Problem solving and critical thinking The Knox School
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The Role of Critical Thinking in Problem-Solving
Authors Kathy Rentz and Paula Lentz discuss their newest title, Business Communication: A Problem-Solving Approach.
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While much of my experience has been in the business world. Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Dreamweaver , Adobe Systems 398 Words | 3 Pages. The following are a few examples of thank you letters found on the career and job search advice website “Quintessential Careers”: . A Comparison Contrast Essay College! http://www.quintcareers.com/ A Free General Thank You Letter Sample Mr. Archie Weatherby California Investments, Inc. 25 Sacramento Street San Francisco, CA 94102 Dear Mr.
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The New Cover Letter – Also Referred To As An E-Note, Power Note, Or Value Proposition Letter: Not only have our shrinking attention spans changed the way we consume information, but our brains are changing—and it’s affecting more than just how we use our mobile devices or consume content online. It’s changing the landscape of how we job search and demanding we communicate only the most vital information in the most concise way possible. It’s creating a real dilemma for solving thinking The Knox School, those who don’t consider themselves to be professional writers, or who have a hard time writing about themselves, or who find it hard to spare everything but the details. So what’s a job seeker to do? First and foremost…forget the traditional cover letter as you know it. Consider it a part of the past, and how to write essay Pickering College, let’s move on and critical thinking The Knox to better strategies for job searching. How To Articles? 2016 Cover Letter Trend #2: Easily Readable On Mobile Devices. Cover letters—which I’ll now refer to and critical, as e-notes, power notes, or value proposition letters—must meet the write paragraph for an essay School demand of an increasingly mobile device-dependent audience. Your e-note, which is essentially the problem solving and critical thinking The Knox e-mail that your resume is attached to, should be short and fit on a single screen. Don’t expect to be able to write an importance of writing of Diplomacy, incredibly concise e-note with your first draft. Go through and write your first version, and problem The Knox, then go back and edit.
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Values | The Knox School
Faculty Guest Essay: Just War and Law of War: A Primer. Professor Johnson, then at the School of Advanced Air Power Studies, Maxwell AFB, lectured to US special forces on human rights and theories of justice in war. Emphases have been added to assist freshmen readers. Prof. Johnson later taught at the US Marine Corps Academy. - Jeremy Lewis. The great Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz included in his definitive work, On War , a straightforward definition of war: it is an act to compel our enemies to solving thinking The Knox School, do our will. But Clausewitz also recognized that compellence by force is accompanied by essay School certain self-imposed, imperceptible limitations . . . known as international law and solving and critical The Knox School custom. Thus , constraint in war is generally self-imposed , informed by legal parameters and tradition. As Clausewitz alludes, war by its very nature involves conflict, but not all conflict is war . Forty percent of human skeletons recovered in the Egyptian Nubia, dating some 12,000 to 14,000 years ago, showed evidence of how to write a good Marbella International School Management violent death by lethal instruments.
Yet although such violence was a testimony to the nature of relationships between primitive humans, it was not indicative of any comprehensive concept of war. The rise of organized society is the key to differentiating between wanton violence perpetrated by marauding nomads and states at solving and critical, war. With the agricultural revolution, previously nomadic peoples settled and a sense of communal identity evolved. Strength of numbers was one of the first advantages that accrued to info Westminster School, these settled peoples over hunter-gatherer tribes. The subsequent rise of a social construct fostered the solving and critical The Knox, development of shared customs and values that gave rise to specific social structures and classes. As these societies became more role-differentiated and complex, castes developed values and customs specific to their roles. Over time, a set of ideals evolved in write a comparison Pickering, these societies (and within each caste) that was intended to regulate the behavior of its members. These ideals are at the root of self-imposed restraint in problem solving thinking The Knox School, war. Different civilizations developed different ideals and thereby different rules regulating the conduct of war. For example, the write Braemar College, great Arabic historian Ibn Khaldun summarized in his seminal Muqadimma the traditional Islamic understanding of war as universal and problem thinking The Knox School inevitable and therefore a feature of human society that is a good School, sanctioned, if not willed by God himself.
As a result, war and problem and critical The Knox School peace fall within the realm of divine legislation and write travel articles Braemar College Islamic ethics regarding war are eo ipso derived from the same sources upon and critical The Knox, which Islamic law is based. The fundamental source from which a consistent ethical system of war can be derived is, of course, the Qur'an , which is held by Muslims to be God's final and definitive revelation to humanity. But there is also the write Braemar College, example set forth in the life of the Prophet Muhammad, or sunnah (custom or practice). It clarified the scripture, elaborated upon it, supplemented it, and thus fulfilled new demands. The record of actions or sayings of the Prophet himself, hadith , also became a source for deliberations on the nature of war and what was and what was not allowed therein. But as disagreement between Muslims during the Persian Gulf War of 1990 would indicate, there is much diffusion regarding the nature of problem and critical The Knox a just war (or jihad ) within Islamic ethics. Much of that controversy resulted from the tension between Islam's legal and ethical dimensions. The same can be said of the Western tradition, that is, the tension between early Judeo-Christian ethics and the rise of the secular Western concept of law. To begin to understand the Western way of war, one must necessarily begin with the Old Testament.
The Old Testament recounts war after war, genocide, ethnic cleansing, rape, plunder, and a host of other atrocities associated with war. Indeed, on many occasions the Hebrews were instructed by Yahweh , or Jehovah, to do these things. For the essay skill of Massachusetts Lowell, ancient Hebrews, war was waged upon problem solving thinking School, the command of God for the vindication of justice and the restoration of peace . The Hebrew word shalom , or peace , meant more than simply the absence of war--it meant well-being and skill Lowell prosperity . Peace also meant security and for that reason is at the etymological root of the Jewish word for impregnable fortress, Yeru'shalom , or Jerusalem. As evidenced in problem and critical thinking, the Old Testament, for the Hebrews peace was a gift of God. If the Hebrews fulfilled the covenant, God bestowed peace upon them. And peace bestowed abundance. Jehovah therefore bestowed peace and allowed and sometimes commanded war in order to restore peace. Interestingly, war and School defeat for the Hebrews was also a form of chastisement. When Josiah was defeated at Megiddo, Israel became enslaved. Later, Jehovah even suffered the Jews to be taken captive into Babylon.
The Hebrews' defeat and enslavement was a consequence of their disobedience. Nevertheless, war was waged of necessity and solving therefore was restrained by a code. This code was elaborated in Deuteronomy 20 . Old Testament legislation (i.e., Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and essay Westminster School Deuteronomy) was a direct revelation from Jehovah through Moses. Not unlike Islam, the divine origin of Old Testament law constituted one of problem and critical School its distinctive features. Greek law, on the other hand, was entirely man-made. For the early Greeks, peace was also associated with prosperity ( eirené ) and Hellenistic Greeks similarly linked security with justice. Arguably, it was the Greeks who first promulgated the notion that man fights not only in defense of his society but also in defense of his ideals apart from divine legislation . Write Paragraph For An Essay International School. In that sense, war ennobled the human spirit in solving The Knox School, the sense that the highest values of write a good paragraph for an essay Les Roches Marbella man--courage, valor, sacrifice--were made manifest. The Greeks internalized these ideals that would later govern intra-Hellenic warfare and ultimately warfare in the Western world. Two formal agreements have survived that illustrate Hellenistic ideals in war.
The first was a tradition reported by the geographer Strabo around 700 BC during the War of the Lelantine Plain, in which the opposing armies agreed to problem solving and critical thinking The Knox, refrain from the use of essay skill of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass missiles. The second, mentioned by the orator Aeschines, suggests that around 600 BC, the victors of the First Sacred War swore never again to cut off food and water to besieged fellow Greeks. These and other rules of war, referred to as koina nomina (common customs), were socially reinforced in Greek mythology and the Homeric sagas. From 700-400 BC, restraints on warfare in Greece continued to evolve. Among the Greeks, the object in battle was decisive victory and the restoration of peace. Surrender could not be refused if requested and a retreating enemy was exempt from attack. And Critical Thinking The Knox. Attacking the social and economic order was informally banned. As a result, warfare between the various poleis was generally short and Les Roches International School of Hotel Management rarely endangered the and critical School, survival of any one state. It was a very different matter, however, when Greeks fought non-Greeks and the common customs broke down during the Peloponnesian War. Nevertheless, the Greek ideal of restraint remained largely intact and greatly influenced the Roman Empire, which sought to technical Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, emulate much of the Greek ethos.
Not unlike the Hebrews and problem solving thinking the Greeks, the Romans associated peace ( pax ) with security and prosperity and were more than willing to wage war in order to impose peace. In Virgil's Aeneid , Anchises bid his son Aeneas to make war for the sake of peace: Roman, be this thy care--these thine arts--to bear dominion over the nations and to impose the law of peace, to spare the humbled and to war down the proud. Thus, again, we find the linkage between peace and justice and the necessity of war to achieve both. Write Travel Articles Braemar College. By the same token, the Latin word pax is from the same root word for pact, an agreement not to fight , and therefore is similarly linked with the word securitas ('security). The barbarian tribes that delivered the deathblow to the Roman Empire did not destroy Roman moral authority in thinking School, this regard, however, as it re-emerged in the Catholic Church. And before the essay writing of Massachusetts (Navitas), fall of Rome, with Constantine's ascendancy to Emperor in 312 AD, Christian morality had a profound influence on Roman ethics . The conversion of Constantine and the resultant Christian character of the latter Empire laid the groundwork for the Catholic concept of just war. The development of just war theory is of immense importance to the development of Western civilization and the Western way of war. Theoretically at least, the tradition placed war under the dominion of conscience and in solving The Knox, doing so established the precept that right was more important than might. Derived largely from the Greek ethos stressing democratic virtues alongside such virtues as courage and bravery, war now required a moral sanction.
Moreover, war required the imprimatur of state authority and was to be carried out by professionals. Early Christian doctrine regarding jus ad bellum --the right to wage war --was first formulated by Ambrose and then developed more fully by Augustine and Thomas Aquinas . Ambrose had little if any reservations about Christian participation in war--the state existed to protect the Church. No doubt his position as Bishop of Milan in northern Italy, on the frontier facing barbarian enemies, shaped his perspective. His primary treatise in this regard, On the Duties of the Clergy , was influenced by Stoicism and how to travel Braemar College the Old Testament and signaled a fundamental shift in Christian doctrine on the appropriateness and conduct of war, giving rise to the concept of just war. Augustine (354-430 AD) is generally considered to be the father of solving and critical thinking School jus ad bellum . Augustine was a realist . Early Christian pacifism had stressed that all violence was morally wrong, but Augustine, writing as the empire collapsed around him, concluded that perfect peace was not possible save the direct intervention of Jesus Christ. Thus, the a comparison essay Pickering College, Church had to be protected since it provided the essential stability needed for solving and critical The Knox, Christianity to survive in a violent and unjust world. The object of article di Belle Arti just war, then, was the establishment of peace , or the absence of war, and the promulgation of justice . To Augustine, the key was intent and to a lesser degree the codification of what constituted a noncombatant. With regard to the former, war was not to be pursued for wealth or power but only as a means to vindicate justice. Providing the war was just, the individual soldier's role was therefore equally justified and violence, though regrettable, was allowed. As dispassionately as possible, the soldier's role was to punish the problem solving and critical thinking, transgressor, reestablish right order, and prevent further wrongdoing. Regarding noncombatants, Augustine was less clear.
It is largely inferred that Augustine believed that noncombatants were to be spared any violence associated with war but there is some indication that he held an expanded notion of collective war guilt that could potentially include whole populations. Nevertheless, noncombatant immunity is generally considered integral to just war theory as propounded by Augustine and enlarged upon by Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) further codified the position of the Catholic Church regarding war in his seminal work, Summa Theologica . Aquinas reduced the idea of how to travel Braemar College just war to three fundamental tenets: A just war must have a just cause ; it must be fought on right authority ; and it must be waged by a right intention . A just cause existed where some fault was to be punished. And Critical Thinking School. Right authority existed where the magistrate was acting as a minister of School God in executing God's vengeance upon the evil-doer. Right intention existed where the pursuit of justice and the establishment of peace motivated the magistrate. Although Augustine's ideas can be characterized as defensive in disposition, Aquinas contended that heresy and other crimes against solving thinking, God warranted attack--allowing for essay info, an offensive disposition. Problem Solving Thinking School. The just cause was pursued by how to write paragraph for an essay Marbella Management a vindicator, fighting against an unjust opponent that had perpetrated some form of evil. Aquinas thus armed the Church with an offensive dogma--the armed missionary--that would later underpin the justifications made for the Crusades and the extirpation and attempted extermination of non-European peoples in the Americas. Problem And Critical. Nevertheless, among civilized peoples, restraint toward an enemy was regarded as appropriate in order to lay the foundation for post-conflict reconciliation and a comparison contrast essay Pickering College Christian conversion. There is no question that Augustinian and Thomist teachings had a profound influence on solving The Knox the Western concept of war. First, jus ad bellum provided for self-imposed restraint in war in terms of vindictive justice; and second, the spirit of the Greek's common customs was reinforced in the Augustinian and Thomist ideas regarding jus in bello --that is, rules governing the conduct of war.
These values were reinforced further in the Middle Ages within the idea of chivalry. The idea of just war as it emerged in how to travel articles Braemar College, the late Middle Ages manifested a dialect between the theological (Church doctrine) and the legal (drawn from Greek and Roman codes of conduct). The synthesis of the solving and critical, two found its first expression in the chivalric codes . Although at first glance these codes appear to have been rendered largely irrelevant by write a good paragraph for an essay Les Roches International School Management the Hundred Years' War (ending in 1453), what is often overlooked is problem thinking School, that the knightly ideal ( jus militaire ) did not perish. Before the Hundred Years War, Honoré Bonet's L'Arbre des battailes (Tree of Battles) and Christine de Pisan's Les Faits d'armes et de chivalrie (Acts of Arms and Chivalry) both praised and entrenched the College, virtuousness of war as an ideal in terms of a means to achieve peace and justice. When the knight acted virtuously --that is, with restraint and in the pursuit of justice--war itself was virtuous. Despite the apparent loss of this ideal during the Hundred Years War, it re-emerged in the regimental system. The creation of the British regimental system by a victorious English parliament.
recovering from a bloody civil war against monarchial power had a profound impact on English military culture and ultimately the Western way of war. The knightly ideal of virtuous warfare restrained by an ethical code was extended and problem and critical thinking The Knox reinforced in the regimental system in an effort to regulate the behavior of the how to paragraph Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, common soldier. Problem Solving. Officers upheld the knightly concept of the gentleman and a code of behavior in war. The soldiers, in turn, would be restrained by the officers from acting out how to Les Roches Marbella International their more vulgar inclinations. An enemy whose culture regimental officers deemed compatible with their own was considered a worthy opponent . The enemy therefore ceased to be a threat to social stability and was to and critical thinking School, be treated fairly and with professional restraint. At the same time, with the rise of the nation-state, religious differences largely ceased to contrast, be the predominant motivation for war. Problem Thinking The Knox. Nations now went to war for more practical reasons . As war aims became more limited, restraint became more pronounced in a way analogous to the Hellenistic Greek city-states. Essay Skill Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas). With national hatreds muted, and the conduct of war governed by a strict code of ethics, hostilities became more and more regulated. Such regulation would be reinforced during the period known as the Enlightenment. The Reformation of Christianity begun by Martin Luther in problem solving thinking The Knox, 1517 challenged the Catholic Church as the sole authority in importance of writing essay Geneva School, matters of morality and problem solving School ethics. Protestant theology offered new interpretations and posited that the how to write a good for an Les Roches Marbella International Management, Church had failed to live up to problem thinking The Knox School, the ideals of equality and morality as expressed in the person of essay Jesus Christ.
Europe was still Christian, yet the wars of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries had often been the product of religious intolerance. Solving The Knox. Therefore, it became increasingly exceptionable to argue social and political points from a theological basis because the discussion would degenerate into how to write a comparison, heated and unresolvable arguments about doctrinal matters. As a result, European intellectuals devised secular solutions embodied in the idea of solving thinking The Knox natural law, which itself was an importance School expression of Greek Stoicism, Epicureanism, and the emerging physical sciences that offered rules sans divine legislation. With respect to war, natural law would find its apotheosis in the writings of Hugo de Groot of Holland, better known by his Latin name as Hugo Grotius . Called by many the father of modern international law, Grotius wrote De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of problem thinking The Knox War and Peace), published in 1625, in which he set forth the idea that there are certain inalienable rights held by each individual in human society . War, as an instrument of society, must therefore adhere to a specific code in terms of its justification and conduct in order to preserve these inalienable rights. Grotius's central thesis was that war was analogous to civil action--that is, the idea that there is an injury done or offered . Grotius returned to the Augustinian notion that war was just in the defense but he broadened the writing NABA, di Belle Arti, idea of self-defense to include preemptive strike against another state with clear hostile intent. With respect to jus in bello (or the conduct of war), for Grotius, Those things that conduce to the End, do receive their intrinsic value from the End.
In other words, the ends justify the means. This is not to suggest that Grotius favored unrestrained and wanton violence but rather he emphasized what later ethicists would call double effect . Not unlike early Christian writers, Grotius contended that what matters is intent. If the intent is by definition just, but otherwise innocent lives are lost, the ends nevertheless outweigh the means. For example, if a village is bombarded in order to permit the seizure of a bridge that is crucial to victory by a state engaged in a just cause, while it is regrettable that noncombatants were killed in and critical The Knox, the process, the deaths were necessary and how to articles Braemar College therefore legal. The importance of problem and critical The Knox School Grotius's work is that it represented the first step in moving just war doctrine away from a mostly theological basis to what can charitably be described as a universal secular or legal basis . The legal basis for war was enlarged upon by subsequent writers, including John Locke . What distinguished Locke from importance of writing School others at the time was not his justification for problem solving thinking The Knox, war--which largely reflected earlier thinking--but rather his emphasis on right conduct . To Locke, a just defender had the right to punish an evil-doer and exact reparations, but this right extended no further than to those who were actually guilty. If a victorious state extended punishment to how to Braemar College, the innocent, then just defense became unjust conquest. In effect, Locke limited the use of force only against the enemy government and its soldiery, not innocent noncombatants. Never before had anyone advanced the idea that an enemy's population had inalienable rights to immunity as such. Solving And Critical The Knox. Locke's ideas are important because hey had a particular influence on the founders of the United States, where the first true modern law of war emerged. The American way of war is derived from the Western tradition and American hegemony in writing skill University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell, the late twentieth century has largely shaped the just war tradition. When Americans go to war, it is to defeat evil --or so Americans believe.
The undoing of evil is the justification for war, rooted in the Augustinian tradition, and has been the historical motivator for Americans to kill one another and problem thinking The Knox other peoples since at least the American Revolution--but with a unique twist. Article NABA, Nuova Accademia Di Belle Arti. The early Fathers embarked upon war for specific and limited goals and conducted war in a way that would not shred the social fabric. Problem Solving And Critical School. Such an ideal resulted in self-imposed restraints both in the resort to violence and in the application of violence. Yet, at the same time, American leaders have considered war also to be an essay info Westminster School instrument of State policy. It was the intersection of these two themes that defined the transformation of the problem and critical thinking The Knox School, American way of war during the Civil War. The military necessity of total war expanded the idea of the a good for an International of Hotel Management, combatant and the just war tradition and associated law of war necessarily evolved as well. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln asked Dr. Francis Lieber to prepare a code of law for Federal forces. Dr. Lieber wrote two documents.
The first addressed the issue of guerrillas specifically with regard to the law of war. And Critical. But the second, General Orders No. 100, became the first modern statement of the law of war and the foundation for essay skill University of Massachusetts (Navitas), much of law of war as it developed to the present. Dr. Problem Solving And Critical Thinking The Knox. Lieber's writings codified centuries of thought with respect to just war; however, more akin to a broad interpretation of Augustine and unlike Locke, Dr. Lieber asserted that the civilian population could be regarded as a legitimate target of how to write paragraph for an essay International destruction in the sense of collective war guilt. In that sense, Dr. Lieber wrote that military necessity consisted of those measures indispensable to securing the ends of war. Military necessity therefore permitted direct destruction of life or limb of armed enemies, and problem solving The Knox of other persons whose destruction is incidentally unavoidable. Moreover, war existed as a state of armed conflict between sovereign nations or governments. In that the Westminster, citizens of a hostile state were no less an enemy than the and critical, state's soldiers, they were subject to the hardships of war.
Since the restoration of peace and the preservation of justice were the ultimate object of war, the deaths of otherwise innocent noncombatants was regarded as necessary in the pursuit of quick victory. As Dr. Lieber wrote: Sharp wars are brief . Unquestionably, General Sherman's march to the sea and his burning of the city of Atlanta reflected this total war outlook as well as the info, assumed culpability of Confederate citizens in the perpetration of an unjust war. General Orders No. Problem Solving And Critical Thinking School. 100 remained the principal law of war reference in the United States for writing of Massachusetts, the balance of the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century. But the major powers, including the and critical School, United States, sought to universalize the concept of law of war. These efforts included the first Hague Peace Conference of 1899; a second conference in 1907; the a good essay Les Roches of Hotel, Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armament in 1922; the Hague Commission of Jurists in 1923; Aerial Law of War in 1923; and the 1949 Geneva Conventions . Detailing these various conventions is beyond the problem School, scope of this essay. Essay Lowell. Suffice it to say that all of problem solving The Knox these efforts reflected centuries of thought in the West regarding the nature of war and its proper conduct.
Upon reflection, several points are notable regarding the proper conduct of war in the West. First, what is legal is not necessarily moral and what is moral is not necessarily legal . Yet the two are inextricably intertwined in write travel articles, the Western tradition (and to some extent the Muslim tradition as well). At the heart of the and critical School, just war tradition is right intent. Secondarily, we find the principle of discrimination , which, in writing (Navitas), simple terms, means noncombatant immunity. But noncombatant immunity is not absolute. It has always been permissible to attack combatants even though some noncombatants may be killed or injured in the process, so long as the injury to noncombatants is indirect and unintentional. Problem And Critical. The great ethical dilemma that remains unresolved, however, is where the threshold resides between direct and indirect and intentional and unintentional. Essay Westminster School. That noncombatant immunity within the just war tradition can be overridden in order to preserve and protect the problem solving and critical thinking The Knox School, very tradition itself is a paradox.
Indeed, supreme emergency and other arguments arising from the need to override noncombatant immunity formed the basis for justifying the NABA, Milano, aerial bombardment of civilians in Germany and Japan by problem and critical the Allies during the latter stages of World War II. Objectionable as that standard may be by today's apparent sensitivity regarding collateral damage , the killing of innocent civilians by aerial bombardment remains today an unresolved legal and moral dilemma as evidenced by claims that NATO violated the importance Geneva, law of war during air attacks on Serbia as recently as 1999. NATO and the United States thoroughly rejected the accusation--as the United States continues to problem solving School, do with respect to air attacks on Iraq--offering moral and legal arguments rooted thoroughly in Westminster, the just war tradition. So what does it all mean? This essay is simply a very brief attempt to trace the evolution of just war thought in order to illustrate the ethical roots of the problem solving and critical thinking, Western way of war. Info School. Interestingly, one sees the problem and critical The Knox School, influence of the Greeks, Augustine, and thinkers not mentioned, such as the of writing essay of Diplomacy, Right Honorable Lord John Fletcher Moulton, in problem solving and critical thinking The Knox, the play of children, in terms of that which is fair and unfair, just and unjust, and what constitutes proportionate response.
This is not to suggest that war is child's play, but rather to suggest that, like child's play, war has developed a set of rules that are generally self-imposed, even by how to those who admit of divine legislation to restrain themselves regarding the conduct of war. In the end, war is problem and critical The Knox, a dynamic concept, still evolving and adapting to essay, changing social, political, and juridical realities. Problem And Critical The Knox. As continued globalization links societies, one may hope that the essay info Westminster School, dialogue regarding just war will promote agreement with respect to a universal law of and critical thinking The Knox war that may ultimately be reflected in a universal idea of peace.