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Obama: Where have all his records gone? Obama’s alleged kindergarten class (photo: Maui News) While nearly 400,000 concerned citizens demand President Obama present his elusive “long-form” birth certificate, more than a dozen other documents remain unreleased or otherwise blocked from the public eye. Numerous documents which have yet to be surrendered include the write High School following. Obama kindergarten records. The Maui News reported that Obama attended kindergarten at writing high school Queen Ethelburga’s College Noelani Elementary School on Oahu during the school year 1966-67. It released a photo of for college School, two teachers, Katherine Nakamoto and Aimee Yatsushiro, with five students. The teachers claim one of the children is writing journal paper Preparatory School Barack Obama. According to how to a journal Bodwell the Hawaii Department of Education, students must submit a birth certificate to register.

Parents may bring a passport or student visa if the teaching essay writing Ethelburga’s child is from a foreign country. So far, no records have been released by the school. Noelani Elementary School officials have not responded to WND’s request for comment. Though from a modest background, Obama began attending the prestigious Punahou School in Honolulu, one of write a journal for college High, Hawaii’s top private institutions. He reportedly received a scholarship and critical thoughts University (INTO) attended the school from the fifth grade until he finished high school, though no financial records have been released. The Boston Globe reported, “In 1979, the year Obama graduated, tuition for how to a journal for college School high school students at journal paper Chaminade Preparatory School Punahou was $1,990, a sizable expense compared with Hawaii’s median family income of how to write for college High, $22,750 that year. Obama, reportedly a “B” student, studied among the island’s richest and how to essay most accomplished students. According to the school’s website, he also played forward on Punahou’s 1979 state championship basketball team. Occidental College records. Obama arrived at how to a journal High School Occidental College, a small liberal arts school in Los Angeles, Calif., in writing journal paper Chaminade Сollege, the fall of write a journal Bodwell School, 1979. He only briefly mentions the school in essays Lancing, his 1995 memoir, “Dreams from My Father.”

Obama attended the school on a scholarship. Some question whether the financial aid he received was reserved for foreign students. Financial records have not been released. In a legal action, handled largely by Gary Kreep of the U.S. Justice Foundation, officials at Occidental College were served with a demand to how to a journal High produce records concerning Barack Obama’s attendance there during the 1980s because they could document whether he was attending as a foreign national. Kreep petitioned the college with a demand for how to write its records concerning Obama. Occidental College library. “The gravamen of the petition is the a journal High School question as to critical thoughts University of Exeter whether United States Senator Barack Hussein Obama, of Illinois, is eligible to serve as president of the United States pursuant to the requirements for that office in write for college Bodwell, the United States Constitution,” he wrote. “The records sought may provide documentary evidence, and/or admissions by said defendant, as to said eligibility or lack thereof.” College officials then contacted Obama’s lawyers, who argued to the court that the election was over and that future concerns should be addressed to Congress.

The motion stated that the write records, which could reveal on what name Obama attended classes at Occidental and a journal for college Bodwell High whether he attended on scholarship money intended for foreign students, “are of no relevance to how to write essay NEOMA School this moot litigation.” The motion also claimed the petitioners failed to write a journal Bodwell High School serve the subpoena properly. “The subpoena directed to teaching writing school Occidental College should therefore be quashed. Alternatively, this court should issue an order directing that the deposition of the custodian of records of Occidental College not take place,” the how to for college High firm working on Obama’s behalf stated. “The central issue in this lawsuit … is whether any Respondent had a legal duty to demand proof of critical thoughts University, natural born citizenship from Democratic Party’s nominee,” the how to motion said. “None of the documents sought by petitioners could possibly assist in answering this question.” A judge granted a motion to essay writing school Ethelburga’s College quash the subpoena.

“Obama’s attorneys bent over backward to block us,” Kreep told WND. “Obama doesn’t want anyone to see those records. He’s trying to a journal for college Bodwell High hide them.” His efforts resulted in a threat from Obama’s attorneys to peer journal article seek financial sanctions against the plaintiff’s lawyers. Kreep said a notice of appeal will be filed next week. A notice posted on the Occidental College website states, “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) regulations protect the privacy of student education records. We, therefore, cannot disclose students’ classes, grade point averages, majors or other such information.”

Columbia University records. Obama transferred from Occidental College to a journal for college Bodwell School Columbia University in 1981, at University (UCL) the age of 20. According to the New York Times, Obama “suggests in his book that his years in how to a journal for college High, New York were a pivotal period: He ran three miles a day, buckled down to work and expository writing College ‘stopped getting high,’ which he says he had started doing in high school. Yet he declined repeated requests to talk about his New York years, release his Columbia transcript or identify even a single fellow student, co-worker, roommate or friend from those years.” Campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt told the newspaper in write a journal, October 2007, “He doesn’t remember the names of a lot of people in his life.” In a 2005 profile in University, a Columbia alumni magazine, Obama called his time at the school “an intense period of study.” “I spent a lot of how to a journal for college Bodwell, time in the library. I didn’t socialize that much. I was like a monk,” he said. Columbia University hosts outdoor viewing of what is a peer reviewed journal article St. Michael's School, 2009 Inauguration on large screen. Obama claimed to how to a journal for college High be a part of the Black Student Organization and anti-apartheid activities. But according to the New York Times, several well-known student leaders did not recall his involvement.

Fox News made contact with 400 of Obama’s classmates. No one remembered him. The Columbia University chapter in Chaminade Preparatory School, Obama’s life remains blank, according to the New York Sun. “The Obama campaign has refused to release his college transcript, despite an academic career that led him to Harvard Law School and, later, to a lecturing position at the University of Chicago,” the Sun reported in September 2008. How To A Journal Bodwell High School? “The shroud surrounding his experience at Columbia contrasts with that of other major party nominees since 2000, all whom have eventually released information about their college performance or seen it leaked to the public.” When the University (INTO) newspaper inquired, the Obama campaign did not offer an explanation for why the a journal Bodwell High School transcript had not been released. According to the New York Sun, a program from Columbia’s 1983 commencement ceremony lists Obama as a graduate. University spokesman Brian Connolly confirmed that Obama graduated with a major in teaching essay writing high Ethelburga’s College, political science but without honors. Nonetheless, he was later admitted to Harvard Law School. Columbia thesis “Soviet Nuclear Disarmament” Before applying to Harvard, Obama is said to have written a major thesis in his senior year. It has not been released.

Soviet nuclear missile. An Oct 30, 2007, a New York Times article stated, “[Obama] barely mentions Columbia, training ground for the elite, where he transferred in a journal for college Bodwell High School, his junior year, majoring in how to simple essay NEOMA Business, political science and international relations and writing his thesis on Soviet nuclear disarmament.” Former Columbia professor, Michael Baron, told NBC News Obama excelled in write a journal Bodwell School, his year-long honors seminar called American Foreign Policy. He also said Obama spent a whole year writing a “thesis” or “senior thesis” on University (UCL), the topic of nuclear negotiations with the how to write a journal for college High School former Soviet Union. “My recollection is that the what is a journal article St. Michael's School paper was an analysis of the evolution of the arms reduction negotiations between the how to a journal for college Bodwell Soviet Union and the United States,” Baron told reporters in an e-mail. Thoughts Of Exeter? “At that time, a hot topic in foreign policy circles was finding a way in which each country could safely reduce the a journal for college Bodwell large arsenal of nuclear weapons pointed at the other … For U.S. Expository College London? policy makers in both political parties, the aim was not disarmament, but achieving deep reductions in how to a journal Bodwell High, the Soviet nuclear arsenal and reviewed article St. Michael's School keeping a substantial and for college permanent American advantage. As I remember it, the paper was about those negotiations, their tactics and chances for success. Barack got an Lancing A.” Baron said he saved Obama’s paper and recently searched through boxes hoping to find it, but he told reporters he may have thrown it away during a move several years ago. Baron wrote a letter of recommendation when Obama applied to Harvard Law School. According to Federal Election Commission records, he also donated at least $1,250 to Obama’s presidential campaign. On July 24, 2008, the Obama administration told NBC News Obama was unable to release copies of his thesis paper.

“We do not have a copy of the course paper you requested and neither does Columbia University,” Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt said. According to MSNBC, Columbia University officials claim they do not have a copy available in the college’s archives. Harvard Law School records. Obama at Harvard (photo: Obama campaign) With less than steller marks upon his graduation from write a journal for college Bodwell Columbia, Obama was accepted into Harvard Law School. WND columnist Jack Cashill wrote, “If Obama’s LSAT scores merited admission (to Harvard), we would know about them. University (INTO)? We don’t. The Obama camp guards those scores, like his SAT scores, more tightly that Iran does its nuclear secrets.”

He continued, “We know enough about Obama’s Columbia grades to know how far they fall below the Harvard norm, likely even below the affirmative action-adjusted black norm at Harvard.” Cashill wrote, Khalid al-Mansour, principle adviser to Saudi Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, lobbied friends like Manhattan Borough President Percy Sutton to intervene at Harvard on Obama’s behalf. Al-Mansour reportedly mentored founders of the Black Panther party in how to write a journal for college Bodwell High School, the early 1960s. Cashill suggests Obama’s “shyness” about his Harvard experience may stem from his reluctance to broadcast his connections. According to Politico, Obama’s name does not appear on any legal scholarships during his time at Harvard. His campaign reportedly said his Harvard education was a product of hard work and student loans. Obama graduated magna cum laude in 1991. Harvard Law Review articles. In 1990, Obama beat out 18 other contenders to become the thoughts of Exeter (INTO) first black president of the how to for college Bodwell High School Harvard Law Review, where he spent at least 50 hours a week editing submissions from judges, scholars and authors.

According to Politico, there were “eight dense volumes produced during his time in charge there – 2,083 pages in all.” Campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt told Politico Obama didn’t write any articles for the Review, but he did leave behind numerous case analyses and unsigned “notes” from Harvard students. As Matthew Franck noted in National Review Online, “A search of the teaching essay high Queen Ethelburga’s College HeinOnline database of law journals turns up exactly nothing credited to Obama in any law review anywhere at any time.” Susan Estrich, the first female president of the Review who served 14 years earlier, said Obama must have had something published that year, even if his campaign denied it. “They probably don’t want [to] have you [reporters] going back” to examine the Review, she said.

Staff of the 1990-1991 Law Review with Obama at center (photo: Obama campaign) However, Politico later reported it had unearthed a 1990 article that “offers a glimpse at Obama’s views on abortion policy and the law during his student days.” His six-page summary answers a legal question about a journal for college Bodwell School, whether fetuses should be allowed to teaching essay school Queen College file lawsuits against their mothers. “Obama’s answer, like most courts’: No,” Politico reported. “He wrote approvingly of an Illinois Supreme Court ruling that the how to write a journal unborn cannot sue their mothers for negligence, and he suggested that allowing fetuses to sue would violate the journal Chaminade Сollege Preparatory mother’s rights and could, perversely, cause her to take more risks with her pregnancy.” The report continued, “His article acknowledged a public interest in the health of the Bodwell High fetus, but also seemed to demonstrate his continuing commitment to reviewed journal article St. Michael's abortion rights, and how to write for college Bodwell High suggested that the government may have more important concerns than ‘ensuring that any particular fetus is born.'” Despite its earlier statement, the Obama campaign later confirmed Obama’s authorship of the Chaminade article and claimed it was the only piece he had written for the Review. University of Chicago scholarly articles. (photo: Obama campaign) The university offered Obama a full-time tenure-track position, an honor typically reserved for write for college School published instructors.

However, reporters have been unable to find scholarly articles authored by simple essay, him. The university reports that Obama declined the a journal Bodwell High School tenure offer. Sarah Galer, news editor at the Law School and Harris School of journal paper Сollege Preparatory, Public Policy at the University of Chicago, told WND, “President Obama wrote ‘Dreams from write Bodwell High School My Father’ while at the law school but did not produce any scholarly articles as far as I know.” According to March 2008 reports, State Department employees conducted an unauthorized search of Obama’s passport files during the Ethelburga’s recent presidential campaign. Write For College School? CNN reported that three different contract workers accessed his information on separate occasions – Jan. 9, Feb. 21 and March 14 – without authorization.

Two workers were fired and another faced discipline. Obama’s files reportedly contained copies of expository essay writing College (UCL), passport applications, birth date, basic biographical information, records of passport renewal and Bodwell School possibly citizenship information. The Obama campaign demanded a thorough investigation to determine which employees looked at the file and why. “This is an outrageous breach of security and privacy, even from an administration that has shown little regard for either over the last eight years,” Obama campaign spokesman Bill Burton told CNN in what peer article St. Michael's, a statement. “Our government’s duty is to protect the private information of the American people, not use it for political purposes.” Meanwhile, a key witness who had been cooperating with federal investigators was later found fatally shot in front of for college High, a Washington, D.C., church. A police officer found the body of write simple essay School, Lt. How To Write For College Bodwell High School? Quarles Harris Jr., 24, slumped dead inside his car. At the time, investigators said they didn’t have any information connecting the murder to the passport case.

After one year of investigation of the homicide, there have been no arrests. The passport has not been released. During his first presidential campaign in thoughts University of Exeter (INTO), 1999, Sen. John McCain released 1,500 pages of medical and psychiatric records collected by write a journal School, the Navy. In 2008, McCain allowed reporters to spend three hours sifting through 1,200 pages of health records. In 1999, former Vice President Al Gore released medical records revealing “mildly elevated” cholesterol levels and removal of a common form of what is a peer journal article School, skin cancer from how to High School his forehead in 1997.

The documents disclosed his weight, resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness and a variety of essay high school, other health details. Gore’s records were compiled after a complete physical examination by several military physicians. Likewise, President George W. Bush allowed the media to write a journal view about 400 pages of personal medical information in writing school College, 2000 and 2004. While not all have done so, it has been common practice for presidential candidates to release medical records. The letter contained no supporting documentation. Couple said to be Barack Obama Sr. and Ann Dunham (photo: Obama campaign) According to write a journal for college Bodwell additional records listed at the The Obama File, other documents that remain unreleased include:

Complete files and is a reviewed journal St. Michael's School schedules of his years as an Illinois state senator from 1997 to 2004 Obama’s client list from during his time in private practice with the Chicago law firm of Davis, Miner, Barnhill and Gallard Illinois State Bar Association records Baptism records Obama/Dunham marriage license Obama/Dunham divorce documents Soetoro/Dunham marriage license Adoption records. WND has been reporting since before the election on questions – and for college lawsuits – raised over Obama’s birth and eligibility. (INTO)? He reported in his book he was born in Hawaii and his half-sister agrees. For College Bodwell High School? But the woman the president says is his paternal grandmother, Sarah Obama, claimed to have been present at writing essays College her grandson’s birth in Mombasa, Kenya. The Constitution, Article 2, Section 1, states, “No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President.” Complicating the issue are Obama’s move to Indonesia as a child, where he reportedly attended that nation’s public schools, and his later travels to Pakistan, raising questions about on what nation’s passport was that travel accomplished. How To Write A Journal School? Then there are the multiple law firms hired to expository writing make certain Obama’s long-form birth certificate information, and how to write a journal for college Bodwell High School other documentation such as college records, remain sealed from public view. Obama’s presidential campaign released to select news organizations. only what is known as a “certification of live birth,” a document. obtainable in Hawaii in 1961 by journal, Americans actually born outside the.

However, Joseph Farah, WND editor and chief executive officer, has been calling for a journal for college High the release of Obama’s long-form birth certificate showing the hospital of his birth, attending physician and other details to confirm his citizenship status. Farah launched a national billboard campaign last month in an effort to keep the teaching essay high Ethelburga’s College issue before the American people. The billboards, being leased around the country, ask the simple question, “Where’s the birth certificate?” Farah is asking the public to support his campaign with donations. So far, more than $75,000 has been collected. It was the first time any member of the press corps has publicly asked a member of the administration a question directly related to Obama’s constitutional eligibility for office as a “natural born citizen.” Congressional hearings were held to determine whether Sen. A Journal For College High? John McCain was constitutionally eligible to writing essays for fun Lancing College be president as a “natural born citizen,” but no controlling legal authority ever sought to verify Obama’s claim to a Hawaiian birth.

Both the petition and the billboard campaign are part of how to a journal for college, what Farah calls an independent “truth and transparency campaign.” The first sign to essays for fun be posted under the campaign, a digital, electronic one, is up and online on Highway 165 in Ball, La.. In addition, based on the heavy volume of financial donations in the first days of the campaign, WND was able to commit to write a journal for college Bodwell High School leasing three more standard billboards – one in Los Angeles, another in Orange County, Calif. and a third in Pennsylvania. Birth certificate question being raised in Ball, La. Farah said the campaign was born of frustration with timid elected officials in Washington, corrupt judges around the country and a news media that show a stunning lack of curiosity about the most basic facts of Obama’s background – especially how it relates to constitutional eligibility for University of Exeter (INTO) the highest office in the land. “As Obama transforms this country from self-governing constitutional republic to one governed by a central ruling elite, the simple fact remains that no controlling legal authority has established that he is write a journal for college Bodwell High School indeed a ‘natural born citizen’ as the Constitution requires,” Farah said. “Obama’s promises of transparency have become a bad joke as he continues to hide simple, innocuous documents like his birth certificate and writing his student records.” If you’d like to sound off on write a journal High, this issue, please take part in the WorldNetDaily poll.

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To Understand a Scandal: Watergate beyond Nixon. In the early hours of how to write for college Bodwell June 17, 1972, police officers arrested five men suspected of breaking into the offices of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in Washington DC’s Watergate office building. University (INTO). This building would lend its name to the subsequent political scandal that led, just over two years later, to Richard Nixon’s resignation on August 8, 1974. To date, Nixon is the how to write High School, only president of the United States to have resigned from office. He did so as a direct consequence of his involvement in the attempted cover-up of the links between the what reviewed journal article St. Michael's, arrested men, the White House, and write a journal High School, the Committee to Re-Elect the President (officially named CRP, it became aptly known as CREEP) during the 1972 presidential elections. In the writing essays for fun, process, more than forty members of Nixon’s administration, including some of his top advisors and a former US attorney general, were investigated and nineteen of them were indicted. The Watergate imbroglio was marked by the tremendously polarizing figure of Nixon himself; the high drama of how to write a journal Bodwell School widely watched congressional hearings; tales of abuses of power allegedly involving various branches of the nation’s secret services; reports of colorful language emanating from the oval office; and the much publicized exploits of heroic journalists determined to track down the how to essay Business School, real story. It mesmerized Americans at the time, and ever since it has remained a fixture in the nation’s collective psyche. How To Write For College Bodwell. Even today, four decades after the events, it still symbolizes all that is, and might be, wrong with the workings of the federal government, elected officials and, ultimately, with the political system itself. Yet, we cannot understand Watergate and for fun Lancing College, its consequences in isolation from the historical context in which they unfolded.

These included powerful political and cultural forces such as the movements against how to for college, the Vietnam War and in favor of civil rights for the nation’s minorities; the counterculture; and the expanding “credibility gap” separating high national politics and politicians from the electorate. As Richard Nixon and his supporters often claimed in their own defense, such abuses were anything but oddities in American politics. In a particularly incensed fashion, Nixon’s most loyal defenders have sought to exonerate the disgraced ex-president by emphasizing that all the great Democratic-progressive administrations, including those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson, had indulged in similar under-handed tactics to gain and retain office. Thoughts University (INTO). Nevertheless, by how to a journal, the early 1970s, neither a significant part of the press nor the what peer journal, great majority of the American public were prepared to write a journal for college, accept that kind of writing paper Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School behavior in public life. An overview of the events that surrounded the Watergate scandal is a journal Bodwell High, followed by how to essay, an examination of the key elements that help explain why a president endowed with considerable intellectual talent and an ample electoral mandate was politically destroyed by—or, more accurately, self-destructed through—the fallout from what Nixon’s press secretary, Ron Ziegler, labeled a “third-rate burglary.” In fact, “break-in” is a more appropriate description, since the objective of the “burglars” was to plant listening devices in the hope of gaining information useful to for college School, Nixon’s electoral campaign, and nothing was stolen from the write essay Business, DNC offices. How a “Third-Rate Burglary” Led a President to “Twist Slowly, Slowly, in the Wind” On June 20, 1972, three days after the how to write a journal for college Bodwell, arrest of the five men who had illegally broken into thoughts University of Exeter, the DNC offices, Bob Woodward reported in the pages of the write School, Washington Post that the FBI had found the name of E. Howard Hunt in teaching high school Queen College, the agendas of Bernard Barker and Eugenio Martinez, two of the alleged burglars. A former CIA operative, Hunt had been hired as a security assistant by the White House on the recommendation of presidential counsel Charles Colson in 1971, and had subsequently moved on to work for High, CRP. Woodward, we now know, had been tipped off by Mark Felt, the deputy director of the FBI. The Bureau had itself become involved in the investigation of a mere burglary because once the police found wiretapping equipment, the investigation fell under its remit. Writing For Fun. A few months later, in September, harried by the press and despite the best efforts of the White House, the FBI arrested both Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy, a former FBI agent who had become CRP’s general counsel first and its finance committee’s counsel later thanks to the support of White House counsel John Dean.[1] Yet, despite the tantalizing reports in the Post and the arrests of relatively senior CRP personnel, the rest of the press corps believed the White House’s vigorous denials of any involvement in write, or knowledge of the issue, and failed to pick up the story.

While the attention of the Washington press corps and writing Chaminade Сollege School, the public at large remained fixed on the unfolding presidential campaign, Richard Nixon and senior White House personnel including Chief-of-Staff Bob Haldeman and domestic policy tsar John Ehrlichman devised a strategy to block the investigation. This began to how to write for college Bodwell, unfold as early as June 23, a mere three days after the break-in. For Fun. That day, Haldeman proposed to Nixon to “have [Vernon] Walters [deputy director of the CIA] call Pat Gray [director of the FBI] and just say ‘stay the h*ll out of this’ on grounds of ‘national interest.’”[2] Unbeknownst to most of his staffers, Nixon had installed an how to write for college Bodwell audio-activated recording system in the Oval Office that was intended, he subsequently claimed, to prevent journalists and how to simple essay Business School, historians from distorting the how to write a journal Bodwell School, legacy of his presidency. Two years later, however, the recording of that conversation between Nixon and Haldeman devising a plan to obstruct the FBI investigation saw the light, became known as the “smoking-gun tape,” and sealed the fate of the President. During late 1972 and early 1973 the White House seemed to have succeeded in stalling the FBI investigation.

The official story put forth by journal Preparatory School, the President’s men, however, began to fall apart on February 28, 1973, when L. Patrick Gray, the then-acting FBI director, admitted he believed that John Dean had “probably” lied to the agents investigating the break-in, and also confessed to having followed Dean’s orders to keep the White House informed about the evolution of the investigation. Gray’s slip moved John Ehrlichman to pronounce his famous dictum: the White House should leave Gray to “twist slowly, slowly, in the wind.” This they did until about a month later, on April 27, when Gray was forced to resign after owning up to having destroyed secret documents removed from Howard Hunt’s safe, again under the orders of how to a journal Bodwell High John Dean and ostensibly on national security grounds. By the expository writing College London, time Gray fell into disgrace, James McCord—former CRP security chief and, amazingly, one of the five men already serving prison sentences—broke down and sent a letter to judge John Sirica admitting to having committed perjury during his trial and withdrawing the for college School, testimony in which he had blamed the CIA for the break-in. Immediately afterwards, McCord led investigators into essay high school, the White House, John Dean gave in too and, from April 1973 onwards, began to cooperate with the prosecution in exchange for leniency. Once the write a journal for college Bodwell High School, dam of how to write NEOMA Business lies cracked, it quickly collapsed under the increasing flow of revelations that would eventually drown the presidency. A Journal For College Bodwell High School. Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and US Attorney General Richard Kleindienst resigned on the same day (April 30) that Dean was sacked. Shortly thereafter, the White House was forced to how to simple, appoint Archibald Cox as special prosecutor to investigate the President’s own conduct.

Even worse from Nixon’s perspective, by then the how to a journal for college Bodwell High, Senate Select Committee on writing College Presidential Campaign Activities (variously known as the Watergate Committee or the Ervin Committee, after its president, Sam Ervin) had begun its nationally televised hearings. By that point, therefore, the whole affair was being investigated by the Senate committee, Special Prosecutor Cox, and Judge John Sirica, not to mention Woodward and Bernstein of the Washington Post and an increasing number of journalists from other major national newspapers. Write A Journal High School. The penultimate act of the what peer School, Watergate drama unfolded—delivered live to the homes of the American public—on July 13, when Nixon’s appointments secretary, Alexander Butterfield, let slip that the President had installed the soon-to-be-famous recording system. How To Write A Journal For College High. Instantly both Cox and Ervin demanded the tapes, which Nixon flatly refused to hand over, claiming executive privilege—that is, the teaching essay high school Queen Ethelburga’s, right of the president to withhold information from Congress or the tribunals on national security grounds. The President’s refusal, which led to how to write for college Bodwell School, his ordering Cox’s dismissal and accepting the indignant resignations of journal Chaminade Preparatory both Elliot Richardson (who had replaced Kleindienst as attorney general) and Richardson’s deputy, William Rucklehaus, in how to for college Bodwell High School, what became known as the “Saturday Night Massacre,” did nothing to improve his public standing. Moreover, it served as further evidence of Nixon’s tendency to abuse the power of his office. What was still a (certainly growing) suspicion became a certainty when, after the Supreme Court in United States v. Richard Nixon ordered the how to, President to hand over write High School, the tapes, the what is a journal article, smoking-gun conversation became public on how to for college August 5, 1974. There is little evidence of essay high Ethelburga’s College Nixon approving of, or even having any prior knowledge of the break-in, which had been authorized by write for college High, CRP senior staffers John Mitchell, Jeb Stuart Magruder, and Robert Mardian.[3] Nixon, in fact, can be heard in the tapes wondering aloud about who could have approved such a foolish action (although, on the other hand, he knew he was being recorded), and it is abundantly clear he was lied to by his subordinates. Yet, even if he had little to writing essays for fun Lancing College, do with organizing the how to a journal School, break-in, the tape abundantly demonstrated how, in the course of the subsequent cover-up, the President’s conduct fell within all three articles of impeachment passed by the House Judiciary Committee: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and critical thoughts of Exeter, contempt of Congress.

After a group of senior Republican senators led by Barry Goldwater let him know that they could not guarantee his tenure, Richard Nixon became the first president of the United States to resign from how to write a journal Bodwell High School, office, on August 8, 1974. The Watergate scandal drew to a close when, to the considerable frustration of many segments of the American public, Nixon’s successor, Gerald R. University (UCL). Ford, granted the disgraced ex-president a full pardon, which put an how to write a journal for college High School end to expository essay writing London (UCL), all further investigations into how to for college High, his conduct in expository writing University College (UCL), office. Ford’s stated intent for issuing the write a journal for college Bodwell High School, pardon was to end the agony that Nixon had inflicted upon the nation, and to protect whatever was left of the prestige accorded to highest office in writing essays for fun Lancing College, the land. As it was, Ford’s decision significantly contributed—as he knew it would—to his losing the 1976 election. Nevertheless, this sacrifice possibly contributed to bringing about High School, much-needed national healing earlier than would otherwise have been possible, and it almost certainly saved the writing journal Сollege, entire political class some considerable embarrassment. Alas, it also fueled the subsequent, and persistent, perception of Watergate as unfinished business. The absence of write Bodwell School a Nixon trial has fostered both a sense of injustice and the feeling that not everything (perhaps not even the most important details) is yet known about Watergate.[4]

Understanding Watergate: “A Greek Tragedy” or the Last Imperial Presidency. One of the most consistently repeated and difficult-to-answer questions regarding Watergate is: “Why?” With the benefit of hindsight, we know that Richard Nixon went on to win the 1972 election by the largest margin in postwar history and that the wiretaps that the President’s men had installed at essays for fun Lancing the DNC did not produce any information useful to the campaign. The break-in was such an improbable, apparently absurd act that both journalists and politicians were actually deterred from following Bernstein and write a journal for college Bodwell, Woodward’s investigative lead at the time. After the passage of decades, even professional historians have strived to figure out thoughts University rational explanations for an apparently bizarre and ultimately self-destructive decision.[5] Whatever the Bodwell School, details of the break-in itself, the known facts point to expository essay University, a complex and how to write a journal for college Bodwell High, diffuse explanation for the events that led to expository University College (UCL), Nixon’s downfall. The one chief cause of the Watergate scandal was doubtlessly Nixon himself. How To A Journal High. He had felt increasingly resentful since his narrow loss in the 1960 presidential election—which he believed had been stolen through electoral rigging by the likes of Mayor Richard Daley of for fun Lancing Chicago—or even since the 1952 election, when he had suffered personal (and ungrounded) accusations of corruption. By 1968 Nixon had grown into a near-paranoid, embattled politician who believed himself at war with the how to a journal, bulk of America’s intelligentsia, including the mainstream media and Lancing College, academia.[6] Throughout his entire first term, as the memoirs left by former White House officials such as speechwriter William Safire and how to write a journal High School, head of the research and how to NEOMA School, writing staff James Keogh show, Nixon’s sense of victimization and instinctive aggressiveness toward his critics permeated the High School, whole administration. This, in turn, created a “siege mentality,” dominated by University (INTO), a collective sense of “fear and suspicion” that propelled his advisors to advocate, justify, and sometimes carry out extreme measures—which, perversely, also fueled the fear of the how to write Bodwell, administration on the part of the press.[7] Charles Colson’s suggestion that the Brookings Institution, a progressive-leaning think-tank, ought to be “firebombed” still stands out as a particularly atrocious anecdote.

Yet the thoughts, more serious efforts to limit civil liberties and expand the federal government’s surveillance capacities embodied in the infamous Huston Plan were clear signals of a more serious and pervasive malady—one so acute that it alarmed no less than FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, no shrinking violet when it came to treating the civil rights of US citizens with some flexibility. Similarly, Nixon’s obsession with secrecy and disdain for public opinion when it came to foreign policy went far toward explaining the descent into the abyss that led to Watergate. Thus, as early as 1969 and throughout 1970 Nixon, egged on by the then equally aggressive and paranoid Henry Kissinger, had the FBI wiretap some members of the National Security Council after leaks of the air bombings of Cambodia appeared in the pages of the New York Times —which in turn had revealed to the public an operation so secret and a journal Bodwell High School, illegal that the official flight logs had been tampered with and the pilots themselves were misled into believing they were bombing Vietnam.[8] For many, including a significant number of his foes, Nixon’s story is one of Shakespearean tragedy, one in which a president’s inner demons frustrated the College, promises held by his undeniable intellectual talents and capacity for hard work after he had achieved (twice) his lifetime objective: to how to write a journal High School, lead the nation.[9] Henry Kissinger, not known as a man prone to essay high, sentimentality, once famously wondered how great a man Richard Nixon would have been if someone had “shown him some love.”[10] And yet, Richard Nixon and how to a journal School, his staff’s paranoid sense of embattlement was not only the product of simple essay Business overheated imaginations. Discomfiting leaks, after all, certainly existed.

Not least that of the “Pentagon Papers,” an examination of US policy in Indo-China collected by the Department of Defense, which acknowledged that four consecutive administrations—from Harry S. Truman to Lyndon Johnson—had consistently lied to and misled the American public about US policy in Vietnam, that was leaked to the New York Times by former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg. Although the write High School, Nixon administration was not covered in the analysis, the President and his advisors correctly believed that its release would reignite already feverish anti-war sentiment and hamper their own initiatives in Southeast Asia. Nixon’s men reacted by sending the same team of operatives who later broke into the Watergate building (called “the plumbers” after their mission to stop leaks) to burglarize the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, so as to discredit the leak.[11] At around the same time, as a historian and College, journalist has graphically reminded us, the White House could be found “literally laagered by a ring of dozens of silver Metro buses” so as to protect it from a horde of “half-naked students” quite willing to, for instance, carry around “the bleeding head of a lamb,” not to mention throwing abuse at federal employees passing by in how to for college Bodwell High, protest against the war.[12] More dramatically, the President’s Commission on Campus Unrest officially recorded a staggering 8000 student-perpetrated bombings between January 1969 and April 1970. Article St. Michael's. To these must be added the race riots experienced in locations as varied as Harlem (1964); Watts, LA (1965); and how to a journal for college High, Newark (1967), not to mention the expository writing University London, disturbances, seen in more than a hundred cities after the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., that burned across the inner cities of Washington DC, Baltimore, and Chicago. By the time Nixon took office, Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s 1968 dictum that the how to for college School, nation was exhibiting “the qualities of an individual going through a nervous breakdown” seemed rather appropriate.[13] The explosive social and cultural tensions that engulfed the nation as Nixon entered the essay NEOMA Business School, White House magnified the dark side of the President’s character and how to for college Bodwell, the baleful effects of his inner demons. The poisonous inheritance of previous administrations’ policies in Indochina had crystallized in a growing “credibility gap” between official lies or half-truths and reality, at a time when civil rights struggles reached their apex and university students were rejecting accepted norms of behavior in areas ranging from family relations to accepted hierarchies.[14] Nixon was singularly ill-suited to lead the nation at this transitional moment, during which government excesses on behalf of national security and low political “dirty tricks” were becoming no more acceptable than Jim Crow or women’s submission to their husbands.

It may indeed be true enough that the CRP did nothing on behalf of Richard Nixon that had not been done before by Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Essay Writing Queen. Kennedy, or Lyndon B. Johnson. It is also reasonable to write a journal Bodwell School, note that the frenzied attack against the administration as Watergate unraveled was fueled by an instinctive, growing dislike of the President (which Nixon took good care to feed) on the part of a significant sector of the press and the intellectual classes. Yet the fact remains that the President’s actions, and those of his subordinates, were both wrong and criminal. Watergate, in teaching writing Queen Ethelburga’s College, truth, is a testament to the enduring resilience of liberal democracy in the United States. The Watergate investigations were doubtlessly influenced by political partisanship and write Bodwell School, the pursuit of self-aggrandizement on the part of some of the essays for fun Lancing, President’s adversaries. Despite this, and indeed perhaps because of it, it remains a prime example of the capacity of American institutions to adjust and how to for college Bodwell, evolve in is a reviewed article St. Michael's, response to demands for greater individual freedom and stricter standards of conduct on the part of government officials and public representatives.

After Watergate, presidents cloak themselves in imperial robes and take freedom of the press and the separation of powers lightly at their own peril. [1] Jeb Stuart Magruder, An American Life: One Man’s Road to Watergate (New York: Atheneum, 1974), 170–171. [2] As quoted in John Ehrlichman, Witness to Power: The Nixon Years (New York: Simon Schuster, 1982), 346. [3] Magruder, An American Life , 195. [4] See for instance David Greenberg, “The Unsolved Mysteries of Bodwell High Watergate,” The New York Times , June 5, 2005. [5] See for instance Joan Hoff, Nixon Reconsidered , 301–346. [6] After the leak of the writing journal paper Сollege Preparatory School, Pentagon Papers, for instance, Nixon believed Daniel Ellsberg was part of a “conspiracy” going back to the days of the write a journal for college Bodwell High, Hiss case. Thoughts University (INTO). H. How To Write A Journal For College Bodwell School. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: Berkley Books, 1995), 368, 377, 381.

[7] Raymond Price, With Nixon (New York: Viking Press, 1977), 188–191; James Keogh, President Nixon and the Press (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1972), 39, 132–145; Magruder, American Life , 196–197; Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, All the President’s Men (London: Bloomsbury, 1998), 87, 233. [8] Seymour M. Hersh, The Price of Power: Kissinger in the White House (London: Faber, 1983), 61–62, 86–88, 319; Matthew Dallek, Nixon and Kissinger, Partners in Power (New York: Penguin, 2007), 118–124. [9] See for instance Ron Briley, “Nixon and Historical Memory,” Perspectives 36, no. Writing For Fun Lancing College. 3 (1996). [10] Henry Kissinger, Years of Upheaval (Boston: Little, Brown and how to for college School, Company, 1982), 1184. [11] Hersh, 383–401, and David Greenberg, Nixon’s Shadow : The History of an Image (New York: W. What Is A Peer Journal. W. How To High. Norton, 2003), 114–116, 323–29. [12] Godfrey Hodgson, The Gentleman from journal Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, New York: Daniel Patrick Moynihan, A Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), 151. [13] As quoted in Robert Mason, Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 22. [14] See for instance Hunter S. Thompson, Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail ’72 (London: HarperCollins, 1973).

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A Critical Understanding of how to a journal for college Edward Curtis’s Photos of Native American Culture. A massive installation at writing essays for fun, the Muskegon Museum of Art displays Edward Curtis#8217;s entire ethnographic survey of surviving Native American culture at how to write a journal High School, the turn of the 20th century. Teaching School! MUSKEGON, Mich. — Can one come to a revelation through a visit to an art museum, or is it something that can only be arrived at through a more intensive personal journey? This is the question that emerged for me as I visited the Muskegon Museum of Art for Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , a massive installation of the 30-year-plus ethnographic survey of surviving Native American culture by how to write for college Bodwell High turn-of-the-20th-century, Seattle-based photographer Edward S. Curtis. Edward Curtis, self-portrait. The North American Indian is a seminal and controversial blend of documentary and staged photography — one which contributes to much of the foundational imagery and, often-stereotypical, understanding possessed by white America about teaching writing school Queen Ethelburga’s College some 82-plus native tribes that the United States eradicated over a century of colonization. Much has been made about the complexities, contradictions, and conflicts of how to write for college School interest in Curtis’s masterwork, by Native and non-Native scholars. Some argue that in what peer journal article School, staging photographs and, at times, adding props or accessories, Curtis took liberties with the how to write a journal for college Bodwell High School, concept of ethnography, both imposing and reinforcing white notions of Native American appearances and culture.

Others argue that without Curtis, there would be hardly any extant imagery of the cultural heritage of the tribes he worked with. The Curtis exhibition at the Muskegon Museum of Art raised, for me, compelling questions around our individual and expository College London (UCL), institutional tendencies to justify the how to for college, art that we find interesting. Expository Writing University College London (UCL)! It is undeniable that the 723 portfolio images lining the walls of the Musekegon’s galleries — as well as a 20-volume edition gathering 1,500 additional photos and ethnographic research carried out by Curtis in cooperation with tribes west of the Missouri River — represent a remarkable accomplishment. They are fascinating photos, and managed to chronicle what Curtis called, “the lifeways and a journal for college High School, mores of all the tribes who were still relatively intact from the colonialism and the invasion of Anglo culture.” Beyond ethnography, many of them are also formally beautiful works of art. Plate from Edward Curtis#8217;s The North American Indian. What Reviewed Journal School! The Muskegon Museum has personal reason to how to write for college High take pride in this exhibition — the University, museum is in write a journal for college Bodwell School, possession of the what journal article, collection because of Lulu Miller, the first female director of the a journal for college Bodwell High, adjacent Hackley Library and second director of the Muskegon Art Museum (appointed in 1916, being the second woman in essays for fun, the US to how to for college Bodwell run an art museum). In 1908, as her first acquisition for the library, Miller sourced $3,000 to purchase a subscription to Curtis’s series, which was issued in teaching writing school Ethelburga’s College, 20 volumes and would ultimately take 30 years to complete — an incredible gamble when you consider that sum is equivalent to $80,000 today, and certainly a tidy sum for a regional library. How To Write Bodwell! The Muskegon Museum of Art owns one of the writing Preparatory, estimated 225 sets of The North American Indian (many of which are likely incomplete), and this exhibition is one of very few that has put the collection on display in write a journal for college School, its entirety. The final volume arrived in essay school, late 1930, bracketing Miller’s career with the library and museum, and in the 1970s was transferred from the library to the purview of the art museum for conservation efforts.

Hackley Public Library in write High, Muskegon, Michigan. “We think she was pretty gutsy,” said Muskegon Museum of Art’s executive director Judith Haynor, in reference to Miller. “We have a variety of paper Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School letters from Curtis to Lulu, and from his staff — they had a lively correspondence. There have been 200 or more exhibitions of a journal High School selections of Curtis’s work, but from what we can ascertain, never before has the entire body of work been put out on display.” However, the hometown pride in the visionary Lulu Miller — not to mention the more generalized sense of wonder at the beauty and exoticism of what peer journal article School Curtis’s imagery — has perhaps skewed the museum#8217;s framing of the appropriateness and relevance of Curtis#8217;s work. The prevailing view here is that the photographs#8217; issues are a product of their time, and that they are nonetheless of educational value, particularly in our current climate. Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , installation view at the Muskegon Museum of Art. “I think that these images clearly show someone who began to understand more deeply the importance and uniqueness of the American Indian cultures,” said guest curator Ben Mitchell, who worked on how to write a journal for college Bodwell School the exhibition for some two years. “You can find this in his writing, that he came to understand that white America had something really poignant and important to write simple essay NEOMA Business School learn from Native American culture, especially the depth of the spirituality. And I think about the times that we live in right now, in write for college High, a time of name-calling, when our major political leadership is scapegoating people who are not white. Deportation is up 38% in just the last four months. The point is, I think, that Curtis, through The North American Indian , realized that white America had something to learn.” Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , installation view, including a display featuring a camera of the type Curtis hauled, along with boxes of glass negatives. The museum has gone to great lengths to ensure deft handling of the subject matter, including engagement with the local Little River Band of Ottowa Indians, located in Manistee, Michigan (too far east to have been included in Curtis’s work). Tribal Chief Larry Romanelli served as an advisor to the exhibition, and appeared with other Native American participants in panel discussions and programming that accompanied the exhibition. Journal Chaminade Сollege School! His view of the exhibition is positive, and echoes a sentiment presented in some of the voluminous wall texts accompanying the imagery: that Curtis captured humanity and heritage that is significant to the descendants of Native American tribes, which would likely have otherwise been lost forever. “Edward Curtis’s work is not embraced by 100% of people, or all Indian tribes, as well.

And they wanted to know if I thought it would be a good idea or not,” said Romanelli in an interview with Hyperallergic. “I’ve been interested in his work for years, and I believe the how to School, good absolutely outweighs the negative part. I don’t believe that he ever did anything to intentionally hurt Native Americans. I think he was trying to help Native Americans, and that makes a big difference to me.” Plate from Edward Curtis#8217;s The North American Indian ( detail view) Romanelli also highlighted a strong sense of connection to the subjects of Curtis’s photographs. “The world would not have known those people [without Curtis’s work], and I believe, in one sense, I can see the souls of my ancestors. I would not have known what they looked like, who they were. So I cherish those photos, from my perspective.” Perhaps it is powerful enough, all on its own, to enter a conventional museum space and find it entirely dedicated to expository essay College London (UCL) images of people of color. Western art institutions continue to be overwhelmingly dominated by Eurocentric imagery and artists, and perhaps, by how to write for college High putting these photos on display, they help contribute to a collective understanding of racial injustice. Writing Paper School! Plate from Edward Curtis#8217;s The North American Indian. How To For College Bodwell High School! “The time we live in essay writing College London, today, where we have the write, rise of white supremacy, compared with just one year ago — I think pushing forward a takeaway that the majority, dominant, white male culture in writing Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, America still has a lot to learn from cultures that are not themselves is entirely appropriate,” said Mitchell, in an interview with Hyperallergic. “Some of us may feel that we have already had that takeaway, because of our background and our experience — but remember that in almost any community, the art museum, the anthropology museum will receive far more visitors with very little background in art and anthropology. Our job is to write a journal for college High School teach.” Perhaps this is so, and all my personal frustration at essays for fun College, the retrograde mentalities that make such remedial learning a necessity does not, at the end of the day, mean they do not exist or need to for college High School be addressed. But I have to wonder, if we are dealing with a population whose baseline takeaway from The North American Indian is that “Indians are people, too,” is putting 723 images on display enough to journal paper Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School truly move the needle? After all, the how to a journal Bodwell, United States is essays College, still breaking treaties.

One cannot doubt Mitchell’s sincere engagement with Curtis’s work, nor the museum’s good faith efforts to present it in an inclusive way — nor even, in following Curtis’s 30-year journey of engagement with tribespeople, can one doubt that the how to write for college High, experience profoundly affected his understanding of Native American cultures and humanity. High School Ethelburga’s College! But if presenting such imagery were enough to trigger revelation, could we not put 723 images of Syrian refugees on Bodwell High School display somewhere, and watch the understanding come rolling in? Edward S. Writing High School Queen! Curtis: The North American Indian , installation view at the Muskegon Museum of how to a journal School Art. A more effective contemporary reading of Curtis#8217;s work happens in what I consider to be the very best part of the exhibition: the room juxtaposing Curtis#8217;s images with the work of contemporary Native American artists who#8217;ve reflected upon his impact on their cultural identity. Some, like two paintings by University College Ojibwe painter Jim Denomie, characterize Curtis as a kind of voyeur or paparazzi figure. Others directly reference his photography in their personal, interpretive works. Inarguably, Curtis#8217;s long relationship with the tribespeople of North America had a significant impact on write a journal for college School their communities. Some of the contemporary works, hung adjacent to Edward Curtis#8217;s photographs which served as source material.

According to the narrative presented by teaching essay writing high Queen Ethelburga’s the museum, by the end of The North American Indian , Curtis was basically penniless and died in obscurity, as popular interest in his project waned while his own obsession mounted. In his later years, as he became more aware of the struggles of the people he was photographing, his work might be seen as an early attempt at High, activist or social practice art, before there was any notion of such a thing. These works, also on display, showcase Native Americans living in a more Anglicized context, wearing Depression-era clothing rather than traditional garb, and reflect the ways in which there was, by what then, little remaining of the #8220;lifeways and mores#8221; that Curtis found so initially fascinating. The fact that he continued to pursue Native Americans as subjects outside of the exoticized trappings of their traditional culture demonstrates a real transition in Curtis#8217;s work. Painting by Ojibwe artist Jim Denomie characterizes Edward Curtis as a paparazzi figure. Today, the preponderance of technology has made it possible for people to how to for college Bodwell self-document, and there is less a need to rely on an external, paternalistic, or authoritative record. In this, at least, Curtis#8217;s access to critical thoughts photography tools and training can justifiably be recognized as a product of his time. Write A Journal For College Bodwell School! The question is, then, how can we take this work and do it better in our time — for example, centralizing the creative output and self-representation of journal St. Michael's School Native American peoples, or at least giving it equal ground in the museum setting (rather than only putting it on display in museums dedicated to anthropology or Native American art). #8220;I’ve come away from this two years of work realizing that history is a journal Bodwell, a very powerful force, because history, when you’re immersed in it, isn’t just looking at the past,#8221; said Mitchell. #8220;History constantly informs the present you’re living in — or it better, if we’re paying attention. But even more than that — and this touches upon why this exhibition is so poignantly timely for the time we live in writing paper Chaminade Сollege, — history also points us to our future that we’re going to share.

We learn from the history how to how to write a journal High School live in our present, and essays for fun Lancing, how to how to Bodwell plan to live in our future.” Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian continues at the Muskegon Museum of Art (296 W Webster Ave, Muskegon, Mich.) through September 10. Too Lewd for expository writing College (UCL) the Louvre, Boinking Building Sculpture Nixed in write a journal for college Bodwell, Paris. Expository College! #8220;Domestikator,#8221; a 40-foot-tall inhabitable sculpture that was to be part of the how to write High School, FIAC fair#8217;s public art program, is paper Chaminade Preparatory, shaped like two figures making whoopee.

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Donald Trump’s Ghostwriter Tells All. “I put lipstick on a pig,” Tony Schwartz, the ghostwriter, says. He feels “deep remorse.” Last June, as dusk fell outside Tony Schwartz’s sprawling house, on a leafy back road in Riverdale, New York, he pulled out his laptop and write for college High caught up with the day’s big news: Donald J. How To Write Simple Essay NEOMA Business! Trump had declared his candidacy for President. As Schwartz watched a video of the a journal for college Bodwell, speech, he began to feel personally implicated. Trump, facing a crowd that had gathered in (UCL) the lobby of Trump Tower, on how to a journal for college Fifth Avenue, laid out his qualifications, saying, “We need a leader that wrote ‘The Art of the Deal.’ ” If that was so, Schwartz thought, then he, not Trump, should be running. Schwartz dashed off a tweet: “Many thanks Donald Trump for suggesting I run for President, based on thoughts of Exeter (INTO) the fact that I wrote ‘The Art of the Deal.’ ” Schwartz had ghostwritten Trump’s 1987 breakthrough memoir, earning a joint byline on how to write a journal for college High School the cover, half of the essays, book’s five-hundred-thousand-dollar advance, and half of the royalties. The book was a phenomenal success, spending forty-eight weeks on the Times best-seller list, thirteen of them at No. 1. More than a million copies have been bought, generating several million dollars in royalties. The book expanded Trump’s renown far beyond New York City, making him an emblem of the successful tycoon. Edward Kosner, the former editor and how to for college Bodwell High publisher of what is a journal article, New York , where Schwartz worked as a writer at the time, says, “Tony created Trump.

He’s Dr. How To Write A Journal For College Bodwell! Frankenstein.” Starting in reviewed School late 1985, Schwartz spent eighteen months with Trump—camping out in his office, joining him on his helicopter, tagging along at meetings, and how to Bodwell spending weekends with him at his Manhattan apartment and his Florida estate. Critical (INTO)! During that period, Schwartz felt, he had got to how to a journal High know him better than almost anyone else outside the Trump family. Until Schwartz posted the tweet, though, he had not spoken publicly about Trump for decades. It had never been his ambition to essays for fun Lancing College be a ghostwriter, and he had been glad to move on.

But, as he watched a replay of the new candidate holding forth for forty-five minutes, he noticed something strange: over the decades, Trump appeared to have convinced himself that he had written the book. Schwartz recalls thinking, “If he could lie about write High, that on writing paper Сollege School Day One—when it was so easily refuted—he is likely to lie about anything.” It seemed improbable that Trump’s campaign would succeed, so Schwartz told himself that he needn’t worry much. High! But, as Trump denounced Mexican immigrants as “rapists,” near the end of the essay School, speech, Schwartz felt anxious. Write A Journal For College High! He had spent hundreds of hours observing Trump firsthand, and felt that he had an unusually deep understanding of critical thoughts of Exeter (INTO), what he regarded as Trump’s beguiling strengths and disqualifying weaknesses. Many Americans, however, saw Trump as a charmingly brash entrepreneur with an unfailing knack for business—a mythical image that Schwartz had helped create. Write For College High School! “It pays to trust your instincts,” Trump says in the book, adding that he was set to peer reviewed journal article St. Michael's make hundreds of millions of dollars after buying a hotel that he hadn’t even walked through. In the write a journal, subsequent months, as Trump defied predictions by establishing himself as the front-runner for the Republican nomination, Schwartz’s desire to set the teaching essay school Queen Ethelburga’s College, record straight grew. He had long since left journalism to High launch the Energy Project, a consulting firm that promises to improve employees’ productivity by helping them boost their “physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual” morale. It was a successful company, with clients such as Facebook, and Schwartz’s colleagues urged him to article St. Michael's School avoid the political fray.

But the prospect of President Trump terrified him. It wasn’t because of Trump’s ideology—Schwartz doubted that he had one. The problem was Trump’s personality, which he considered pathologically impulsive and self-centered. Schwartz thought about publishing an article describing his reservations about Trump, but he hesitated, knowing that, since he’d cashed in on the flattering “Art of the Deal,” his credibility and his motives would be seen as suspect. Write A Journal For College Bodwell High School! Yet watching the journal paper Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, campaign was excruciating.

Schwartz decided that if he kept mum and Trump was elected he’d never forgive himself. In June, he agreed to break his silence and give his first candid interview about the how to write High School, Trump he got to know while acting as his Boswell. “I put lipstick on a pig,” he said. “I feel a deep sense of remorse that I contributed to presenting Trump in a way that brought him wider attention and teaching writing high Ethelburga’s College made him more appealing than he is.” He went on, “I genuinely believe that if Trump wins and gets the a journal for college School, nuclear codes there is an excellent possibility it will lead to the end of civilization.” If he were writing “The Art of the Deal” today, Schwartz said, it would be a very different book with a very different title. Critical Thoughts (INTO)! Asked what he would call it, he answered, “The Sociopath.” The idea of Trump writing an autobiography didn’t originate with either Trump or Schwartz.

It began with Si Newhouse, the media magnate whose company, Advance Publications, owned Random House at the time, and continues to own Conde Nast, the how to School, parent company of this magazine. “It was very definitely, and high school Ethelburga’s almost uniquely, Si Newhouse’s idea,” Peter Osnos, who edited the book, recalls. GQ , which Conde Nast also owns, had published a cover story on Trump, and Newhouse noticed that newsstand sales had been unusually strong. Newhouse called Trump about the project, then visited him to discuss it. For College! Random House continued the pursuit with a series of meetings. At one point, Howard Kaminsky, who ran Random House then, wrapped a thick Russian novel in a dummy cover that featured a photograph of Trump looking like a conquering hero; at the top was Trump’s name, in large gold block lettering. Essay University! Kaminsky recalls that Trump was pleased by how to a journal for college Bodwell School the mockup, but had one suggestion: “Please make my name much bigger.” After securing the half-million-dollar advance, Trump signed a contract. Around this time, Schwartz, who was one of the leading young magazine writers of the day, stopped by Trump’s office, in Trump Tower. Schwartz had written about thoughts University of Exeter (INTO), Trump before. In 1985, he’d published a piece in New York called “A Different Kind of how to write a journal School, Donald Trump Story,” which portrayed him not as a brilliant mogul but as a ham-fisted thug who had unsuccessfully tried to evict rent-controlled and rent-stabilized tenants from a building that he had bought on Central Park South. Writing Сollege Preparatory School! Trump’s efforts—which included a plan to house homeless people in the building in order to how to write a journal for college High harass the tenants—became what Schwartz described as a “fugue of failure, a farce of fumbling and bumbling.” An accompanying cover portrait depicted Trump as unshaven, unpleasant-looking, and shiny with sweat.

Yet, to Schwartz’s amazement, Trump loved the article. He hung the how to write simple Business, cover on a wall of his office, and sent a fan note to Schwartz, on his gold-embossed personal stationery. “Everybody seems to have read it,” Trump enthused in the note, which Schwartz has kept. “I was shocked,” Schwartz told me. “Trump didn’t fit any model of human being I’d ever met. He was obsessed with publicity, and he didn’t care what you wrote.” He went on, “Trump only takes two positions. Either you’re a scummy loser, liar, whatever, or you’re the School, greatest. Expository Essay University! I became the greatest. He wanted to be seen as a tough guy, and for college he loved being on critical thoughts University of Exeter the cover.” Schwartz wrote him back, saying, “Of all the people I’ve written about over the years, you are certainly the best sport.” And so Schwartz had returned for a journal for college, more, this time to conduct an interview for Playboy . Writing Journal School! But to his frustration Trump kept making cryptic, monosyllabic statements. “He mysteriously wouldn’t answer my questions,” Schwartz said. After twenty minutes, he said, Trump explained that he didn’t want to reveal anything new about write for college Bodwell School, himself—he had just signed a lucrative book deal and needed to critical thoughts (INTO) save his best material.

“What kind of write a journal Bodwell High School, book?” Schwartz said. “My autobiography,” Trump replied. “You’re only what peer School, thirty-eight—you don’t have one yet!” Schwartz joked. “Yeah, I know,” Trump said. “If I were you,” Schwartz recalls telling him, “I’d write a book called ‘The Art of the Deal.’ That’s something people would be interested in.” “You’re right,” Trump agreed. “Do you want to write it?” Schwartz thought it over for several weeks. He knew that he would be making a Faustian bargain. A lifelong liberal, he was hardly an admirer of write for college Bodwell High, Trump’s ruthless and single-minded pursuit of profit. “It was one of a number of times in essay University London (UCL) my life when I was divided between the Devil and how to Bodwell School the higher side,” he told me. What Is A Peer St. Michael's School! He had grown up in a bourgeois, intellectual family in Manhattan, and for college Bodwell School had attended elite private schools, but he was not as wealthy as some of how to NEOMA, his classmates—and, unlike many of them, he had no trust fund. How To School! “I grew up privileged,” he said. “But my parents made it clear: ‘You’re on your own.’ ” Around the is a reviewed journal, time Trump made his offer, Schwartz’s wife, Deborah Pines, became pregnant with their second daughter, and he worried that the family wouldn’t fit into their Manhattan apartment, whose mortgage was already too high. For College! “I was overly worried about money,” Schwartz said. Critical University Of Exeter (INTO)! “I thought money would keep me safe and secure—or that was my rationalization.” At the how to High, same time, he knew that if he took Trump’s money and adopted Trump’s voice his journalism career would be badly damaged. His heroes were such literary nonfiction writers as Tom Wolfe, John McPhee, and David Halberstam. Being a ghostwriter was hackwork.

In the end, though, Schwartz had his price. He told Trump that if he would give him half the advance and half the book’s royalties he’d take the job. Such terms are unusually generous for expository essay writing London, a ghostwriter. Trump, despite having a reputation as a tough negotiator, agreed on for college School the spot. “It was a huge windfall,” Schwartz recalls. Teaching Writing School Ethelburga’s! “But I knew I was selling out. Literally, the term was invented to describe what I did.” Soon Spy was calling him “former journalist Tony Schwartz.” Schwartz thought that “The Art of the Deal” would be an easy project. The book’s structure would be simple: he’d chronicle half a dozen or so of Trump’s biggest real-estate deals, dispense some bromides about how to succeed in business, and fill in Trump’s life story. For research, he planned to interview Trump on how to write for college Bodwell High School a series of Saturday mornings. The first session didn’t go as planned, however.

After Trump gave him a tour of his marble-and-gilt apartment atop Trump Tower—which, to expository University Schwartz, looked unlived-in, like the a journal Bodwell, lobby of critical University of Exeter (INTO), a hotel—they began to talk. But the discussion was soon hobbled by what Schwartz regards as one of Trump’s most essential characteristics: “He has no attention span.” In those days, Schwartz recalls, Trump was generally affable with reporters, offering short, amusingly immodest quotes on write Bodwell School demand. Trump had been forthcoming with him during the New York interview, but it hadn’t required much time or deep reflection. For the book, though, Trump needed to provide him with sustained, thoughtful recollections. He asked Trump to describe his childhood in detail. Essay Writing London (UCL)! After sitting for only a few minutes in his suit and write a journal Bodwell School tie, Trump became impatient and irritable. He looked fidgety, Schwartz recalls, “like a kindergartner who can’t sit still in a classroom.” Even when Schwartz pressed him, Trump seemed to remember almost nothing of his youth, and made it clear that he was bored. Far more quickly than Schwartz had expected, Trump ended the peer St. Michael's, meeting.

Week after week, the pattern repeated itself. Schwartz tried to limit the sessions to a journal for college Bodwell High School smaller increments of simple essay NEOMA Business School, time, but Trump’s contributions remained oddly truncated and superficial. “Trump has been written about a thousand ways from Sunday, but this fundamental aspect of a journal for college Bodwell, who he is doesn’t seem to be fully understood,” Schwartz told me. “It’s implicit in essays College a lot of what people write, but it’s never explicit—or, at least, I haven’t seen it. And that is that it’s impossible to keep him focussed on any topic, other than his own self-aggrandizement, for a journal for college High, more than a few minutes, and even then . . Essay University London (UCL)! . ” Schwartz trailed off, shaking his head in amazement. He regards Trump’s inability to how to write Bodwell High concentrate as alarming in a Presidential candidate. Paper School! “If he had to be briefed on a crisis in the Situation Room, it’s impossible to imagine him paying attention over a long period of time,” he said. In a recent phone interview, Trump told me that, to the contrary, he has the skill that matters most in write a journal Bodwell High a crisis: the ability to forge compromises.

The reason he touted “The Art of the Deal” in his announcement, he explained, was that he believes that recent Presidents have lacked his toughness and finesse: “Look at the trade deficit with China. Look at critical University (INTO), the Iran deal. I’ve made a fortune by making deals. I do that. I do that well. That’s what I do.” But Schwartz believes that Trump’s short attention span has left him with “a stunning level of write a journal High School, superficial knowledge and writing essays for fun Lancing College plain ignorance.” He said, “That’s why he so prefers TV as his first news source—information comes in easily digestible sound bites.” He added, “I seriously doubt that Trump has ever read a book straight through in his adult life.” During the eighteen months that he observed Trump, Schwartz said, he never saw a book on Trump’s desk, or elsewhere in his office, or in his apartment.

Other journalists have noticed Trump’s apparent lack of interest in reading. How To Write For College High School! In May, Megyn Kelly, of Fox News, asked him to for fun name his favorite book, other than the a journal Bodwell High School, Bible or “The Art of the Deal.” Trump picked the 1929 novel “All Quiet on the Western Front.” Evidently suspecting that many years had elapsed since he’d read it, Kelly asked Trump to talk about the most recent book he’d read. “I read passages, I read areas, I’ll read chapters—I don’t have the time,” Trump said. (UCL)! As The New Republic noted recently, this attitude is not shared by most U.S. Presidents, including Barack Obama, a habitual consumer of how to write for college High, current books, and George W. Bush, who reportedly engaged in a fiercely competitive book-reading contest with his political adviser Karl Rove. Trump’s first wife, Ivana, famously claimed that Trump kept a copy of Adolf Hitler’s collected speeches, “My New Order,” in a cabinet beside his bed.

In 1990, Trump’s friend Marty Davis, who was then an executive at Paramount, added credence to teaching essay high Queen Ethelburga’s this story, telling Marie Brenner, of write for college School, Vanity Fair , that he had given Trump the book. Journal Article St. Michael's! “I thought he would find it interesting,” Davis told her. When Brenner asked Trump about it, however, he mistakenly identified the volume as a different work by High Hitler: “Mein Kampf.” Apparently, he had not so much as read the title. “ If I had these speeches, and I am not saying that I do, I would never read them,” Trump told Brenner. Growing desperate, Schwartz devised a strategy for writing for fun College, trapping Trump into giving more material. How To Write Bodwell High School! He made plans to spend the University (INTO), weekend with Trump at Mar-a-Lago, his mansion in Palm Beach, where there would be fewer distractions. As they chatted in how to for college High School the garden, Ivana icily walked by, clearly annoyed that Schwartz was competing for her husband’s limited free time. Trump again grew impatient. Long before lunch on Saturday, Schwartz recalls, Trump “essentially threw a fit.” He stood up and announced that he couldn’t stand any more questions. Schwartz went to his room, called his literary agent, Kathy Robbins, and told her that he couldn’t do the book. (Robbins confirms this.) As Schwartz headed back to New York, though, he came up with another plan. University Of Exeter! He would propose eavesdropping on Trump’s life by how to for college Bodwell High School following him around on the job and, more important, by listening in on his office phone calls. Simple Essay NEOMA! That way, extracting extended reflections from Trump would not be required. When Schwartz presented the idea to Trump, he loved it.

Almost every day from then on, Schwartz sat about write for college School, eight feet away from him in the Trump Tower office, listening on an extension of critical University, Trump’s phone line. Write For College! Schwartz says that none of the writing essays for fun Lancing College, bankers, lawyers, brokers, and reporters who called Trump realized that they were being monitored. The calls usually didn’t last long, and Trump’s assistant facilitated the how to a journal Bodwell High, conversation-hopping. While he was talking with someone, she often came in University College London (UCL) with a Post-it note informing him of the next caller on hold. “He was playing people,” Schwartz recalls. On the how to a journal for college School, phone with business associates, Trump would flatter, bully, and occasionally get mad, but always in a calculated way. Before the discussion ended, Trump would “share the news of his latest success,” Schwartz says. What Peer! Instead of write School, saying goodbye at the end of a call, Trump customarily signed off with “You’re the greatest!” There was not a single call that Trump deemed too private for Schwartz to hear. “He loved the attention,” Schwartz recalls. What Is A Reviewed Journal Article! “If he could have had three hundred thousand people listening in, he would have been even happier.”

This year, Schwartz has heard some argue that there must be a more thoughtful and how to a journal Bodwell High School nuanced version of Donald Trump that he is keeping in writing paper Сollege Preparatory School reserve for how to for college School, after the campaign. “There isn’t,” Schwartz insists. “There is no private Trump.” This is not a matter of reviewed School, hindsight. While working on “The Art of the Deal,” Schwartz kept a journal in which he expressed his amazement at Trump’s personality, writing that Trump seemed driven entirely by a need for public attention. “All he is is ‘stomp, stomp, stomp’—recognition from outside, bigger, more, a whole series of write for college, things that go nowhere in particular,” he observed, on October 21, 1986. But, as he noted in the journal a few days later, “the book will be far more successful if Trump is a sympathetic character—even weirdly sympathetic—than if he is just hateful or, worse yet, a one-dimensional blowhard.” Eavesdropping solved the interview problem, but it presented a new one. After hearing Trump’s discussions about business on the phone, Schwartz asked him brief follow-up questions. He then tried to amplify the material he got from Trump by essay NEOMA calling others involved in the deals. But their accounts often directly conflicted with Trump’s. “Lying is second nature to him,” Schwartz said. “More than anyone else I have ever met, Trump has the ability to convince himself that whatever he is saying at any given moment is true, or sort of High School, true, or at least ought to be true.” Often, Schwartz said, the expository College London (UCL), lies that Trump told him were about money—“how much he had paid for how to for college Bodwell High School, something, or what a building he owned was worth, or how much one of his casinos was earning when it was actually on its way to bankruptcy.” Trump bragged that he paid only eight million dollars for Mar-a-Lago, but omitted that he bought a nearby strip of beach for a record sum. After gossip columns reported, erroneously, that Prince Charles was considering buying several apartments in (INTO) Trump Tower, Trump implied that he had no idea where the rumor had started. Write A Journal Bodwell School! (“It certainly didn’t hurt us,” he says, in “The Art of the Deal.”) Wayne Barrett, a reporter for thoughts of Exeter, the Village Voice , later revealed that Trump himself had planted the story with journalists.

Schwartz also suspected that Trump engaged in how to for college Bodwell High such media tricks, and asked him about a story making the writing Lancing, rounds—that Trump often called up news outlets using a pseudonym. Trump didn’t deny it. As Schwartz recalls, he smirked and said, “You like that, do you?” Schwartz says of Trump, “He lied strategically. He had a complete lack of conscience about it.” Since most people are “constrained by the truth,” Trump’s indifference to it “gave him a strange advantage.” When challenged about the facts, Schwartz says, Trump would often double down, repeat himself, and grow belligerent.

This quality was recently on display after Trump posted on Twitter a derogatory image of Hillary Clinton that contained a six-pointed star lifted from a white-supremacist Web site. Campaign staffers took the how to a journal High School, image down, but two days later Trump angrily defended it, insisting that there was no anti-Semitic implication. Whenever “the thin veneer of Trump’s vanity is challenged,” Schwartz says, he overreacts—not an ideal quality in a head of state. When Schwartz began writing “The Art of the teaching essay writing College, Deal,” he realized that he needed to put an acceptable face on Trump’s loose relationship with the truth. So he concocted an how to write Bodwell High School artful euphemism. Thoughts (INTO)! Writing in Trump’s voice, he explained to the reader, “I play to how to Bodwell High School people’s fantasies. How To NEOMA Business School! . Write For College Bodwell! . . Writing Сollege Preparatory School! People want to believe that something is the biggest and the greatest and the most spectacular. I call it truthful hyperbole. It’s an innocent form of exaggeration—and it’s a very effective form of a journal for college Bodwell School, promotion.” Schwartz now disavows the passage. “Deceit,” he told me, is never “innocent.” He added, “ ‘Truthful hyperbole’ is thoughts University a contradiction in terms. It’s a way of how to a journal Bodwell High School, saying, ‘It’s a lie, but who cares?’ ” Trump, he said, loved the writing paper School, phrase. In his journal, Schwartz describes the a journal Bodwell High, process of journal, trying to write a journal for college Bodwell High School make Trump’s voice palatable in the book.

It was kind of essays College, “a trick,” he writes, to mimic Trump’s blunt, staccato, no-apologies delivery while making him seem almost boyishly appealing. One strategy was to for college Bodwell School make it appear that Trump was just having fun at the office. “I try not to take any of what’s happened too seriously,” Trump says in the book. “The real excitement is playing the thoughts University (INTO), game.” In his journal, Schwartz wrote, “Trump stands for many of the things I abhor: his willingness to run over people, the write a journal for college Bodwell High, gaudy, tacky, gigantic obsessions, the absolute lack of interest in anything beyond power and money.” Looking back at the text now, Schwartz says, “I created a character far more winning than Trump actually is.” The first line of the book is an journal paper Chaminade Preparatory School example. “I don’t do it for the money,” Trump declares. “I’ve got enough, much more than I’ll ever need. I do it to do it. Write A Journal! Deals are my art form. Other people paint beautifully on University College London canvas or write wonderful poetry. I like making deals, preferably big deals. That’s how I get my kicks.” Schwartz now laughs at this depiction of Trump as a devoted artisan. “ Of course he’s in it for the money,” he said. How To A Journal High! “One of the most deep and basic needs he has is to prove that ‘I’m richer than you.’ ” As for the idea that making deals is a form of poetry, Schwartz says, “He was incapable of saying something like that—it wouldn’t even be in essay school Ethelburga’s College his vocabulary.” He saw Trump as driven not by a pure love of write a journal for college Bodwell School, dealmaking but by an insatiable hunger for “money, praise, and celebrity.” Often, after spending the day with Trump, and watching him pile one hugely expensive project atop the school Queen Ethelburga’s College, next, like a circus performer spinning plates, Schwartz would go home and how to High tell his wife, “He’s a living black hole!” Schwartz reminded himself that he was being paid to tell Trump’s story, not his own, but the more he worked on the project the more disturbing he found it.

In his journal, he describes the teaching high school Queen Ethelburga’s, hours he spent with Trump as “draining” and “deadening.” Schwartz told me that Trump’s need for attention is “completely compulsive,” and that his bid for write a journal for college Bodwell High School, the Presidency is part of a continuum. “He’s managed to keep increasing the dose for forty years,” Schwartz said. After he’d spent decades as a tabloid titan, “the only writing journal Сollege Preparatory, thing left was running for President. If he could run for emperor of the for college Bodwell High, world, he would.” Rhetorically, Schwartz’s aim in “The Art of the Deal” was to present Trump as the hero of every chapter, but, after looking into essay writing high school Queen, some of his supposedly brilliant deals, Schwartz concluded that there were cases in which there was no way to make Trump look good. So he sidestepped unflattering incidents and how to write for college details. College! “I didn’t consider it my job to investigate,” he says. Schwartz also tried to avoid the strong whiff of how to write Bodwell, cronyism that hovered over critical thoughts of Exeter, some deals. How To Bodwell School! In his 1986 journal, he describes what a challenge it was to “put his best foot forward” in writing about one of Trump’s first triumphs: his development, starting in 1975, of the Grand Hyatt Hotel, on the site of the writing, former Commodore Hotel, next to Grand Central Terminal. In order to afford the hotel, Trump required an extremely large tax abatement.

Richard Ravitch, who was then in charge of the how to High, agency that had the authority to grant such tax breaks to developers, recalls that he declined to grant the abatement, and Trump got “so unpleasant I had to tell him to get out.” Trump got it anyway, largely because key city officials had received years of donations from his father, Fred Trump, who was a major real-estate developer in Queens. Teaching Writing High Ethelburga’s! Wayne Barrett, whose reporting for how to School, the Voice informed his definitive 1991 book, “Trump: The Deals and the Downfall,” says, “It was all Fred’s political connections that created the abatement.” In addition, Trump snookered rivals into believing that he had an exclusive option from the city on the project, when he didn’t. Writing Journal Paper Chaminade! Trump also deceived his partner in the deal, Jay Pritzker, the a journal for college High, head of the Hyatt Hotel chain. Pritzker had rejected an unfavorable term proposed by Trump, but at the closing Trump forced it through, knowing that Pritzker was on a mountain in Nepal and could not be reached. Schwartz wrote in his journal that “almost everything” about the hotel deal had “an immoral cast.” But as the ghostwriter he was “trying hard to find my way around” behavior that he considered “if not reprehensible, at least morally questionable.” Many tall tales that Trump told Schwartz contained a kernel of truth but made him out to be cleverer than he was. One of Trump’s favorite stories was about how he had tricked the paper Preparatory School, company that owned Holiday Inn into becoming his partner in how to write for college High an Atlantic City casino.

Trump claimed that he had quieted executives’ fears of critical thoughts University, construction delays by ordering his construction supervisor to make a vacant lot that he owned look like “the most active construction site in the history of the world.” As Trump tells it in “The Art of the Deal,” there were so many dump trucks and bulldozers pushing around dirt and filling holes that had just been dug that when Holiday Inn executives visited the site it “looked as if we were in the midst of building the Bodwell High School, Grand Coulee Dam.” The stunt, Trump claimed, pushed the deal through. Teaching Essay Writing High School! After the write a journal Bodwell High School, book came out, though, a consultant for Trump’s casinos, Al Glasgow, who is now deceased, told Schwartz, “It never happened.” There may have been one or two trucks, but not the fleet that made it a great story. Schwartz tamped down some of Trump’s swagger, but plenty of it remained. For Fun Lancing! The manuscript that Random House published was, depending on your perspective, either entertainingly insightful or shamelessly self-aggrandizing. To borrow a title from Norman Mailer, who frequently attended prizefights at Trump’s Atlantic City hotels, the book could have been called “Advertisements for Myself.” In 2005, Timothy L. O’Brien, an award-winning journalist who is currently the executive editor of Bloomberg View, published “Trump Nation,” a meticulous investigative biography. Bodwell! (Trump unsuccessfully sued him for libel.) O’Brien has taken a close look at “The Art of the Deal,” and he told me that it might be best characterized as a “nonfiction work of how to essay Business, fiction.” Trump’s life story, as told by Schwartz, honestly chronicled a few setbacks, such as Trump’s disastrous 1983 purchase of the New Jersey Generals, a football team in the flailing United States Football League. But O’Brien believes that Trump used the write a journal for college Bodwell School, book to turn almost every step of his life, both personal and professional, into a “glittering fable.” Some of the falsehoods in “The Art of the Deal” are minor. Teaching Essay Writing High School Queen Ethelburga’s! Spy upended Trump’s claims that Ivana had been a “top model” and an alternate on the Czech Olympic ski team. Barrett notes that in “The Art of the Deal” Trump describes his father as having been born in how to write a journal for college New Jersey to Swedish parents; in fact, he was born in the Bronx to German parents. (Decades later, Trump spread falsehoods about Obama’s origins, claiming it was possible that the journal Сollege, President was born in Africa.) In “The Art of the Deal,” Trump portrays himself as a warm family man with endless admirers.

He praises Ivana’s taste and business skill—“I said you can’t bet against Ivana, and she proved me right.” But Schwartz noticed little warmth or communication between Trump and Ivana, and he later learned that while “The Art of the Deal” was being written Trump began an how to a journal Bodwell High School affair with Marla Maples, who became his second wife. (He divorced Ivana in 1992.) As far as Schwartz could tell, Trump spent very little time with his family and had no close friends. Writing Journal Paper Сollege School! In “The Art of the Deal,” Trump describes Roy Cohn, his personal lawyer, in the warmest terms, calling him “the sort of guy who’d be there at your hospital bed . . Write A Journal! . literally standing by you to the death.” Cohn, who in teaching writing school Queen Ethelburga’s the fifties assisted Senator Joseph McCarthy in his vicious crusade against Communism, was closeted. He felt abandoned by Trump when he became fatally ill from AIDS , and said, “Donald pisses ice water.” Schwartz says of Trump, “He’d like people when they were helpful, and turn on Bodwell School them when they weren’t. It wasn’t personal. He’s a transactional man—it was all about what you could do for him.” According to Barrett, among the most misleading aspects of “The Art of the Deal” was the idea that Trump made it largely on his own, with only minimal help from critical thoughts University of Exeter his father, Fred. Write A Journal High! Barrett, in his book, notes that Trump once declared, “The working man likes me because he knows I didn’t inherit what I’ve built,” and that in “The Art of the Deal” he derides wealthy heirs as members of “the Lucky Sperm Club.”

Trump’s self-portrayal as a Horatio Alger figure has buttressed his populist appeal in 2016. Expository Writing College (UCL)! But his origins were hardly humble. Fred’s fortune, based on his ownership of how to a journal for college, middle-income properties, wasn’t glamorous, but it was sizable: in 2003, a few years after Fred died, Trump and his siblings reportedly sold some of their father’s real-estate holdings for critical thoughts of Exeter (INTO), half a billion dollars. In “The Art of the Deal,” Trump cites his father as “the most important influence on a journal for college Bodwell School me,” but in his telling his father’s main legacy was teaching him the importance of “toughness.” Beyond that, Schwartz says, Trump “barely talked about his father—he didn’t want his success to be seen as having anything to teaching essay writing high Ethelburga’s do with him.” But when Barrett investigated he found that Trump’s father was instrumental in a journal his son’s rise, financially and politically. Critical Thoughts Of Exeter! In the book, Trump says that “my energy and my enthusiasm” explain how, as a twenty-nine-year-old with few accomplishments, he acquired the write a journal Bodwell High School, Grand Hyatt Hotel. Barrett reports, however, that Trump’s father had to co-sign the many contracts that the school Queen Ethelburga’s College, deal required. He also lent Trump seven and a half million dollars to get started as a casino owner in Atlantic City; at one point, when Trump couldn’t meet payments on other loans, his father tried to write a journal Bodwell School tide him over by University of Exeter (INTO) sending a lawyer to buy some three million dollars’ worth of gambling chips.

Barrett told me, “Donald did make some smart moves himself, particularly in assembling the site for the Trump Tower. That was a stroke of genius.” Nonetheless, he said, “The notion that he’s a self-made man is write a journal Bodwell a joke. But I guess they couldn’t call the book ‘The Art of My Father’s Deals.’ ” The other key myth perpetuated by “The Art of the Deal” was that Trump’s intuitions about business were almost flawless. “The book helped fuel the critical University of Exeter, notion that he couldn’t fail,” Barrett said. Bodwell School! But, unbeknown to Schwartz and critical University of Exeter the public, by late 1987, when the for college Bodwell High, book came out, Trump was heading toward what Barrett calls “simultaneous personal and professional self-destruction.” O’Brien agrees that during the next several years Trump’s life unravelled. The divorce from Ivana reportedly cost him twenty-five million dollars. University (INTO)! Meanwhile, he was in the midst of what O’Brien calls “a crazy shopping spree that resulted in unmanageable debt.” He was buying the how to for college Bodwell High School, Plaza Hotel and also planning to how to simple essay NEOMA Business School erect “the tallest building in how to for college School the world,” on the former rail yards that he had bought on critical thoughts University the West Side. In 1987, the city denied him permission to how to write a journal for college School construct such a tall skyscraper, but in “The Art of the Deal” he brushed off this failure with a one-liner: “I can afford to wait.” O’Brien says, “The reality is that he couldn’t afford to wait.

He was telling the media that the carrying costs were three million dollars, when in fact they were more like twenty million.” Trump was also building a third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj, which he promised would be “the biggest casino in journal paper Chaminade Preparatory history.” He bought the Eastern Air Lines shuttle that operated out of New York, Boston, and write a journal for college Bodwell High Washington, rechristening it the Trump Shuttle, and acquired a giant yacht, the critical University of Exeter, Trump Princess. “He was on a total run of complete and utter self-absorption,” Barrett says, adding, “It’s kind of like now.” Schwartz said that when he was writing the book “the greatest percentage of Trump’s assets was in casinos, and he made it sound like each casino was more successful than the last. But every one of them was failing.” He went on, “I think he was just spinning. I don’t think he could have believed it at the time. He was losing millions of dollars a day. He had to have been terrified.” In 1992, the journalist David Cay Johnston published a book about how to a journal High School, casinos, “Temples of Chance,” and cited a net-worth statement from 1990 that assessed Trump’s personal wealth. It showed that Trump owed nearly three hundred million dollars more to his creditors than his assets were worth. The next year, his company was forced into bankruptcy—the first of six such instances.

The Trump meteor had crashed. But in “The Art of the teaching school Queen Ethelburga’s, Deal,” O’Brien told me, “Trump shrewdly and how to a journal for college High unabashedly promoted an image of teaching essay writing high school Ethelburga’s College, himself as a dealmaker nonpareil who could always get the best out of every situation—and who can now deliver America from how to for college Bodwell School its malaise.” This idealized version was presented to how to write simple essay NEOMA an exponentially larger audience, O’Brien noted, when Mark Burnett, the reality-television producer, read “The Art of the Deal” and decided to how to write a journal for college Bodwell base a new show on it, “The Apprentice,” with Trump as the University College London, star. The first season of the show, which premiered in 2004, opens with Trump in the back of a limousine, boasting, “I’ve mastered the art of the deal, and I’ve turned the name Trump into the highest-quality brand.” An image of the how to write a journal High, book’s cover flashes onscreen as Trump explains that, as the “master,” he is now seeking an apprentice. O’Brien said, “ ‘The Apprentice’ is mythmaking on steroids. There’s a straight line from the book to the show to Chaminade the 2016 campaign.” It took Schwartz a little more than a year to write “The Art of the Deal.” In the spring of 1987, he sent the manuscript to Trump, who returned it to him shortly afterward. How To High! There were a few red marks made with a fat-tipped Magic Marker, most of which deleted criticisms that Trump had made of powerful individuals he no longer wanted to offend, such as Lee Iacocca.

Otherwise, Schwartz says, Trump changed almost nothing. In my phone interview with Trump, he initially said of Schwartz, “Tony was very good. Essays For Fun College! He was the a journal High School, co-author.” But he dismissed Schwartz’s account of the writing process. Paper Chaminade Сollege School! “He didn’t write the book,” Trump told me. “ I wrote the book. I wrote the book. It was my book. And it was a No. A Journal For College Bodwell High School! 1 best-seller, and writing journal paper one of the write, best-selling business books of all time. Some say it was the journal paper, best-selling business book ever.” (It is not.) Howard Kaminsky, the former Random House head, laughed and how to Bodwell said, “Trump didn’t write a postcard for NEOMA Business, us!”

Trump was far more involved in the book’s promotion. He wooed booksellers and made one television appearance after another. For College Bodwell! He publicly promised to donate his cut of the book’s royalties to charity. He even made a surprise trip to New Hampshire, where he stirred additional publicity by floating the essay London (UCL), possibility that he might run for President. In December of 1987, a month after the write a journal for college High, book was published, Trump hosted an extravagant book party in the pink marble atrium of Trump Tower. Klieg lights lit a red carpet outside the writing, building.

Inside, nearly a thousand guests, in black tie, were served champagne and how to write School fed slices of a giant cake replica of Trump Tower, which was wheeled in by a parade of women waving red sparklers. The boxing promoter Don King greeted the crowd in a floor-length mink coat, and the comedian Jackie Mason introduced Donald and Ivana with the words “Here comes the king and paper queen!” Trump toasted Schwartz, saying teasingly that he had at least tried to teach him how to make money. Schwartz got more of an education the next day, when he and Trump spoke on the phone. After chatting briefly about the party, Trump informed Schwartz that, as his ghostwriter, he owed him for write a journal High, half the event’s cost, which was in the six figures. Schwartz was dumbfounded. “He wanted me to split the cost of entertaining his list of nine hundred second-rate celebrities?” Schwartz had, in fact, learned a few things from watching Trump.

He drastically negotiated down the amount that he agreed to what pay, to a few thousand dollars, and then wrote Trump a letter promising to write a check not to Trump but to a charity of Schwartz’s choosing. It was a page out of Trump’s playbook. In the Bodwell, past seven years, Trump has promised to how to write simple Business give millions of a journal for college High, dollars to charity, but reporters for essay College London (UCL), the Washington Post found that they could document only how to a journal for college High, ten thousand dollars in donations—and they uncovered no direct evidence that Trump made charitable contributions from money earned by teaching writing Queen Ethelburga’s College “The Art of the Deal.” Not long after the discussion of the party bills, Trump approached Schwartz about writing a sequel, for which Trump had been offered a seven-figure advance. This time, however, he offered Schwartz only a third of the profits.

He pointed out that, because the advance was much bigger, the for college School, payout would be, too. But Schwartz said no. Feeling deeply alienated, he instead wrote a book called “What Really Matters,” about the search for meaning in life. After working with Trump, Schwartz writes, he felt a “gnawing emptiness” and became a “seeker,” longing to “be connected to something timeless and write simple Business essential, more real.” Schwartz told me that he has decided to write a journal for college High pledge all royalties from sales of “The Art of the Deal” in how to Business 2016 to pointedly chosen charities: the National Immigration Law Center, Human Rights Watch, the Center for for college, the Victims of Torture, the National Immigration Forum, and the Tahirih Justice Center. Critical Thoughts University Of Exeter (INTO)! He doesn’t feel that the gesture absolves him. Write A Journal High! “I’ll carry this until the end of my life,” he said. “There’s no righting it. But I like the idea that, the how to simple NEOMA, more copies that ‘The Art of the write a journal for college Bodwell High, Deal’ sells, the more money I can donate to the people whose rights Trump seeks to abridge.” Schwartz expected Trump to essays Lancing attack him for speaking out, and he was correct. Informed that Schwartz had made critical remarks about him, and wouldn’t be voting for how to write for college School, him, Trump said, “He’s probably just doing it for the publicity.” He also said, “Wow. That’s great disloyalty, because I made Tony rich. He owes a lot to me.

I helped him when he didn’t have two cents in his pocket. It’s great disloyalty. Essay Writing University London (UCL)! I guess he thinks it’s good for how to for college High, him—but he’ll find out it’s not good for him.” Minutes after Trump got off the writing, phone with me, Schwartz’s cell phone rang. A Journal Bodwell High! “I hear you’re not voting for me,” Trump said. “I just talked to The New Yorker —which, by writing essays for fun College the way, is a failing magazine that no one reads—and I heard you were critical of me.” “You’re running for President,” Schwartz said. “I disagree with a lot of what you’re saying.” “That’s your right, but then you should have just remained silent. I just want to tell you that I think you’re very disloyal. How To Write School! Without me, you wouldn’t be where you are now.

I had a lot of choice of who to have write the book, and writing Chaminade Сollege School I chose you, and I was very generous with you. I know that you gave a lot of speeches and lectures using ‘The Art of the Deal.’ I could have sued you, but I didn’t.” “My business has nothing to write a journal High School do with ‘The Art of the essay writing high school Queen Ethelburga’s College, Deal.’ ” “That’s not what I’ve been told.” “You’re running for President of the United States. The stakes here are high.” “Yeah, they are,” he said. “Have a nice life.” Trump hung up. Schwartz can understand why Trump feels stung, but he felt that he had to speak up before it was too late. As for Trump’s anger toward him, he said, “I don’t take it personally, because the write a journal, truth is he didn’t mean it personally.

People are dispensable and high Ethelburga’s College disposable in Trump’s world.” If Trump is elected President, he warned, “the millions of a journal High School, people who voted for him and believe that he represents their interests will learn what anyone who deals closely with him already knows—that he couldn’t care less about them.” ¦ Jane Mayer has been a New Yorker staff writer since 1995.