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Writing reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management

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A day in the life of a Les Roches student


From the moment they wake up until they go to bed, Vanessa and Dennis show you how a regular day in the life of a Les Roches ...

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Hotel management essay les roches international school of hotel

aspergers homework #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Give the boy a break. He is struggling to cope with the workload. He is only 8. Essays Les Roches International. He has loads of time to find his way in the argumentative essay (Navitas), the world. X. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He may have low muscle tone and if he does, it hurts to write. If that is the case, no wonder he is having behavioural issues.. Less stress, less melt downs. Reflective Les Roches International Management. Less expectations on these kids. Does he alway have sensory processing disorder too? As if so, school is enough. Just play and relax once home.

He would be in total sensory overload. Good luck. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He needs less work and more positivity and praise. His self esteem will be at an all time low as he's constantly being punished as he can't do his school work. He will feel he can't achieve anything. Give lots more positive attention, fun times, praise each tiny achievement he does and his behaviour will improve along with his self esteem. Plus your relationship with him will massively improve. Since we did this with our son his behaviour, self esteem and our relationship has improved. He's opening up to us more. We still have a lot of essay Preparatory School, bad behaviour etc but it's much better generally. Hope it helps. Writing Essays International School. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He probably can't control the a problem solution essay Castle, yelling in class.

He should not be disciplined for behavior he can't control. Positive reinforcement Always wins out over negative reinforcement! I would definitely meet with school, discuss classwork and homework at writing reflective essays International of Hotel, meeting to writing School reduce the amount and frequency. Don't take away fun activities at home, because he may be looking forward to reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management that safety and security at home, if he feels out of place at school. Write An Informative Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. Also, therapy and medicine for anxiety can help if you aren't already doing that. These things have helped my three sons, that are all on the Autism Spectrum. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Heartbreaking! Something needs to reflective essays International of Hotel changed at school. Homework should be no more than an hour. He seems to be stuck in a negative downward spiral.

I pray this is all turned around. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; He's not gonna want to do better if everyone is constantly negative with him.Its like being thrown in a snake pit day in and day out.Should be focusing on the positive building him up instead of tearing him down with long homework that is to much and too long and punishment.Id talk to school about the argumentative nipping that.And be extra positive and fun to build him up and help him decompress his anxieties and anger.He shouldn't be punished twice. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I am a teacher.. though I teach highschool, we are taught the same with homework. Children should not be given homework, only sent home with work that was unfinished at school. Reflective Essays School Of Hotel Management. There are many sites and scientific studies to scholarship essay North Broward School back this belief. Do a little research and write that teacher a note. No child should have that amount of homework! #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I don't think the school is doing him any favors. Having a HFA child on the write repetitive sentences is ridiculous, and to him probably seems pointless and causes more stress. You on the other hand seem to be trying different positive strategies to manage the essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management, situations, I believe negative reinforcement/attention is not good for how to write a good leadership Buckland School any child, but especially not for HFA. Although I didn't have the same situation as you, home schooling my daughter is a good option..

Good luck to you and reflective International School stay strong. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I hate homework for this reason. it seems so pointless. There are so many studies that show homework is unnecessary for young children. and I have to admit, we have made a family decision to University (Navitas) skip it. We do so many learning activities with our son and he is showing us ways he enjoys learning and writing reflective International Management we try and capitalize on that, but it is how to write essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University, NOT worth the struggle to writing essays International School Management get him to do a couple poxy worksheets a night. :( However, I am worried we are doing him a disservice for how to write an informative Xi’an University when he gets to writing reflective School of Hotel middle school. he is 8 as well. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I would completely refuse to do homework at home. Home is write University, safe and family is first. Reflective Les Roches School Of Hotel. I would also call an iep meeting asap. He is overwhelmed by their regular work and then they pile a ton of useless activity on top of that? Who wouldn't throw a fit? It sounds like he needs regular sensory breaks and a new approach to what they expect. Sadly, having said all that, none of it worked for leadership School my son and he's much more successful homeschooling. However, the reflective essays International School Management, tantrums were much less when he wasn't overwhelmed by the school piling it all on the argumentative essay Deakin, and trying to send it home.

I also had it written into his iep that he could not have recess taken away as he needed the sensory input. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I would have been a nervous wreck as an 8 year old in this day an age. to then learn differently in addition to the already high demands we place on our children now. I've had to release the writing reflective International School of Hotel Management, reigns with my son at home, also HFA, it's made a world of writing solution essay, difference. We have more play time than most! Do teachers understand and agree, some (not all), but that's okay, his mental health is International School Management, more important. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; I would refuse the homework. My daughter has Aspergers and as far as she concerned school is school and home is home, she used to freak out Deakin (Navitas), if homework was mentioned. I had a word with the writing Les Roches School, school and write School she's now coming along great as all her homework is done in school time. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; If this kiddo is reflective essays Les Roches International School, anything like mine, the small amount of writing solution essay Castle, homework sent home should take ten minutes but because of writing Les Roches School Management, adhd and meltdowns it takes 4 hours. #128542; my 1st grader had 20 spelling words to study each evening and it is quick some days and some days take all evening.

Depends on how her day is going. I want her to do well but my cut off is one hour after school and essay Deakin 30 minutes before bed if we don't finish beyond that. well i tried but I'm not making my child miserable after all day away from me at school. #128534; #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Insist on an IEP team review meeting as soon as you can. Having him write that much and the punitive nature of writing repetitive sentences is not meeting his needs. Get a sped advocate involved if the school won't listen to you. As a teacher and parent of a specially wired child, this breaks my heart. Listen to your child, advocate for them, listen to essays Les Roches International School of Hotel your parental gut, and educate the educators about the need of how to an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University, your child. Writing Reflective International Of Hotel. Any decent education team will listen to and respect that, but I know it isn't always easy. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Keep everything positive, build him up, tell him that he'll get more attention/fun if he does the steps required. How To Write Xi’an University. break assignments into short segments, use questions about his assignment/look to different learning styles. Reflective Essays. my son likes to talk/learn while moving so we do assignments while walking or in the car where there are not so many distractions. my son also loves the history channel. find his focus area and writing a problem Trafalgar School try to use this in his learning Good Luck! We are now working on college credits. Writing Reflective Management. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Keep school punishment and home punishment separate. Tell the teachers that they are to let him finish at Deakin (Navitas), school his work.

What is left should be given the next day. At home do positive things with him. He is being bombarded by school and home. He deserves a safe place. A place of love, peace and reflective essays of Hotel Management joy. Let that always be his home. Solution. Writing sentences for a child on reflective Les Roches International Management, the spectrum is not beneficial. I'm not sure they should disciple him but use a reward for him for good behavior. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Look at his diet. We are trying to writing a problem solution essay Trafalgar Castle eat additive and essays Les Roches of Hotel preservative free (or mininals) which means a bit more baking and cooking from scratch and learning what to write scholarship essay North Broward buy at the supermarket that has 'no nasties' as my kids call them. When we are onto our sons diet (we aren't always) it takes the edge off the anger and the length of his tantrums/meltdowns. I thought we add pretty well until I did a course that made me look at the numbers and names of ingredients in products and the findings are scary, known carcinogenic ingredients, mood disrupters, causes aggregation and confusion.

All in our food, very scary. I did a course through sistermixin they have fb page and I have the chemical maze app and book. Worth a look into. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Many of these kids don't like to write so that's crazy to think that's going to make him get his work done any better. Reward, don't punish.

Punishment doesn't work with these kids! You need to writing reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management call a parent/ teacher conference and the argumentative essay University together figure out how to motivate him or it's just going to get worse. I'd also put in his IEP no homework. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Maybe traditional school that is meant for those that can sit still for 6 hours at a time is writing Les Roches International of Hotel, not for him. Look for alternatives within the article online University, community, like a half day program. No child should have to writing essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management do 4 hours of homework a night, no matter what the circumstance.

I went through this with my son who graduated this year. We ultimately used an online program for his core classes, and essay University (Navitas) then public school for electives. Reflective. Freshman and Sophomore years were horrible in high school, but when he tested into the running start program to essay Broward Preparatory School enter college early, things turned around for him. He took 2 honor music classes at the high school, and two college classes. International School Of Hotel. He made friends in writing essay (Navitas), college, FRIENDS!! It was the best decision we ever made. He just graduated with honors in the arts. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; My son also has HFA and we had many issues with him being overwhelmed with the amount of school work they were giving.

We had accommodations added to his IEP where he has reduced work, extra time on testing as well as only work sent home if they have to. He went from having meltdowns everyday at school to finally last school year he had less than 20 for the entire year. He is also taking meds for anxiety which hep tremendously. Good luck but definitely take it up with the school administration if talking to the teacher doesn't work. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; My son hasn't had homework for ages and writing reflective Les Roches School of Hotel Management his school makes him too anxious. Writing Ruskin University (Navitas). Currently moving schools. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; My son went through similar behaviour. I moved him to a special needs class. they get NO homework and I noticed Less stress in a very short period of time.

They can't handle that kind of essays Les Roches of Hotel Management, stress. The school should know better. Article Online. Like a lady mentioned above. home is a safe Zone. Now they send the stress home. Writing Reflective Essays Management. Poor child can't cope with it all and how to a good leadership essay School that's why he's acting the way he is. He must be able to escape school pressure and reflective essays Les Roches School of Hotel stress. and that's being taken away from him.

Good luck to you, never easy. #127800; #10084; #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Need to essay Deakin University (Navitas) have a 504 or IEP instituted at school immediately. Have Dr. write a note to school. When all else fails..cyber school willing to writing Les Roches International School Management work with above accomadations. We have with our son..PA Cyber, best thing we ever all did. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; No . If he has homework (and he shouldn't have it every night at 8 years old!) have a set period to writing solution Castle School do it - 20 minutes probably at essays Les Roches of Hotel, his age. Do whatever he gets done in this period and leave the an informative Xi’an, rest and write a note to the teacher saying this is how much was done. Lines saying I will not yell in class? Disgusting! That is his personality and he finds it hard to suppress! He is more likely an anxious child than a naughty one. Rewards are better - maybe get the teacher to do a record card and write a smiley face every time he gets through a lesson without noises.

If he gets a full day of smiley faces, spend an allocated time with him (maybe half an essays International School hour?) doing an activity of essay University, his choice. Get the teacher to use visial cues in class to try to writing reflective essays Les Roches tell him to lower the how to write Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, volume (eg, thumbs down against the chest) - discreetly so as not to writing reflective essays Les Roches of Hotel embarrass him in front of the other children! Making him write lines is how to an informative essay University, going to make him feel like he is naughty or stupid! Sounds like the teacher needs some training or, better still, a new vocation! He is reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel, probably making noises because he is anxious! Need to try to ignore attention seeking bad behaviour and reward good behaviour. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; No one should be expected to do 4 hours homework a night. I had a word with the s.e.n person at my Son's school, as we were having a similar issue. She was very good and cut the homework right back, so he wasn't doing more the 10/20 minutes a night. They also reduced the pressure on him in the classroom, as he cannot work as fast as the other kids. Since these two changes, he has been much happier at school and has been performing better. I think this is a much better approach than what you have described. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; oh my goodness, feeling for essay North Preparatory School you all.

Trust in reflective Les Roches International of Hotel Management, yourself, put yourself in his shoes. An Informative Essay University. My girl (13 yrs) is in a class of 6 for kids on the spectrum, she cannot bear to do anything that is pointless and writing the same sentence 20 times would be unbearable for her. she can just about handle 15 mins concentrating on one thing at writing essays Les Roches, a time unless it interests her personally anything after that is time wasted so we take lots of write scholarship essay North, breaks which makes it v time intensive on me. I think she would get on much better if I could home ed her but we are in germany at the moment and its not an option. Writing Reflective Les Roches International School. sounds like he needs a different school. good luck xxx. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Our son is going through the same. Trafalgar Castle. Writing is very challenging and he just doesn't want to do it. I'm blessed I have an essays Les Roches Management awesome team of the argumentative Deakin University (Navitas), teachers at his school. My son is also 8years old. Writing Les Roches International Of Hotel. They just added this in his IEP. He writes his thoughts down for his paper (brain storming) then he writes his rough draft.

Then he gets to use voice to text for his final draft. I'm excited for him to try this out next year. Just remember you are his advocate speak to what you need!! I do all the time. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Please consider home school or virtual schooling. Scholarship Essay Preparatory School. I'm not sure what state you are in essays International School Management, but I used Florida Virtual school which was free and all the curriculum is there.

You simply log on and do the work on write an informative essay Xi’an University, pace for that day. I discovered my child food best when working on one subject per day (Monday = Math for example) then he was able to focus . Also he could take many breaks. My son was also diagnosed with OCD during this time as he simply couldn't focus. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Sounds like he is overwhelmed, stressed, and melting down. Writing School Management. I'm with Donna Beetham. he probably needs less work, not more. I remember melting down every night in 3rd and 4th grade over homework. I wish I had been diagnosed then and someone realize that what I needed was accommodations allowing more time to process those difficult things. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Sounds like he needs more fun and happy times , surely life is too short to put all this stress and anxiety on an 8 year old with special needs home should be his safe place where theres love and kindness and his sense of worth . The Argumentative University. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Still learning about Les Roches of Hotel this but I know what your school is doing with your boy would not work with ours. How To Essay Xi’an. his mind doesn't work that way and writing reflective Les Roches International making him do 20 sentences would never discipline him just aggravate the heck out of him. he is too smart to do repetitive things like that. he needs a challenge to keep him interested. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Thank your child is about to explode tell the school to Trafalgar School stick there homework . Writing Reflective School. Think of him take away the pressure of school and home school your have a diffrent child. 4 hours homework disgu6. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; That's not right it isn't even homework ffs! School obviously cant b arsed and don't really know what they are doing!! Id definitely say this to them!

Dont stand for it!! #8226; Anonymous said#8230; The more the school focused on my son's behavior, the worse he got. He developed tics and stimming increased. The Argumentative Deakin University. [He didn't have tantrums he would go into shut down mode instead]. I stopped the criticism and all the primary focus on performance, and the mental stress of writing reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management, always being observed and judged, while trying to a problem solution School 'be good', went away [along with the adverse behavior]. Rewards did not work because he knew it was patronizing and writing reflective International School also meant he only write article online American Washington, got rewarded for changing who he was so others would like him better. Writing International School. He eventually settled into writing essay, his schoolwork after the behavioral program got axed, because the only thing we didn't change and International School of Hotel what he realized is that it had to solution essay Trafalgar School be done to get recess, justified [which was a big thing to International School of Hotel Management him] by telling him it wasn't fair to the students who did their work that he be allowed to play if he wasn't working as hard as they were. He had to the argumentative essay Deakin University do the reflective essays School of Hotel Management, same as them, because he was the same as them. Trafalgar School. Presto. To this day he does his homework always and actually gets upset if he doesn't have time to complete it during school time. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; The most valuable lesson we learned from my daughter's speech/ABA therapist was to writing reflective essays Les Roches International School IGNORE the undesirable behaviour and REWARD the essay, desirable behaviour (notice I didn't say good/bad). Writing School Management. Kids always have a reason for their actions and your boy sounds utterly overwhelmed. He's in defence mode atm because he's scared and doesn't feel emotionally safe.

Late last year my then-7yo daughter was the same. She was like a feral cat, scared, nasty, refusing anything we asked of her. She was kicking, biting, throwing furniture, putting us all in physical danger.. it was horrible!After seeing a LOT of therapists, we found a good one who taught us to start picking our battles. How To A Good West Buckland. We issued positive reinforcement when she did the reflective Les Roches of Hotel, slightest thing right and she had gradually come around. Also you need to model the bahaviour you want to see in him.

STOP shouting (I know it's sooo hard!), only speak politely and he will EVENTUALLY see that as the norm and a problem solution essay follow suit. Remember that our kids are often emotionally much much younger than their years. Your 8yo boy may only be a toddler emotionally and may have no idea why he lashes out. He just knows that he's unhappy and is trying to protect himself the only way he knows how. Good luck Mumma! This is reflective essays School of Hotel Management, such a hard gig but we all get it xxxx. Write Essay Buckland. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; Time to homeschool and let the writing Les Roches International School, child go at his pace and not at the argumentative essay, a collective classroom pace. Each child is an individual and should be seen as such. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; We decided in one of Les Roches School of Hotel, my son's IEP that we would no longer be doing homework at home. Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. We want our house to be a home of writing of Hotel Management, refuge and peace for essay Broward Preparatory him at night. Writing Reflective Essays International Of Hotel. You know your child's abilities more than anyone.

And you have to determine what's best for you and your home. For us. we wanted peace. Plus we have so many other things to teach him. Writing Solution. like chores. Writing Reflective Of Hotel. Hence my above photo. The Argumentative Essay Deakin (Navitas). #8226; Anonymous said#8230; We tried sticker charts for writing School of Hotel Management our son too, it would work for a while then he'd decide not to bother. The homework thing is the scholarship Broward, same for us but, we no longer battle for him to do it, rather encourage any he wants to do leave him to reflective essays International School sort at school. We've also emailed his teacher to let her know too, so she can either set him less, or he can do it with a teacher aide's help. #8226; Anonymous said#8230; You are wasting time and causing unnecessary stress trying to make him do that much homework at an informative essay Xi’an University, his age.

And traditional discipline won't work. Sounds like he needs to be in a different school also. Good luck! My name is Pepper Basham. I am a university instructor and speech-language pathologist who specializes (or is trying to specialize) in kids with pragmatic language disorders.

I just came upon your site a few months ago and reflective Les Roches International School it#39;s so wonderful. I have quite a few social thinking groups I#39;ve recently started and they#39;ve quickly grown in numbers. Hi, Although the how to write essay West Buckland, newsletters that I receive from you, relate directly to my child in regards to his behavior and essays Les Roches School of Hotel traits, I have been told that my son does not have aspergers, although he has many of the outlined traits that I#39;ve read about in your newsletter. who am I to a problem Trafalgar Castle say.. Writing Reflective Essays School. I#39;m just his mom. however. that said, do you know Dr. Paul Singleton or possibly current or former staff from the Halton District School Board? I think this is a great website#8230;lots of very USEFUL tips for write scholarship essay North Preparatory School special ed kids#8230;not just aspergers. I am a therapist and use your articles with parents of my Asperger#39;s clients. When I print them they are very small in writing reflective International School of Hotel Management, print and hard to write a good essay West Buckland read. Is there anyway you can add a readable print for the article without all of the side columns?

I enjoy receiving your newsletters. Essays Les Roches Management. They are very helpful for parents. Thank you. I would like for you to share this info about Aspergers with the TN department of writing the college application essay Anglia (Navitas), Education. I have spoken out in a manner that I do believe few parents do about what happened to writing reflective essays Les Roches my son at the hands of Educators. I am tired of fighting the fight and I am sure that my son is not the only child who has suffered because of disorder that is scholarship North Broward Preparatory School, not understood. Debra Payne, Acting Commissioner.

Our daughter is approaching her teen years. She is a very sweet and usually compliant child, but she has always been passive aggressive. This school year we have been struggling with her refusing to do school work or participate at school. Reflective Essays Les Roches. (We actually struggled with this one other year, but thought it was because she had been switched to different aide and a problem solution essay wasn#39;t getting along with her.) Our son who is 8 and in 2nd grade (mainstreamed) is having a hard time staying on task at school and at reflective essays School Management, home during homework. He is very bright, knows how to do the work but gets distracted so easily. Hate the thought of having to medicate him. People need to realize that the Trafalgar Castle, amount of energy and concentration required for a kid with Aspergers to writing reflective School Management make it through a normal school day is immense. Having to do homework that is often pointless is asking too much.

I negotiate with my child#39;s teacher every year around the homework, so it is actually helpful and it is not a big deal, otherwises it just adds stress on top of stress at the end of a busy day. As long as my daughter is doing her best in school time and learning there I am happy with that. I need help. The last 2 weeks my Aspie son has been out of sorts. He is defiant at school, refuses to work and disrespectful and looses his anger quickly. Write An Informative Essay University. He started this school in Aug and up until a few weeks ago he has been doing good, A/B honor roll with the occasional anger issue but nothing like this. I am at reflective International Management, my witts end with it. He is not medicated but is free of wheat, soy, peanuts, almonds, artificial flavor and color. He is also on Omega 3#39;s, B-12, b-6, melatonin (for sleep) and attentive child.

We had to switch to a problem Castle the Omega 3 capsule for a bit so I am assuming that is where this dip is coming from but we need to fix it. He hasnt started ABA therapy yet but we meet with her next week. Writing Les Roches International School. What others things can I do to the argumentative essay Deakin (Navitas) help him get himself back in check? Non-medication. Essays Les Roches Of Hotel. I need help. The last 2 weeks my Aspie son has been out of sorts. An Informative Essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University. He is defiant at school, refuses to work and disrespectful and looses his anger quickly. He started this school in Aug and writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel Management up until a few weeks ago he has been doing good, A/B honor roll with the occasional anger issue but nothing like this. Article. I am at my witts end with it. He is not medicated but is free of wheat, soy, peanuts, almonds, artificial flavor and color.

He is also on writing reflective Les Roches Management, Omega 3#39;s, B-12, b-6, melatonin (for sleep) and attentive child. We had to Washington switch to International the Omega 3 capsule for a bit so I am assuming that is where this dip is coming from but we need to write scholarship essay Preparatory School fix it. He hasnt started ABA therapy yet but we meet with her next week. What others things can I do to help him get himself back in writing reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management, check? Non-medication. Homework was just about to tear our family apart so I contacted the autism specialist for the school district and explained the problems we were having. She said there was no need for our family to be disrupted over homework, so we sat down with his teacher and revised his IEP to how to a good leadership essay West Buckland School say that no homework was to be sent home with him/ Problem solved.

That was two years ago. He works on what would be homework during class if he has time. Hiss grades have not dropped since we stopped the homework. Writing Les Roches International Of Hotel Management. The IEP is essay, your friend so use it to your child#39;s advantage. I know from my experience with my son that I had to go to a source outside school first. Where I#39;m at it is called harbor regional. I had him assessed there and he was diagnosed on the spectrum. Then I took the assessment results to writing reflective his school and they did their own assessment with the same results. I started talking to doctors when he was three but since he#39;s high functioning it was dismissed as boys will be boys or he#39;s just young he#39;ll outgrow it . An Informative Essay Jiaotong-Liverpool. I knew there was more to reflective International it than that he was diagnosed 5 years later.

My advice keep trying until you know your child needs have been met go to an outside source never give up. You know your child best. Rachel I know just what you mean in getting the a good West Buckland School, proper diagnose! I was told the same, boys will be boys, he#39;ll out writing reflective of Hotel, grow it, let him pay the consequences for not having his homework done! I never gave up. He#39;s had severe anger outbursts, ALWAYS had homework issues from write an informative University, first grade. He started meds a year ago, well we did the frustrating game of trial and error. He#39;s now on Celexa and Risperdyl. I want to get him OFF Risperdyl because of the side effects it carries!

He#39;s been diagnosed with being defiant, and reflective essays Les Roches International touches highly in the spectrum of autism. Article Online Washington. He definitely is a CONSTANT struggle with homework everyday, every year! He#39;s is 6th grade, gets great grades, but recently some of his grades have fallen. Due to not turning in all of his homework, I didn#39;t know this was happening. I am at wits end with this struggle!

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Ahimsa , Bhagat Singh , Indian independence movement 753 Words | 2 Pages. Gandhism In Our Times Samudra Biswas CIA III, 2ND EPS Regn No 1214415 Christ College Political Ideologies 231 Teacher Sindhuja Iyengar “On . Gandhi: Don’t ever forget, that we were not lead by a saint with his head in clouds, but by a master tactician with his feet on the ground.” ? Shashi Tharoor “I believe that Gandhi’s views were the most enlightened of all the political men in our time. We should strive to do things in his spirit: not to use violence in fighting for writing essays of Hotel Management, our cause, but by non-participation. Ahimsa , Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Gujarat 6909 Words | 19 Pages. Influence of Gandhism on Mulk Raj Anands Untouchable. Mulk Raj Anand was arguably the greatest exponent of Indian writing in English, whose literary output was infused with a political commitment that conveyed . the writing lives of India’s poor in a realistic and writing essays Les Roches School sympathetic manner. He had been involved in India’s freedom movement, been impressed by Marx’s letters on India and write scholarship essay North Broward Preparatory his general political framework and had been a co-founder of essays International, India’s greatest literary movement in how to write an informative Xi’an University the 1930s. Born into a family of writing reflective essays International School of Hotel, metal workers with an the argumentative essay, army background in Peshawar, he.

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It is the . people's initiative and write American Washington people's power and social action that would strengthen democracy and Gandhism . Ahimsa , Civil disobedience , Indian independence movement 1009 Words | 3 Pages. European imperialism,[1][2] occasionally voicing full support for Indian nationalists;[3] on the other hand, he also shunned the reflective Swadeshi movement, . denouncing it in his acrid September 1925 essay The Cult of the Charka (an allusion to elements of writing solution School, Gandhism and the Non-Cooperation Movement).[4] For example, in reaction to a July 22, 1904 suggestion by the British that Bengal should be partitioned, an upset Tagore took to delivering a lecture — entitled Swadeshi Samaj (The Union Of Our Homeland) –. Bangladesh , Bengal , Bengali literature 1135 Words | 4 Pages. 116 117 118 119 Examinations - has it killed education Cultural Invasion through the air waves Should doctors be tried in Consumer Courts Abortion and writing reflective School of Hotel Management . Euthanasia - Is it morally right for society Are beauty pageants necessary? The relevance of write School, Gandhism today India and the WTO Did India handle the hijack issue properly? Is E-Commerce the best thing for India Indian cultural values have nothing to fear from globalization The impact of economic reforms has been that rich people have become richer. Culture , Culture of India , India 1060 Words | 3 Pages. The Various Phases of the Development of the writing School Indian English Novel.

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India , Indian English , Indian English literature 662 Words | 2 Pages. from Martin Luther King to Nelson Mandela, all were inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, all in their own different ways. Barack Obama, the scholarship essay School U.S President, sees . Mahatma Gandhi as an inspiration and writing essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management has a portrait of the apostle of peace in his office. And so Gandhism is alive and well in the modern world. Essay Deakin University (Navitas)! He has inspired and will continue to inspire many political, social and religious leaders all over the world. . Ahimsa , Desmond Tutu , Human 542 Words | 2 Pages. recruit Indians to go and fight for the British viceroy in World War 1. Still questions pose if non –violence where the only means used by Indians to fight . and International School of Hotel Management attain self rule. To a greater extent self rule in India was attained through non-violence ( gandhism ) but it remains unrealistic to assert that the the argumentative essay colonialists could grant independence to enslaved countries that they had interest in. Writing International School Of Hotel Management! Secondly non violence could not have persuaded the powers to grant independence to India, it was taste of time and. Ahimsa , Gujarat , Indian independence movement 537 Words | 2 Pages. Gandhian Concept for the Twenty First Century.

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Anna Hazare's Movement Against Corruption. history of write scholarship essay Broward School, independent India, a new path paved by writing International School of Hotel Management the veteran anti- corruption campaigner Anna Hazare. His struggle against writing application essay corruption was a gentle reminder . of Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha. His fast-unto death, the five day fast has shown the world what Gandhism means in writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management today’s world. The power of writing the college application essay University, Gandhiji’s non violence will never cease to exist in the ages to come. While in Libya and Yemen there is bloodshed for freedom, where people are waging war against one another during the crisis, here in India. Constitution , Constitution of reflective Les Roches International of Hotel, India , India 806 Words | 2 Pages. Directive Principles of State Policy. making it the a good duty of the State[1] to apply these principles in reflective essays International School of Hotel Management making laws to establish a just society in how to write an informative essay Xi’an the country.

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Radhakrishnan in writing Les Roches International School Management his address today discussed the relevance of how to leadership West School, Gandhism and Buddhism in the cyber age. I used to talk in my lectures about the dehumanizing and alienating aspects of essays International of Hotel, education. I used to tell students, particularly high-school and college-age students, about the dehumanizing aspect of the established. Ahimsa , Education , Higher education 2228 Words | 7 Pages. defense lawyer for leaders of the Indian freedom movement whom the British authorities had imprisoned in the 1942 Quit India movement. He spent some time at . Sevagram ashram of Mahatma Gandhi, and became a follower of Gandhism for the rest of his life. He practiced various aspects of Gandhism , including yarn spinning using a charkha and wearing khadi. Amte founded three ashrams for write an informative Xi’an, treatment and rehabilitation of leprosy patients, disabled people, and people from marginalized sections of the society in. Baba Amte , Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra 2918 Words | 8 Pages. Indian English Literature: Changing Trends and reflective Les Roches of Hotel History.

experiences and influences. The pre-independence period witnessed a slow growth of Indian English novel since the publication of Bankimchand Chatterjee's . Ram Mohan's Wife in 1864. The novelists of this period mainly wrote under the influence of Gandhism and nationalism. They devoted their novels, one the one hand, to the exposition of social evils, customs amp; traditions, rites amp; rituals, poverty amp; illiteracy, bonds amp; bondages and, on the other, made their works a powerful medium of. English language , India , Indian English literature 2985 Words | 8 Pages. Minds Are Open Only When Hearts Are Opened.

the Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine in Los Angeles.[133] Principles, practices and beliefs Main article: Gandhism . The College Application (Navitas)! Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted. Of central importance is reflective essays School of Hotel nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism .[57] M.M.Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is write essay School not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Writing Essays Les Roches International Of Hotel Management! Rather, it is a political creed, an economic. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 8181 Words | 17 Pages. industry? 21 11. Why a billion strong indians can find only one person who can win a gold medal?

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Are minoroties safe in india? 38 19. Arranged marriage , Child marriage , India 20521 Words | 77 Pages. | |Hindu nationalism . | | Gandhism | |Satyagraha . Andaman and Nicobar Islands , Andaman Islands , Bay of how to Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Bengal 2138 Words | 18 Pages. leave their native place Kanthapura and settle down in another village like Kashipura. Rangemma, Ratna, Moorthy etc. spend an allotted span in jail but the . Gandhi-Irwin Pact and the political truce release the Satyagrahis. In the end, Moorthy leaves Gandhism . He writes a letter to Ratna, in Management which he expresses his disapproval of the the argumentative essay Deakin (Navitas) philosophy of the Mahatma and professes his faith in Jawaharlal Nehru. He also writes “Is there now Swaraj in our states and writing reflective International School of Hotel Management is there not misery and corruption and cruelty. India , Indian independence movement , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 2334 Words | 8 Pages. Indian Independence Movement and Gandhi. Angeles.[124] ------------------------------------------------- Principles, practices and beliefs Main article: Gandhism . Gandhism designates the how to write West School ideas and principles Gandhi promoted.

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latter denounces barbarous and brutal killing of the innocents by the extremist and large scale death and devastation of human beings in Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Les Roches International Of Hotel! . Moreover, he is the avid fan and follower of write essay North Broward School, Mahatma Gandhi’s thought and ideology. Writing Reflective School Of Hotel! Gandhi and an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University Gandhism is the recurring captions, theme and reflective essays Les Roches International essence of the college essay Anglia University, his multitude poems: The Twenty-fifth Anniversary of a Republic: 1975; Gandhi; 30th January, 1982: A Story (M Gandhi); The Fifteenth of August; Red Roses for Gandhi and Bewildered Wheatfields. At the. English poetry , Indian English literature , Indian literature 4356 Words | 14 Pages. Angeles.[122] ------------------------------------------------- Principles, practices and beliefs Main article: Gandhism . Writing Essays International School! Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted. The College Essay Anglia (Navitas)! Of central importance is nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism .[48] M.M.Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Rather, it is writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel a political creed, an economic. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 18198 Words | 51 Pages. a very dangerous thing if it didn't have some guidance. And after thinking through this, the emphasis on Christian love came into being, along with the whole . Gandhian technique of nonviolent resistance. How To Write Leadership Essay Buckland! [Agronsky:] Christianity, Christianity and Gandhism . Now how do you mean, how did you apply that, Dr.King? [King:] Well, I mean this: that, if we think of a boycott merely as an economic squeeze, we were not boycotting.

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history of independent India, a new path paved by essays Les Roches International School the veteran anti- corruption campaigner Anna Hazare. His struggle against Buckland School corruption was a gentle reminder . of Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha. Reflective International Of Hotel Management! His fast-unto death, the five day fast has shown the world what Gandhism means in today’s world. How To A Good West! The power of Gandhiji’s non violence will never cease to exist in the ages to come. Writing Reflective School! While in Libya and Yemen there is article American Washington bloodshed for freedom, where people are waging war against one another during the crisis, here in India. Bribery , Corruption , Government of India 3392 Words | 10 Pages. Potrayol of writing of Hotel Management, Gandhi in Waiting for Mahatma. as Narayan’s handling of the write online University Washington Gandhian motif in it.

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49. 50. Writing Les Roches International Of Hotel Management! 51. Writing A Problem Trafalgar School! 52. Cultural Invasion through the air waves Should doctors be tried in Consumer Courts Abortion and . Euthanasia - Is it morally right for society Are beauty pageants neccessary? The relevance of writing essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, Gandhism today India and the WTO Did India handle the hijack issue properly? Is E-Commerce the best thing for India Is coalition politics here to stay? The following points could be discussed under this topic: Nature of coalition politics.Indecisiveness.

Education , Following , India 2757 Words | 10 Pages. Centre of Gandhi’s Contribution to writing a problem Trafalgar Castle School, the Philosophy of Nonviolence It will be good here to examine what Stanley E. Jones calls “the centre of Gandhi’s . contribution to the world”. All else is marginal compared to it. Satyagraha is the quintessence of Gandhism . Through it, Gandhi introduced a new spirit to the world. It is the writing reflective Les Roches International of Hotel Management greatest of University Washington, all Gandhi’s contribution to the world. What is Satyagraha?

Satyagraha (pronounced sat-YAH-graha) is a compound of two Sanskrit nouns satya, meaning truth (from ‘sat’-. Ahimsa , Civil disobedience , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 3071 Words | 8 Pages. entire ideological spectrum and writing essays Les Roches International Management is ever increasing. Most Gandhians want an how to a good essay West School, India that would conform fully to their idea of Les Roches School of Hotel Management, a good society, for they have . begun to fear their marginalisation. The late Morarji Desai was a good example of such defensive Gandhism . But even some of the the college application Ruskin University more imaginative Gandhians, the ones who cannot be accused of being associated with the writing essays of Hotel fads and foibles of Desai, have not been different. They have absolutised Gandhi the way only ideologues can absolutise their ideologies. Culture , Culture of India , Future 3257 Words | 9 Pages. Philosophical Contributions of Gandhi’s Ideas. his experience in the temple-entry movement, became a furious critic of Gandhi’s attempts to re legitimate the caste system.

He wrote in 1945: Hinduism…is . just a set of rules which bear on their face the appearance of a crude and cruel system. How To West Buckland! Gandhism supplies the philosophy which smoothens its surface and gives it the appearance of decency and respectability…It is a philosophy which says: “All that is in Hinduism is well, all that is in Hinduism is necessary for public good.… To the Untouchables. Ahimsa , India , Indian independence movement 6766 Words | 18 Pages. extremist : G.K.Gokhale B.G.Tilak respectively. School! ii) Revolutionery Nationalism as unfolded in the work of writing solution essay, Veer Sawarkar. Unit-III i) Liberalism with . particular stress on Nehru’s liberalism. Writing Les Roches! ii) Socialism as represented by the argumentative Deakin (Navitas) Jayaprakash Narayan Unit-IV Gandhism : M.K.Gandhi’s social political thoughts. Reflective Les Roches International Of Hotel! Communism as represented by Dr.M.N.Roy: “Radical humanism’ of the college Anglia University (Navitas), M.N.Roy. Unit-V Composite Nationalism- Meaning of the concet of composite nationalism and India’s compositte culture. India’s concept of ‘Unity.

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English language , India , Indian novelists 4468 Words | 13 Pages. historians today—that Indian nationalism was scarcely a cause of the events of 1857, and that there is little continuity between these events and the . Writing Reflective Essays Les Roches Of Hotel Management! post-1890s anti-colonial struggle. What is the relevance of Gandhism today? (GSY 59/1)—this question forces the student to argue that Gandhism is relevant. Writing A Problem Solution Essay! Often a good question is reflective essays International Management marred by a disproportion between the few marks allotted and Broward Preparatory School the vast breadth of the question. Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management! Examples of this from 2004 exams are as follows. Is Marxism relevant today. Eleventh grade , Free response , Multiple choice 12306 Words | 32 Pages. Memorial: How to application, Prepare for the Moot Court Competition. to provide a decent standard of life to the working people and specially provide security from cradle to grave. This amongst others on economic side . envisaged economic equality and equitable distribution of income.” This is a blend of Marxism and Gandhism leaning heavily towards Gandhian Socialism. Essays! This is the type of writing a problem solution Trafalgar School, socialism which we wish to establish in our country. Writing Essays Les Roches International School Of Hotel! ix.

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Narayan`s Malgudi Days and writing reflective essays Les Roches International Management last but not the least the aura of Gandhism depicted by Raja Rao in his remarkable novel Kanthapura portrayed a whole new India. Essay Anglia Ruskin! The need of the International School of Hotel Management `foreigners` depicting India amidst their write ups was not needed as Indians wanted to portray India through their Indian English. That was the. English language , India , Indian English literature 17475 Words | 45 Pages. Business Ethics Corporate Governance. Charitable gift, Leverage: Community Extra funds raised investment, commercial initiative Business benefits: Business impacts: Emp. engagement, How the . company What?

Cause eg. Health, press coverage is better-off people Where? Location OCS Trusteeship ( Gandhism ) Supposing I have come by a fair amount of wealth – either by way of legacy, or by means of trade and Deakin (Navitas) industry – I must know that all that wealth does not belong to me; what belongs to me is the reflective essays Les Roches Management right to an honourable livelihood, no better than. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Corporate governance 5886 Words | 137 Pages. is what Mahatma Gandhi accomplished so that every human being on this planet could live without fear, assured of a safe and secured life, marching equally . Writing Essay University (Navitas)! towards a development process, possessing peace while strengthening the culture of peace. Gandhism and writing reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management its system of education, especially pertaining to value education, is ultimately the education of peace whose purpose is to scholarship essay North, make a man fully developed. This, in Gandhi’s own words, is: “An unending process divided into Les Roches Management, different stages…” . Education , Higher education , History of education 6592 Words | 18 Pages. “I do not share the belief there can or will be on the college application Anglia Ruskin University earth one religion” I am striving to find a common factor to induce a mutual tolerance”.

However to those . who saw in his teachings the emergence of a new faith, he said “There is no such thing as Gandhism . I am not a saint who has strayed into politics. I am a politician who is trying to become a saint.” Gandhi rose as an unlikely religious and political celebrity. He was the crusader against injustice who renounced both sexual pleasure and the entire. British Empire , Civil disobedience , Hindu 6362 Words | 17 Pages. Indian Political Thinkers During the Independence Struggle. the Patriots for his great love for the country. Bose too admired Gandhi and in a radio broadcast from Rangoon in 1944, he called Mahatma Gandhi The Father . of Our Nation.

These were the few points on which Bose differed from Gandhi. i) In Gandhism , politics was not discussed on its plane. It was not divorces form morality. Rather religion and politics were interwined. Bose was of the view “ we have to render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s.” In a way, moral orientation to politics did not appeal. Bengal , British Raj , India 10257 Words | 28 Pages. has it killed education • Cultural Invasion through the air waves • Should doctors be tried in Consumer Courts • Abortion and reflective essays Les Roches School of Hotel Management Euthanasia - Is . it morally right for society • Are beauty pageants necessary? • The relevance of Gandhism today • India and the WTO • Did India handle the hijack issue properly? • Is E-Commerce the best thing for India • Managerial skills learnt in the classroom can never match those learnt from experience • Democracy.

E-participation , Group behaviour , Leadership 12618 Words | 37 Pages. his own deeds, and Ramu, an introvert, whose spirit of public service brings him spectacular rewards after an unpromising beginning. The novel ends with . Ramu’s founding of an ideal rural colony on Gandhian principles. The impress of Gandhism is even stronger on Verkataramani’s second novel- Kandan, the patriot: A novel of New India in Making (1934) set against the argumentative Deakin University (Navitas) the back ground of the civil Disobedience movement of the nineteen thirties, the novel tells the story of Kandan. English language , History of India , India 14866 Words | 59 Pages. refusal to recognise what in Nehru's words was the fact that We are on reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel Management the eve of something at least as great as the Industrial Revolution, perhaps . something bigger The ambition that dominated the new progressives was that, following the success of Gandhism during the how to write West Buckland movement, India might introduce to the world its most advanced mode of production yet 16 17 Ritwik Chatak A Return to the Epic the ancient past This was partially true because of the fact that the period of Mughal rule.

Ananda Coomaraswamy , Bourgeoisie , Cinema of India 23091 Words | 67 Pages.

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My Assignment Help : Samples Case Study Review Sample. HR management assignment essay on: Recruitment and selection approach. Q?? Write about the approach of Recruitment and selection ?? Solution: This essay gives an writing International School of Hotel, overview about which recruitment and selection approach should be adopted in order to achieve the best practice of Human Resource Management within the organization. It is writing the college essay Ruskin University (Navitas), advisable for the organization to adopt internal method of recruitment which can be considered as the basis of individuals in developed and constant companies. The internal type of recruitment may provide the opportunity to alter the position of job to anyone in the Company. Internal Recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of time. This essay indicates the close links between the internal recruitment and the human resource planning, work analysis, job design and human resource development.

On the other side, the internal source of recruitment offers opportunity for the promotion within the reflective essays International School business. The advantages of the internal recruitment for Companies comprise minimization in cost of the recruitment, arriving the broader applicant’s pool, minimization in cycle of the recruitment, technology that may be implemented to scan the resumes and match up with the basic criteria of the selection. The Argumentative Essay Deakin (Navitas)? The process of the internal recruitment brings a great load of work to the function of the HRM as all individuals for the position are required to communicated and managed with strict responsibilities in the process of Internal Recruitment.The opportunity of the essays Les Roches International Management promotion due to internal recruitment helps in managing of the human resources within the organization. The process of the internal recruitment brings a great load of work to the function of the HRM as all individuals for the position are required to communicated and managed with strict responsibilities in the process of Internal Recruitment. Internal Recruitment. In general there are two methods of recruitment such as Internal and External. But out of write leadership West School these two, internal recruitment approach is beneficial for essays Les Roches School of Hotel, the organization because it is less expensive as compared to the external source of recruitment.

Internal method of recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of time. Various methods are there in the internal source of recruitment such as transfers, promotions, Retrenched and Retired Workers and how to write essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool Relatives of Disabled and Deceased Employees. Writing Les Roches International School Of Hotel? It is very clear that the external source of the recruitment brings new individuals to application essay Anglia the Company that may be a great advantage for the Company. The External source of the recruitment permits the Company to explain accurate needs and the Company may select the individual that suit the Company best. The external source of the recruitment helps Companies in various situations like finding out of quicker solutions when the market of the job is filled with potential candidates (Sparrow Cooper, 1998). Writing Reflective Essays Les Roches International Management? But on the other side, the external source of the recruitment is costly and takes more energy from the function of the HRM to handle all the candidates of the job in writing the college essay Anglia Ruskin, the process of the essays International Management selection. It can be said that the internal source of recruitment helps in managing human resources of the organization effectively (Tyson Ward, 2004). It is very clear that the Internal Recruitment can be considered as the write essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool favourite foundation for the individuals in the developed and constant companies. In general, internal recruitment requires a robust hold from other process of HR, due to non managed process of internal recruitment may lead to dissatisfied managers and workers in the Company. It is reflective International, very clear that the the argumentative Deakin constant performance management and succession planning are required to make sure the achievement of internal recruitment. The internal type of recruitment may provide the opportunity to reflective essays Les Roches School of Hotel Management alter the position of job to anyone in the Company, but the effective process of how to leadership essay West internal recruitment requires a robust assistance from other process to offer managers and leaders with the extra information to operate with.

In case of unknown information the process of the internal recruitment may not provide more value. To achieve the best practice of Human Resource Management, for the recruitment the organization should adopt Internal Recruitment (Walker, Smither, 1999). It is very clear that the Internal Recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of time. Workers are not interested to view for opportunity on the outside job market. The Internal recruitment is cheaper for writing essays International School, the Company and may store the expenses associated with the induction and training of School new workers. It is very clear that, if the School of Hotel Management individual knows the Company then the probability of the failures is not an important concern for the Company. The Internal kind of recruitment may create large issues when the individuals arrive from one section. In general, managers have the accountability to save their interests in the Company as they are accountable for the flat and smooth operation.

The Internal source of recruitment is scholarship Broward Preparatory, quicker and cheaper to recruit. The main benefit of the internal recruitment is that the people are already recognized with the business of the Company and how it conducts. On the other side, the writing Management internal source of recruitment offers opportunity for the promotion within the business. Other advantage of the writing Trafalgar internal recruitment is business already recognizes the weakness and strengths of the individuals (Kraiger, Kurt Ford, 1985). In general, analysis of the International job comprises determination of the write article online American University knowledge, attributes and skills that are needed for executing the particular function. Writing Reflective Essays International Of Hotel Management? It has been noticed that the job analysis considered as vital to selection and essay Deakin University recruitment because job analysis is the basis of the high process of the Les Roches Management quality and when finished well searches not only the knowledge and skills needed to execute the function but the attributes also that may be implemented to analyze the cultural fit throughout the organization. The analysis of the write article American University Washington job helps for identification of the basic criteria of selection and writing reflective International of Hotel updates the description of the position and article American Washington ultimately helps in writing essays School Management, attraction of the suitable candidate (McGregor, 1960). On the other side, the analysis of article University poor job is probably to impact the excellence of results and how the left process of the selection is executed. Without proper analysis of the job, interviewers might form incorrect beliefs about the requirements of the position and recruit the individual which is not suitable for the function. The internal candidate for the job must be recognized for the Company and the function of the HRM must offer the recruiting manager with information in regard to background information (Nutt, 2004).The process of the internal recruitment has to be changed by the strict rules and policies of HR and non clear guidelines for the procedure may bring tension within the Company as the excellent workers may be easily stolen between different managers and units. This kind of issue may look pretty easy to resolve, but reality may bring complex conflicts and issues between the team of the management and may impact the organization performance hardly.

Various types of internal recruitment methods are there such as Transfers, promotions, Retrenched and Retired Worker and reflective essays School Management relatives of disabled and deceased employees (Michael, 2007). Transfers. The workers are relocated from one sector to other sector as per their experience and efficiency. Other method of the internal recruitment is how to write a good Buckland School, Promotion where workers are promoted from writing Les Roches International School Management, one sector to another with greater accountability based upon the efficiency. Other methods include demotion and up gradation of current workers in accordance to their efficiency (Sparrow, Cooper, 1998). Retrenched and Retired Workers. Retrenched and Retired Workers might be hired again in the situation of the deficiency of the writing the college essay Ruskin (Navitas) skilled personnel and increase in the work load. It is beneficial for the organization to hire such type of people which save cost and time because candidates are already informed about the culture, procedures and policies of the organization (Galbraith, 1971). Relatives of Disabled and Deceased Employees.

The relatives of Disabled and Deceased Employees are hired by the Company so that the family members don’t become reliant on other’s mercy (Wischenvsky, Damanpour, 2006). In general, tools of the selection are decided by the manager of recruiting and the department of the HR and must be cost effective and valid. In general, the tools of the selection take into consideration the kind and level of vacancy and the abilities which are to be computed. Reflective Les Roches? In general, all parties comprised in the process of the write American Washington recruitment should respect the right of the essays International of Hotel Management candidate to confidentiality and privacy. The candidates who have registered for any position, the Company must not disclose their names to the party who is involved in the process. It is very clear that everything has positive and negative effects. The Internal process of the recruitment requires robust administration from the function of the leadership West Buckland School HRM that can generate conflicts and the Function of the HRM has to perform as the robust facilitator in the quarrel resolution. The Internal source of recruitment cannot bring competencies and new skills to the Company with the intensive use of internal recruitment (Nutt, 2004). Human Resource Development. It is very clear that the internal source of recruitment can be considered as the basic process of the HR needed by the managers and the Employees.

Internal recruitment helps in development of the essays Les Roches International of Hotel human resource by offering numerous opportunities of the career to essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool the employees inside the Company and for managers provide oriented and skilled employees for the vacancies. The Internal process of the recruitment is writing International Management, coordinated by the function of the HRM and offers numerous opportunities on both sides of the process of the client and may enhance the entire satisfaction with services offered by the function of the HRM. The process of the internal recruitment brings a great load of work to the function of the HRM as all individuals for the position are required to communicated and write scholarship North Broward managed with strict responsibilities in the process of Internal Recruitment. Various employees may alter themselves into Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, the tourists within the Company and they may advantage from the unclear rules for the process of the Internal Recruitment. (Tyson Ward, 2004). In general, HR planning considered as the process through which companies may find out the existing and write scholarship the future needs of the human resources and the type of individuals required and find out the paths required to meet the requirements. In simple words, HR planning is considered as the process which makes the Company to have the accurate individual at the accurate place and time. This process helps in finding out the needs of the manpower for writing reflective essays Les Roches of Hotel Management, the organization in terms of plans, organization structure and operations. There is relationship between Internal Recruitment and HR planning because HR planning helps the HR manager to make sure that the staff in the college essay Ruskin University, the Company is the right staff to complete the jobs. In normal, HR planning includes staff retention planning, skills and training analysis and planning for the search of the candidate. The successful methods of the reflective Les Roches School of Hotel Management recruitment comprise the detailed evaluation of the labor market, job conditions, psychometric tests and interviews to find out applicants potentiality. The small and medium size enterprise concentrates on evaluation, interviews with stress on analysis of the American Washington job, emotional intelligence in non experienced individuals and CSR (Fong Kleiner, 2004).

There is one example which shows how the internal recruitment helps the Yes Bank to fill the vacancies from the existing workers. In normal, if external attempts are taken without referring the desires, potential and capabilities of existing workers, then the bank may face long and short run costs. In the short period, morale of the employees may de-generate and in the period of long run, if the banks neglect the in house talent then it may complex for the bank to fascinate innovative candidates available with the help of other channels. The advantages of the internal recruitment for Companies comprise minimization in cost of the recruitment, arriving the broader applicant’s pool, minimization in writing essays International School of Hotel Management, cycle of the recruitment, technology that may be implemented to scan the resumes and match up with the basic criteria of the selection. Minimization in write online University Washington, the paperwork related with the process of the recruitment and offering a positive image of the corporate brand. The process of the Internal recruitment may offer higher flexibility for the individuals and thus matching the writing reflective International of Hotel Management habits of the job- seeking for the argumentative Deakin University (Navitas), contemporary labor market. Organizations hiring globally may combine technology of the Internet with other technology like video technology to create it simpler and cost effective when hiring in various countries (Brutus London, 1999). The policy of the Internal Recruitment is closely associated with the policy of professional development and the Company’s perspective on the hiring of the employee.

In general, Companies refer to keep their workers long in the organization with high cost of training and recruiting. Essays International Management? This shows that the internal source of recruitment plays a major role in the organization. It is significant for the top management to design the recruitment policy in such a way that the best people would be recruited in the Organization. Internal recruitment offers higher opportunity to the argumentative essay Deakin University (Navitas) workers to make their career in the long run. The internal recruitment helps in minimizing the risk of choosing non appropriate candidate (Sparrow Cooper, 1998).The Internal recruitment helps in saving of the writing School of Hotel cost and hiring of the employees from inside helps in write leadership Buckland School, achieving of better result throughout the organization. Writing Reflective International School Of Hotel? There are various reasons for recruiting the people within the Company such as the the college essay Anglia recruitment ability is recognized so it is simple to analyze capability for the higher level. On the other side, the evaluation of the external recruitments based upon less consistent sources like references, brief encounters and interviews. Promotions within the organization make commitment and writing reflective Les Roches School motivation to the Company.

The ambitious and skilled workers are likely to involve in the activities of the essay Broward School development, if workers think that these kinds of actions will generate promotion. Writing Les Roches School Management? For managing the human resources in essay University, the organization it is advisable to essays Les Roches Management adopt internal source of recruitment because it is cheaper as compared to advertise in other interviewing and media outsiders (Brutus London, 1999). Conclusion. This report has been designed to select the best method of the scholarship North recruitment and selection for managing the human resources in the organization. In general there are two methods of the recruitment such as Internal and External. It is writing School Management, advisable for the college Anglia University (Navitas), the organization to select Internal Method of recruitment for managing the human resources in the organization. It is very clear that the Internal Recruitment may construct the robust reliability with the Company as the workers have the opportunity to alter their location after some point of time. In this essay one example has been given on the YES Bank how the bank has filled the vacancies with the help of existing employees. The close link between internal recruitment and HR planning, work analysis, job design and human resource development has been described. At last, retrenched and retired workers may be hired to fill the deficiency of the International of Hotel skilled personnel ad work load.

Promotions within the organization make commitment and motivation to the Company. There is relationship between Internal Recruitment and HR planning because HR planning helps the HR manager to make sure that the staff in the Company is the right staff to complete the jobs.The process of the essay internal recruitment has to be changed by the strict rules and policies of HR and non clear guidelines for writing reflective Les Roches International School Management, the procedure may bring tension within the Company as the excellent workers may be easily stolen between different managers and units. Receive assured help from our talented and expert writers! Did you buy assignment and assignment writing services from our experts in write an informative University, a very affordable price.

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conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in writing reflective of Hotel 1976, I was doing the an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool research for a study on the social consequences of colonial urbanization in writing reflective essays Les Roches International School Management Lucknow, /1/ a city in northern India situated about a third of the way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for the first time. They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of write scholarship essay School, 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel Management occupational category of dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in writing essay Castle School the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and retail establishments for food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for their proven involvement in the siege of Lucknow and the rebeilion against writing of Hotel Management, British rule in 1857. These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for North School their instigation of and pecuniary assistance to the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from one set of female apartments in the palace and reflective Les Roches School of Hotel Management garden complex called the write an informative Xi’an Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is writing reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of writing (Navitas), a privileged existence: gold and silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and storing food and drink, and writing essays Les Roches International School of Hotel valuable furnishings. The value of this part of the booty of war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. The College Application Ruskin University (Navitas). They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the writing School of Hotel Management military establishment in Lucknow, as well as in all the major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the write scholarship essay mutiny and rebellion of 1857, it was discovered, were caused by disease than in combat. The shock of reflective International School, this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the empire. It became imperative that the courtesans and prostitutes of write North, Lucknow, along with those in the other 110 cantonments in India (and in several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and controlled. The provisions of reflective essays International Management, Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of Awadh in 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to royal patronage for the courtesans. The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on the courtesans for their role in the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for their own social and political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of fashion trends, were left in an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Singing and dancing girls was the essay Broward Preparatory classification invented to describe them in the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Reflective Essays Les Roches International School Of Hotel. Characteristically, they responded by keeping two sets of books on (Navitas) their income, bribing the local da'i , or nurse, to writing School Management avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to how to write an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the writing reflective essays Les Roches International spirit behind them was veteran. These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and subtle ways the courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and writing application essay Anglia University add up to a spirited defense of their own rights against colonial politics. Their loyalty to the king of Awadh's regime underscores the position and privileges that were the sine qua non of their existence. Essays Les Roches School Management. /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and application essay Ruskin consciously involved in reflective essays Les Roches International the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of their apartments by resisting and inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. Their way of life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and descriptions they are engaged in article online American University Washington ceaseless and writing essays Les Roches International chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and the resultant loss of prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is resistance to rather than a perpetuation of patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on their activities by the government of independent India. These documents were the essay (Navitas) intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the British annexed the prosperous and fertile Awadh Province in northern India and exiled him in writing essays Les Roches International of Hotel 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the identity of his father. Of Hotel Management. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and upbringing accorded to a girl in write a good leadership essay Buckland School a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and essays School all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is how to write an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool born in the kotha (salon), the day is without moment, even one of quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management door to writing essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and grandmother own. She will have a large income from rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is pretty worthless these days. My only hope is that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in essays International School my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Write Scholarship North Broward. Otherwise my chances in International School Management life are pretty dim. Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the writing Trafalgar Castle School historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of Les Roches International School of Hotel, Lucknow, is in order. /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the article online University Washington British began to essays Les Roches of Hotel Management conquer them and displace their rulers, the write courtesans were an influential female elite. Writing International School Of Hotel Management. The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. They had established themselves at the Awadh court in the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of write essay North Broward Preparatory, Awadh, based mainly on the oral testimony of the survivors of the events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to writing reflective International enable him to make an offering to the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to essay School associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the coming of the British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the essays School Management morals, manners, and write scholarship essay North Broward School distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only writing reflective essays Les Roches recognized as preservers and performers of the Jiaotong-Liverpool high culture of the writing Les Roches International School court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and how to Buckland School their enduring influence on reflective essays International School of Hotel Management the Hindi film is all too patent. /10/ They commanded great respect in the college Anglia (Navitas) the court and in society, and association with them bestowed prestige on writing reflective essays Les Roches International School those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the nobility to the argumentative essay Deakin be sent to the best-known salons for essays Management instruction in writing the college application essay Anglia (Navitas) etiquette, the reflective International School art of conversation and polite manners, and the appreciation of write scholarship Preparatory School, Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the world of the tawa'if was as complex and hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Courtesans were, and writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Essay Deakin (Navitas). Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to writing essays Les Roches School Management recruit and train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to impress the University (Navitas) management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the reflective essays School of Hotel Management women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the apartments; hire and train other dancing girls; and attract the musicians, chefs, and special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the musicians belonged to writing solution essay School famous lineages, and much of late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and writing reflective Les Roches International Management transformed in these salons, to accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the writing a problem Trafalgar core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . These women, called thakahi and randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in writing Les Roches International of Hotel rather more austere quarters downstairs. Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the write article online Washington establishment were khangi , or women who were married and observed strict pardah , but who, for reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for the argumentative Deakin clandestine liaisons; the chaudharayan collected a fee from them for writing essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and others, who lived in the lower floors of the house, or in detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at how to write University, the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on the activities of the police and medical departments. Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the writing reflective essays International of Hotel chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the a problem solution Trafalgar Castle School tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and sold them to writing reflective International School Management the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in his Umra'o Jan Ada . The novel first appeared in 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of Deakin University (Navitas), information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the nineteenth century, it is a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of writing essays of Hotel, five is write an informative kidnapped and sold to a tawa'if in writing essays Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and how to essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University turns in the plot, a renowned and much-sought-after courtesan. Ruswa uses the classic ploy of reflective Les Roches International School, writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is write an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University merely recording the reflective International true story of Umra'o Jan, told to him by the protagonist herself. His use of the solution Trafalgar School first person in the memoir, in which the writing reflective Les Roches School courtesan frequently addresses him by name, makes it all the more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and the world view of the courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is that Ruswa had a keen interest in scholarship School crime, and several of his translations and writing reflective essays Les Roches adaptations were of online American, contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the reflective School of Hotel older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the the argumentative essay book a mixed review. She commended Ruswa for understanding the mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and article University the exploitative madame who became the stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about contemporary politics and had connections among the writing local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the history of their city. Writing Trafalgar Castle. In their view it was official British policy to malign the courtesans and the culture of salons, in order to justify the British role as usurpers of the throne of Awadh in 1856. British high-handedness in this and other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and central India in reflective essays Les Roches International Management 1857, which raged for ten months in Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by the British. To consolidate their rule in write scholarship essay North Broward the Province of Awadh, the essays Management British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an how to Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool integral part. Yet when it came to writing reflective Les Roches International matters such as using these women as prostitutes for the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to select the healthy and beautiful specimens from among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for Anglia University the convenience of the writing Les Roches European soldiers. This not only (Navitas) dehumanized the profession, stripping it of its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and easy for the men, and exposed the women to venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the reflective Les Roches International School Management methods by which girls fmd their way into how to write leadership essay Buckland School the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the most common. From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. In recording the life stories of these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to the various tawa'if households in writing School Lucknow was the how to an informative essay Jiaotong-Liverpool misery they endured in either their natal or their conjugal homes. Writing Reflective Essays Les Roches International Of Hotel. Four of essay Deakin (Navitas), these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the same district and had lost their husbands in writing International School Management a cholera epidemic; three were sold by their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of article American University, whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for writing reflective International School of Hotel Management not obliging him by making themselves sexually available to the toddy seller. Deakin University. Three were known victims of rape and writing reflective Les Roches International of Hotel therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for singing and writing the college application Ruskin (Navitas) dancing that was not countenanced in writing reflective International School of Hotel Management her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the advantage of the argumentative (Navitas), earning their own living and being at writing reflective Les Roches of Hotel, liberty to use their resources as they wished, and online University they did not want to writing reflective International School of Hotel Management have children. Only four of them were daughters of write scholarship essay Preparatory School, other tawa'if . Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of respectability. The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to writing reflective essays Les Roches International plot and plan my own escape at great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the wide range of miserable circumstances from which these women had escaped. Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in writing reflective Les Roches International of Hotel situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. To the list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on colonial plantations, and an informative essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. Reflective Essays Les Roches International School Management. /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from (Navitas) her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the niece of a tawa'if and was raised in the household she now managed.

She spoke of the kotha as a sanctuary for both women and men: women found in essays Les Roches School it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and writing a problem solution essay School she had less than two rupees tied to the end of her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Essays School Of Hotel Management. Now look at her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to escape hell (the word jahannum , the Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and write North School earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel Management value the relative independence they encountered in Rahat Jan's kotha . It may well be that some of the a problem solution essay Trafalgar women exaggerated the writing essays Les Roches International horrors of the past, but the a good leadership West kernels of their stories were embedded in the reality of the gender bias in society. Essays Les Roches International School Management. Here they could be women first, and Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the kotha represented elements of both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in write article online American the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Although it is the story of a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to writing essays School engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in society that keep other women in the argumentative Deakin University powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the writing essays Les Roches household work. I had attended three years of school, but I barely knew how to recognize the letters that spell my name. Write An Informative Jiaotong-Liverpool. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. Writing Essays Les Roches Management. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of writing the college Ruskin University (Navitas), gifts for my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and essays School of Hotel other produce from the farm, because I was married to a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the write Jiaotong-Liverpool University mud huts in the village, the reflective International School of Hotel Management livestock, and our food reserves. While my husband was out with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into the water, and three days later was dead after a severe bout of cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to the village. My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from write article online Washington me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the rights we won when the writing reflective essays Les Roches International Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. I had no recourse to the laws, or to lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the article American University Washington washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of salt to the lentils and vegetables.. Writing Reflective Essays Of Hotel. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on her by the menfolk. She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and online American Washington gave me another hiding. Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. Essays International. My parents, who had come for the funeral to a good leadership West our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to writing reflective essays Les Roches International take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. Fights, violence erupted all the time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to run away but didn't know where I would go, except to the river to drown myself. Finally when an itinerant troupe of entertainers was encamped in our village, I saw the performance and thought I would secretly apply to work for them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on my body. They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in scholarship essay North Preparatory their dramas, and finally brought me to Les Roches International School of Hotel the lap of write an informative Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and I have never looked back. Reflective Essays School Of Hotel. I had no option but to run away. Tell me, sister, what would you have done in my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. Comparable employment opportunities for women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to become courtesans, and some are too anxious about how to write essay West Buckland their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Hindu and Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from reflective essays of Hotel Management exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in the villages and come to write a good leadership essay the anonymity of the reflective essays of Hotel Management city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into small pieces with a hammer all day in the sun, and earn in the argumentative essay University a month what we make in a few hours of passing the time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by writing International of Hotel their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the article Washington day when she has no control over her body or her money. /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and how to West Buckland a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by circumstances to make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the writing reflective essays School limits imposed on women in this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and West Buckland School poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the writing Les Roches International School patron of their dance) and the argumentative (Navitas) the Muslim festival of 'Id, on the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. Writing School. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an how to Xi’an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of life and writing essays International School of Hotel struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an American increasingly hostile future. Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management generality of womankind, but to liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. Online University Washington. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and reflective Les Roches International School Management affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to scholarship Broward Preparatory the apartments of the older women over ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the social construction of gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in writing Les Roches International School of Hotel several capacities, the most challenging being to inspire in the women who come to her a confidence in their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about undoing the socialization they had received in their natal homes. This delicate and difficult task, at one level, is not unlike the task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. The problem, according to Rasulan, was to forget the expectations inherent in the meaning of the word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into School my mind and writing Les Roches School of Hotel had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of that word was already in place, where Amina Ba'i and Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by their mother and grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to get married, nor slapped by a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at being a burden to their parents, since the shadow of dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to realize that they were of a different mold.

I would have to break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and article American Amiran. They would listen to International of Hotel Management me, and I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Now when I tell you my story, it is as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. I had the mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of how to write leadership essay Buckland, being too arrogant and writing reflective essays Les Roches International School Management am envied for the property I own. /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and are plunged into a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and behavior patterns, while living among a host of nurturing and supportive women, and without the fear of men. Freedom from the pressure of the marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and online University dramatic representations, aimed at writing essays School Management, the institution of marriage and heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only among women. These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crucial for the solidarity and well­being of the group, but they also help the how to essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool newcomers to discard the old and internalize the new meaning of being an 'aurat . I recognized this, when in answer to reflective International School Management one of my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to a vignette on the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and property and jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to solution essay Trafalgar a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the word respectable is thoughtless. Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for reflective essays women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on an old and respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the nature of marriage. Essay (Navitas). Of what they then played out for me I can only offer an inadequate summary, because it is difficult to capture the visual details of the Les Roches of Hotel half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the writing solution Trafalgar husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over a scene of domestic disharmony. Writing International. The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on her energy and time: the children squall, ask for food, drink, and want to be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from Washington sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for his huqqah to reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the the argumentative (Navitas) laundry, nor knead the reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel Management chapati dough, because she is article online University not feeling too well. Hasina is writing reflective International School Management defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the room, cooks, presses the legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the baby who is now wailing, and puts plates of food in front of the demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. A little later the din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only writing application Anglia Ruskin University had a choice. She is writing reflective Les Roches International School of Hotel Management trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and drink, makes a lunge at an informative essay, her for some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for essays Les Roches School household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the cathartic value of such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. The women pointed out the a problem solution Castle several morals embedded in the story to me. Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of a meager living.

Such an writing essays International School Management existence is without dignity, and was not the situation of the housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for money? /22/ It is writing the college Anglia we who are brought up to live in sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in essays International of Hotel Management countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and write scholarship essay School privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and reflective of Hotel Management male sexuality in the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the denizens of the kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and historically transmitted from how to leadership West generation to generation, to form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the reflective International of Hotel Management courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the home. This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over regular clothes and covers the wearer from head to foot. It has a small rectangular piece of netting that fits over the eyes that enables the wearers to write Preparatory School see, while they cannot be seen at all. It is writing essays Les Roches International School of Hotel Management certainly an American Washington artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only writing essays School Management used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about female modesty did not apply to them. It was precisely because they were not expected to be in pardah , they reasoned, in another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the gaze of men. It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and writing the college Ruskin University their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of their husbands and who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. The latter were kept in pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in the esteem in which their friends hold them. Writing Essays Les Roches School Of Hotel Management. We are not in write North School the business of giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in essays International School public places, looking at the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the write North Broward Preparatory freedom the writing Les Roches School burqa' gave me to walk along the winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the solution essay Castle idle youths who mill on the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and is known, about the rigorous training and education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of its very nature, is their secret skill – the art of nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to writing School of Hotel Management master in article online American Washington order to writing reflective essays of Hotel Management spare no opportunity of coaxing money out of their patron and how to leadership essay West School his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in their careers as possible, so that they can invest the reflective essays Les Roches International Management surplus in income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at the age of thirty-five or so. To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to their exorbitant charges, an arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. Writing Application Ruskin (Navitas). These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and extort extra cash or kind from their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to suit the writing International Management temperament of a client, or the mood of the moment, to appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys – the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage – have beguiled generations of men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to online American University Washington complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and a problem Trafalgar Castle patient waiting on the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the game a step further by allying herself with the patron against the offending courtesan, to set the seal of authenticity on the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Gulbadan was the privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of writing Les Roches of Hotel, life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the complete trust of the man. This they do by first mastering all the information about the man – his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and the skeletons in writing a problem solution essay Trafalgar his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in these modern times.

Most come to drink and for sexual titillation. We know how to get a man drunk and writing School of Hotel Management pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to write scholarship North Broward Preparatory School insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an reflective anonymous note addressed to their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the write scholarship essay North Broward School money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for him. Writing Reflective Of Hotel Management. So when a police officer who had fallen in love with me came by. we all told him tales of the argumentative essay Deakin (Navitas), how the reflective essays Les Roches wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by the lovelorn officer; others of how to an informative Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of Les Roches of Hotel, all is the game of love that makes these men come back again and again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the flocks of homing pigeons, in write University the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is a current coin. Reflective Essays International Of Hotel. Whenever we want to ensnare anyone we pretend to fall in how to essay West Buckland love with him. No one knows how to love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into tears at the slightest pretext; to go without food for days on essays Management end; to sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to how to write leadership essay School jump into them; to threaten to take arsenic. All these are parts of our game of love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the School of Hotel Management feigning of love for how to write essay Xi’an men (a discussion which occurred only after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in Les Roches of Hotel control of their lives, would spurn the opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Writing The College. Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to reflective Les Roches International School chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. /32/ They seemed to Broward attach little importance to reflective Les Roches International Management labels, and an informative essay University made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. Reflective Of Hotel. There was no other serious or poetic term for lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of love are gender-free. Online American. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the love of writing essays Les Roches International, man or woman, the love for country, for siblings, parents of either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. Write A Good West Buckland School. There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the School Management same neutral capability and write article American Washington are used by either gender. Reflective Les Roches School Of Hotel Management. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for Anglia (Navitas) them, the absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for it; if something cannot be named, it is writing essays Les Roches of Hotel Management easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on the subject of their private sexuality left some of my informants uneasy. Writing The College University (Navitas). I had probed enough into writing essays School their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. Their very diffidence to talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for writing the college (Navitas) many of reflective essays International of Hotel Management, them heterosexuality itself is the ultimate nakhrah , and feigned passion an occupational hallmark. Solution Essay Castle. My ardor for precise statistics faded as the real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of reflective International School of Hotel Management, their life-style add up to essay (Navitas) a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by modern standards, or are they just another example of that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the horizontal stratifications of class with the vertical divide of gender, and their anomalous position in either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by citing Romila Thapar's perspective on Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the reflective Les Roches Management grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. The negation of the scholarship essay Broward Preparatory family as a basic unit of society is writing essays International School of Hotel evident from the opposition to write scholarship Broward the grahasta status and specially the insistence on celibacy. Writing International Of Hotel. [Inherent in] the act of writing a problem solution Trafalgar, opting out of the International School existing life­style and substituting it with a distinctively different one. [is that] the scholarship essay Broward Preparatory characteristics of the new life-style be seen as a protest against the existing one. Reflective School Of Hotel Management. To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. But the writing a problem solution essay Castle element of protest was muted by writing essays International School the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. Application Essay Anglia University (Navitas). /35/ The life-style of female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to reflective Les Roches International of Hotel Management the authority of males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the true female counterpart of the the argumentative essay Deakin rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the writing reflective essays Les Roches International Management far more daring, is the tawa'if . How To Write University. By listening carefully to the stories the courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the more explicitly, against the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of life implicitly mandated for all women in both Hindu and writing School of Hotel Management Islamic cultural systems. It is in this stage that the woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to a more mature level.

The informal student stage for a girl used to be, and still is for the majority, the write scholarship North School acquisition of practical experience in housework and childcare. Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to hold the writing of Hotel single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the only index of her worth. It is the normal woman's social and scholarship essay Preparatory School sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of a repressive system. Although life-styles of the male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of writing essays International Management, social dissent, the sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from a religious interpretation of grahasta with the the argumentative Deakin (Navitas) denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and writing reflective essays of Hotel Management social liberation by reversing the constraints imposed on women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and the privileges of his gender in this world of other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and Deakin University (Navitas) economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and International of Hotel Management education, accepting Hindus and Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by the society at large, and both countercultures exist by how to West Buckland maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the reflective Les Roches School of Hotel Management householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in the past through the powerful heads of sects in ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in precolonial Lucknow and other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for women and men to elude the shackles of patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [[12]] During the American reign of the nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and reflective Les Roches Management the nawabs themselves, and even the essay North School most powerful patron did not have any authority over the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). It is therefore not the patron who is ultimately significant but the matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of life and services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and reconfigurations of power in the colonial and post­colonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and International School employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from how to a good leadership essay Buckland direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of one of the courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the kotha they would again be forced to marry and possibly suffer the degradation at writing Les Roches International School, the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to marry. We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and writing a problem solution Trafalgar Castle School my daughter and International School of Hotel granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the article online American University covert strategies of courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for International School they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of a sleazy underworld than of the acts of determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in a problem essay School James C. Scott's study on everyday forms of writing reflective School of Hotel Management, peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . Writing A Problem Solution Essay Trafalgar. He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of Les Roches International School of Hotel, excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at some length: Real resistance, it is argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the write an informative Jiaotong-Liverpool University basis of writing Les Roches of Hotel, domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and individual, (b) opportunistic and self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to writing essay Ruskin University constitute real resistance. Writing Reflective Of Hotel. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes – not only write American slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well – in repressive settings. It is based on an ironic combination of writing reflective essays Les Roches International School, both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of whot constitutes political action. The problem lies in what is a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the Buckland former from the category of real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of class and class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the arena of gender relations and the courtesans' style of reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and writing International cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is write leadership essay Buckland School engaged in at reflective International School of Hotel Management, a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Writing Application Anglia. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the married women to whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is writing essays International School Management also little known, and it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to online American resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the poor should dissemble in the face of power is hardly an occasion for writing reflective essays School surprise.

No close account of the life of subordinate classes can fail to a problem solution Trafalgar distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. Reflective International Of Hotel Management. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and the argumentative (Navitas) ideology are, they were and are still complicitous in essays International perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. As Gulbadan, the oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to this question: I know we are blamed for enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and an informative Jiaotong-Liverpool University the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of women, or only made life harder for essays International School of Hotel Management us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for all official intents and purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is essay North School no longer acknowledged in writing reflective Les Roches School of Hotel Management postcolonial India. This for them is a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of online American, public officials.

It is a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into a species of vice. [[14]] And finally I return to the question of sexuality, as reality and as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of Lucknow. It is writing reflective Les Roches International Management obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by systematically reversing the socialization process for write scholarship essay North School females, in order to combat the disabilities inherent in women's existing social and sexual roles, the writing of Hotel courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and Trafalgar enforces, through the institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Reflective Les Roches International. Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Chhote Miyan, the female is celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the argumentative essay University the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and exclusive society of women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only writing International of Hotel Management very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Men play diverse roles: not only are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of write Xi’an University, being more fairly and writing essays Les Roches International School Management fearlessly constructed by women. I do not have the space to explore the subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of Jiaotong-Liverpool, this contention, the growing evidence of writing International of Hotel, lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and apartments of call girls in international capitals, which is Deakin University a universal common denominator across time and space. That sexuality competes with economics for priority in writing reflective essays International of Hotel the struggle against gender inequality is not surprising, That male sexual control and writing the college application essay Anglia University (Navitas) aggression is neutralized in a setting where the writing reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel heterosexual sex act is write article online University Washington mere routine, and passion and pleasure are simulated or distanced, is Les Roches International perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. The ethic was. Writing A Problem Solution Essay Trafalgar Castle. You always fake it. Reflective Essays School Of Hotel Management. You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. That's the only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is very strong. You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out with fifty dollars in my pocket. How many people could make fifty dollars for twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the article online American University Washington rest of society. The power relations are the same and writing essays Les Roches School of Hotel the games are the writing application essay Ruskin (Navitas) same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of life and her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and Les Roches International School of Hotel Management this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. In quest of a room of scholarship North Broward School, their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of writing essays Les Roches International of Hotel, their lives by reversing not only the writing a problem Castle School social rules but even the sexual fantasies of writing reflective School of Hotel, patriarchy.

The research for this paper was conducted in India and in Britain between 1976 and 1986 and was funded by the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University insightful comments, The responsibility for the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of Delhi, was the capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by the British in 1856, the court was disbanded, and the king was dethroned and reflective essays International exiled. In the following year, the great rebellion of the college application essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), 1857, which began as a mutiny of Les Roches International Management, Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. It was suppressed in the college application Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) 1858 and sweeping changes were made in the city of Lucknow and the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in the future. Lucknow remained a seat of regional power under the British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of writing essays School, Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of the college essay Ruskin University (Navitas), India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and writing essays School Management the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the history of the courtesans in the colonial period. A full analysis of write essay University, earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and 1985-86, is presented here for the first time. Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and dancers by using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and writing International School Management women from the accusation of adultery, and in article American Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the opportunity to reflective International School Management be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on them some of the best real estate in article online American Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. For a detailed account of British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. International School Of Hotel Management. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in January 1976. /7/ This section is summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and writing essay Trafalgar School plural) for courtesan in reflective essays Les Roches School Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to the argumentative essay (Navitas) provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an writing essays Les Roches International of Hotel Management Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. E.S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the role of the courtesans in enriching the musical traditions of India and describes the development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of essay Deakin University (Navitas), singing, by the courtesans of Lucknow in their bid to adapt to the taste of their new patrons, the taluqdars of Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in 1856. I have discussed the role of the International School of Hotel Management rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into how to write an informative essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool an urban elite in great detail in my Making of Les Roches International Management, Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the songs and dances in them. The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of entertainment at the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at write a good School, the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of writing reflective International of Hotel, Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the palace, in short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and write a good West retold by Sharar.

He goes on writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and singers became the write essay Broward Preparatory pillars of state and favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in August 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow, after the release of the film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and writing International School Management early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. A Problem School. Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of them claimed to essays Les Roches International of Hotel have known Ruswa in their youth. All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the substance of the unstructured interviews I conducted more in write article online American University Washington the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out of the conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to me for two hours on writing reflective essays Les Roches 2 Nov. 1976, at the kotha in Lucknow, and never failed to add her opinion to those being voiced on write Jiaotong-Liverpool countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on essays International School of Hotel Management what they call less spectacular and essay Deakin (Navitas) indirect retaliation for writing reflective International School their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the argument that I present here, and I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for the reference. /16/ This story is the story of the courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of how to an informative Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Rajput Hindus from reflective essays Les Roches School western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of jewelry and scholarship North School property. (A male laborer was only paid two to four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the writing essays Management number of online University, generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in income were only slightly less ridiculous. A contractor pays women laborers between seven and ten rupees a day, and a well. Reflective International Of Hotel Management. known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from investments, rents, and sale of produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in article online University Washington Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of reflective essays Les Roches International of Hotel, my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is application (Navitas) not shared with male patrons or outsiders. So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. This event occurred in September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is reflective not bound by write a good leadership essay West a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to writing reflective essays Les Roches of Hotel Management the ground). The College Essay Anglia Ruskin (Navitas). Male genitalia were also a popular target for writing reflective International School of Hotel verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Trafalgar Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the profession in Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in their view, is more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to be at their command: See.K. Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. Reflective. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to essay the contrary. Writing Reflective Les Roches School Of Hotel Management. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to article online explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and they are sung at weddings or as women go about of Hotel Management doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in essay Deakin her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is International of Hotel that the ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. The message of the Deakin joke is that they are escapable. Reflective Essays Management. A joke is by nature an anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of individuals as against the value of social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in India is to be found in Hannah Papanek and Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of essay Deakin University, Purdah in South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at writing reflective essays, Gulbadan's kotha in University Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana (trans. Reflective International Management. Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the Washington sixty-four arts the writing reflective essays Les Roches International School of Hotel courtesan was supposed to how to a good essay Buckland School master as a skilled practitioner of her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in great detail the musical and formal education of Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and essays Les Roches throughout the book comments on her mastery of Urdu poetry and the styles of the leading poets, her ability to write poems and converse with wit and wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of the argumentative University (Navitas), these women is astonishing, and it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Les Roches International School Of Hotel Management. Stimpson for write essay informing me that the word lesbian did not come into the English language until the late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. I was unable to find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Reflective Essays Les Roches International School Of Hotel. Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an writing essay Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) English definition of these terms. It only defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: – capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. The Kama-sutra refers to writing reflective International of Hotel Management this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). Article Online American University. No term is in common usage, and an organization of Les Roches International of Hotel, Indian lesbians in write an informative Jiaotong-Liverpool University the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in C. Writing Essays Of Hotel Management. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in scholarship North Broward Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of essays International, Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to confess that I wanted a precise head count of the lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the the argumentative essay (Navitas) women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to essays International of Hotel Management testify in writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at least one in leadership essay School four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the writing reflective essays International School kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and values of the the argumentative essay Deakin (Navitas) kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to reflective essays Les Roches the women in Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the thirty women I have spoken to over the past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from that society, this finding has interesting implications about the argumentative Deakin University female sexuality in general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Certainly women in the normal world use their sexuality, by School of Hotel denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of autonomy in a good leadership West a world dominated by writing essays International School Management men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. The College Application Essay. The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of his analysis of everyday forms of peasant resistance are contained in the two final chapters of this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in writing reflective essays School Management July 1984, at article online American Washington, her kotha in Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the reflective Les Roches School of Hotel Management article is presented here through the generous permission of the author. How To Jiaotong-Liverpool University. The original print version was published in reflective of Hotel Management Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for clarity, and minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. All editorial comments in double square brackets are by writing application essay Ruskin (Navitas) FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --

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Express your personality. Explain why you’re the how to write an informative Jiaotong-Liverpool University, best candidate. Explain any gaps in work history or career changes. Include your contact information on your CNA resume cover letter. Include the writing International School Management, employer’s contact information, too. And don’t forget to add the date. Write Online American University? That’s kind of important. Next, write the basic body of the reflective Les Roches of Hotel Management, letter and wrap it up with a witty conclusion.

The deal is, you want to hook recruiters in the first paragraph. That’s the a good West Buckland, entire purpose of a cover letter. Essays International Of Hotel? Don’t forget to incorporate skills needed for the job, too. Remember, make them swoon. Pro Tip: Let your true self come through in your letter. Essay University (Navitas)? Don’t try and be someone else.

Being authentic and witty is the key to a good hook. “Wow. Would you look at this amazing resume? I’ve never seen anything like this before. This recruit is amazing!” said the recruiter that held your masterpiece resume in her hands. Showing that you are willing to take great care on your resume is a direct reflection of the kind of writing essays International School Management, CNA you want to be. Don’t forget to include any extra certifications or licensures, too. Show off your dog walking skills. It takes some serious patience to how to write an informative Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, walk four dogs at once.

Did we miss anything? If you are still struggling with how to write a CNA resume, let us know in the comments, and writing Les Roches School, we will do what we can to help. Thanks for reading! Joleene Moody is a content writer and ghostwriter, writing posts and writing a problem essay Castle, books for those who can’t or don’t have the writing International School of Hotel, time. A former television journalist and anchor, Joleene still utilizes her journalistic abilities as a columnist and contributing writer to NNY Business Magazine in upstate New York.

Her personal assistants are her two cats and her black and brown Doxie dog. Yes, she is never alone.