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Industrial Safety Essay Essays and Research Papers. ? Security managers in Industrial safety Hector Palacios SEC/330 October 13, 2014 Alexander Dajero Security Managers in . Writing George Brown College! Industrial Safety A security manager is one of the most important jobs of any organization. Although the position of security manager may differ from business to ppt on essay, business, the main component of the writing an english essay College job is to how write an essay in english Business, oversee the security operations for that business. Security managers develop and enforce security policies to writing an english George, ensure a safe environment for how write in english both employees and visitors. Employment , Management , Material safety data sheet 747 Words | 5 Pages. Safety means protecting ourselves from any danger that may hurt us or endanger to our lives. Unsafe practice is a great peril to both life and . property. A two wheeler rider who rides recklessly not only an english George College, risks his own life, but also the problem and critical thinking London (Navitas) other road users.
School children getting run over by their same school vans or getting knocked down while crossing the road or getting drowned in die pond or falling from high places or getting electrocuted and so on; such news appear in the newspapers. This is. English-language films , Road , Signal 1596 Words | 4 Pages. Examination Paper of an english Brown College Safety Management 5 IIBM Institute of Business Management IIBM Institute of Business Management Examination Paper . MM.100 Industrial Safety Management Section A: Objective Type (30 marks) ? This section consists of multiple choice Short Notes type questions. ? Answer all the questions. ? Part one carries 1 mark each Part Two carries 5 marks each. How To Write Science! Part One Multiple choices 1. _____________is one of the weapons in the creative armoury available to writing George College, mangers. a. Brainstorming . Management , Material safety data sheet , Occupational safety and health 998 Words | 5 Pages. Third Industrial Revolution Essay. ?Third Industrial Revolution Essay Topic: To what extent is it correct to Oswestry, say the Third Industrial Revolution is . inevitable? The second industrial revolution is an english essay proven that it cannot be continued forever; however, is the third industrial revolution a true solution? In my opinion, I will say that the third industrial revolution is not nessacary inevitable. First of all, as good as the third industrial revolution sounds, at this current stage and time, it is not feasible.
The renewable energy is. Developed country , Energy , Fossil fuel 832 Words | 2 Pages. reformation of agriculture and lifestyle.The transformation of the United States into an industrial nation took place largely after the Civil . War and on the Britsih model. Write Northfield! Although the Industrial Revolution brought many positive inventions, the an english George Brown College class divisions were obvious because the workers were paid at horrible wages. Problem Solving Thinking Brunel London (Navitas)! The Industrial Revolution, wages, and class divisions were all part of the writing George College economic power. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain, and eventually spread to two different countries. Andrew Carnegie , Bourgeoisie , Industrial Revolution 1000 Words | 3 Pages.
Essay on Road Safety Road accidents have been and will continue to to write Windermere School, be one of the greatest health hazards. Writing An English College! Statistically, it has . been shown that the how write an essay NEOMA School number of death and injuries due to writing, road accidents has been steadily increased within the how write NEOMA Business School past five years. Writing Brown! In 2002, drivers accounted for 32% of persons killed in Trinidad and Tobago. Fatalities and for essay writing Oswestry School injuries within the past two years have exceeded other years by a vast number. It has now reached a grand total of 199 in 2002, significantly greater than. Arterial road , Freeway , Infrastructure 984 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1700s. An English Essay George Brown! It is defined as the how to write science essay Business & Hospitality School process of writing essay Brown change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one . dominated by industry and machine manufacture.
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The hazards of using powerful equipment and of moving heavy materials require a wide variety of protective measures for employees on feature Mount Hermon, the site. The work talks about regulatory requirements and safe use for this equipment. George! The work covers safe rigging and. Dream pop , Forklift truck , Safety 311 Words | 2 Pages. With the creation of the large mechanized cotton mill, Manchester became a leading textile manufacturing center. Thinking London! With the growth of the . Industrial Revolution, Manchester’s population and city size exploded. But with the growth of cities like Manchester, problems that had once not been an issue were starting to creep into writing an english everyday life. As Manchester grew to over 300,00 people, not only did it bring about wealth, but also led to how to write a good feature Mount, problems with sanitation, home and family life, and a negligence of the.
Age of Enlightenment , Alexis de Tocqueville , Cotton mill 1099 Words | 3 Pages. battle | — Photo: K.Pichumani [pic] FIERY . DAY: The packaging unit at writing an english essay George Brown College Ambattur Industrial Estate where a fire broke out on Sunday. CHENNAI: A major fire in a printing and write article Mount packaging unit at Ambattur Industrial Estate was put out after nearly three hours on Sunday morning. According to fire and rescue service personnel, the fire broke out at the unit on George, 2nd Main Road after a live high tension. Accident , Inspection , Occupational safety and health 3755 Words | 14 Pages. Joseph Moore Professor N. How To A Good Feature Northfield! Esposito English 101 February 27, 2011 There Should Be No Question When It Comes To School Bus Safety : . School bus accidents almost always bring some sense of essay George Brown College anxiety. It does not matter if it includes injuries or if there are no injuries, the general population always fears the worse. The statement of “children are safer on the bus” goes right out the window when a parent is how write an essay in english NEOMA informed their child has been involved in an english essay George, an accident while riding the bus to words for essay School, or from. Accident , Bus , Bus driver 1393 Words | 4 Pages.
industrialization impact America after 1800? Why did the industrial revolution happen? How did it change America? What parts of America were . most affected? In the 1800’s America had a big boom with their population, their income, the essay George Brown growth of jobs, laws, commerce, and movements, and ppt on essay writing Macquarie University it began to evolve into a country of hard working people of long hour jobs who would work to make a living and drive the writing an english essay George Brown American economy forward, also known as the Industrial Revolution.
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Industrial Relations or Labour Relations is an expression used not only for writing essay relationships between employers and Trade Unions, but also for NEOMA Business School . those involving Government with the aim of an english Brown College defining policies, facing labour problems. The concept of industrial relations has a very wide meaning and connotation. What About Windermere School! In the narrow sense, it means that the employer, employee relationship confines itself to the relationship that emerges out of the day to writing George Brown College, day association of the management and the labour. In its wider. Collective bargaining , Employment , Industrial Revolution 1819 Words | 6 Pages.
The Industrial Revolution Practise Essay. ?The Industrial Revolution (Practise Essay ) The Industrial Revolution, which took place between the 18th and 19th . centuries in write, Britain, was characterised by the introduction of machines for laborious work, the replacement of animal labour with human labour, and the widespread use of mineral resources. Machines were built to an english essay Brown, mass produce goods which were generally in the textiles and manufacturing industries. Of course with this industrialisation based in the cities, urbanisation became a major trend. Cotton mill , Factory , Industrial Revolution 519 Words | 2 Pages. Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes or systems. Oswestry! It is concerned with the an english essay Brown . development, improvement, implementation and article evaluation of George Brown integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the University mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the an english George College principles and methods of and critical Brunel University London (Navitas) engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the an english Brown results to be obtained from.
Engineering , Industrial engineering , Management 821 Words | 3 Pages. Forklift Safety 1 Forklift Safety Many industries and operations (manufacturing, agricultural and to write essay Windermere School warehousing) use powered . industrial trucks (including forklift trucks or lift trucks) routinely in the workplace. Forklift trucks are used to move, raise or lower objects that are stored in containers or on pallets to other areas of the workplace. Their use helps to improve workplace productivity and reduces the need for excessive manual handling of goods and objects by writing an english essay George Brown, employees. How To Glion London, Business! However, according. Clark Material Handling Company , Forklift truck , Occupational safety and health 753 Words | 3 Pages. Report Industrial Engineers serve as a bridge between management and operations. They combine their solid engineering background with good . business sense and an english Brown management ability.
They figure out the best use of facilities, equipment and for college essay Windermere School people for the most cost efficient and productive way to make or process a product. Industrial Engineers concentrate on improving manufacturing productivity and reducing costs associated with inventory. They are also concerned with worker safety and work environment. Engineer , Engineering , Ergonomics 746 Words | 3 Pages. PLANT SAFETY Industrial accidents present a serious problem like production losses and property damage that can possibly have a . crippling effect on the operations of the organization. However, it is writing an english College possible to and practicable to control industrial accidents Objectives of problem London (Navitas) The Indian Factories Act 1948 • To protect human beings from being subjected to unduly long hours of bodily strains of manual labor, and • Employees should work in health and sanitary conditions so far as the manufacturing. Accident , Accident analysis , Failure 1400 Words | 6 Pages. ?Keeping Non-Medical Use Marijuana Illegal with Penalties and Fines Non-medical use Marijuana should not be legalized. The penalties should not be . lessened and any fines required should remain the writing essay Brown same. Marijuana, for description purposes in write Glion London, & Hospitality School, this essay will also be described as the drug, cannabis, pot or weed.
I have only essay George Brown, smoked the drug once. I did not feel high, and there was definitely no euphoria. It made me nauseous and gave me a terrible headache. Admittedly, my personal experience is lacking. Cannabis , Cannabis sativa , Drug addiction 2433 Words | 9 Pages. Though the safety of a person is primarily individual in nature, responsibility to maintain it lies not only to the environment he belongs to . but also to his behavioural practice . Most of the accident occurs either due to in english NEOMA School, hostile environment or due to unsafe action.
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Cotton , Factory , Industrial Revolution 1517 Words | 5 Pages. of this essay is to examine health and safety legislation. George Brown College! The essay will focus on four main points. Three of these . Essay! points are as follows; Health and safety legislation of the past, health and safety legislation currently enforced and possible health and safety legislation of the future. The final point of the essay will be to look at the fact that a high standard of health and safety is currently required and whether the legislation has gone too far. The first example of health and safety legislation. Employment , European Agency for Safety and Health at an english essay George College Work , Health and problem solving Brunel University London (Navitas) Safety at Work etc.
Act 1974 2254 Words | 7 Pages. the concept of essay industrial disputes and settlement of industrial disputes by adjudication. It deals with various aspects of . industrial disputes, its types, various ways for an essay NEOMA School settlement of industrial disputes other than adjudication, methods of coercion adopted by essay George Brown, labor and the management etc. What To Write About For College Windermere! INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES Industrial Relations The Labor Dictionary defines “ industrial relations” as “the relations between employers and employees in writing essay, industry.”1 According to Dale Yoder, “ industrial relations describe. Collective bargaining , Employment , Grievance 2008 Words | 10 Pages. STUDIES. In English School! Research paper: (Research Methodology Project) Title: Case Study On Godrej Industrial Safety Guide: Prof. . Writing An English Essay Brown College! Priyadarshini Poddar Name of Author: Chetan Jagtap Date: 22nd February 2010 ABSTRACT Man and machine are two important ingredient of industrial safety . Men need machine which many times bring hazard and accidents this has created the need of industrial safety . It is more important to minimize or eliminate the how to a good Northfield Mount contact between men and machine are.
Accident , Accident analysis , Failure 4477 Words | 23 Pages. World Civilization Industrial Revolution Essay 5 February 2013 Changes in Society During the essay College Industrial . Revolution During the words for essay writing 1800's, the Industrial Revolution spread throughout Europe causing a drastic change to European society. The Industrial Revolution had both positive and negative impacts on Europe, but many see this Revolution as a curse because of the rough situations many had to endure. Writing George! Due to the poor environmental conditions, disease ran rampant, the population nearly quadrupled in. Cotton mill , Europe , Factory 662 Words | 2 Pages.
handmade production to machines in manufactures. With the writing increase of College industrialization, this brought many opportunities and problems. How Write Business! Industrialization . Writing Essay! affected many groups which lead to many changes through history. Many families believed the industrial revolution would provide new opportunities for their families for what to write about essay Windermere School the better. Rural families began to migrate into an english Brown College the cities looking for these new opportunities but only found disappointment. With the increase in salaries became the ppt on writing Macquarie increase. Child labour , Chinese American , Immigration to the United States 594 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Industrial Framework Law. Divine Word University, Madang - Papua New Guinea Department of Tourism Hospitality Course: Industrial Relations amp; Law Code: TH 412 . Essay Title: Industrial Relations Framework Name: Rodney Nembo Id#: 4756 Class: TH4 Lecturer: Mr.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and writing Brown, easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to what to write about for college essay, this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is writing an english George College called a speculating about problem solving thinking causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and an english George College, then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for how write an essay in english NEOMA Business, your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and an english, not become addicted?
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college essay autism Is Asperger#146;s syndrome/High-Functioning Autism necessarily a disability? Departments of an english essay Brown Experimental Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Cambridge. Invited submission for Special Millennium Issue of for essay writing School Developmental and George College, Psychopathology Draft: 5 th January 2000. Acknowledgements : I am grateful to Bridget Lindley, David Andrews, Liane Holliday-Willey, Chris Wilson, Temple Grandin and Therese Jolliffe, for discussion of these ideas. David Andrews can be credited for having introduced this topic at an early point, whilst Uta Frith and Franky Happe can be credited for their influential notion of and critical Brunel (Navitas) 'cognitive style'.
Finally, Dante Cicchetti and Alan Sroufe provided excellent editorial advice. This article considers whether Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) necessarily lead to disability or whether AS/HFA simply lead to 'difference'. It concludes that the term 'difference' in relation to AS/HFA is a more neutral, value-free, and fairer description than terms such as 'impairment', 'deficiency' or 'disability'; that the term 'disability' only applies to the lower functioning cases of autism; but that the term 'disability' may need to be retained for AS/HFA as long as the legal framework only provides financial and other support for writing an english George Brown, individuals with a disability. Two models are summarized which attempt to define in what way individuals with AS/HFA are 'different': the essay central coherence model, and the folk psychology-folk physics model. The challenge for research is to test the value of such models and to precisely characterise the differences in cognitive style. We have grown familiar with the idea that autism is a 'psychiatric condition', a 'disorder', a 'disability' or a 'handicap'.
Ever since Kanner's description of the 'aloneness' of these children , psychiatry has labelled and writing an english Brown College, categorised them as abnormal, ill, and deficient. Through the changing definitions of autism enshrined in successive editions of Glion Business & Hospitality School both DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, published by the American Psychiatric Association) or ICD (International Classification of Diseases, published by the World Health Organisation), we have had a single view of autism thrust upon writing an english Brown us: an essentially negative view in which children or adults with autism are characterised as impaired . This article challenges the received view through a subtle but important shift of emphasis. Rather than conceiving of autism as a deficiency, it instead considers if autism might be better characterised as a different cognitive style. This important idea can be traced to ppt on essay University, Uta Frith's book , and has been recently discussed in relation to 'central coherence' theory , but deserves a fuller discussion because of the massive implications of this shift of emphasis. Using the term different rather than deficient may seem unimportant (after all, both words begin with 'd', end in 't' and have 7 letters in between). But this small shift could mean the difference between whether the diagnosis of autism is received as a family tragedy, akin to writing essay Brown, being told that the what essay Windermere child has some other severe, life-long illness like diabetes or haemophilia, or whether the an english essay George diagnosis of problem solving thinking Brunel London autism is received as interesting information, akin to being told that the child is an english George College, right or left-handed. In this millennium special issue of Development and Psychopathology , the intention is to highlight this as an issue for the agenda. Asperger's syndrome (AS) and High-Functioning Autism (HFA)
Autism is diagnosed on the basis of abnormalities in the areas of social development, communicative development, and imagination, together with marked repetitive or obsessional behaviour or unusual, narrow interests . Individuals with autism may have an IQ at any level. By convention, if an individual with autism has an IQ in the normal range (or above), they are said to have 'high-functioning autism' (HFA). If an problem solving and critical thinking University London individual meets all of the criteria for HFA except communicative abnormality/history of writing George Brown College language delay, they are said to have Asperger's syndrome (AS). In this paper, we focus on AS and HFA since we accept that an individual who is lower-functioning necessarily has a disability in for college essay, the form of retardation. What is not clear, and an english essay College, therefore the subject of the debate presented next, is whether individuals with AS/HFA necessarily have a disability.
For the present purposes, we consider the arguments in relation to AS and HFA, without attempting to draw any distinction between these. The arguments for viewing AS/HFA as a difference rather than a disability. The child spends more time involved with objects and physical systems than with people (Swettenham et al., 1998); The child communicates less than other children do; The child tends to follow their own desires and words School, beliefs rather than paying attention to, or being easily influenced by, others#146; desires and beliefs (Baron- Cohen, Leslie Frith, 1985); The child shows relatively little interest in what the social group is doing, or being a part of an english essay it (Bowler, 1992; Lord, 1984); The child has strong, persistent  interests; The child is very accurate at perceiving the details of information (Plaisted, O'Riordan Baron-Cohen, 1998a; Plaisted, O'Riordan Baron-Cohen, 1998b) The child notices and words, recalls things other people may not (Frith, 1989);
The child#146;s view of what is relevant and important in an english Brown, a situation may not coincide with others (Frith, 1989); (dates, . How Write. The child may be fascinated by patterned material, be it visual (shapes), numeric timetables), alphanumeric (number plates), or lists (of cars, songs, etc.); The child may be fascinated by systems, be they simple (light switches, water taps), a little more complex (weather fronts), or abstract (mathematics); The child may have a strong drive to collect categories of Brown objects (e.g., bottletops, train maps), or categories of solving University London information (types of lizard, types of rock, types of fabric, etc.); and. The child has a strong preference for experiences that are controllable rather than unpredictable. The list could be expanded but these 12 behavioural features are sufficient to illustrate that children with AS/HFA are different in ways that can be described in value-free terms: none imply any necessary disability. Rather, most of the above facts show the child as immersed in the world of writing essay College things rather than people. This might be a basic way of article Hermon defining the difference between a person with an autism spectrum condition and one without it . Being more object-focused than people-focused is clearly only a disability in an environment that expects everyone to be social. But a moment's reflection highlights the injustice of this expectation. Thus, people who show the opposite pattern (of being more people-focused than object-focused) are not necessarily considered disabled.
On this view, people with AS/HFA would cease to be disabled as soon as society's expectations change. Writing An English George Brown. For example, a child with AS/HFA who prefers to stay in words for essay writing Oswestry, the classroom poring over encyclopaedias and rock collections during break-time, when other children are outside playing together, could simply be seen as different, not disabled. An English Essay College. It is not clear why the child with AS/HFA is seen as doing something less valuable than the London, & Hospitality other children or why their behaviour should be seen as an index of impairment. Equally, a child with AS/HFA who has strong narrow interests of an unusual nature (learning the names of every kind of bird) may be different to a typical child who has only been interested to an english essay Brown College, learn the names of common animals. But surely the science essay & Hospitality School narrow deep knowledge is no less valuable than the broad, shallower variety, and certainly not a necessary index of deficit? A final example should help drive this point home. Writing An English George Brown. Just because a child with AS/HFA notices the unique numbers on lamp-posts which the rest of us are unaware of, does this make him impaired? We could say it is simply different. The same argument can be applied to all of the other facts listed above. II.
The neurobiology of AS/HFA is not better or worse than in typical development. AS/HFA involves a range of neural differences. A full review of these is beyond the scope of this article, but the reader can consult other excellent summaries . In some regions of the brain increased cell density has been found , - for example, in the limbic system - whilst in other regions of the brain structures are reported to for essay School, be smaller. For example, the cerebellar vermis lobule 7 and writing essay George Brown, the posterior section of the corpus callosum have both been reported to be reduced in size in how write in english Business School, autism. However, whilst these neural abnormalities signal differences between brains of people with and without AS/HFA, they cannot be taken as evidence that one type of brain is better or worse than the other. Similarly, AS/HFA appears to be strongly familial, implying a genetic aetiology, and the first report from an international molecular genetic consortium study reported a linkage on Chromosome 7 in affected individuals . The molecular genetic basis of AS/HFA remains to be worked out in detail, but again such findings are at best evidence of writing an english Brown College difference and in no way implies that the genotype of AS/HFA is deficient. III. 'Difference' avoids value-laden judgements. Many features of AS/HFA may be redescribed in ways that are more neutral, in terms of AS/HFA comprising a different 'cognitive style', with no implication that this is Brunel London, better or worse than a non-autistic cognitive style . For example, the AS/HFA cognitive style may be described as being more object-oriented, and more focused on detail. Another change in terminology is that the term 'autistic spectrum disorders' is being replaced by the term 'autistic spectrum conditions'.
Like the term 'cognitive style', this avoids the possibly pejorative associations of the George College term 'disorder', though it may be questioned whether even using the term 'condition' is an appropriate medicalizing of an individual's cognitive style. But the spirit of such changes in Windermere School, terminology is writing George, clear. It is possible to describe AS/HFA in value-free ways. IV. The difference view is more compatible with the 'continuum' concept. A further argument for favouring the Oswestry difference view over the disability view is that it is an english George Brown, easier to accommodate within the an essay Business now widely accepted notion that autism appears on a continuum . The notion of a continuum assumes that there is an underlying dimension or set of dimensions along which all people vary. There is still debate over precisely what constitutes the underlying dimension. Later in the paper we consider two models which aim to Brown College, characterise the autistic spectrum. Arguments for for college essay School, viewing AS/HFA as a disability rather than a difference.
1. Differences are caused by cognitive deficits. The obvious first rejoinder to the difference argument is that children with AS/HFA show differences precisely because they are disabled, impaired, suffer cognitive deficits, etc. An English Essay. Thus, one might argue that they are less influenced by others because they do not spontaneously stop to for essay writing Oswestry School, consider other people's points of view, feelings and thoughts (the theory of mind deficit) ; they may communicate less and may be less socially focused for essay Brown College, the same reason; their unusual perception may arise because of their weak central coherence ; whilst their strong interests may reflect a failure to to write about for college essay, switch attention flexibly, possibly as a sign of their executive disorder . An English George College. For all these reasons, the rejoinder goes, we should retain the notion of problem and critical London AS/HFA as a disability. This could be regarded as unfair because there may be a chicken-and-egg problem in the logic. We cannot yet prove that their difference is due to writing an english essay George Brown College, a disability and ppt on essay, not the other way around.
For example, is their mindblindness the cause of them being less socially-focused/more object-focused, or a consequence of it? The development of George a mind-reading skill may require months of social input so a lack of early social interest could contribute to mindblindness. London,. One could make a similar case in Brown, relation to in english NEOMA Business School, their weak central coherence: Is this a cause of their relatively greater interest in detail , or simply a consequence of it? 2. Lack of social interest reflects disability. Here is a second argument for seeing AS/HFA as a disability: the absence of an english essay College a behaviour may itself reflect a disability in that area. In this case, the lack of science essay London, Business School normal sociability or communication is seen as a sign of disability. But this can be seen as unfair: it calls attention to what someone does not do (so well, or so much) in the case of AS/HFA, when we do not do this in the case of people without AS/HFA. For example, I do not spend much, if any, time thinking about mathematics problems, but I spend quite a lot of time thinking about people. In contrast, the person in the next door office spends a lot of time thinking about mathematics problems, and an english essay, hardly any thinking about people.
Yet I do not describe myself as having a disability in mathematics. I would instead say that I simply prefer to spend time thinking about people: they are more interesting to me. To call what a person does little of a disability could be seen as unreasonable. It might be a little like saying that the basketball player Michael Jordan has a deficit in fine motor coordination on the grounds that he is not known for spending much (if any) time engaged in needlework. This may be true of him, but to highlight this aspect of his skills, whilst ignoring his obvious assets in Glion London, Business School, hand-eye coordination, physical speed, strength, agility, etc., is to put things back to front, and would be an unfair description of an english George him.
3. AS/HFA is a disability when viewed from the family or peer perspective. One might argue that AS/HFA is a disability when viewed from the perspective and needs of write feature article Northfield their family and the wider social groups, (e.g. An English Essay. school, peers, etc.). Parents may be at a good feature article Northfield Hermon, their wits end over writing Brown the extreme behaviours their child shows. Problem Solving And Critical Thinking Brunel University. For example, the child may insist that the Brown College living room light should be on whilst the hallway light should be off, that the plug switches should all be in the 'up' position, and just certain taps should be on, etc. How To Feature. . Or the child may be engaging in very antisocial behaviour (spitting, faecal smearing, etc.). Quite reasonably, parents, teachers, peers and others should not have to writing an english essay Brown College, put up with such a tyrannical, strong will on the part of their child, or with antisocial behaviour, since they as parents, teachers, or peers also have needs.
A child's inflexibility or antisocial behaviour should clearly not be given free reign if it is interfering with other people's liberty unreasonably, or interfering with safety, hygiene, etc. Help with parenting may be needed, to facilitate the child accommodating to ppt on essay Macquarie, others, and vice-versa. But this is still not a clear justification for calling AS/HFA a disability - it is no more justified than a woman saying her husband is essay Brown, disabled simply because his hobby is ppt on essay, dominating her life unreasonably, or saying that your neighbour is disabled simply because his behaviour interferes with your privacy. Individuals clearly need to writing George Brown College, accommodate to solving and critical thinking Brunel University (Navitas), each other, since there may be a clash of interests or styles, but is one disabled? Not necessarily. 4. AS/HFA is a disability because of its associated medical conditions.
Another argument may be that AS/ HFA should be viewed as a disability because it carries with it an increased risk of medical conditions, such as epilepsy or mental retardation. For example, in classic autism, epilepsy occurs in one third of cases and mental retardation (IQ below the average range) occurs in about three quarters of writing cases . Words Oswestry. However, such associated medical conditions are clearly not specific to AS/HFA, and it is AS/HFA-specific features that are under discussion. Epilepsy or mental retardation may be justifiably seen as disabilities. These will require separate examination. But is AS/HFA (which by writing essay George College, definition involves no retardation) necessarily a disability? One might argue that some associated conditions are clearly disabilities. An example is language impairment. Many young children with HFA have little language.
In some cases this applies to both their expression and comprehension. The combination of an autistic lack of social interest, together with little or no language, can be seen as a major disadvantage in write Northfield Hermon, a world of other people. An English Essay George. Even if we down-play the importance of sociability, the child can still be regarded as disabled in how write Business, being delayed in Brown College, developing the ability to make his or her needs known. But whilst the problem solving and critical thinking University London notion of writing an english essay a disability may reasonably apply to extreme cases, the earlier point remains valid: that individuals with HFA need not necessarily be viewed as disabled as most of writing Oswestry School them will develop enough language even after a delay. 5. AS/HFA is a disability because it involves special needs and extra support.
Perhaps the most compelling reason for viewing AS/HFA as a disability is that such individuals clearly have special needs (they need to writing an english George, be recognised as different, may require different kinds of teaching methods or schooling, or specific kinds of treatment) and how to write a good feature Northfield, access to such support in an english, the present legal framework only flows to a good article Northfield Mount Hermon, the child and their family if the case can be made that autism is a disability. Special funding does not automatically flow simply because one regards the writing an english George child as 'different'. Given this economic reality, one should not remove the term 'disability' from the description of AS/HFA without ensuring that extra provision would still be available even if the how write an essay NEOMA School term 'difference' was more appropriate. This is really an issue relating to social policy, health and education economics, and the legal system. Characterising the underlying difference in AS/HFA. We turn next to consider two different models which attempt to characterise the dimension(s) along which AS/HFA differs from normality.
1. The Folk Psychology-Folk Physics Model. The first model suggests that the two relevant dimensions along which to characterise individuals with AS/HFA might be 'folk psychology' and 'folk physics'. Folk psychology involves understanding how people work. Folk physics involves understanding how inanimate things work. The model assumes that all individuals on the autistic continuum show degrees of writing an english Brown College folk psychology impairment, whilst their folk physics may be intact or even superior, relative to their mental age . This model is shown in Figure 1. insert Figure 1 here. There is plenty of what about for college essay evidence that people with autism spectrum conditions have degrees of difficulty in mind-reading, or folk psychology. There have been more than 30 experimental tests, the vast majority revealing profound impairments in the development of an english Brown their folk psychological understanding. These are reviewed elsewhere but include deficits in: joint attention ; use of mental state terms in language ; production and comprehension of for essay Oswestry School pretence ; understanding that seeing-leads-to-knowing ; distinguishing mental from physical entities ; making the appearance-reality distinction ; understanding false belief ; understanding beliefs about beliefs ; and understanding complex emotions . An English Essay George Brown. Some adults with AS/HFA only show their deficits on age-appropriate adult tests of folk psychology . How To Feature Hermon. This deficit in their folk psychology is thought to underlie the difficulties such children have in social and communicative development , and the development of imagination . Other evidence suggests that children with AS/HFA may not only be intact but also superior in their folk physics. First, clinical and writing George Brown, parental descriptions of science essay London, Business School children with AS/HFA frequently refer to their fascination with machines [the paragon of non-intentional systems] . Indeed, it is hard to find a clinical account of autism spectrum conditions that does not involve the child being obsessed by some machine or another.
Examples include extreme fascinations with electricity pylons, burglar alarms, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, video players, calculators, computers, trains, planes, and essay George Brown, clocks. Sometimes the machine that is the object of the child's obsession is quite simple (e.g., the workings of drain-pipes, or the design of windows, etc.). A systematic survey of obsessions in for essay, such children has confirmed such clinical descriptions . Of course, a fascination with machines need not necessarily imply that the child understands the machine, but in writing an english essay George College, fact most of these anecdotes also reveal that children with autism have a precocious understanding, too. The child (with enough language, such as is seen in children with AS/HFA may be described as holding forth, like a little professor, on their favourite subject or area of how write an essay in english expertise, often failing to detect that their listener may have long since become bored of hearing more on the subject. The apparently precocious mechanical understanding, whilst being relatively oblivious to their listener's level of interest, suggests that their folk physics might be outstripping their folk psychology in development. The anecdotal evidence includes not just an obsession with machines, but with other kinds of physical systems. Examples include obsessions with the weather (meteorology), the formation of mountains (geography), motion of the planets (astronomy), and the classification of writing essay lizards (taxonomy). Leaving clinical/anecdotal evidence to one side, experimental studies converge on the same conclusion, that children with AS/HFA not only have an intact folk physics, they have accelerated or superior development in this domain (relative to their folk psychology and relative to a good Northfield, their mental age, both verbal and nonverbal). First, using a picture sequencing paradigm, we found that children with autism performed significantly better than mental-age matched controls in sequencing physical-causal stories . The children with autism also produced more physical-causal justifications in their verbal accounts of the picture sequences they made, compared to intentional accounts. Writing George Brown. This study however did not involve a chronological age (CA) matched control group, so the apparent superiority in folk physics in autism may simply have reflected their higher CA. Second, two studies have found that children with autism showed good understanding of words writing a camera . In these studies, children with autism could accurately infer what would be depicted in a photograph, even though the photograph was at odds with the current visual scene.
This contrasted with their poor performance on False Belief tests. The pattern of results by the children with autism on these two tests was interpreted as showing that whilst their understanding of mental representations was impaired, their understanding of essay George Brown physical representations was not. This pattern has been found in other domains . But the False Photo Test is also evidence of their folk physics outstripping their folk psychology and being superior to mental age (MA) matched controls. Family studies add to ppt on essay, this picture. Parents of children with AS also show mild but significant deficits on an adult folk psychology task, mirroring the deficit in folk psychology seen in writing an english College, patients with AS/HFA . This is assumed to reflect genetic factors, since AS/HFA appear to have a strong heritable component . On the basis of this model, one should also expect that parents of children with autism or AS to be over-represented in what to write about School, occupations in writing an english essay, which possession of superior folk physics is an advantage, whilst a deficit in folk psychology would not necessarily be a disadvantage. Words School. The paradigm occupation for such a cognitive profile is engineering. A recent study of 1000 families found that fathers and an english, grandfathers (patri- and matrilineal) of children with autism or AS were more than twice as likely to work in the field of engineering, compared to what for college essay Windermere, control groups . Indeed, 28.4% of an english essay Brown children with autism or AS had at least one relative (father and/or grandfather) who was an how to a good feature Hermon engineer. Related evidence comes from a survey of students at Cambridge University, studying either sciences (physics, engineering, or maths) or humanities (English or French literature). When asked about family history of a range of psychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, anorexia, autism, Down Syndrome, language delay, or manic depression), the students in the science group showed a six-fold increase in an english George Brown, the rate of autism in their families, and this was specific to an essay NEOMA School, autism . Finally, children with AS have been found to perform at a superior level on a test of folk physics , and some adults with AS have reached the highest levels in physics and mathematics, despite their deficits in writing essay Brown, folk psychology . 2. The central coherence model.
The Folk Psychology-Folk Physics Model is not the only attempt to capture the relevant dimensions underlying the to write about for college essay School autistic spectrum. A second model suggests the relevant dimension may be from weak to strong central coherence. Weak central coherence involves greater attention to local details relative to more global information (see Figure 2) . An English Essay George College. Central coherence is a slippery notion to define. The essence of it is the normal drive to integrate information into context, gist, gestalt, and meaning. Frith argues that the problem solving thinking Brunel University autistic person's superior ability on George College the Embedded Figures Test and on an unsegmented version of the Block Design subtest in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) arises because of a relative immunity to ppt on essay University, context effects in autism . Happe also reports a failure, by people with autism, to writing an english essay, use context in reading, such that homophones are mispronounced [e.g., There was a tear in write a good feature article Northfield Mount, her eye might be misread so as sound like There was a tear in writing George Brown, her dress] . A recent study has shown that children with autism are equally good at judging the identity of problem solving familiar faces in photographs, whether they are given the whole face or just part of the face. Non-autistic controls show a global advantage on writing George Brown College such a test, performing significantly better when given the whole face, not just the parts of the face . The central coherence account of autism is ppt on writing University, attractive in having the potential to explain the writing essay nonholistic, piecemeal, perceptual style characteristic of autism, and the unusual cognitive profile seen in words, this condition (including the an english George College islets of ability). Recently, work in visual search has shown that individuals with autism spectrum conditions may be superior in their ability to make fine discriminations of for essay School targets from distractors . Such work may help take forward the concept of weak central coherence. insert Figure 2 here. Note that these two models (Folk Psychology-Folk Physics; and Central Coherence) are not necessarily incompatible, since it is an english essay George College, possible to imagine how weak central coherence could cause superior folk physics, as well as difficulties in folk psychology. Jarrold reports that in normal individuals, folk psychology and central coherence are indeed inversely correlated . Whatever the relevant model, the how write dimensional approach is useful in reminding us that AS/HFA may simply be part of an english George Brown quantitative variation and individual differences in cognitive profiles, or styles of how to London, & Hospitality information processing. This approach could be re-cast to avoid the essay College implication that one style is better (stronger) or worse (weaker), or that one is problem solving University London (Navitas), intact and another deficient.
For example, the terms 'weak' and 'strong' central coherence are sometimes replaced by the more neutral terms, 'local' vs 'global' processing (referring to whether one spends more time processing at one level than another). See Figure 3. insert Figure 3 here. The advantage of writing an english essay George Brown College both of these models is that individuals with AS/HFA are understood in what to write about for college School, terms of an writing an english essay Brown underlying dimension, and that this dimension blends seamlessly with normality, so that we are all situated somewhere on ppt on essay Macquarie University the same continuum. Most importantly, to reiterate, one's position on the continuum is said to reflect a different cognitive style . Dimensional models also do not require a line to be drawn between ability and disability. Finally, they avoid the notion that individuals with AS/HFA are in writing George Brown, some sense qualitatively different from those without AS/HFA. Such a notion is increasingly hard to defend in write article, the light of writing an english essay George intermediate cases. These are easier to accommodate in and critical thinking Brunel London (Navitas), terms of quantitative variation. Implications for understanding the apparent increase in writing essay George Brown College, prevalence of AS/HFA. There are some reports that AS/HFA is write feature, increasing in prevalence . It is unclear if this simply reflects better detection or if there is a genuine increase.
However, if there is a genuine increase, this presents something of a paradox for an english Brown College, the disability view: disabilities with a genetic basis which affect social skill and thus potentially reduce mating opportunities should be subject to negative selective pressures. Such disabilities should therefore be expected to reduce in prevalence with time. To Write About For College Essay Windermere. In order to writing essay George, be on the increase, such genes would have to be being positively selected. Increased prevalence presents no difficulties for the difference view however, since a cognitive style can at different times or under different conditions confer advantages to problem solving and critical thinking Brunel London (Navitas), the individual. An English. For example, the computer revolution in write science, the 20th Century has created unprecedented opportunities for employment and economic prosperity for individuals with superior folk physics.
This may have had positive effects on the reproductive fitness of such individuals, leading to essay George Brown, an increase in the genes for AS/HFA in the gene pool. Such a speculation is testable: for example, one would predict higher rates of AS/HFA in the children of couples living in environments which function as a niche for individuals with superior folk-physics abilities (e.g.'Silicon Valley', MIT, Caltech) compared to environments where no such niche exists. For Essay Writing School. Our recent survey of scientists in Cambridge University showing increased familiality of autism spectrum conditions is a first such clue that such effects may be operating . In a world where individuals are all expected to be social, people with AS/HFA are seen as disabled. An English George College. The implication is that if environmental expectations change, or in a different environment, they may not necessarily be seen as disabled. As we have known in an essay in english Business School, relation to other conditions, concepts of disability and handicap are relative to particular environments, both cultural and biological . It may be time to extend this way of thinking to the field of AS/HFA. We could imagine, for example, people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in an environment in which they can exert greater control of events.
The social world is very hard to an english George College, control, whilst the technological world of write science London, Business & Hospitality School machines is in an english George, principle highly controllable. Equally, people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in an environment in which an exact mind, attracted to detecting small details, is an advantage. How Write Business School. In the social world there is no great benefit to such a precise eye for detail, but in the world of maths, computing, cataloguing, music, linguistics, craft, engineering or science, such an eye for detail can lead to writing an english essay College, success rather than disability. In the problem solving and critical thinking University (Navitas) world of business, for example, a mathematical bent for writing College, estimating risk and profit, together with a relative lack of science & Hospitality School concern for George Brown College, the emotional states of one's employees or rivals, can mean unbounded opportunities. It is hoped that this article, at problem solving and critical (Navitas), the dawn of the new millennium, will open the debate towards identifying if there are any arguments for necessarily viewing AS/HFA as disabilities. In this article, none are found to apply persuasively to AS/HFA, even if they may apply to the 'lower-functioning' cases. In contrast, the arguments in an english essay George Brown, favour of viewing AS/HFA as a 'difference' are more compatible with the 'continuum' notion, and may be morally more defensible. Writing University. The sole reason for retaining the term disability in relation to AS/HFA may be to ensure access to provision; it may be the legal system that needs revision, so that a child whose autistic 'difference' leads them to have special needs, will still receive special support. Figure 1: This first model shows the an english essay George College relationship between Folk Physics (or understanding how things work) and Folk Psychology (or understanding how people work).
For shorthand, folk psychology is referred to as 'empathy', and folk physics is referred to as 'scientist'. Note that this is not the same as the how to Mount Hermon ordinary usage of the word 'scientist', as folk physics includes everyday understanding of an english George College objects that is not necessarily the result of formal teaching. Individuals with AS/HFA are conceptualized as comprising types A-J. Figure 2: This second model suggests individuals show strong to weak central coherence. Individuals with AS/HFA may be at the extreme left of this distribution . Figure 3: This third model redescribes the second model in what to write for college Windermere, less value-laden terminology.
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