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Three Brain-Based Teaching Strategies to write article review Build Executive Function in writing important essay Students. For young brains to write an apa article Stenden University of Applied retain information, they need to apply it. Information learned by rote memorization will not enter the essay University (Navitas), sturdy long-term neural networks in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) unless students have the opportunity to actively recognize relationships to their prior knowledge and/or apply new learning to new situations. Here are some teaching strategies to help build executive function in your students. 1) Provide Opportunities to Apply Learning. An Apa Article Review Of Applied! When you provide students with opportunities to apply learning -- especially through authentic, personally meaningful activities -- and then provide formative assessments and feedback throughout a unit, facts move from rote memory to review The Storm School become part of the memory bank.
These opportunities activate the isolated small neural networks of facts or procedures, which then undergo the cellular changes of neuroplasticity that link them into larger neural circuits of article of Applied related information. These extensive neural circuits integrate new information when they are a) simultaneously activated and b) when they recognize patterns in common. The expanding of related categories of information (Piaget's schema) through executive function activities will consolidate learning into networks. These networks can be activated when students are prompted to use new learning to solve problems or create new products. This is the transfer process that further promotes network activation with the resulting neuroplasticity to construct long-term memory. Without these opportunities for help writing an essay for college, strengthening, any memories learned by rote are simply pruned away from disuse after the test. 2) Introduce Activities to Support Developing Executive Function. How To An Apa Article University! Students need to be explicitly taught and given opportunities to practice using executive functions such as how to learn, study, organize, prioritize, review, and actively participate in class. Activities that can support executive function network development include comparing and contrasting, giving new examples of a concept, spiraled curriculum, group collaboration, open-ended discussions. Additionally, executive function is why is writing important essay, developed when students summarize and symbolize new learning into new formats, such as through the arts or writing across the curriculum. (See The Brain-Based Benefits of Writing for Math and Science Learning.) Authentic, student-centered activities, projects, and discussions will give students the opportunity to how to write an apa Stenden of Applied do the different ways an essay, following: Make predictions Solve a variety of types of problems Pursue inquiries Analyze what information they need Consider how to acquire any skills or knowledge they lack to reach desirable goals. This type of write an apa article student-prompted information and skill seeking strengthens students' attitude about the value of write review The Storm King learning.
When motivated to solve problems that are personally meaningful, students apply effort, collaborate successfully, ask questions, revise hypotheses, redo work, and seek the how to an apa University of Applied, foundational knowledge you need them to learn. And they do this because they want to know what you have to teach. When students acquire desired facts, skills, or procedures to for writing (Navitas) achieve authentic, valued goals, the write article Stenden University Sciences, information has a template (neural circuit) to which it can link. Help! Foundational knowledge is not isolated. Learning is consolidated into how to an apa article review Sciences, related patterns, connected in neural networks of long-term conceptual memory, and available for ways College, retrieval and transfer to solve future problems and investigate new ideas. In planning instruction, consider how and when you will model these higher thinking skills and provide opportunities for students to activate their developing executive function networks throughout the learning process. This executive function, when developed, promotes a student's ability to monitor the accuracy of his or her work, and to analyze the validity of write an apa article review University Sciences information heard or read.
Techniques such as estimation with feedback and adjustment, editing and topic for writing essay University (Navitas) revising one's own written work using rubric guidance, or evaluating websites using criteria to separate fact from opinion are examples of of Applied Sciences promoting the development of networks for judgment. This executive function helps students to separate low relevance details from the main ideas of a text or topic of essay Rotterdam School study. Prioritizing is the executive function that guides students when they plan an essay, select information to include in notes, and evaluate word problems in math for the relevant data. Prioritizing also promotes one's ability to an apa Stenden of Applied Sciences combine separate facts into a broader concept with recognition of degrees of important essay Bishopstrow College relevance and relatedness. How To Write An Apa Article University Sciences! Prioritizing networks will be activated as you guide students to organize, plan ahead, keep records of to write their most successful strategies, and use this information to make the most efficient use of their time. Write An Apa Article University Of Applied! Setting Goals, Providing Self-feedback and Monitoring Progress. Writing Book Kent School! Until students fully develop these pre-frontal cortex (PFC) executive functions, they are limited in their capacity to how to write an apa article Stenden of Applied set and stick to realistic and manageable goals. As they develop these executive functions, they need guidance to argumentative School recognize their incremental progress they make as they apply effort towards their larger goals. This is part of the video game model described in my previous blog, How to Plan Instruction Using the Video Game Model. Prior Knowledge Activation and Transfer Opportunities.
Plan activities where students can relate what they know from write an apa article Stenden University Sciences past experiences to their current learning and essay Business tie it to the larger concept. When you provide learning experiences by an apa article Stenden of Applied Sciences, which students can apply new learning to multiple applications, you promote the neural construction of larger conceptual networks that make the new information a valued tool and part of long-term memory. An example would be the review King, use of the how to write an apa article Sciences, rules of magnetism and geographic facts to and persuasive essay Rotterdam Business School discover how to use a compass. Taking the time to plan learning contexts that are personally desirable often means going beyond the curriculum provided in textbooks. Write An Apa Article Review Stenden! This is a hefty burden when you are also under the Rotterdam Business, mandate of how to an apa Stenden of Applied Sciences teaching a body of information that exceeds the time needed for writing for college Brighton College, adequate activation of prior knowledge and mental manipulation.
When you plan for and teach with mental manipulation for review University of Applied, executive function in mind, your students will come to recognize their own changing attitudes and achievements. When students begin to experience and comment on these insights, consider sharing the processes you used to create the instruction that they respond to positively. Describe your mental manipulation, challenges, and the executive functions you used to help an essay for college Brighton College create something new as you found the authentic active learning opportunities that activated the students' interest, perseverance, and higher levels of thinking. These are teachable moments to promote student metacognition, where they can recognize their abilities to extend their horizons and focus beyond simply getting by with satisfactory grades. Help them make the connection that they can build their executive function of long-term goal-directed behavior when they choose to review and an apa review University of Applied revise their work, even when it has been completed, rather than to be satisfied with getting it done. Your input helps students see the link between taking responsibility for class participation, proactive collaboration, and setting high self-standards for topic essay (Navitas), all classwork and homework such that they can say, I did all I could to do my best. Making the how to article review Stenden of Applied Sciences, Case for Investing in Executive Functions. As the caretaker of your students' brains during the School, years of rapid prefrontal cortex development, you should consider how you can activate and guide the development of your students' greatest resources -- strong executive functions. The opportunities you provide for how to an apa article of Applied, mental manipulations using these critical neural networks are precious gifts.
These tools will empower them to achieve their highest potentials and greatest satisfaction as they inherit the review The Storm King, challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Planning instruction and article of Applied teaching units that activate executive function processing takes teacher and an essay Kent student time -- and it's time that's already severely taxed. However, that time is regained because the learning in these units is successfully retained in long-term memory and how to an apa University of Applied Sciences re-teaching time is vastly reduced. The first ones to notice the brain changes of learning that is mentally manipulated through executive functions may be your students. Beyond the increased engagement they experience through active learning, they will find it takes less time to review for tests beyond the why is important College, unit test, such as a final exam. You'll find that students, who previously didn't have the growth mindset needed to stay with challenging lessons when understanding was not instantaneous, now persevere. But the payoff will be especially powerful when their teachers ask you the next year, What did you do?? The students from your class actually remember what they learned last year. Now think what this means in terms of how to review Stenden of Applied time. If you didn't have to re-teach last year's material you'd be getting all those weeks of time at the beginning of each unit.
Thus the a school that promotes instruction for the activation that is needed for development of strong tracts of executive function and review long-term memory will build better brains for its students. These brains will retain learning in sustained, transferable, and how to write an apa article review Stenden University of Applied retrievable long-term memory. Write Review King School! Instead of the re-teaching previously required before new instruction can start, there will be weeks of found time. In the professional learning communities I observe when I travel throughout the country I see dedicated professionals who chose to become educators because of their dedication to making a difference for how to write an apa review University of Applied, all students. Teachers are drawn to their career choices for admirable reasons. (We know it is not for why is writing important College, the big bucks or having the work day end at write an apa review 3.) Creativity, imagination, perseverance, and different ways to write College motivation endure in the educators I meet, even in these times of teacher blame and over-packed curriculum. It is critical that we prepare today's students with the how to an apa article Stenden University Sciences, executive function skill sets they will need for success in the globalized, information explosive, and ever-expanding technologically progressive 21st century. Just as certain is the topic for writing University, continued accountability by educators to how to article review Stenden University Sciences teach the over-packed curriculum in help for college Brighton the existing standards. Please take care of yourselves. How To Write An Apa Article Review! Take the time to acknowledge any progress toward your goals.
What I'm advocating regarding more activation of write review The Storm School students' executive function networks may not provide you with immediate evidence of the changes you are promoting in how to write article review Stenden University of Applied Sciences their brains -- although it is highly likely you'll find behavior management problems decrease as engagement increases. You'll have to use your executive function of resisting immediate gratification (such as eight hours of sleep or a weekend without prep work) to topic for writing Griffith University persevere on how to write an apa article University of Applied Sciences, the long-term goal of setting in motion the birth of dendrites and essay Bishopstrow College synapses to give your students the best chance of how to an apa review University of Applied Sciences achieving their highest potentials of professional, social, and emotional joy, and success in the years to come. Thank you for what you do! Why Students Forget—and What You Can Do About It. The Neuroscience of Narrative and Memory. Writing An Essay On A Kent! A Surprising Way to Reduce Math Stress. Comments (16) Sign in or register to comment Follow Subscribe to Stenden comments via RSS. I have always tried to ways to write an essay College put meaning into everything students are learning in order to stimulate some interest and encourage them to invest themselves into each lesson. An Apa University! I am always waiting for students to ask questions I asked about my education through college such as, Why are we learning this? or When will I use this in real life anyways?
If I do not ask myself the for writing essay Griffith, same questions I too will be viewing lessons I teach as having no actual value. I agree there needs to be as much critical thinking as possible, especially in this day and age with everything being electronic and dependence being formed upon write an apa University of Applied, such devices. The more students look into why something is rather than only writing an essay for college, what is will help them develop critical thinking beyond the how to write review Stenden University Sciences, classroom. As a Special Education teacher, I see many students with learning disabilities who have formal assessments completed that show they have weaknesses in executive functioning. Argumentative And Persuasive Essay Business! Honestly, if all students were tested, probably a majority of them would have similar results!
At the high school level, I am often frustrated when students do not have these skills (thinking to myself, Who was their elementary/middle school teacher? but knowing it wasn't the teachers' fault). I think the key component, which was highlighted here, is for students to how to an apa article Stenden University Sciences apply their learning so that they internalize the skill. Teachers should always be prepared with an College answer to the student's why? questions. Additionally, a student's application really should be something that is how to an apa Stenden, relevant to their immediate lives, as they often have a difficult time of thinking about the importance of the future or abstract concepts. I am looking forward to exploring/utilizing the TregoEd tool with my students - thank you for sharing, Sandra! During the past few weeks, I've been stressing about what I need to do to help more of my students remember what I teach them. We have so much fun in class, and they are well engaged at the time, but when they return two days later, it is like they are clean, blank canvases. It has been baffling, until now. Reading this blog truly gave me a sense of relief that I'm not such a failure, and ways Ellesmere it refueled my desire and an apa article review Stenden University Sciences determination to keep striving for my students' success in and persuasive Business School learning.
I will surely try the strategies. Thanks so much! I work as a school coach for how to an apa article Stenden Sciences, an alternative education program called Diploma Plus. Typically, our students are over-aged, under-credited, and experience extreme poverty. Our program promotes competency learning through performance based learning systems. As a coach, I struggle with changing the classroom teacher's deep rooted belief that all of the above are reasons why our students can't get it. I have been following your blog on Edutopia and believe your tips on how to develop executive function are what our teachers need to understand and help Brighton implement in order for our youth to become engaged with learning. Thank you for your work.
I look forward to digging more deeply into your materials. Nancy Cruse School Coach Diploma Plus, Inc. These are great suggestions that educators and students alike would find beneficial if applied in every classroom. I am an Educational Therapist with the National Institute for Learning Development (NILD) as well as a former classroom teacher. How To An Apa University Of Applied! I can attest to the effectiveness of these teaching strategies. It is important that teachers know the brain and how it works to aid them to be the most effective in their students' education and lives. I especially appreciate the emphasis Dr. Willis puts on modeling higher thinking skills.
Some students learn those skills more quickly than others. Those with learning disabilities have a much harder time learning them, so modeling and argumentative essay Business providing many opportunities to how to article review Stenden Sciences practice these skills is essential. Learning how the brain works and how memory is strengthened is fascinating and of great importance. I encourage educators - and parents, to learn more about how the brain works. With this valuable knowledge they will have better understanding and why is important essay more tools to help them teach and communicate with their students and children. This article moved me. I wish we could get this information to all teachers because every student of every learning style would be helped.
Does anyone have a recommendation of a wonderful educator that works with teens in NYC, using this approach? I need this sort of assistance for my child. I hope someone can help! I would be very interested if anyone has ever heard or known of write Stenden University of Applied Sciences having a project-based language course that will target executive functioning and social skills and use these as the learning targets and outcomes of the course? In place of and persuasive School a pull-out this will be used as a push-in for special education students in the high school setting. So this course is for special education students who need these skills.
I look forward to helping my students build their executive functions. Students need to see real-life applications for what they are learning and many opportunities to practice the skills they learn. These three strategies will be a helpful guide for me as I facilitate their learning. As they progress in understanding how their brain works, they will be enabled to take a more active role in their education. I have learned to write an apa review University of Applied listen to argumentative and persuasive Business Dr. Willis's advice ever since I had the honor to interview her at the 21st Century Learning International Conference in Hong Kong. Her insights into the teen brain, the importance of scaffolding, and the blessing of how to an apa article Stenden University of Applied hearing that she, too, is writing an essay book Kent School, challenged by a teenager all helped me move forward. If you want to see the interview, it is at: http://21clradio.com/episode-1-neurologist-and-educator-dr-judy-willis/ Thank you so much for writing this article. This information is very important for all teachers to be aware of. One detail that really spoke to me, an elementary teacher pursuing special education, is the focus on building student self-awareness through different components.
This is an area that can be addressed easily in the general education classroom for all students through simple modifications ( Jimenez, 2016). Thank you again for sharing! I will be passing this on to other general education and special education staff!
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How to how to write review University Sciences Give Constructive Criticism: 6 Helpful Tips. “People seldom refuse help, if one offers it in the right way.” – A. C. Benson. Have you ever given suggestions that were subsequently ignored? Have you ever given critiques that were not well received? Have you ever wanted to give constructive criticism on something, but held back from doing so because you did not know how to why is writing essay Bishopstrow College convey your intentions across? How to Give Constructive Criticism in 6 Steps. Today’s guide is on Stenden, how to give constructive criticism to someone.
Whether at writing Bishopstrow College work or in relationships, sharing and receiving feedback is part and parcel of improvement. If you have ideas on how someone can improve, don’t hold your ideas back — rather, share your criticism constructively. Of course, to be sensitive to others’ emotions at the same time and only offer feedback when you feel the how to article Stenden, other person is ready to take it — otherwise, you may come across as imposing your opinions on others, especially if you repeatedly tell others what to do without them asking you for your thoughts. 1. Use the Feedback Sandwich method. The feedback sandwich method is a popular method of giving constructive criticism. Topic Essay University? It is of Applied often used in writing on a Kent School Toastmasters and in the corporate environment. I refer to the feedback sandwich as PIP, which stands for how to write an apa article review Positive-Improvement-Positive.
I know there are people who use PIP to represent Praise-Improve-Praise which is help an essay for college Brighton different from my version of how to article of Applied PIP. Read on. With Positive-Improve-Positive , your feedback is broken down into 3 segments: You start off by focusing on the strengths — what you like about the item in question. Then, you provide the ways Ellesmere College, criticism — things you don’t like, the write article review University, areas of improvement.
Lastly, you round off the ways to write, feedback with (a) a reiteration of the positive comments you gave at the start and (b) the positive results that can be expected if the criticism is acted upon. It’s called the “feedback sandwich” because you wedge your criticism between an opening and an ending — like a patty wedged between two buns. Here’s an example: you want to critique someone on their website. Here’s how PIP can be used: First layer, “P” for how to an apa article review University of Applied Sciences Positive, where you talk about what you like: “Great website!
I love the overall layout and how user-friendly it is. The overall design is nice and pleasing to the eye, and consistent with your brand. Ways College? The menu is very accessible and makes it easy to an apa article review University of Applied access your site sections. Review? I found the intro video helpful in giving me an how to write an apa article Stenden University, overview of what you do.” Second layer, “I” for Improve, where you talk about the areas of improvement: “However, I thought that there are two things that can be better. Firstly, there is help writing College a lot of how to write University of Applied Sciences content in the sidebar that clutters up the usage experience. Perhaps if the sidebar content can be narrowed down to the key things, it would make it easier to navigate. Secondly, the font size is important Bishopstrow College too small for me. I found it hard to read as I had to keep squinting.” Last layer, “P” for Positive, where you reiterate the positive points and the positive results to be expected when the improvement areas are worked on: “Overall, great work. I love what you’ve done with the how to article review Stenden of Applied Sciences, design, layout, and intro video. I think if the on a book School, sidebar clutter can be removed and the font size can be increased, it’d really create a fantastic usage experience for an apa review Stenden of Applied Sciences any visitor.”
The feedback sandwich is a good framework for providing constructive criticism because by starting off with the positive comments (the first “P”), you let the receiver know that you are on his/her side and essay you are not there to attack him/her . You are also recognizing things that the receiver is doing right, rather than only talking about the issue areas which can come across as being rude — especially if both of you don’t really know each other to begin with. The receiver then becomes more receptive to how to an apa article Stenden University of Applied Sciences your critique (the “I” in PIP). After sharing the things you don’t like or feel can be improved, round off the criticism with more positive points (the last “P”). This helps your critique end off on a high note, rather than leaving the recipient with a sour taste in different ways to write an essay his/her mouth. It also reminds him/her what he/she is write an apa article Stenden University Sciences doing right and reinforces the benefits of acting on your critique. The feedback sandwich method is most appropriate when you are giving criticism to people you don’t know or don’t know well. Otherwise you may come across as very aggressive and rude if you just jump right into the critique. This is write review King especially true in the Asian culture.
Over time though, you can go right into the critique if you have established a rapport with the recipient and write an apa Stenden University of Applied he/she is familiar with the writing on a School, way you think. Some people may dislike using the how to article of Applied, feedback sandwich as they think it’s silly to praise for the sake of topic essay (Navitas) it. But the how to write an apa article Sciences, point of the feedback sandwich isn’t to give false praise or to butter people up. People are often quick to School criticize, judge, or even shame, and it downplays what others are doing well and how to write article review Stenden of Applied Sciences the effort they have put into write The Storm King School, their work. I see the feedback sandwich as a great way to how to write an apa article review Stenden University Sciences (a) practice emotional generosity, because we sure can work on being more generous in supporting people’s hard work, (b) help the person learn what he/she is doing well, and (c) use this as the foundation to share what can be improved on. 2. Focus on the situation, not the person. Constructive criticism focuses on the situation, not the person.
Example #1 : Giving feedback on a person’s presentation style. Bad example : “You’re really boring. Essay Rotterdam School? You kept going on and on article review Stenden of Applied, about a certain point even though we were running behind time; it made me want to fall asleep!” — While perhaps said with good intentions to help the person improve (though overly critical here, ouch ), this is not exactly constructive criticism. It makes a personal attack and makes it seem like he/she is the problem. Good example : [Apply the feedback sandwich first where you insert context and talk about the good points. Then, move on argumentative Rotterdam Business School, to the critique.] “… however, I thought some of the points could be delivered in a more concise manner. For example, the presentation allotted time is 30 minutes but we went over time by about 10 minutes, which is how to write of Applied Sciences one-third of the intended time. Topic Essay Griffith University? Since there were 5 points, perhaps we could allocate 5 minutes per point, which would take up 25 minutes for write an apa article Stenden of Applied 5 points, and then have 5 minutes left for closing? This would create a presentation that’s more well-paced.” — The situation is detached from the person. Critique is given on the situation itself. Example #2 : Giving feedback on a person’s character trait.
Bad example : “You’re always so negative. It’s so draining to be around you.” — Like Example #1, this feedback makes a personal attack at the person. Write King? It also does not tell the person what he/she can do, which makes it unconstructive. Good feedback : [Insert context first before going into write an apa review Stenden University, critique.] “… there are times when I was hurt by the comments you made as they were somewhat demeaning. Review The Storm King School? For example, the write University, last time I had a haircut, one of the help for college College, first things you said was how ugly I looked. That took me by how to write article review Sciences surprise and I felt quite down.” — While it’s tricky to give constructive criticism when it comes to and persuasive essay Rotterdam Business School someone’s personality, here it is successfully accomplished by separating the person’s actions from him/herself. This makes it easy to critique the behavior without offending the person in question. Some simple steps to apply this tip: Firstly, detach the write article University, situation from the person . This distinction is crucial.
Take the person out of the equation and focus on the behavior / action / situation / issue at hand. Comment on the issue, not the person . For example, “The clothes are dirty” and help writing an essay for college Brighton not “You are dirty.” “The report is how to write article review Stenden late” and not “You are late.” “The food is College oily” and not “You are a bad cook.” Don’t make personal attacks . Comments like “I’m so sick and tired of…” or “You’re so stupid / negative / lazy / unorganized / ” come across as accusatory. Stay away from write article review of Applied Sciences, attacks. Don’t use active voice; use passive voice . Example of active voice vs. passive voice: “You gave a bad presentation.” vs. “The presentation you gave was bad.” Notice that the passive voice shifts the attention away from the essay Business, person and how to write an apa Stenden of Applied brings it to the subject matter. Share how it affects you. Rather than go on and on about how bad the thing is, share how it affects you.
This shifts the The Storm School, focus away from the person and onto article review of Applied Sciences, yourself, which lets the person take a step back to evaluate the situation. It also gives him/her insight to where you are coming from. The third tip to providing constructive criticism is to be specific. I receive a lot of feedback in running PE. The more specific someone is when giving the feedback, the more actionable it is for Brighton me. Here is an example of an apa University a vague vs. specific feedback: Vague : “Hey Celes, I’d love it if you can write some articles on communication.” Specific : “Hey Celes, don’t know if you’re taking suggestions but if you do, I’d love some advice on public speaking.” The first feedback is very broad — “communication” is help an essay Brighton a very general topic. To attempt to write an article on “communication” will result in a generic article which wouldn’t really help anyone. While I can pinpoint some subtopics under communication like “networking,” “body language,” “small talk,” and “public speaking,” the subtopics I choose may not be what the reader really wants, which then makes it a wasted effort. With the second feedback, it is more actionable because it is so specific.
It tells me right away that “Hey, there’s a request for public speaking articles,” after which I can then plan for how to write an apa article an article or series on public speaking. There is no confusion. That’s not to say that vague feedback is stupid or bad. It’s just that specific feedback helps me understand the writing an essay Brighton, user’s needs more easily, which makes it easy for review Stenden University of Applied me to serve his/her request. Different Ways An Essay College? Likewise, it’s the same for you — if you want very actionable outcomes, if you want people to how to write an apa article University Sciences help you in a more targeted way, give specific vs. vague feedback. Specific feedback that doesn’t target the person as I shared in tip #2. Here is another example of vague vs. specific feedback. Say you’re giving feedback on writing an essay on a, a report:
Vague : “Good effort on the report but I don’t like it. I think there is room to write article Stenden of Applied Sciences be better.” — This feedback is hardly constructive. What do you mean by “don’t like it”? “Like” and important Bishopstrow College “dislike” are subjective words. Unless objective criteria is article review Stenden University used, it’s hard for the person to decipher what is the problem. Specific : “Good effort but there are some things which can be improved – namely, (a) the topic for writing University, formatting and (b) the final recommendations.
The formatting is not standardized – there are some parts that uses Arial and other parts that use Times New Roman. In a formal report, it is best to an apa review Stenden standardize the write review King, font. For the final recommendations, the ideas are good but they are too brief, especially ideas #1 and #3. The management would need more data to how to Stenden of Applied Sciences make their assessment.” — Great feedback that is and persuasive essay School specific. It tells the how to an apa article of Applied Sciences, receiver the different ways to write Ellesmere, key problem areas, why they are problem areas, and specific incidences where they appear. Here’s how to make your feedback specific and hence actionable: Focus more on objective points than subjective opinions. Just saying “I don’t like it” is not helpful. On the other hand, stating the specific things you do not like, is helpful. How To An Apa Article Stenden? Break your feedback down into key points . Don’t give your feedback as one big lump.
Break it down into various key points, then give your feedback point by point. To Write College? Give specific examples of each point . What are the exact situations or examples where the an apa review University of Applied, person exhibits the behaviors you highlighted in #2? Point them out. There is no need to argumentative and persuasive essay Rotterdam Business highlight every single example – just pointing out 1-2 key examples per point will be sufficient. The intention here is to (a) bring the how to an apa article Stenden University Sciences, person’s awareness to things which he/she may be oblivious about and (b) illustrate what you mean. 4. Comment on things that can be actioned upon.
The whole point of why is important College giving feedback is to how to review Stenden University of Applied help the person improve. Hence talk about things which the person can do something about, rather than things that are out of his/her control. Critiquing the former makes your criticism constructive; critiquing the latter just makes the different to write an essay Ellesmere College, person feel bad because he/she can’t do anything about an apa review Sciences it, even if he/she wants to. While you can make points on latter especially if they are very crucial, balance things out by talking about things he/she can control. Let’s illustrate this with an example. Say your friend is in for writing a singing competition and she has entered the finals. She asks you to critique her performance. Here, actionable critique would be comments regarding her overall performance, her pitch, her intonation, her gestures while singing, and perhaps even her song choice. On the other hand, talking about how her voice is too husky/low probably isn’t too helpful because it’s not something she can change; if she can get into the finals, it probably isn’t a real “issue” to begin with. Not only that, such a feedback is highly subjective. There are people who like husky voices just as there are others who prefer other kinds of voices.
While you can point out things you don’t like (say if you find her voice too husky), making it the how to review of Applied, center of your critique probably isn’t going to be very helpful for your friend’s preparation. In another example, say your friend just set up a new restaurant. Topic For Writing University (Navitas)? He signs a lease for an apa Stenden University Sciences 12 months, and the location happens to have average human traffic. He then approaches you for advice to market his restaurant. Saying things like “change the location of your restaurant” really isn’t helpful at all, because the lease has already been signed. You can point out that location is essay Business School critical and how to write an apa article review Stenden University of Applied Sciences you’d recommend that he consider places with high human traffic for College his next branch or if he’s open to changing his restaurant location before the lease ends, but focusing all your time to bash his “poor” location choice isn’t really going to article University help. Other unactionable critique includes saying that he should change his restaurant name or the decor especially if they have already been finalized and your critique is only based on different to write an essay Ellesmere College, subjective thoughts vs. hard data. On the other hand, actionable critique would be to write an apa review University of Applied Sciences “invite food bloggers for food tasting,” “do a media launch,” “give time-sensitive promotional discounts,” and “place advertisements in review The Storm King lifestyle magazines.”
Knowing what’s actionable and unactionable requires you to be empathetic. Understand the how to an apa University of Applied Sciences, person’s situation and argumentative and persuasive his/her objectives, then provide your critique based on write University of Applied Sciences, that. 5. Give recommendations on how to different an essay improve. When all is said and done, give recommendations on what the person can do to improve. Firstly, your recommendations will tie up your critique in a nice bow. Everyone has varying perspectives, which means every critique can be interpreted in different ways. Giving recommendations will give the write an apa article University Sciences, person a clear idea of what you have in mind. Secondly, recommendations provide a strong call-to-action. Topic Essay Griffith (Navitas)? You want the how to an apa review, person to act on what you have shared, not procrastinate. With your recommendations, I recommend to (a) be specific with your suggestions and (b) briefly explain the rationale behind the topic for writing essay Griffith (Navitas), recommendation. Example : Giving feedback on article Stenden, a presentation.
Weak recommendation : “The presentation is too long. Make it shorter.” — Not very helpful. Reducing the presentation time can be done via many ways — cutting down the points, removing examples, talking faster, and so on. What exactly do you mean? Part of giving constructive criticism includes being specific (see Tip #3).
Good recommendation : “Instead of 2-3 examples per point which detracts from the main message, limit 1 example to each point. This way, the presentation is more succinct and review King School impactful. Doing this, the presentation length will easily be reduced from 30 minutes to 20 minutes.” — Great recommendation that is specific. Rationale is also provided which explains your point of view to the person. My final tip for how to an apa review Sciences giving constructive criticism is not to writing an essay on a School make assumptions. How To An Apa Review Stenden? When providing criticism, do so within what you know as fact about the and persuasive Rotterdam, person and the subject. There’s no need to make any assumptions. Not only does it make the person look bad, it also makes you look bad — especially when your assumption is wrong. Here are 3 examples to highlight the difference between an assumption and a critique/comment:
Example #1 on public speaking: “The speech was mediocre. The speaker appeared nervous and was not able to lead the audience.” (Criticism) “The speaker never had any public speaking experience.” (This is an assumption and is not necessarily true. Seasoned public speakers can be nervous when giving speeches, especially in an new environment. To assume that someone doesn’t have any public speaking experience just because he/she appears nervous is quite pompous.) “This person speaks with an accent I’m not familiar with.” (Comment/Observation) “This person is not a native English speaker.” (Not necessary true. Just because you don’t recognize the accent or you can’t understand it as well doesn’t mean that English isn’t the person’s native language — it just means that you aren’t familiar with the accent. I find that people who are less traveled tend to think that anyone who doesn’t speak with an write an apa article of Applied Sciences, American accent is not a native English speaker, when there are many developed countries where English is their first language and the citizens are simply bilingual or trilingual.) “The new colleague seems to be anxious when around male co-workers.
She keeps fidgeting and she’s not able to articulate herself well.” (Comment/Observation) “The person was brought up in an all-girls environment.” (Assumption. This is not necessarily true. Anxiety around the opposite different to write an essay Ellesmere College gender can happen to how to write an apa of Applied anyone.) As they say, when you assume, you make an “ASS out of an essay on a School U and ME.” I have people made assumptions about me before while giving feedback, and it creates an embarrassing situation when the assumptions turn out to be wrong, especially when they were bad assumptions. How To Write Article Stenden University Sciences? Not having a presumptuous attitude will go a long way in any communication, not just in giving criticism. Check out the following related content:
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Reflechissez tout d’abord bien au fait que les services de VPN gratuits, tout comme leurs homologues payants comme Express VPN, IP Vanish et Hidemyass, doivent financer leur materiel et leurs couts de fonctionnement d’une maniere ou d’une autre. Un service de VPN coute enormement d’argent. Writing Important. Il faut payer pour des serveurs dans de nombreux endroits du monde, et les factures de bande passante utilisee peuvent etre gigantesques avec tous ces utilisateurs connectes au meme reseau ! Il faut aussi constamment se mettre a jour, payer des administrateurs reseau, etc. Les VPN gratuits sont donc dans l’obligation de trouver d’autres sources de financement que les abonnements de leurs utilisateurs. How To An Apa Article Stenden University. Comme vous vous en doutez certainement, les proprietaires et administrateurs de VPN gratuits ne font pas ca par pure philanthropie.
Ce qui nous amene a notre premier probleme avec les VPN gratuits… Vos donnees de connexion sont revendues a un tiers. Lorsque vous decidez de faire confiance a un VPN, cela signifie qu’il est capable, comme l’etait auparavant votre FAI, de savoir ce que vous faites en ligne. Seuls les VPN qui proposent ce qu’on appelle des « no-logs policy » (politiques de non conservation des donnees) ne peuvent pas savoir ce que vous faites sur internet meme si ils le souhaitaient. Writing An Essay Brighton. On pense par exemple a Express VPN, Ip Vanish et bien sur Hide My Ass, le leader de la protection de la vie privee en ligne. Certains VPN gratuits peuvent mettre vos donnees et votre materiel en danger ! Soyez prudents et renseignez vous avant de faire confiance a un VPN gratuit. Les autres services de VPN savent tout de vous, ce qui n’est pas forcement un probleme, sauf si ils revendent vos donnees a un tiers..
Vous aviez choisi des VPN gratuits pour proteger votre vie privee et voila que tout votre historique de connexion est revendu a une entreprise de marketing cible, ou pire encore a des pirates informatiques… Ironique non ? C’est pourquoi vous ne devriez faire confiance qu’a un VPN qui se finance avec des abonnements. Certains VPN gratuits installent des logiciels malveillants. De nombreux VPN gratuits n’hesitent pas a installer subrepticement des logiciels malveillants dans les ordinateurs de leurs utilisateurs, notamment a des fins de marketing cible. Vous n’allez probablement rien remarquer, mais lorsque vous vous rendrez sur un site internet, les publicites du site auront ete remplacees par le logiciel malveillant par d’autres pubs, basees sur ce que vous avez cherche par le passe ou sur les contenus presents sur votre ordinateur. De nombreux VPN gratuits tenteront d’infiltrer des logiciels malveillants dans votre ordinateur… Cela pourrait etre considere comme inoffensif, mais cela signifie aussi que votre ordinateur est infecte, que vous pourriez transmettre ce malware a d’autres machines, et surtout que vous etes espionne a chaque instant par le malware. Malheureusement, chevaux de troie, pourriciels, logiciels espions et autres logiciels malveillants sont aujourd’hui monnaie courante dans la plupart des VPN gratuits et il n’est pas rare d’installer un voire plusieurs logiciels malveillants lorsqu’on telecharge un client de VPN gratuit.
Il existe aussi des dangers legaux et juridiques. Cela fait maintenant quelques mois que la communaute de defense des libertes numeriques et de la vie privee en ligne alerte les internautes sur les dangers de l’utilisation des VPN gratuits. La plupart des VPN gratuits promettent toujours a cors et a cri qu’ils garantissent votre vie privee et votre anonymat en ligne. How To Write. Seulement voila, de nombreux services excluent automatiquement les internautes lorsque ceux ci se connectent a des sites qui ne sont pas consideres comme dangereux ou illegaux. Cela ne veut pas dire cependant que la securite de ces internautes n’est pas mise en danger ! En effet, une fois le VPN deconnecte, sans que les utilisateurs ne s’en rendent compte , de nombreux dangers surviennent, qui peuvent potentiellement avoir de graves consequences juridiques.
La connexion internet de l’utilisateur est completement ouverte et facile a pirater. Help Writing An Essay Brighton. Le fait que vous soyez sur un site parfaitement legal et acceptable ne voulant pas dire que des hackers n’y sont pas presents pour faire du piratage Le fournisseur d’acces au VPN gratuit peut mesurer la difference entre la bande passante reellement utilisee et la bande passante demandee a votre FAI. Write An Apa Stenden Of Applied Sciences. Il peut alors revendre la difference de bande passante, realisant un profit au detriment de la protection de votre vie privee et de votre anonymat qui vous avait ete promise ! En plus de cette demarche quelque peu malhonnete, cela veut aussi dire que votre adresse IP est vendue au plus offrant ! Si cette personne est un cyber-criminel, cela pourrait vous attirer de graves ennuis judiciaires ! Cela peut paraitre un peu exagere, mais pensez un peu au fait que vous allez devoir prouver votre innocence (c’est d’ailleurs comme cela que fonctionne Hadopi…) si jamais votre adresse IP est identifiee dans des faits de cyber-crimes ou d’arnaques sur internet. And Persuasive Essay Rotterdam. Pas facile a faire quand les faits sont contre vous ! Si vous ne voulez pas avoir a vous prendre la tete, tournez vous plutot vers un VPN premium comme Hidemyass, Express VPN et IP Vanish. How To An Apa University. Pour une somme modique, notamment dans le cas des abonnements a l’annee, vous etes certain d’etre protege 24 heures sur 24 et 7 jours sur 7, et que votre adresse IP et votre bande passante sont bel et bien protegees par des systemes techniques surs et non pas revendus au premier venu. Jetez donc un oeil a nos tests VPN Premium : et vous vous rendrez rapidement compte par vous meme qu’il vaut mieux choisir la qualite avec un VPN premium ! Certains VPN gratuits sont de bonne qualite. Heureusement, tous les VPN gratuits ne sont pas a mettre dans le meme panier. To Write An Essay Ellesmere. Il existe de nombreuses entreprises qui sont presentes depuis assez longtemps sur le marche pour que leur reputation ne soit plus a faire. How To An Apa Review Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. En general, ces fournisseurs de VPN de qualite proposent leurs VPN gratuits comme porte d’entree vers leurs services payants, pour donner envie aux internautes de prendre un abonnement chez eux. C’est pour cela qu’ils sont plus a cheval sur la qualite que les fournisseurs qui proposent exclusivement des VPN gratuits.
Ils se doivent en effet de convaincre les utilisateurs. Un VPN de qualite vous protege de Hadopi et de sa surveillance de masse. Cependant, sachez qu’a la fois en terme de securite, mais aussi de limitation de bande passante, de nombre de connexions, de vitesse de navigation, meme les meilleurs VPN gratuits que nous vous proposons ici (qui sont tous sans malwares d’apres les dernieres nouvelles) ne peuvent pas rivaliser avec des VPN de qualite superieure comme Express VPN, IPVanish et bien sur le leader du marche Hidemyass. En ces temps de crise, rien de plus normal que de chercher a faire des economies et vous vous dites peut-etre que si vous pouviez beneficier de tous les avantages qu’un VPN a a vous offrir sans rien debourser ca serait plutot pas mal. Why Is Writing Important College. C’est pour cela que nous avons decide de consacrer cet article aux meilleurs VPN gratuits, nous vous presenterons une liste plus loin. An Apa Article Stenden. Cependant, vous ne serez pas surpris que l’on vous conseille de prendre quelques precautions avec ces logiciels. Writing An Essay Kent School. En pensant bien faire, vous pourriez en fait etre en train de mettre en danger la securite de votre ordinateur. How To Review University Of Applied Sciences. Pour cette raison, nous allons tout d’abord commencer par vous eclairer sur les eventuels dangers que pourrait presenter l’utilisation d’un VPN gratuit avant de partager avec vous notre selection des dix meilleurs logiciels non-payants. Le logo du CSIRO.
Tout d’abord, il nous faut evoquer une etude recente  , publiee en novembre 2016, par des chercheurs americains et australiens qui presente les risques lies a l’utilisation d’applications VPN gratuites sur Android. Topic For Writing Griffith University (Navitas). L’analyse de plus de 280 d’entre elles a permis de souligner le fait que la plupart n’offraient aucune protection aux internautes et que quelques-unes se presentaient meme comme veritablement malveillantes. How To Article Review University Of Applied. L’etude menee par le Commonwealth Scientific and argumentative Rotterdam School Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) permet ainsi de rappeler l’importance primordiale de la confiance accordee au logiciel utilise puisque tout ce que l’utilisateur fera sur internet transitera par un nouveau serveur. Article Stenden Of Applied. La recherche aboutit a des conclusions effarantes : 84 % des VPN gratuits divulguent des donnees concernant la navigation de l’internaute. Different Ways To Write College. Plus de 80 % des applications VPN gratuites exigent pour fonctionner d’acceder a l’historique de l’utilisateur, ce qui permet de garder une trace et de proceder a une analyse detaillee de tous les evenements qui se sont deroules au cours de sa connexion. Article Review. 80 % exigent d’acceder aux donnees sensibles comme les comptes utilisateurs ou les SMS. Writing For College Brighton College. 75 % des VPN gratuits s’emploient a suivre l’activite de l’utilisateur tandis qu’ils sont 67 % a affirmer ?uvrer pour le respect de la vie privee.
Le chiffrage des donnees entre le terminal mobile et le serveur n’est tout simplement pas realise par environ 20 % des VPN gratuits pour Android. Write Review Stenden University. Ceci implique que n’importe qui serait en mesure de faire l’analyse de ce trafic avec la meme facilite que s’il n’y avait pas de VPN installe. Writing An Essay Kent School. 38 % des VPN font part de logiciels malveillants, en particulier en instaurant leurs propres pubs frauduleuses lorsqu’ils sont actives et en poussant a l’installation de malwares. L’evaluation de ces applications sur la Play Store ne traduit en rien les observations de l’analyse menee par le CSIRO. Article Review Stenden. Ainsi, moins de 1 % des commentaires font part de soucis en lien avec l’acces a la vie privee de l’internaute ou a la securite d’ordre general. Les chercheurs ont ainsi etabli une liste des 10 VPN gratuits les plus dangereux que nous vous presentons ci-apres.
Sachez que Google a d’ores et deja supprime les 5 premiers. Help Brighton. Ces 10 VPN gratuits sont ceux qui presentent le moins bon score AV. How To Write An Apa Article Review Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. Il s’agit d’un indice qui rend compte de la presence de differents logiciels malveillants : Les chevaux de Troie, qui malgre leur apparence legitime, installent un programme parasite sur le terminal de l’utilisateur ; Les logiciels espions ou spywares qui en s’installant sur les terminaux mobiles recoltent et transferent des informations sur ces derniers sans que l’utilisateur soit au courant ; Les logiciels malveillants de type malvertising, terme qui fait reference aux mots anglais malicious et advertising, ils consistent a utiliser la publicite en ligne pour diffuser des malwares ; Les logiciels publicitaires ou adwares qui affichent de la publicite ; Les riskwares qui correspondent a des programmes en soi legitimes mais dont les caracteristiques font qu’ils pourraient s’averer dangereux s’ils venaient a tomber dans les mains de cybercriminels. Writing An Essay Book School. Un cheval de Troie. Les VPN gratuits les plus dangereux. D’apres les chercheurs du CSIRO, les utilisateurs de ces logiciels doivent prendre leur responsabilite en main puisqu’ils ne beneficient souvent que d’une comprehension tres partielle du fonctionnement de ces derniers. How To Write An Apa Article Review Stenden University. L’equipe d’experts conseille donc de bien prendre le temps de lire et d’analyser correctement les autorisations donnees a ces applications. Le scandale de Hola, un VPN gratuit. Enfin, nous nous devons d’evoquer l’affaire du VPN gratuit Hola qui demontre parfaitement que l’on devrait toujours se mefier de ce qui nous est presente comme gratuit. For Writing Griffith (Navitas). Les pratiques douteuses de l’editeur israelien ont ete mises a jour par le site 8chan.
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Il beneficie d’interfaces epurees qui facilitent son utilisation. Writing Brighton. Son reseau donne acces a des serveurs implantes dans treize pays differents, notamment aux Etats-Unis, en Grande-Bretagne, en Australie ou encore au Canada. How To Write Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. La vitesse de connexion est satisfaisante et SurfEasy permet cinq connexions en simultane sans ralentissement majeur. Different Ways Ellesmere. Notez cependant que le transfert de donnees est limite a 500 Mo par mois. Spotflux est correct dans l’ensemble. How To Review University Of Applied. Sa petite originalite est qu’il s’appuie sur le Cloud pour le cryptage et la compression du trafic web. Writing An Essay School. Ses inconvenients sont lies aux limitations de la version gratuite qui ne permet pas de bloquer le suivi des traqueurs en ligne et dont l’offre de serveurs se cantonne aux serveurs americains. Ce VPN est disponible en version francaise et beneficie d’une assez bonne presse, il ne requiert aucune inscription. Article Review Stenden Sciences. Dans sa version gratuite, la vitesse de connexion laisse neanmoins a desirer et la bande passante est limitee a 300 Mb par jour. Il rencontre un certain succes parmi les internautes. Writing College. La vitesse de connexion est plutot bonne mais ses serveurs sont limites a 500 utilisateurs a la fois.
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3 Rules For Capitalization on Resumes. I wrote a post a few months ago about “What To Capitalize on how to write review University a Resume,” but from the number of emails I receive it’s obvious I didn’t go into different enough detail. In this post, I’ll cover a few of the rules for how to write article review of Applied Sciences, capitalization, and we’ll go into more detail on each of different to write an essay Ellesmere them. An Apa Article Review! These are the questions I get most often: Let’s tackle these one at a time. Do You Capitalize the Name of a Degree Program? Whenever you deal with capitalization there is a lot of confusion—even among the different style guides—which means you can make this a simple, or complicated, learning experience. I prefer simple. Help An Essay Brighton College! On several important points the guides agree. You should capitalize the an apa review of Applied Sciences abbreviations of academic degrees.
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I only covered three points today for a reason. It’s difficult to Ellesmere College, learn too much at once. We’ll get into some of the other rules in future posts. (Make sure you sign up for the newsletter so you don’t miss the next installments.) In the future we’ll cover the very tricky rules for write University, departments, industries, acronyms, product mentions, seasons, and many more. An Essay! Writing a perfect resume is not an easy job, but it’s the surest way to get an interview. Gatekeepers take note of the little things when they screen resumes, and proper (or improper) capitalization is one of the things they notice. It can make the difference between being called in for the job of your dreams, or having your resume tossed in the trash. You decide which it will be. It’s your decision. If you enjoyed this post, please share. Giacomo Giammatteo is the author of how to write article review University of Applied gritty crime dramas about murder, mystery, and family. And he also writes non-fiction books including the No Mistakes Careers series.
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And there are almost as many opinions about how to do it right. But there aren’t many ways to how to an apa Stenden University Sciences, format a resume that aren’t distracting. And that’s what you want to aim for. You want a  Everything You Need to Know About Numbers on Resumes. Numbers On Resumes Before we get started, I’m going to briefly discuss numbers and numerals.
By definition, a numeral is: A word, letter, symbol, or figure, etc., expressing a number. There are rules regarding when to topic Griffith (Navitas), use the word numeral versus number. I’m going to ignore those rules and use number/s for everything. Now back to the looking  When You Shouldn’t Put Your Best Foot Forward. Put Your Best Foot Forward When writing resumes, it’s important to how to write review Stenden University Sciences, remember that your “best” accomplishments might not be the right ones to list on your resume. In fact, your best accomplishments might be what’s keeping you from getting a job.
I’m going to let you in on for writing University (Navitas) a secret—resume screeners are opinionated! Imagine that?  Resume Mistakes Can Kill Your Chance For An Interview Scoring an interview is how to article review Stenden Sciences difficult, but a lot of people make it tougher by presenting an inferior resume. Topic Essay Griffith! A good job posting typically draws at least 100 resumes, and quite often as many as 300–500. In mid- to how to write an apa article review Stenden of Applied Sciences, large-sized companies, a significant number of resumes are  I have never had a placement that did not work out. I have actually had Jim convince me not to hire a candidate that I had already felt very good about.
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!--BACKGROUND=/backgrounds/ltgray_aluminum.gif-- Guidelines for Writing a Political Theory Essay. Professor Anna Marie Smith. Department of how to write an apa University Sciences, Government, Cornell University. A. Griffith. The purpose of political theory writing. 1. The theoretical issues, rather than empirical facts presented on their own, are most important for us. Write Article Review Stenden Of Applied Sciences. Remember that your assignment is designed as an exercise in interpreting political theory.
Emphasize the theoretical aspects of writing on a Kent School, your answer. Empirical material such as historical details and statistical data should be used to support your answer where appropriate, but you should aim primarily to demonstrate your ability to argue coherently and effectively within well-defined theoretical frameworks. 2. Make a compelling argument. Your goal is to present an accurate treatment of the how to write an apa article review Stenden University of Applied Sciences, basic interpretive facts, but then to conduct a dialogue with the text and to write The Storm King give your opinion on the theoretical problem at hand. For example, political theory essays often deal with a normative issue (known colloquially as the ought question.) Martin Luther King Jr. thought that the achievement of genuine racial equality would require both the elimination of discrimination against African-Americans and the redistribution of income from the wealthy to the poor. How To Write Review University Of Applied Sciences. A good political theory treatment of this argument would not make any mistakes on the basic interpretive facts that are beyond dispute. It would, for example, trace King's influences back to the civil rights movement and Christian theological discourse. But it would also move into the realm of the should statement as well.
The political theory essay would advance a clear normative argument; the author would take a position either for or against King's claim. Now an economist might respond to King argument by seeking to find an absolutely precise measurement of the distribution of wealth in the United States and the developed world during the 1960s. For the political theorist, however, it is the conceptual puzzle implicit in King's statement that commands our attention. According to King, how is the topic for writing essay Griffith University (Navitas), distribution of income related to write Stenden University of Applied Sciences racial inequality? What is his understanding of key concepts such as racial integration, freedom and democracy? Why did he believe that the passage of civil rights legislation in School the mid-1960s had not brought racism to an end?
In your opinion, is King's argument persuasive? Note that the reader cannot, in all fairness, expect the political theory essay to present a correct answer. The political theory essay attempts to persuade the reader by advancing a compelling argument that is well supported by write an apa Stenden of Applied Sciences detailed and insightful interpretive work. 3. Develop a thesis and sustain your thesis argument throughout the paper. Each essay should be organized in terms of a thesis that emphasizes a conceptual argument, rather than a mere summary of the texts or a general theme. Take a position, state clearly what your position is, and then mobilize textual references to convince your reader that you are right, and that you have approached the question in a fair-minded and ways to write an essay, thoughtful manner.
Essays that are not built on a thesis tend to summarize the text and to how to an apa Stenden University of Applied wander aimlessly from point to University point. 4. Engage with the write an apa review, themes of the course and the texts that we are studying. A good paper strikes the reader as a work that could not have been written unless the for writing Griffith (Navitas), student author had attended the course lectures/seminars, taken part in class discussions, and engaged with the assigned reading. Aim to conduct a sustained scholarly dialogue with the questions raised in how to write article Stenden University of Applied Sciences class and in your texts. You are welcome to take any reasonable position in your essay, but engagement with the review The Storm King, assigned texts is mandatory. How To An Apa Article University Of Applied. Think of it this way: you can choose, within reasonable limits, the position from which you will speak in your essay, but you must speak to the assigned reading. 5. Define your terms.
Political theorists should aim to define terms with great precision. Political theorists contribute to College the study of politics by shedding new light on the conceptual dimensions of key political problems. As soon as you introduce a term into your essay, you should define it very clearly. As always, carefully footnote the passages from the text that you are using to build your definitions. 6. Support empirical claims. Where your argument does depend upon factual claims, you must state them clearly in a precise manner, and you must footnote your source. 7. Write An Apa Stenden University. Leave yourself enough time to write a full outline and multiple drafts. I understand that you will find yourselves writing last-minute papers and “cramming” for important Bishopstrow exams, but I encourage you to write an apa Stenden avoid this approach where political theory papers are concerned. The best theoretical papers take a great deal of argumentative essay Rotterdam Business, reflection and critical revision. Aim to finish the next-to-final draft several days before the an apa article review University Sciences, due date, so that you will have enough time to put it away for a couple of days. Then re-read your draft -- because you will be looking at the paper with fresh eyes, you will be able to detect weak passages and writing on a book Kent School, problematic transitions much easier --, make your final corrections, and Stenden University of Applied Sciences, hand it in.
B. Interpreting the political theory text. 1. Put your analytical voice at the forefront throughout the essay . Emphasize your informed argument. The political theory essay is never just a research report that collects a number of The Storm King, quotations and strings them together; we want to see evidence that you have done the appropriate reading and that you are thinking independently and creatively about the text. 2. Write An Apa Review Of Applied. Always remember that the essay is an academic mode of discourse . Almost every student lapses into casual language usage and sloppy argumentation in their essays. Argumentative Business. Do not use the kind of words, phrases and arguments that you would use in other contexts, such as e-mail, your personal journal, conversations with friends, journalistic articles or an address to a political rally. In political theory writing, the more you strike a thoughtful and scholarly tone, the more your reader will trust your judgment. 3. On a few occasions, you will quote directly from the how to write article University of Applied, text. Write Review The Storm School. This can be particularly appropriate when you are dealing with a richly textured passage in which the text advances an argument that is central to your paper. But after giving the direct quotation, you should then offer your own penetrating commentary. Do not fill out your answers with long direct quotations from the an apa article review of Applied, text. In short papers up to 15 pages in length, no single direct quotation should be longer than 20 to 50 words in length.
Between one and four direct quotations would be appropriate for for writing essay University this type of paper. 4. For the most part, you will be avoiding direct quotations altogether; you will be practicing the art of the concise paraphrase . You should choose appropriate passages from the text and put them in your own words, taking care throughout the paper to write an apa review of Applied Sciences capture the nuances of the writing important Bishopstrow, text, and to footnote the original source. (Plagiarism is strictly forbidden.) Following each paraphrase, you should once again bring your own analytical voice to the forefront by giving your own commentary. In other words, your paper should never strike the write an apa article review of Applied, reader as a simple set of textual summaries. Make the texts work for you but pay attention to the more complicated aspects of different ways, their arguments. Discuss not only their obvious meaning but their subtle and even contradictory dimensions as well. With every reference to a text, your argument should become more clear, convincing and sophisticated. 5. When analyzing the text of a given theorist, carefully reconstruct the argument in your own words, with full notation as required. Your goal should be to how to Stenden University of Applied Sciences make the strongest possible case for his/her argument , on his/her terms and write review King, from his/her point of view.
By all means introduce your own opinions about the text, but only after you have provided a sophisticated reconstruction of its argument. 6. How To Write Of Applied Sciences. You should explore the meaning of each text very carefully . If you are opposed to The Storm King School an argument, you must nevertheless recognize its strengths. By the same token, you must indicate the weaknesses and contradictions in the texts that you happen to favor. Any essay that fails to write an apa University of Applied do this will miss the topic for writing Griffith University, opportunity to engage in how to review Sciences advanced forms of interpretive work. The political theory essay differs in this respect from polemical writing, debate speeches, and closing arguments in a trial. If you agree with the text without carefully reconstructing its position, then your agreement will come too easily and you will fail to on a Kent note the how to article review Sciences, text's own contradictions and weaknesses. If, by contrast, you criticize the text without considering its strengths, you will be reducing the text to a straw man and engaging in for writing University (Navitas) a dismissive reading where subtle, detailed and how to write an apa of Applied Sciences, sensitive commentary is required. 7. Use the different to write College, non-expert scholar figure as your target audience.
Write your paper as if you will be submitting it to how to review of Applied Sciences a professor who studies politics, but who is not an expert on the material you are dealing with. Writing On A Kent. This will remind you to use any complicated terminology sparingly, to define all key terms thoroughly, and to how to write an apa of Applied avoid taking for granted the meaning of complicated debates and issues. Take care to lead the non-expert scholar through the twists and an essay Brighton College, turns of your argument, and make sure that your imaginary reader will regard your work as an accessible and persuasive paper. Perhaps something that seems obvious to you actually needs more explanation and detailed interrogation. By teaching the non-expert scholar figure about write article review Stenden of Applied Sciences, political theory, you will become a better political theorist yourself. As Wittgenstein says, the best way to find out if someone really understands the meaning of a word is to ask her or him to teach someone else about the word and its usage. 8. Anticipate any reasonable objections that your reader might raise, lay them out in and persuasive essay Rotterdam Business the strongest and most empathetic manner possible, and then give your rebuttal. You may find that this process will actually lead you to review Stenden University reconsider your own position and spur you to write a richer and more penetrating paper. 1. Present the different parts of your argument in a logical order. Review King. Explain to the reader in explicit terms why you are proceeding from an apa review one idea to the next. In a longer piece (i.e. over argumentative and persuasive Business, 10 pages) use subtitles to help the how to write article review University of Applied, reader to follow the progression of your argument.
Your reader should never have to wonder why a specific sentence was included, or why a certain paragraph came before another one. 2. Personal reflections and write review King School, autobiographical information are acceptable; in fact, first person writing has become prominent in feminist and critical race theory writing. (See, for example, the work of Patricia J. Williams.) For our purposes, however, personal writing is how to, only appropriate insofar as it is well integrated into your theoretical argument. You should keep in mind that personal material is never an adequate substitute for theoretical analysis. 3. You should meticulously edit your paper and eliminate spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. 4. You should incorporate several references to the assigned texts into your answer and these references should be noted clearly throughout.
All noting systems are acceptable. In a typical political theory paper, you might have between 3 to 10 notes per page. 5. An Essay On A Kent School. Attach a bibliography if you have not made reference in article review Stenden your footnotes to every source that you consulted while conducting your research and different ways an essay Ellesmere, writing the paper. Write An Apa Review Of Applied. I reserve the right to conduct an internet search relating to any part of your assignment to check for plagiarism. 6. I consider the notes that you take during my lectures as common property; you do not have to help writing for college provide a footnote to them.
By the same token, do not rely entirely on your lecture notes; you should depend, first and foremost, on how to write an apa Stenden University of Applied Sciences your own reading. 7. The Storm. We expect you to abide by the plagiarism code of the university in all work that you submit to your professors for a grade. How To Write An Apa Article Sciences. Note too that although I often require students to circulate their seminar papers to the members of the class e-mail list, and that I often encourage political theory students to read exemplary student papers and theses that I place on reserve, you may not copy any material from a student paper without providing a full citation to that work. Double submission is also forbidden. This rule often raises a lot of writing important essay Bishopstrow, questions in students' minds. If you anticipate that your paper might resemble another piece of how to an apa article Stenden University of Applied, work that you have done/are doing for another course, please make an appointment with me to for writing essay Griffith discuss the overlap situation. 8. Deadlines are meant to ensure that each individual student receives fair and equal treatment.
I only give extensions to students who have a documented medical excuse. 9. An Apa Article Review Stenden Of Applied Sciences. Please deliver your paper, in hard copy format, to my mailbox on on a book Kent School the second floor of White Hall, by 4:30 on the due date. I cannot accept e-mail attachments because they have crashed my computer too many times ! Some short examples of writing styles. (Please also consult the write University of Applied Sciences, work that I am placing on reserve for writing an essay on a this course.) A. Question: Analyze the media coverage of the LAPD trials related to the beating of Rodney King. The meaning of the videotape was shaped by an apa Stenden of Applied the defence lawyers in the courtroom. According to Crenshaw and Peller, What many people did not comprehend was that police brutality, just like discrimination, does not speak for itself. This very struggle over meaning is writing an essay on a, precisely what the intense contestations about race in write review University the law are really about. Rather than providing some kind of firm ground to challenge racist institutional practices, notions of formal equality, objectivity, neutrality, and the like tend to obscure the way that race is experienced by and persuasive essay Business the vast majority of African Americans in this society. How To Article Review Stenden Of Applied. (Crenshaw and Peller 1993: 64) So we can see that oppressed people cannot control the ways in which the different to write an essay Ellesmere, law is used against them.
The student has clearly read the assigned text by Crenshaw and Peller, but he or she is relying on the quotation too much. The student should put the quotation into his or her own words and then give his or her commentary. The problem is that his or her voice has been lost altogether. The student has merely gone into the text, found some key passages, and then pasted them together. Although the write an apa Stenden University of Applied, student has grasped the basic meaning of the The Storm King School, text, the more complex aspects of Crenshaw and Peller's argument seem to how to write an apa review Stenden be eluding him or her. For Writing University. This writing is at a C to write an apa article review University B- level. Having examined the general political context for King School the LAPD trials in Los Angeles, California and the United States as a whole, we will now consider the how to write review Stenden University, ways in which the trial was conducted and represented in the media. At this point, we must insist on the fact that racial meanings have become so politicized in American society that virtually every racial representation is the product of intensive contestation.
The videotape of King's beating -- images that many assumed would be taken on face value as objective evidence of the the LAPD officers' guilt -- was no exception. Crenshaw and Peller point out that the legal debates on race are precisely centered on struggles about meaning. They demonstrate, for example, that the LAPD officers' defence used the same legal strategy that anti-affirmative action plaintiffs use in writing Kent School court: they attempted to restrict the category of legitimate evidence and to re-define unfavourable evidence by write an apa article placing it in the most favourable context possible. (1992: 64) In my opinion, the management of an essay, racial imagery plays an an apa review University, integral role in the entire system of institutional racism. As I stated above with reference to the black power movement and the social theory of institutionalization, institutional racism depends upon the discrediting of African-Americans such that discrimination against different Ellesmere blacks becomes unconsciously integrated into the normal way of doing things. That discrediting process depends in part upon the selective use of facts, and the re-contextualization of facts that would otherwise constitute evidence of write an apa Sciences, oppression. Re-contextualize the video of King's beating, or re-contextualize the under-representation of blacks in higher education, and you can diminish the Rotterdam Business School, sense that racial discrimination has taken place. It is only when we take Crenshaw and Peller's warning about the constructed nature of every racial image seriously that we can begin to analyze the media coverage of the trials. The student's own argument is driving the essay: she is taking a position and defending it; the reference to the article is paraphrased accurately and write an apa review University Sciences, properly noted; the student clearly has a thesis and is marshalling her references to support her argument; she is building a case, presenting the different parts of the argument in a logical order, and telling the reader very clearly why she is writing on a Kent School, moving from one idea to the next. There is a slight risk that the student is moving too quickly from one idea to the next; the reader might be a bit dazzled by all the write an apa Stenden University of Applied, quick transitions. Hopefully, the different to write an essay, student will return to the themes discussed here at several junctures so that we can get a more clear sense of his or her argument.
This section of the paper would merit a grade of A- or better. B. Question: Can a society marked by a substantial inequality in how to an apa Stenden University Sciences wealth maintain and deepen a genuinely democratic form of government ? Its pretty obvious that the different to write, system is run by rich white men. We will never get campaign finance reform because the how to write Stenden University of Applied, lobbyists for rich white men are incredibly powerful. (http://www.conspiracytheory.com) So many Americans don't even bother to vote. First, we do not have the sense that the student is writing a political theory essay and engaging with the content of School, a political theory course. The passage reads like something the student could have written without taking the course at all.
What do political theorists mean when they describe a particular type of government as democratic? The student is taking for granted that we only need to discuss whether or not individuals have the right to vote and actually exercise that right. How To An Apa Article Review Of Applied Sciences. The conceptual debates on the meaning of democracy are vastly more complicated than this implicit assumption. The tone of the passage is School, far too casual, journalistic and clich-ridden. Phrases such as it's pretty obvious or some people say do not belong in an academic essay. University Of Applied Sciences. Its ought to be spelled it's. Contractions, such as don't should also not be used; write the why is essay Bishopstrow, long form (do not) instead. The term, the system, is a popular clich that is far too vague. Which system are we dealing with here: the political parties, the bureaucracy, the how to write article review Stenden, private corporate sector, etc.? Campaign finance reform is not defined.
Rich white men is not an academic phrase. The student should be referring to specific socio-economic classes, such as the bourgeoisie, or even more precisely, specific parts of the bourgeois class, such as finance capitalists or industrialists. We cannot assume that the white race and the male gender always coincides perfectly with wealth -- what about wealthy women, poor whites, and wealthy non-whites? It is plausible that campaign finance reform is being thwarted by certain corporate interest groups, but exactly how are they doing this? What does the writer exactly mean by an essay powerful?
If she or he is how to an apa article review Stenden Sciences, referring to the way in which political representatives' voting records on reform sometimes correspond to argumentative and persuasive essay Business their fund-raising activities in the private sector, then this argument should be developed in write an apa review Stenden University of Applied Sciences an explicit manner. The cited source, the web page, is not an acceptable academic text. Web page sources must be used very carefully. Data should be drawn primarily from articles and texts that have been published by academic publishers. Data from the publications of (non-partisan) governmental agencies is topic essay (Navitas), also acceptable. The latter are often available on the web through the Cornell Library Gateway; ask a reference librarian if you need help locating them. Where your essay depends on factual claims, you should avoid using journalistic sources to support those claims. The only type of journalistic source that is acceptable is what is called the newspaper of record: in the United States, the New York Times and an apa article of Applied, the Washington Post are good examples. References to Time Magazine, Newsweek, CNN reports and so on are not legitimate.
Finally, the essay is skipping between too many complicated ideas too quickly. Writing On A. Again, it is entirely plausible that there is a connection between the lack of campaign finance reform and voting participation rates. If the agendas of the Republicans and Democrats are in an apa article review Stenden University Sciences fact influenced by topic for writing essay Griffith (Navitas) wealthy interest groups first and foremost, then the large numbers of Americans who are not represented by those interest groups will not see the issues that matter to them discussed and dealt with by the two parties. Less wealthy Americans may therefore feel increasingly alienated from politics, and those feelings of alienation may lead them to stop voting altogether. However, a critic might say that the how to review Sciences, presence of third party alternatives, or more responsive local and state party structures, or a popular social movement could nevertheless spur greater turn-out rates. The essay needs to engage with political theory texts, build each argument one at a time, give full and careful treatment to Griffith (Navitas) each claim, construct the argument using clearly defined academic terms, anticipate the objections of a critic, support important factual claims with academic sources, and then clearly indicate how the essay is moving logically on to the an apa review Stenden University of Applied Sciences, next point. This passage is an why is writing Bishopstrow, example of writing that would receive a grade of C- or worse. The tension between the type of inequality that is present in an apa review Stenden University Sciences any capitalist social structure on the one hand, and liberal democracy on the other, is explored in a perceptive manner by Marx in his article, On the Jewish Question. (footnote) Marx was addressing the essay Rotterdam School, fact that Jews had suffered enormous discrimination in write an apa University of Applied Europe; they had been barred from holding office and to write an essay College, from practicing most professions and crafts. Article University Sciences. In some cases, they had even been quarantined in special residential zones. During the mid-nineteenth century, European authorities liberated the Jew in the sense that they dismantled these official exclusionary rules.
Marx used the unique position of the Jewish people to illustrate his argument that no one could achieve genuine freedom and equality as long as the capitalist system remained intact. As we have seen in our discussion of Locke, individual freedom and equality of opportunity are necessary components of any liberal democratic order. By all appearances, the liberated Jew enjoyed freedom and equality in this sense; he or she had the right to own property, to enter contracts, to serve in a public office, and -- where the franchise existed -- to The Storm King vote. But Marx points out that the an apa article, liberated Jew has only been granted the sort of freedom and equality that are possible in market society. The liberated Jew has only achieved the same status as every other individual in a capitalist world. Review The Storm King School. That individual is, in essence, divided into two halves. There is the citizen half; in this mode, the individual considers the good of the whole and prioritizes the community. Then there is the competitor half. In this second mode, the individual puts aside the generosity of spirit and write article Stenden Sciences, fellow-feeling that he or she expresses when he or she is in the citizen mode and struggles against every other individual to gain as much capital as possible.(footnote) In the and persuasive Rotterdam Business, competitor mode, the individual will find himself or herself sorted very quickly into an apa Stenden of Applied, a class group, based on whether or not he or she owns the means of production. Marx concludes that there can be no reconciliation of the citizen/competitor split within the individual until private property is different ways, abolished and the capitalist system is overthrown.(footnote) Rousseau advances a similar argument in write review Stenden University of Applied Sciences his Essay on different to write the Origin of Inequality.
Once again we have the opposition between the two modes within the individual: the unselfish and empathetic mode, and the mean-spirited competitive mode. . The author emphasizes the conceptual problems throughout, giving only how to write article Stenden University of Applied Sciences a brief summary of the historical issues touched on by Marx, so that he or she can progress quickly to the key conceptual argument. The sign-posting to other passages in the essay (as we have seen . ) is write The Storm King School, helpful without being too intrusive, and the topic of each paragraph is clearly introduced in the first sentence. The author is how to write review of Applied Sciences, building the argumentative essay Rotterdam, argument in a comparative manner, but he or she is not simply summarizing each text. Instead, he or she is picking out the relevant conceptual arguments in Locke, Marx and Rousseau and giving concise paraphrasing treatment to the important passages. One aspect of the essay is being postponed here; we do not hear the voice of the author himself or herself in this paragraph. Presumably, the author is going to bring forth his or her own opinion in the following section of the paper. Provided that he or she does so, the paper would probably receive a grade of A. These guidelines apply only to the assignments in my classes.
Other professors may be looking for different elements in the assignments for their courses.