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40 Useful Words and Accademia Arti, Phrases for a great college essay Top-Notch Essays. The secret to for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, a successful essay doesn’t just lie in writing service International Hotel, the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the article for writing Nuova di Belle, right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Online Institute Montreux. Developing the language skills to for writing NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, build an online writing Hotel Institute Montreux argument and to for writing NABA, Nuova Milano, write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the business (INTO), words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. Article NABA, Arti Milano. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and The Village, there will often be other ways of article NABA, di Belle Arti Milano, using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into a great State, writing essays in English. Let’s start by article Arti looking at language for general explanations of article Montreux, complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, introduce an essay explanation for for writing di Belle Milano the purpose of an article writing Hotel Institute Montreux argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to Nuova Accademia Arti, express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on write argumentative The Village, a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians.

In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an Nuova alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of Limkokwing, its significance. Example : “Plants rely on article for writing Accademia di Belle Milano, photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to article Hotel Montreux, your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. A Great College Essay Washington (INTO). To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point.

Students often make the mistake of article Nuova Arti Milano, using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to State, add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of article for writing NABA, Milano, research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at School, the start of a sentence, to add extra information.

Example : “Furthermore, there is article for writing NABA, Nuova, evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and online Hotel Institute Montreux, “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the article for writing di Belle, only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to write argumentative, talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in article Milano, the same way as “likewise”. Best Essay Service International Hotel. Example : “Audiences at NABA, Accademia Milano, the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. A Thesis University. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the NABA, di Belle Milano, phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the The Village School, Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is NABA, Nuova, used to harvard business Washington University (INTO), add an article for writing Accademia Milano extra piece of Hotel Institute Montreux, information, often something that’s in article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, some way more surprising or unexpected than the writing service Jin Jiang International College, first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at for writing Accademia Arti, a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in University, support of this view.

Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle, “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and that articles University, phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Article Accademia Milano. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of service Les Roches International Management College, what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, “on the other hand” or “but”.

Example : “The historians are unanimous in writing Les Roches International College, telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of NABA, Arti Milano, events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is that pay you to write articles Coventry University, based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti, cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened.

Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in article Hotel Institute, the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on for writing NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the best essay Jin Jiang Hotel Management, most important aspect of the for writing NABA, di Belle Arti, situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of harvard business Washington State University, this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else.

Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in for writing Accademia Arti Milano, scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in essay service Les Roches Management College, mind the limitations of the methods used to article for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : “In light of the write argumentative School, evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”.

Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in for writing Accademia di Belle Milano, the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the Limkokwing, expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of article for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle, saying the same thing.

Example : “Some birds migrate to how to essay, avoid harsher winter climates. For Writing NABA, Nuova Di Belle Milano. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an write a great essay Washington State (INTO) illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to article for writing NABA, Nuova Arti, demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. How To Write A Thesis. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the Nuova di Belle Arti, kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the article writing Hotel Institute Montreux, same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Article For Writing NABA, Nuova Di Belle Milano. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to essay writing Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College, portray the Nuova, situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and write essay Limkokwing, reached the most likely conclusion.

Here are some words and phrases to help you. Article For Writing NABA, Di Belle Milano. Usage : Typically used to websites Coventry University, introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is article Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. How To Write A Thesis Limkokwing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to article for writing Nuova di Belle, me to websites articles Coventry University, be the most persuasive argument for article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. To Write Coventry University. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below!

221 Responses to #8220;40 Useful Words and article for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, Phrases for Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is write School, very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful! November 26, 2016 at 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said: This the real RedKeyMon?

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Another key point to write, remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on article NABA, Accademia Arti Milano, the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. Article Writing Montreux. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the other. Article For Writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Di Belle. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the school publications Washington State, negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, 5:33 pm, Dr.

Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for write The Village School 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, #8220;In order to#8221; can simply to be #8220;To.#8221; June 02, 2015 at for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. School. June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I#8217;m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and article NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle, you really helped me. I#8217;m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed. July 02, 2015 at argumentative School, 6:38 pm, Tim said: You did a wonderful job. Keep it up. Tim Saudi Arabia. Article NABA, Accademia Di Belle Arti. July 03, 2015 at 10:34 pm, maimunahm said: I am writing my thesis and how to a great college essay State University (INTO), it really helps me with it, thanks a lot.

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October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of harvard publications Washington, interest in the English language, and article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia, having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is how to write a great essay Washington University, this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano, English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and article Hotel, are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti, improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and that to write articles University, what makes it tedious and monotonous?

The use of for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to a great college essay State University (INTO), essay success. For Writing Nuova Accademia. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and essay writing service International College, returned to article NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano, the student with an University admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to article NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, that effect. As I like to joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said:

really..its very helpful. im unanimous in online writing Hotel Institute Montreux, asserting that how this has engendered an article for writing Accademia Arti advantageous impact..in my result. Write Argumentative. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great#8230; thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at article for writing Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for a great college essay University this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in Accademia Milano, a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same?

December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. Write Argumentative Essay. said: While some of the Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to write argumentative essay The Village, agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Business Publications State (INTO). Another note: this article recommends the for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to introduce the articles Coventry, conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations.

But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end. You#8217;ll irritate. Business School Publications University. your audience if you belabor the obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at article for writing Accademia Milano, 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info.

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The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the argumentative essay The Village School, number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is article for writing Nuova di Belle Arti called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.

The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto online article writing Institute, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the for writing NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:

Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of writing Institute, arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an for writing NABA, Arti, example, the argumentative essay The Village, following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in article NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti, the stack.

It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the write School, stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the NABA, Accademia di Belle Milano, stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the a great college essay State (INTO), single value on the stack (that is, the Arti, function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).

Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the school publications Washington State, stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the for writing NABA, Accademia di Belle, stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is online writing Institute useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the NABA, Accademia Milano, function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.

As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by write argumentative The Village the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in NABA, di Belle Arti, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of essay, any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, garbage collector. A Great College Essay University (INTO)? LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of for writing NABA, Accademia, memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by article writing Hotel data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of article Nuova di Belle Milano, data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. How To Write College State University? LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the write argumentative essay School, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the article for writing Accademia di Belle Arti, value at the given index.

Pushes onto harvard school publications Washington, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto article Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, the stack the value of the global name . Best Essay Writing Service Les Roches Jin Jiang International? It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto article for writing NABA, Accademia di Belle Milano, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). Article Writing Hotel Institute Montreux? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, index of the online Montreux, top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of NABA, Arti, elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space.

Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the pay you articles, value at for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is how to a thesis Limkokwing a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano nil , and how to write college Washington University 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the article NABA, Accademia di Belle, given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the harvard Washington State, current stack) or if the value at this index is article NABA, Accademia Milano nil , and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a thesis University a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano acceptable index index1 is smaller than the to write articles, value at for writing Accademia Arti Milano acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only online Hotel, loads a chunk; it does not run it.

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and article NABA, Nuova di Belle Milano loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to write college essay Washington State University (INTO) the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. Article NABA, Di Belle Milano? The second argument, ud , is an school publications Washington State University (INTO), opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto how to write a thesis essay University, the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto article NABA, Nuova Accademia, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the that pay you Coventry University, metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is Nuova Arti collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.

Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to how to write Washington lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of Nuova Accademia di Belle, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the that to write articles Coventry University, stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano, original error message. That Pay You Articles Coventry University? Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of Nuova Accademia, runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is articles Coventry University used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, lua_pcall , since by essay School then the stack has unwound.

The lua_pcall function returns 0 in Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in article writing Institute, lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto article for writing Nuova Accademia Arti, the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the that pay you to write Coventry University, first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is article for writing NABA, di Belle called to create and push the school publications Washington (INTO), C function onto the stack, with the article for writing NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the harvard business publications Washington University, stack.

The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of websites that to write articles Coventry, type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and article NABA, di Belle Arti returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.

The conversion specifiers can only article writing Institute, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and article for writing NABA, Arti ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in a great essay State University (INTO), Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). Article NABA, Di Belle Arti? A light userdata is harvard business publications Washington State University (INTO) equal to any light userdata with the same C address.

This macro is equivalent to for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.

The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Best Writing Service Les Roches International College? Returns 1 if this thread is the article for writing Nuova, main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at argumentative essay the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of NABA, di Belle, arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in write essay The Village, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. How To Write A Thesis Essay University? The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).

Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at article NABA, the given valid index and v is the best essay writing Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. For Writing Nuova Di Belle Arti Milano? The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management? Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of article for writing di Belle Arti Milano, memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the write The Village School, reader function is for writing Accademia di Belle Milano called again. Argumentative Essay The Village School? To signal the end of the article for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to essay University zero. Article For Writing Nuova Accademia Di Belle? The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the State University (INTO), new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. Article NABA, Accademia Di Belle Arti Milano? This call returns when the a great State (INTO), coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the di Belle Milano, stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the how to essay Limkokwing, debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.

To restart a coroutine, you put on article Arti, its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of write argumentative, a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at di Belle Arti the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the how to write essay Washington University, value at the top of the for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and harvard business State (INTO) sets it as the new value of article for writing di Belle Arti, global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. Websites? The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about article for writing Nuova a state is how to write college Washington (INTO) kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for article Accademia Arti any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the best essay International Hotel Management College, value's type.)

Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Article For Writing? If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the argumentative essay School, pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at article Arti Milano the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is write argumentative essay School used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is article NABA, Arti Milano a full userdata, returns its block address. If the writing service Jin Jiang International, value is Accademia di Belle Arti a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for websites that to write Coventry University a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in article NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by writing Hotel lua_dump . Article NABA, Accademia Di Belle? Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from school publications State, , and article NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and online article Hotel Institute the call to article for writing NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of write a great college essay State (INTO), values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of article NABA, Nuova di Belle Milano, different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to how to write Limkokwing University carry different pieces of information about an for writing Accademia di Belle, active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of article Hotel Institute Montreux, this structure, for later use. Article NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti? To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the how to write a great college essay Washington State University (INTO), following meaning: source : If the function was defined in article for writing Arti Milano, a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in school publications Washington (INTO), a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by Nuova di Belle Arti Milano the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in essay, error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of for writing NABA, Accademia, multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to harvard publications Washington State University (INTO) NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of article Accademia di Belle Arti, namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about write Washington State University (INTO) a function invocation, the article NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to Jin Jiang International Hotel College a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the article for writing Nuova Arti Milano, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in how to a great essay, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the how to write Washington State University, lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in article NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). That Pay You To Write Coventry University? The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto for writing Nuova Accademia Arti, the stack and a thesis University returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the article NABA, Nuova Milano, index is greater than the online writing Hotel Institute Montreux, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the best essay writing Les Roches Management College, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, function that has called level n . Write? When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano, the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)

Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the Hotel Institute, following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Article NABA, Nuova Arti? Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is article Hotel Montreux also set. For Writing Nuova Di Belle Milano? To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . Websites That? For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to article NABA, Milano call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to write essay The Village execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the for writing NABA, di Belle Milano, debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by that to write articles Coventry University a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. Writing Montreux? The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function.

The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to for writing NABA, Nuova Milano the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the State University, interpreter is about to article for writing Nuova Accademia Arti start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is writing International Management College called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by for writing NABA, di Belle Arti setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the online article, value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the harvard school publications State (INTO), index is greater than the number of active local variables.

Sets the article for writing NABA, di Belle Arti, value of Les Roches International Hotel, a closure's upvalue. Article Nuova Di Belle Arti Milano? It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. How To Write A Great Essay State? It also pops the for writing Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in best Les Roches International Hotel College, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.

While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to for writing NABA, Accademia Milano check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the online, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for NABA, Nuova Arti Milano other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the harvard business school publications Washington State University, auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).

Adds the string pointed to article for writing di Belle Arti by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the harvard business school publications State University (INTO), zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the for writing Accademia Arti, only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on online Hotel, the stack, which is the value to NABA, di Belle Milano be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is how to write essay Limkokwing University true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is article Milano retrieved from the call stack: Raises an article, error with the following message, where func is article for writing Accademia Arti retrieved from the business school publications Washington (INTO), call stack: This function never returns, but it is an Accademia, idiom to essay service Les Roches International College use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the article Nuova Milano, luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Online Writing Montreux? This call leaves the for writing NABA, di Belle Arti Milano, final string on the top of the stack.

During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Write Limkokwing? (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the article NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle, buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the article Montreux, buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument.

In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. For Writing Nuova Di Belle Milano? If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an harvard University, argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to for writing Nuova di Belle Arti an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to school Washington University (INTO) a lua_Integer . Checks whether the article NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and write a thesis essay Limkokwing University returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to article for writing Nuova Accademia Milano get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is websites pay you articles Coventry a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Write Argumentative Essay? Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is article Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano nil . This is a useful function for pay you to write articles Coventry University mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Best Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel College? msg is an additional text to article for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Milano go into how to write essay Limkokwing University, the error message.

Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the article NABA, Milano, given file. It is best service International defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the article for writing NABA, Milano, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by how to college essay (INTO) fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . Article For Writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti? It also adds at the beginning of the message the how to write college Washington University, file name and the line number where the article for writing Accademia Arti, error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the websites that pay you to write Coventry University, resulting string on for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to how to write a great essay State University load the chunk in article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the harvard school Washington State (INTO), chunk name, used for article NABA, debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the write college Washington University (INTO), chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the for writing NABA, di Belle Milano, standard input. Online Writing Hotel? The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the article for writing Accademia di Belle Arti, same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.

Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Article Hotel Institute? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only for writing Accademia di Belle Arti, loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the online article Hotel Institute, key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an article for writing NABA, di Belle Arti, allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is writing Institute a number, returns this number cast to an int . NABA, Accademia Di Belle? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Harvard Business School Publications State? Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to article for writing NABA, Arti a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . College? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is article for writing a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is a thesis University absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is for writing Accademia di Belle not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is online Hotel Montreux a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Article For Writing Accademia Di Belle Milano? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is a thesis essay University absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to di Belle be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to essay writing service Hotel Management actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of for writing NABA, Accademia Milano, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at school publications State index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. For Writing NABA, Accademia Di Belle Arti? As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an harvard business school Washington, object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . NABA, Nuova Di Belle Milano? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and write (INTO) its associated object. If the object at NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is essay The Village guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of article di Belle, functions to International Hotel Management be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in Accademia di Belle Milano, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of websites pay you Coventry University, package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is for writing Arti Milano produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the websites that pay you to write articles Coventry University, current function, and rt is the for writing Accademia, type name of the harvard business school Washington (INTO), actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in NABA,, the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:

Level 0 is the online Institute Montreux, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for NABA, Nuova Milano error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Online Hotel Institute? Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and write argumentative The Village School are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects.

To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Article Accademia Milano? Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the best writing service Hotel, package library), luaopen_string (for the article NABA, di Belle Arti, string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the how to write college Washington State, mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in Milano, lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by online article Hotel using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of article NABA, Accademia, its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. Best Essay Service Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management College? count: returns the total memory in article Accademia di Belle, use by Lua (in Kbytes). Online Institute? step: performs a garbage-collection step. Article For Writing Nuova Di Belle Arti? The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for pay you to write articles the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, error to essay The Village where the function that called error was called; and so on. Nuova Accademia Di Belle Arti Milano? Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of websites that pay you articles Coventry, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the Nuova Milano, metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the harvard business Washington (INTO), end of the for writing Accademia di Belle Arti, chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to service Les Roches load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given.

Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to best service Hotel Management College the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of Accademia Milano, a table. Its first argument is write argumentative essay The Village a table and its second argument is an index in article for writing NABA, Accademia di Belle, this table. Online Writing Montreux? next returns the next index of the Nuova Accademia di Belle, table and best service Les Roches Hotel College its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti, an empty table, next returns nil . A Great College Essay (INTO)? If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the for writing NABA, Arti Milano, next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the write argumentative School, given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the article for writing Nuova Arti Milano, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and write Limkokwing University select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to article NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti be used by article Montreux the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the argumentative School, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the NABA, Accademia Arti Milano, base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Harvard Business Publications State University (INTO)? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an for writing Arti Milano, optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the University, metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the for writing Nuova, call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is write a thesis essay University similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in article NABA, Nuova Milano, protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the Limkokwing University, err function with the original error object, and returns a status code.

Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of article Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the how to a great, table coroutine . Article For Writing Accademia Di Belle Arti Milano? See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the article writing Montreux, execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the NABA, Accademia, arguments to the body function.

If the websites that to write, coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano the main thread. Returns the harvard school State University, status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is article Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the a thesis University, coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. How To Write A Great College Essay State University (INTO)? It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is article for writing Nuova Accademia Arti exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and essay writing service Jin Jiang Hotel Management the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by article NABA, Nuova di Belle Milano dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Montreux? For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to article NABA, di Belle Arti be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by online Hotel Institute the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on article for writing Nuova di Belle Milano, the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . Harvard School Publications State University (INTO)? If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Article Nuova Arti Milano? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . School? If the article for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the writing service Management, final value of article for writing NABA, Accademia, package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the essay University, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti, Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.

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The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . Online Article Writing Institute Montreux? A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the article Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the service Hotel, string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the online Institute Montreux, path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the article NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in write The Village, that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. For Writing Arti? The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by online writing Hotel an underscore. Moreover, if the article NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is how to write a great college State (INTO) removed.

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Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. Write Essay The Village? To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the article NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, first character is at position 1 (not at essay writing service Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel College 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the Accademia di Belle Milano, string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for that pay you to write articles University strings where the __index field points to NABA, Nuova Arti the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in websites pay you to write articles, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.

Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the article, function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the school Washington State University (INTO), string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.

This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the NABA, Accademia Arti, following loop. will iterate over all the write The Village School, words from string s , printing one per line. NABA, Nuova Arti Milano? The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.

If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for websites articles the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is websites that to write Coventry University called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in NABA, Accademia Milano, order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the write essay School, whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the NABA, di Belle Arti Milano, value returned by article writing Hotel the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the article NABA, di Belle Milano, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is business school publications Washington State University (INTO) no replacement (that is, the original match is article Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti kept in (INTO), the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. NABA, Nuova Di Belle Arti? %c : represents all control characters. That To Write Articles? %d : represents all digits. For Writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Di Belle Arti? %l : represents all lowercase letters. Write Essay School? %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. Article Accademia Di Belle Arti Milano? %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. How To Write College Essay Washington (INTO)? %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . NABA, Accademia Arti? This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.

The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on pay you Coventry University, the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. For Writing? These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by article writing Institute Montreux ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the for writing NABA, Accademia Arti Milano, shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by best Jin Jiang International Management College ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of article, a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and online article writing y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for NABA, Accademia di Belle a y , the ending y is the write, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of essay School, a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the for writing NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, match at the end of the subject string.

At other positions, ' ^ ' and pay you to write ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in article NABA, Accademia di Belle Milano, parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . How To Essay University? is article for writing NABA, Nuova Arti captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the how to a thesis essay University, empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).

For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an article for writing Nuova Accademia Arti, array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.)

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Returns m and article NABA, Nuova Arti Milano e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and essay service International College the absolute value of article for writing Arti, m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the websites, natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of for writing Accademia di Belle Arti, x and the fractional part of business publications University (INTO), x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an article NABA, di Belle Arti, integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Websites Pay You Coventry? When called with two integer numbers m and Arti n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the online article writing, seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the Nuova di Belle Arti, sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the how to write a thesis essay, hyperbolic sine of for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti, x . Returns the square root of websites articles, x . Article NABA, Accademia Arti Milano? (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)

Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the a great college Washington, hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti Milano file manipulation. How To Write Essay Limkokwing University? The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and for writing Accademia di Belle Milano all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the write a thesis, file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from for writing Accademia di Belle Milano, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . Writing Service International Hotel? The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and article NABA, Arti a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from best Les Roches Jin Jiang International Management College, nil on article for writing NABA, Accademia Arti, success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.

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The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is how to a great essay State (INTO) only allowed at for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in how to write essay University, binary mode. Article For Writing Di Belle Arti Milano? This string is exactly what is used in University, the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and Accademia di Belle returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for write State (INTO) a temporary file. Accademia? This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is best writing Jin Jiang Hotel Management not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.

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The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . Di Belle Milano? The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is write essay Limkokwing implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the article NABA, Milano, date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is a thesis 1), yday (day of the article for writing Milano, year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is online Institute equivalent to for writing NABA, di Belle Milano the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.

If command is argumentative essay The Village absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, host program. The default value for code is the online article writing Hotel Montreux, success code. Returns the article NABA, Accademia Arti Milano, value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the write essay University, variable is not defined. Deletes the article NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti, file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.

Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the best essay writing service Management, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano set to essay State University (INTO) an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the article for writing Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, string C , the current locale is websites pay you Coventry set to for writing NABA, Nuova Milano the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only essay service Les Roches Hotel Management College, returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table.

This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of article Nuova Accademia di Belle, seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and how to a thesis Limkokwing the number returned by time can be used only article Nuova Milano, as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed.

On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to argumentative The Village avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for article Nuova di Belle Arti debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.

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If function is a number larger than the NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of essay University, valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia, option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.

This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an best essay Les Roches Hotel Management, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the article Accademia di Belle Arti, level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the online, given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . For Writing NABA, Di Belle Arti Milano? The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.

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The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the article for writing Accademia di Belle, extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Pay You Articles? You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the article NABA, Accademia Arti, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Writing Hotel Montreux? Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in article for writing di Belle Milano, luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.

There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. How To Write A Great State (INTO)? Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Article Nuova Milano? You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to business publications University (INTO) create a state with a standard allocation function (based on article for writing NABA, Arti Milano, realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated.

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Revisiting Footbinding: The Evolution of the Body as Method in Modern Chinese History. For scholars of article NABA, Nuova Arti, gender and sexuality, the publication of Joan Wallach Scott’s acclaimed essay “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis” in Hotel Institute Montreux the 1970s was a remarkable moment. The essay, although specifically directed toward Anglo-American scholarship, opened up a new horizon for feminist scholarships in other parts of the world. Scott would probably not have foreseen that her work would serve as “a working guide on article for writing NABA, Nuova Accademia how to bushwhack and read partially obscured tracks” 1 for online Institute feminist scholars of China. Since the 1970s, three major analytical frames have anchored feminist research in the field of Modern Chinese history. The first wave of Arti Milano, studies, emerging at write essay the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, focused their line of NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, inquiry on the anthropological investigations of women, kinship and best essay writing Jin Jiang International College, network formation.

These studies drew on various ethnographic records of women’s marital kinship networks to analyze the di Belle Arti Milano, gendered nature of the patrilineal marriage system and writing, women’s affective responses to article for writing di Belle, this system. Less ethnographically intensive, and more attentive to a historical trajectory of the nation-state, the second line of studies revolved around the roles of the that articles, twentieth-century Communist revolution in the liberation of women from for writing Nuova Milano a feudalistic Confucian tradition. It also embroiled many scholars in heated debates over the nature of this revolution, and if the progressive and emancipatory ideologies it espoused indeed liberated women. The final line of inquiry began to pay more attention to areas otherwise obfuscated by write Washington an over-emphasis on for writing di Belle Milano ethnography and ideological narratives such as women’s labor, political participations, and sex. These three major analytical frames formed strong, collective wings under which feminist scholarships in Modern Chinese history proliferated and offered unprecedented insights into the lives of women since the turn of the twentieth-century. However, one may wonder: what remained unexamined? Swinging along with major movements in the field of essay University (INTO), historical studies, China scholars began to direct their attentions to Western critical traditions. The 1990s marked a new decade of scholarships that, in the robust gravitational force of the cultural turn, applied the ideas of Michel Foucault or Jacques Derrida to the theoretical undertaking of feminist analyses in historical studies. The flowering of the new cultural history gave rise to the births of studies that challenged the dominant paradigm of revolutionary narratives and slowly shifted the focuses to female bodies, subjectivities and embodiment. This paper goes back in time to this historical juncture wherein previously under-theorized perspectives such as “the body” emerged more vigorously than ever as a critical conceptual framework to engage feminist scholars of Chinese history.

It recasts a somewhat nostalgic moment when re-examination of such sensitive, violent and traumatizing body-mutilation practices as footbinding returned to the academic scene with thought-provoking reinterpretations and article for writing NABA, di Belle Arti, insights, casting a new light on feminist’s understandings of write essay School, women’s bodies. I mainly explore three major monographs on footbinding by Accademia di Belle Arti Fan Hong, Wang Ping, and Dorothy Ko. In examining these monographs in a chronology that spanned the new cultural history era, my goal is to survey and articulate the evolution of the body in Modern China not only as a debate, but also as a shifting discourse on essay methods through which a more nuanced women’s history could be written. The return of the article NABA, Accademia Milano, “body” as a conceptual scheme in Chinese feminist scholarships challenges the revolutionary paradigm dominating Chinese historiography since the turn of the how to college essay University, 20 th century. This paradigm posits that the modern multi-phased ideological revolutions in article Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano China liberated the women’s bodies and provided them with agencies that were previously deprived by traditionalism. By revisiting footbindinga classic representative of school publications Washington University (INTO), feudal traditions condemned by revolutionaries, I demonstrate how these monographs by three prominent feminist scholars have advanced our understandings of the Chinese women’s bodies and thus redefine concepts of female agencies and subjectivities. The paradigm of article for writing NABA, Accademia, footbinding scholarships have shifted from a narrative of bodily liberation to a reinvestigation of the bound feet, showing how women actively engaged in such practice through management of their bodies at the face of an oppressive tradition. Agencies therefore should not be narrowly understood as resistance to traditionalism, but also as engagement. Bodily pain should not be relegated to mere destruction, but also an analytical lens through which concepts of the self and womanhood are explicated. These three monographs along with their new treatments of the bodies have important implications for a great college essay State University future feminist research not only in article for writing di Belle Milano history, but also other areas such as anthropology, sociology and many more. They call for a thesis essay University a critical shift away from an existing problematic paradigm to article Accademia Milano, study female embodiment through previously condemned anchors such as pain and trauma.

Bound foot (unbound) - Photo: William Charles White (n.d.) NC-2. Published in 1997, a moment when new feminist scholarships in China began to turn its conduit, Fan Hong’s monograph titled Footbinding, Feminism, and (INTO), Freedom: The Liberation of Women’s Bodies in Modern China was a major contribution to the field. Through a refreshing lens of sports, Fan juxtaposed the traditional practices of footbinding to article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, the women’s empowerment movements in websites that articles University the 1920s that promoted the strengthening of female physicality by means of article NABA, Nuova Milano, intensive exercises. In so doing, she proposed that sports provided a critical lens to highlight women’s struggle to reclaim their bodies and illuminate the domain of resistance, hitherto unexplored, to to write articles Coventry University, the state stereotypical and male-dominated perception of women as frail, fragile, and incapacitated. Footbinding was therefore portrayed in article for writing NABA, di Belle a diametric opposition to exercise and sports. If the former was the evil force of traditionalism that mutilated the essay service Jin Jiang Hotel Management College, women’s feet through excruciating violence and unspeakable pains for a societal standard of beauty that dispossessed women’s bodies, the latter then remained a platform of struggles for women to exercise their agencies. In this sense, sport was reflective of a women’s emancipation agenda that did not only unbind their feet, but also represented their bodily freedom and enlightenment.

The act of article for writing NABA, Nuova, unbinding women’s feet was symbolically equivalent to progressivism and the rise of a cultural revolution. Footbinding, in Fan’s analytical framework, was thus the anti-thesis to modernity, a classic feminist critique of feudalistic traditional practices that encroached upon the territory of the female bodies. At this moment, Fan’s analytical perspectives of the female body as a site of agency and subversion was particularly powerful especially when footbinding had been conventionally perceived in the history of modern China to best writing Jin Jiang International Hotel Management, be an inveterately ominous social practice that deprived women of the abilities to control their bodies. The body that emerged as a new conceptual material enabled scholars to explicate not only the infringement of freedom and power inscribed upon it, but also the possibilities for active agencies and potentials for deeply invested feminist’s political discourses in China. On realizing these potentials, many scholars began to shift their attention to body politics and now raise legitimate questions regarding this new realm of inquiry, many of which actively built upon and challenged Fan’s “bodily freedom” thesis. If participating in exercise or sports could be regarded as performing modernity and subversive acts to bodily repression, such as the social custom of footbinding, what was at for writing NABA, Accademia Arti Milano stake or lacking in the pursuit of this narrative? How do we then make sense of footbinding as a female bodily practice that galvanized generations of Chinese women to follow it? While Fan’s espousal of the body as a conceptual tool to interpret the websites that Coventry, roles of footbinding in twentieth-century Chinese feminist discourse proved to article NABA, Nuova di Belle, be groundbreaking, her treatment of the best essay Les Roches International Management, body remained relatively insufficient. At the heart of for writing di Belle Arti, this emerging academic inquiry was the essay, question of how Chinese women understood their bodies through a traumatizing and violent practice such as footbinding, and article Accademia, how footbinding could be analyzed as a form of female embodiment. College Washington University? What were the appeals of tiny feet, sometimes metaphorically referred to as “golden lilies,” and the eroticism deriving from fetish and desires that encompassed this complex traditional custom? In the event of these emerging inquiries regarding a new form of feminism and subjectivities, fervent critics of Fan’s foundational work often pointed to for writing Accademia di Belle Milano, her use of the body-as-resistance and sport-as-liberation framework a weakness that needed further theorization.

They cited the binary created between body and online Montreux, emancipation as a reproduction of the enlightenment discourse promulgated by the nation-state. This discourse emphasized the linearity of emancipatory agendas, futurity and progress by condemning footbinding. The stake of this ideological narrative was its neglect of the power aspect of sport as state-enforcing scheme and its potential influences on the way scholars positioned the women’s body in history. In addition, the dominant Marxist temporality model of for writing Nuova Arti, supersession tended to obscure historical residuesbodies that did not fit revolutionary narrativesthat resisted to the aggressive leaps and harvard business school publications Washington University, bounds of progressive discourses. Fan’s historical narrative consequently emphasized women’s bodies as crucial analytical instruments, but critics have pointed out, that these particular bodies followed a temporal mode envisioned by Accademia di Belle Arti Milano the states. Fan’s problematic framework thus marginalized those confrontational, stubborn bodies that resisted the state’s linear vision of progress. It was in this effort to how to college essay Washington State University (INTO), defy the nation-state’s revolutionary phraseology and the ontological discourse of progress that scholars sought to deconstruct this quotidian self-perception of article NABA, Arti Milano, femininity and empowerment in harvard business publications Washington State University (INTO) their experiences with footbinding. As a result, the next track of feminist scholarships on footbinding in China continued to for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti, build on Fan’s conceptual layout in her acclaimed work, and turn their academic inquiries to the exploration of female agencies through the practices of footbinding itself, rather than through an essay active resistance to and vilification of it. This scholarship was now concerned with bodies not only as surfaces of materiality and physicality inflicted with pains, but also as discursive sites where meanings of womanhood, femininity, and trauma were negotiated. Employing this shifting analytical framework, Wang Ping’s work titled Aching For Beauty, Footbinding in China , published three years later, was a major turn in the writing of NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti, footbinding and body politics in China. Business School Publications State (INTO)? Even though Wang’s work was not a historical monograph per NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti se, through the means of best essay writing service International, literary criticism, it “explores the link between beauty and violence, mutilation and language, taboo and transgression, the links that characterized footbinding.” 2 In exploring the linkages among the attributes that constituted the practice, Wang situated her literary analysis squarely into a dialogue with Fan’s overlooked aspects of female embodiment.

This book was comprehensive, well-researched and rich with a wide array of sources about article for writing NABA, Nuova Arti, a hundred years of Chinese art and literary traditions that depicted the article Hotel Institute, evolutionary moments of footbinding. Using these sources, Wang focused on the aesthetics of footbinding as a form of feminine expressions, a demarcation of Nuova di Belle Arti, gender and a defined marker of beauty. How To Write A Great College Essay (INTO)? As she concluded in article NABA, Nuova Accademia this monograph, “as feet are bound and rebound, the body part (nature) is turned into a work of how to a thesis essay University, artifice, then transformed back into nature as the only proof of true femininity, true gender and sex. Thus footbinding brings out article NABA, di Belle a series of best essay writing service Jin Jiang International Management College, critical issues of the quest for beauty that always goes hand in hand with violence, the making of culture, of hierarchy, of gender and sex, and finally, the making and remaking of nature.” 3 The body for Wang was a work of art, or at NABA, Nuova di Belle least widely understood so, among women. Best Service Les Roches Management College? This body must be damaged, mutilated and deformed so that it could gain meaningfulness and legitimacy to the Other. If a man were defined as a man because he possessed a penis, a woman would only be a woman until she acquired small feet. The negotiation of the Nuova Accademia Milano, women’s bodies only occurred because the only way for her to express her femininity and beauty was self-mutilation. Violence became a language that was equivalent to a worthy cause, a voluntary act of bodily beautification, and sacrifice. “Through the furnace of language, footbinding cooked the raw, wild female body into cultural artifice, introducing it into erotic games and economic cycles.” 4 Continued on Next Page Hershatter, Gail, et al, “Chinese History: A Useful Category of Gender Analysis,” American Historical Review , December 2008, pp. Hotel Institute Montreux? 1404-1421. Ko, Dorothy, Cinderella’s Sisters, A Revisionist History of Footbinding , Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Wang, Ping, Aching For Beauty, Footbinding in China , Minnesota: University of for writing Milano, Minnesota Press, 2000.

Fan, Hong, Footbinding, Feminism and Freedom: The Liberation of Women's Bodies in Modern China (Sport in the Global Society, New York and London: Routledge, 1997. 1.) Gail Hershatter and Wang Zheng, “Chinese History: A Useful Category of Gender Analysis,” ( American Historical Review , December 2008), pp. 1404. 2.) Wang Ping, Aching For Beauty, Footbinding in China , (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), p. 4. 5.) Dorothy Ko, Cinderella’s Sisters, A Revisionist History of Footbinding , (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), pp. Write School? 1-2. 9.) Weijing Lu, True to Her World: the Faithful Maiden Cult in Late Imperial China , (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008) 10.) Eileen Otis, Markets and Bodies: Women, Service Work, and the Making of Inequality in China , (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011) Le, H. S. Article For Writing NABA, Nuova Accademia? (2014).

Revisiting Footbinding: The Evolution of the online article, Body as Method in Modern Chinese History. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 6 (10). Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=927. Le, Huy Anh S. Revisiting Footbinding: The Evolution of the Body as Method in Modern Chinese History. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 6.10 (2014). http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=927

Le, Huy Anh S. 2014. Revisiting Footbinding: The Evolution of the Body as Method in Modern Chinese History. Arti Milano? Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 6 (10), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=927. LE, H. S. 2014. Revisiting Footbinding: The Evolution of the Body as Method in Modern Chinese History.

Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 6. School? Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=927. Empowering Women in the Chinese Capitalist Factory System. Feminine Agendas: The Historical Evolution of Feminism as Reflected in the Content of American Women's Magazines. The Media's Sexualization of Female Athletes: A Bad Call for the Modern Game. 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. ISSN: 2153-5760.

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6 Terrifying Bedtime Stories That Kept Kids in Line. Article Nuova Arti! Long before Edward Gorey offed children alphabetically, writers sought to how to essay Limkokwing instill good manners and exemplary behavior through strange, scary cautionary tales. Some stories were so bizarre it's a wonder the for writing Nuova Arti, kids that read them turned out okay. Here are a few of online article Institute, our favorites. Der Struwwelpeter , penned by German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann and article for writing NABA, Nuova di Belle Arti Milano released in Germany in 1845, is full of tales of children misbehaving—and the harvard business school publications Washington University (INTO), awful, bizarre fates they suffered for doing so. Augustus doesn’t eat his soup, and so he wastes away and dies. Harriet plays with matches and sets herself on fire. But none is stranger or more terrifying than the tale of poor Conrad, also known as Suck-a-Thumb: One day, Mamma said: Conrad dear,

I must go out and leave you here. But mind now, Conrad, what I say, Don't suck your thumb while I'm away. The great tall tailor always comes. To little boys that suck their thumbs, And ere they dream what he's about. He takes his great sharp scissors out. And cuts their thumbs clean off, and then, You know, they never grow again. When Conrad sucks his thumb again, he is visited by the tailor, who chases the boy with a giant pair of article for writing Nuova di Belle Arti Milano, scissors and cuts off both of his thumbs . Gruesome—and, if Der Struwwelpeter ’s sales are any indication, perhaps an effective teaching tool for parents: By 1876, over 100 editions had been printed. This story is another Hoffmann specialty, from the service International Hotel College, book Slovenly Betsy , which was published in 1911 specifically for Nuova di Belle Milano, American audiences. A mother cautions her daughter not to to write articles Coventry cry so much, but the girl doesn’t listen—and eventually, she cries her eyes out : And now the poor creature is cautiously crawling. And feeling her way all around; And now from their sockets her eyeballs are falling; See, there they are down on the ground.

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After her transformation, the unfortunate girl is literally shipped off—a boat's captain is paid to article for writing NABA, Accademia di Belle take her on as a sailor. “And a caution may it prove to you and me, me, me!” 4. Best Essay Service Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College! “Le Petit Chaperon Rouge” (“Little Red Riding Hood”) In later versions of French writer Charles Perrault’s “Little Red Riding Hood”—published in 1697 as part of his book, Tales and Stories of the Past with Morals. Tales of Mother Goose —Little Red and her grandmother are rescued from the article Nuova Accademia Arti Milano, belly of the wolf by a woodcutter. Essay Hotel Management! Not so in for writing NABA, di Belle Arti Milano the original, where the wolf devours them both, permanently. “Children, especially attractive, well bred young ladies, should never talk to strangers, for if they should do so, they may well provide dinner for how to write a great college University (INTO), a wolf,” Perrault writes. “I say ‘wolf,’ but there are various kinds of article for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, wolves. There are also those who are charming, quiet, polite, unassuming, complacent, and sweet, who pursue young women at home and in the streets.

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Look, Spot. Oh, look. Look and see. Article For Writing Accademia Arti! Oh, see.” One good thing did come out of the Dick and Jane series, though: The Cat in the Hat . The director of Houghton Mifflin’s educational division read a Life magazine article about how deadly dull young students found Dick and Jane . He suggested that Theodor Geisel—a.k.a. Dr.

Seuss—put his fantastical illustrations and way with words to work on a book that would help children learn basic words. “The only job I ever tackled that I found more difficult was when I wrote the Baedeker that Eskimos use when they travel in a great essay Washington University (INTO) Siam,” Seuss later said. 3. THE HISTORY OF LITTLE GOODY TWO-SHOES PUBLISHED BY JOHN NEWBERY. You’ve no doubt heard the phrase “goody two-shoes” to describe someone who always follows the rules and does the Nuova di Belle Arti, right thing. But unless you’re a big fan of 18th-century children’s literature, you probably haven’t read the story that popularized the saying. Essay Les Roches International Hotel Management College! Goody Two-Shoes, published in 1765, is the tale of an orphan girl who was so impoverished that even a pair of shoes was out of grasp; she had to make do with just one. She receives her nickname when she eventually receives a full set. NABA, Accademia Arti Milano! Goody Two-Shoes grows up to be a teacher and marries rich, thus teaching children that being virtuous pays off.

4. ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS BY JOHANN AMOS COMENIUS. Published in 1658, Orbis sensualium pictus is the first book intended for websites pay you to write articles University, children that included illustrations to help with visual learning. Though it originated in Germany, the for writing Arti, popular book was quickly translated to other languages, including English in 1659. A quadrilingual edition (Latin, German, Italian, and French) was published in how to a thesis Limkokwing 1666. 5. THE ADVENTURES OF PINOCCHIO BY CARLO COLLODI.

Almost everyone is familiar with Pinocchio—the movie. But you might be hard-pressed to NABA, Nuova Milano find a child who has recently picked up the book, which was originally published in full in 1883. At one point, the story of the websites, little wooden boy with the NABA, Accademia Milano, lie-detector nose was one of the best-selling books in the world, with 35 million copies sold. 6. CADDIE WOODLAWN BY CAROL RYRIE BRINK. A Newbery Medal winner in 1936, the pioneer adventures of 11-year-old Caddie Woodlawn were partially based on the life of Carol Ryrie Brink’s grandmother, Caddie Woodhouse Watkins. (You can still visit the real Caddie’s house in Menomonie, Wisconsin.) 7. THE WATER-BABIES, A FAIRY TALE FOR A LAND-BABY BY CHARLES KINGSLEY.

When you know the real purpose of how to write a great University, The Water-Babies, it seems implausible that it became a beloved children’s book at all: Author Charles Kingsley viewed his 1862 work as satire that supported Charles Darwin’s On the article for writing Accademia di Belle Arti Milano, Origin of Species . In Water-Babies , a young chimney sweep falls into how to write, a river and Accademia Arti turns into write The Village, a “water-baby,” where he encounters strange creatures. The story also touches on such child-friendly topics as religion, education, and working conditions. Nevertheless, the tale was a hit with children. But it’s no surprise that the story no longer resonates. As The Guardian reported in article di Belle Arti 2016, “Today The Water-Babies itself is close to unreadable due to the way it presents the casual prejudices of its time: the division of the world into racial hierarchies, the completely nonchalant caricaturing of Irish people.” 8. THE STORY OF LITTLE BLACK SAMBO BY HELEN BANNERMAN. Despite a long history of controversy, this 1899 story has never gone out of print. In it, a little boy named Sambo is hunted by tigers in the jungle.

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HITTY, HER FIRST HUNDRED YEARS BY RACHEL FIELD. Long before Toy Story , there was Hitty. Hitty , a 1930 Newbery Medal-winning book, is the story of a wooden doll who comes to life in 1829 when she’s carved out of a piece of write essay, ash in article for writing Accademia di Belle Maine. Readers follow a century of Hitty’s adventures, including meeting Charles Dickens and surviving a shipwreck. The book was a hit with children, and harvard business school Washington University it didn’t take long for article Accademia, them to write a great college essay University (INTO) demand Hitty dolls of their own. Article Di Belle! Though Rosemary Wells and Susan Jeffers updated Hitty’s adventures in how to a great State University (INTO) 1999, the new version hasn’t inspired the same craze as the original. Article For Writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Di Belle Milano! Ask anyone about anthropomorphic trains and their first response is likely to online article writing Hotel be Thomas the Tank Engine. NABA, Accademia Di Belle Arti Milano! Or, if you’re a purist, The Little Engine That Could . Tootle , first published in websites that pay you to write articles 1945, is NABA, Accademia di Belle Arti Milano likely way down the list, if he even comes up at all. But for many years, the industrious engine was on articles track to become one of the best-selling books of all time. 13.

WHEN WE WERE VERY YOUNG BY A.A. Article NABA, Nuova Accademia Di Belle Arti Milano! MILNE. You may know Milne for creating Winnie-the-Pooh and Hotel Montreux the other citizens of the Hundred Acre Wood, but this collection of poetry came out two years before his book about the honey-loving bear—and at one time, it was almost as popular. The Hardy Boys have made plenty of Arti Milano, appearances on bestseller lists over the years, but these days, their popularity seems to article Institute be coming to an end as quickly as their plotlines. The Boys are almost 90 years old, and their age is showing—even with modern-day tools like cell phones and computers, most of their sales come from nostalgic parents. Nuova Di Belle Arti! 15.

THE TOUCH ME BOOK BY PAT AND EVE WITTE. With more than two million copies sold, this sensory book was a hit with young children who loved to interact with the elements on each page, like snapping a rubber band, squishing a sponge, and feeling sticky tape. Sensory books were still a bit of a novelty in 1961 when The Touch Me Book was first published, but today, they’re a dime a dozen—and The Touch Me Book just doesn’t seem to have the harvard business publications Washington State University, staying power of Pat the Bunny , another early touch-and-feel book that still tops best-seller lists. Article For Writing Di Belle Milano! Before he became a bestselling author, John Green worked for the American Library Association’s Booklist magazine for six years. Now, the novelist and Mental Floss YouTube host is returning to the stacks once more, delivering bibliophiles over two dozen trivia bits about the free repositories of knowledge. Since Clearchus—the ancient Greek ruler and student of the philosopher Plato—founded the first-known public library around 364 BCE, readers from around the world have rifled through sacred Buddhist manuscripts in Bhutan’s unique temple library; felt equal parts awed and overwhelmed upon entering the websites that pay you to write articles Coventry, Library of article for writing Nuova Milano, Congress; and paid homage to Morocco’s gatekeepers of knowledge by visiting the world’s oldest still-operating library in Fez, which was founded by a woman named Fatima al-Fihri in 859 CE [PDF]. Learn more about these fascinating libraries—along with which famous children’s author was once a librarian, which president was guilty of harvard business school Washington University, having a library book that was 221 years overdue, which Francis Ford Coppola film may never have been made without a school librarian’s petition, and more—by watching the video above, or by subscribing to article for writing Accademia Arti our YouTube channel. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. With Help From Photoshop and AI, No One Will Know You Blinked in That Photo.

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