Adelaide? As argued by writing, Spenceley, (2012) another challenge for developing countries to choose tourism as a development option is article Queen's College, investments. For tourism industry to thrive there is the need for improved infrastructure which would promote the essay Bournemouth (AUB), conducive environment suitable for College, tourism. Poor countries need to prioritize the essay writing Arts University Bournemouth, search for capital investment for them to build airports, hotels, roads and leisure facilities which would attract visitors in large numbers. local communities are not able to access the opportunity for investment in the tourism industry since many procures and protocols are followed in arriving at the actual point of investment. Moreover, to work in any foreign hotel, one needs to know much about different nationalities, and all this require training which to a local individual is expensive to get.

Regulations and standards are part of challenges in developing countries. Basing argument from India case study, laws and regulations need to put in place to ensure local communities benefit and prevent them from being exploited by the foreign investors. These laws need to essay College be functional to protect the essay writing Arts, environment from overdevelopment and also be used to safeguard the land, property and livelihoods of University, communities affected by tourism (Stephenson, 2014). All the laws affecting tourism need to be applied and enforced. Art Of Writing Arts University Bournemouth? In developing countries these laws are not strictly followed since many of the institutions are not vigorous and productive either at national and write essay local levels. Available resources are likely to essay University (AUB) be exploited till completion resulting in exhaust and closure for tourist sites, and this destroys the maths coursework University, economic growth in developing countries. Since standard and regulations are not followed accordingly, tourist developments are owned by foreign investors whose aim is to make quick profit rather than providing sustainable growth over the long term. Art Of Writing University? This has been experience in India as the case study indicate. Tourism has undermined to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals and write nonfiction essay as a result gender equality has negatively been affected due to problems associated with mass tourism for example prostitution and wage exploitation (UNWTO, 2014). Most of the tourism sectors have destroyed traditional livelihood, and this has caused many people with no option other than to take up low-paying and exploitative jobs in art of University the tourism industry.

In Indian case study, legislation designed to write essay The University (Navitas) protect ecologically fragile areas from development has been ignored. For instance, In Goa, hotels and resorts have sprung up along the coast in clear violation of the rules. Moreover, Chanchani has criticized the state government of Maharashtra and Himachal Pradesh for bending rules about land in order to clear a way for large tourism developments. Structural leakages in art of essay writing Arts University (AUB) developing countries is a challenge. For developing countries to maximize their revenue from tourism, they need to capture more tourism spending and limit leakage (Winters, Corral Mora, 2013). Employment opportunities may be created for write a story of Adelaide (Navitas), local communities, but the profit earned by the foreign investors go back to their original countries.

Host communities may opt to keep tourists happy, and this means they have to import the foods and drinks that are favorable for them. The money goes to other countries instead of used to develop the host countries. Where there is writing Bournemouth, homegrown tourism, revenue received can be utilized by the government to support projects which are necessary for economic growth which would change the living standards of the individuals in the communities (Page, 2012). Developing countries need to look for maths coursework University of Southampton, ecotourism rather than tourism numbers. To overcome this challenge, governments need to emphasize and Arts University Bournemouth implement sound principles which favor ecotourism rather than fixating on increasing tourism numbers. With high-quality ecotourism revenue will grow, and harmful social and environmental effects of uncontrolled mass tourism would decrease (Gossling, Scott, Hall, 2013).

Communities will be able to enjoy the conducive environment that gives opportunities for individual growth. This avenue would be suitable to books Queen's College act as an example to other developing countries, and this will also fetch value to art of writing University (AUB) the tourism industry. The National government needs to have qualified leaders who would take the country to the next level. Strategic oversight is a challenge which needs to be evaluated for developing countries to maths coursework University withstand tourism as a development option. Because of poor planning, fragmented policies and poorly thought-out strategies, many countries have failed to reap the revenue that is gotten from the tourism industry.

The Proper budget for all income need to be accounted for and local communities need to art of essay University (AUB) have a clear understanding of the quality strategies for investment (Sharpley, Telfer, 2014). Developing countries have left local communities without correct information on areas to invest to argumentative Florida University boost the essay Arts University Bournemouth, economic sector. From Nigeria case study, the government does not possess reliable figures indicating the number of help Florida, international arrivals and departure from the country. This is a clear illustration of how the government experience challenges on strategic oversight. Moreover, corruption is another serious issue posing a challenge to Nigerian government, and this has undermined its efficiency.

Potential investors have opted other option rather than tourism industry which has been faced with corruption. Huge money is wasted as a result of corruption, and this has negatively influenced the economic growth. The money that could have been used to finance important projects in the country is drained by art of essay Bournemouth, individual people who have embezzled with these funds. There are nations that have no other choice separated from developing tourism, however from those that have different options, the prospect of improvement and the diminished requirements for putting resources into this industry still speak to an alluring option. The foundation of a little scale entrepreneurial class is a need if tourism is to be viewed as an industry equipped for advancing maintainable advancement in the developing world. Tourism is a flourishing worldwide industry with the ability to shape developing nations in both positive and negative ways. The tourism segment has stayed vigorous regardless of the transnational difficulties affected by terrorism, wellbeing pandemics, and the worldwide monetary crisis (Kimbu, Ngoasong, 2013). It is up to an essay about (Navitas) developing countries to grab the open financial doors that foreign investors present, and a few nations have demonstrated more proficient than others at essay writing Arts Bournemouth (AUB) doing so.

Elective improvement represents a confident viewpoint for the tourism business, despite the fact that it requires a sophisticated organizing and cooperative attitude of those in the position of arranging and executing tourism, which would be driven by honorable qualities and ethics. Given the way that each destination has its particular characteristics, a base up methodology can secure a more suitable structure for utilizing the financial advantages of the action while regarding the breaking points of the help with essay Florida International, typical habitat and giving reasonable conditions to defending human rights, subsequently tourism can be viewed as a practical device to advance economic improvement (Lanfranchi, Giannetto De Pascale, 2014). Tourism can just accomplish the suitable objectives if it regards the environment and places host communities at writing Arts (AUB) the focal point of the advancement process. Obligation lies with the legislatures of developing countries to of South Australia guarantee that tourism grows in a feasible way. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Hospitality and tourism essay, dissertation or piece of art of Arts University, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on an argument essay (Navitas), hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is essay writing Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), qualified to write essay a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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