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years of his life of alcohol which ruined not only him but also his relationship with his family. One day after waking up with a hangover he . drinks a little and decides to swim home. It is obvious he is a drunk because he is constantly searching for a drink on his swim home. Neddy was a wealthy man living in a wealthy high class neighborhood in Connecticut. He lived with his wife and kids. He was popular and had material possessions. Thinking Assessments School? He was living the good life , maybe too good . He was. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 561 Words | 2 Pages. instead of the things that you don’t. I think that Bhutanese considers the good life as having friends and writings Hotel Montreux family and being . Cyprus? content with where they are and excellent Hotel Institute Montreux who they are. Courses Institute? They like to be together and have a good time just enjoy others company.

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amounts off people were homeless, crime rates grew at a fast pace, and children were left starving. All these problems happened because of the urbanization. . While the poor were living miserable lives, the rich had all they could ask for living the essay Hotel Institute Montreux, good life . (D) The Streets were also a very filthy place in any weather condition. Scholarships Essays ICS — International Community School? When it rained it turned into slimy conditions. When it didn’t rain, the streets were full of dust. The sprinkling in the summer made the dust into mud and then that mud was.

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I have yet to see any farms or anything that would suggest country. Study Hotel Institute Montreux? One could question the dialect of Indiana residents. It has been said that. American magazines , English-language films , Want 2106 Words | 5 Pages. The good life is being able to live in this world to love one another as Jesus loves us. In order for essay Institute us to live the . good life , we must practice all of Jesus' teachings in study Hotel Institute, our daily life . We must be loving, respectful, helpful, caring, and completely without evil. We need to have good morals and values in order to live the excellent essay Hotel, good life . Our values and study courses Hotel morals are what inspires and motivates us to do meaningful things. Being a good person is important for our own well being as well as for the. Ethics , Happiness , Meaning of life 1346 Words | 3 Pages.

and living the “ Good Life ” does not always come easily. There are costs to living a fulfilling life and often times . sacrifices must be made in order to do so. Writings Hotel Montreux? This is most notable in a few of the readings from the Macquarie, course. Siddhartha, from Hesse’s novel, exemplifies someone who so passionately wanted to find enlightenment that he was willing to give up his family, prior beliefs, and writings Hotel all of his belongings. Rama’s situation in the Ramayana also demonstrates the ICS — International Community, idea that the good life does not come without. English-language films , Hanuman , Krishna 1111 Words | 3 Pages.

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THE GOOD LIFE ? CHAPTER ONE: THE INTRODUCTION TO THE GOOD LIFE “Are you sure this . is what you really want?” asked Betsy. Work Study Hotel Institute? “Of course this is what I want to do!” replied Vivian as they walked into the local barbershop. Excellent Essay Hotel Montreux? Vivian was an idealist secretary at a local law office. Although she really liked her job, she dreamed of a better life of work Institute, fame and grandeur. Excellent Montreux? Vivian sat down in the tall, uncomfortable barber chair as she asked him for the popular Clara Bow haircut. As the tall solemn.

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Many people in America would argue that the good life. Aristotle , Dalai Lama , Definition 1098 Words | 3 Pages. teaching of ethics primarily focuses on the good life , or more precisely, how one must go about to achieve the good . life . Macquarie? In order to understand what the good life is, an examination of Hotel Institute, what is meant by 'the good ' is necessary. We often say things such as that is a good car, that is analysis of scientific University Florida, a good computer, that is a good phone, etc. But what is it that allows us to make the excellent Montreux, judgement whether something is good or bad? If we take a closer look, something is either good or bad based on its operation. When a thing. Ethics , Happiness , Human nature 957 Words | 3 Pages. Essay, Draft 1 In the Pursuit of Good life In this very society, everyone is . in College Beau, the pursuit of excellent writings Hotel, good life . Study Montreux? What is a good and happy life ? There are many opinions as to Institute, what the so called “ good life ” is. Some people believe that the good life is attainable through education, while others believe that following a rule of conduct would leave you leading the good life . Some have a version of having all those basic survival necessities and millions of. Core issues in ethics , Happiness , Health 1221 Words | 4 Pages.

Stoic philosophers who had a huge contribution to the Stoicism in Roman Imperial Period, claimed that practicing philosophy is the only way to live a . good live (Cooper and Procope 1995: xv; Seneca Letter XC Ex. 1). It was a very brave statement at that time and has been a controversy until now. Critical Assessments College? This essay will explain what philosophy and good life are in essay writings Hotel Montreux, Seneca’s view, then consider the role of philosophy, and finally extend the reasons why that assertion cannot be accepted. According to the Costa.

Ethics , Happiness , Human 1240 Words | 4 Pages. is a good life ? In today’s world, humans are often misled on a formal European, what really is excellent essay writings Institute Montreux, a good life . We are . constantly shown through the study Hotel Montreux, television and essay writings Hotel magazines that being rich and famous is the way to go when it comes to means Soleil, a good life , when in excellent essay writings Hotel, truth many of them are miserable by problems that usually wouldn’t affect the common person. In truth there are only a few that are rich and critical of scientific paper University Florida famous and do achieve what can probably considered one of the greatest achievement’s by a man which is having a good life . In my. Happiness , Health , Life 1096 Words | 3 Pages. The Good life can be interpreted in many ways by various people. It is excellent Hotel Institute, pondered by every individual and can be discussed and . A Tok Essay Macquarie? analyzed in different ways. The following texts have shown me a very different perspective to the good life . One that I would of never thought I would have.

Every person can come to their own decisions to define the good life . Essay Writings Institute? I believe after one reads the chosen texts, one will have a better understanding and critical of scientific can determine specific arguments and reasons for excellent Institute their beliefs. Core issues in critical analysis of scientific paper University of Central, ethics , Ethics , Eudaimonia 1770 Words | 5 Pages. Socrates, Philosophy and the Good Life. Philosophy and the Good Life Socrates' belief was that he was called on by the Gods to live his life examining . Excellent Essay Writings Hotel Montreux? others and himself. He believed the necessity of doing what one thinks is right even in work study Hotel Montreux, the face of universal opposition, and the need to pursue knowledge even when opposed.

I became completely convinced, to the duty of leading the philosophical life by examining myself and others.? Socrates believed that to desert this idea was ridiculous and would make his life absurd. Excellent Essay Writings Hotel Institute? Socrates. 2005 singles , Apology , God 2617 Words | 7 Pages.

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analysis essay araby Sample Essays Analyzing James Joyce's Short Story Araby The content consists of brief but condensations of the action of the story. The content tells your reader what happens. Remember that you cannot relate all the action. Your outline willhelp you select only those points necessary to your reader's understanding of your interpretation of the work. Study the summary essay below to discover its organization. Essay Writings! Note the proportion given in each paragraph to summary and to interpretation. Theintroduction identifies the work and the author. Then, following back-ground information about the story, the writer states his thesis. Study Hotel Montreux! In the bodyof the essay, each topic sentence points to a specific block of action or adevelopment in the story. The content of each paragraph is devoted to asummary of excellent essay a selected block of action, and the last sentence of how to a tok University each para-graph evaluates and interprets the action described. This process-summary followed by interpretation-continues through each paragraph tothe conclusion of the essay.

It is the interpretation that gives meaning andsignificance both to the story and to the essay. In the essay that follows, note the use of excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux quotations and how each aids understanding and imparts asense of the style and manner of the critical means College Beau, work. James Joyce's Araby: Summary of an Epiphany. Excellent Hotel! Each of the fifteen stories in James Joyce's Dubliners presents aflat, rather spatial portrait. The visual and symbolic details embeddedin each story, however, are highly concentrated, and each story culmi-nates in an epiphany. In Joycean terms, an courses epiphany is excellent essay Hotel Montreux, a momentwhen the essence of a character is revealed , when all the forces thatbear on his life converge, and we can, in that instant, understand him.Each story in the collection is centered in critical means College Soleil an epiphany, and eachstory is concerned with some failure or deception, which results in re-alization and disillusionment. Montreux! Araby follows this pattern. Themeaning is revealed in a young boy's psychic journey from first love to despair and disappointment, and the theme is found in essays ICS — School the boy'sdiscovery of the discrepancy between the writings Hotel Institute, real and essays Community, the ideal in life. The story opens with a description of North Richmond Street, ablind, cold . .. silent street where the houses gazed at essay Institute Montreux, one an-other with brown imperturbable faces.

It is study courses Institute Montreux, a street of fixed, decaying conformity and false piety. The boy's house contains the samesense of a dead present and a lost past. The former tenant, a priest,died in the back room of the house, and his legacy-several old yel-lowed books, which the boy enjoys leafing through because they areold, and a bicycle pump rusting in the back yard-become symbolsof the intellectual and excellent essay Montreux, religious vitality of the past. The boy, in themidst of such decay and spiritual paralysis, experiences the confusedidealism and work courses Montreux, dreams of writings Hotel first love and his awakening becomes incom-patible with and in ironic contrast to the staid world about him. Every morning before school the boy lies on the floor in thefront parlor peeking out through a crack in the blind of the door,watching and waiting for the girl next door to emerge from her houseand walk to school. He is shy and still boyish. He follows her, walkssilently past, not daring to speak, overcome with a confused sense ofsensual desire and religious adoration. In his mind she is both a saintto be worshipped and a woman to be desired. His eyes are often fullof tears, and one evening he goes to the back room where the priesthad died.

Clasping the palms of his hands together, he murmurs, 0love! 0 love! in a prayer not to God, but to the concept of love andperhaps even to the girl, his love. Walking with his aunt to shop onSaturday evenings he imagines that the girl's image accompanies him,and that he protects her in places the most hostile to romance. Inthe mixed symbolism of the Christian and the Romantic or Orientalmyths Joyce reveals the epiphany in analysis of Central Florida the story: These noises con-verged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore mychalice safely through a throng of foes. Writings Hotel! He is unable to talk to thegirl. Drifting away from his schoolmates' boyish games, the boy hasfantasies in his isolation, in the ecstasy and pain of first love. Finally the girl speaks to the boy. International School! She asks him if he is going toAraby. He replies that if he does he will bring her a gift, and excellent essay writings Montreux, fromthat moment, his thoughts upon the mixed imagery of the saintly lightupon her hair and the potential sensuality of the white border of apetticoat, the boy cannot sleep or study. The word Araby cast anEastern enchantment over him, and then on the night he is to go tothe bazaar his uncle neglects to return home. Neither the aunt noruncle understands the boy's need and anguish, and thus his isolationis deepened.

We begin to see that the story is not so much a story oflove as it is a rendition of the world in critical means College Beau Soleil which the boy lives. The second part of the story depicts the boy's inevitable disap-pointment and realization. In such an atmosphere of blindness-the aunt and excellent essay Montreux, uncle unaware of the boy's anguish, the girl not con-scious of the boy's love, and the boy himself blind to the true natureof his love-the words hostile to romance take on ironic overtones.These overtones deepen when the boy arrives too late at the bazaar.It is closing and the hall is in darkness. He recognizes a silencelike that which prevades a church after a service but the bazaar isdirty and how to write essay European, disappointing. Two men are counting money on a salverand he listens to excellent essay Hotel, the fall of the how to essay, coins. A young lady, bored withhim and interested in two men who are flirting with her, cheapensand destroys the boy's sense of an Eastern enchantment. His love,like his quest for a gift to draw the girl to him in an unfriendly world,ends with his realizing that his love existed only in writings his mind. Thus. the theme of the story-the discrepancy between the real and theideal-is made final in the bazaar, a place of work courses Montreux tawdry make-believe.The epiphany in which the boy lives a dream in spite of the Hotel Institute, ugly andthe worldly is brought to its inevitable conclusion: the single sensa-tion of life disintegrates. The boy senses the work study courses Montreux, falsity of his dreams andhis eyes burn with anguish and anger. Writings Institute! Essay #2 Using Setting and Atmosphere.

Remember that setting is usually a part of atmosphere and that atmo-sphere consists of the prevailing tone of the work and its resultant meaningor effect. Some works will not warrant an essay devoted to setting and at-mosphere; others, like Joyce's Araby, will be so profoundly dependentupon a particular setting that to ignore its importance will be to miss muchof the meaning of the work. Dream Versus Reality: Setting and European Cyprus, Atmosphere in James Joyce's Araby Convinced that the Dublin of the 1900's was a center of spiri-tual paralysis, James Joyce loosely but thematically tied together hisstories in Dubliners by Institute, means of their common setting. Each of thestories consists of a portrait in which Dublin contributes in Florida some wayto the dehumanizing experience of modem life. The boy in the storyAraby is intensely subject to essay Hotel Institute Montreux, the city's dark, hopeless conformity,and his tragic yearning toward the exotic in the face of drab, uglyreality forms the center of the story. On its simplest level, Araby is critical thinking Beau Soleil, a story about a boy's first love.On a deeper level, however, it is a story about the world in excellent Hotel which helives-a world inimical to ideals and dreams.

This deeper level is how to write University, in-troduced and developed in several scenes: the Hotel, opening description ofthe boy's street, his house, his relationship to his aunt and uncle, theinformation about the priest and his belongings, the boy's two trips-his walks through Dublin shopping and his subsequent ride toAraby. North Richmond Street is described metaphorically and presentsthe reader with his first view of the thinking Lakefield School, boy's world. The street is excellent essay writings Institute, blind; it is a dead end, yet its inhabitants are smugly complacent; the housesreflect the attitudes of their inhabitants. The houses are imperturba-ble in the quiet, the cold, the dark muddy lanes and darkdripping gardens. The first use of situational irony is Hotel, introducedhere, because anyone who is aware, who is not spiritually blinded orasleep, would feel oppressed and endangered by North RichmondStreet. The people who live there (represented by the boy's aunt anduncle) are not threatened, however, but are falsely pious and dis-creetly but deeply self-satisfied. Their prejudice is essay writings Hotel Montreux, dramatized by theaunt's hopes that Araby, the bazaar the boy wants to visit, is not14some Freemason affair, and by old Mrs. Mercer's gossiping overtea while collecting stamps for assessments College, some pious purpose. The background or world of blindness extends from a generalview of the street and its inhabitants to essay, the boy's personal relation-ships. It is not a generation gap but a'gap in the spirit, in empathy and conscious caring, that results in the uncle's failure to ICS — School, arrive homein time for the boy to go to the bazaar while it is essay Institute Montreux, still open.

Theuncle has no doubt been to the local pub, negligent and how to a tok essay Macquarie University, indifferent tothe boy's anguish and impatience. The boy waits well into the eveningin the imperturbable house with its musty smell and old, uselessobjects that fill the rooms. The house, like the aunt and writings, uncle, andlike the entire neighborhood, reflects people who are well-intentionedbut narrow in their views and study courses Institute Montreux, blind to higher values (even the street lamps lift a feeble light to the sky). The total effect of excellent such settingis an atmosphere permeated with stagnation and isolation. The second use of symbolic description-that of the dead priest and his belongings-suggests remnants of a more vital past. The bi-cycle pump rusting in the rain in means College the back yard and the old yellowedbooks in excellent Institute the back room indicate that the priest once actively engaged in real service to God and critical College Beau, man, and further, from the titles of thebooks, that he was a person given to both piety and flights of writings Hotel Institute Montreux imagi-nation. But the scholarships essays ICS — International Community, priest is dead; his pump rusts; his books yellow. The effect is to deepen, through a sense of a dead past, the spiritual and intellectual stagnation of the present.Into this atmosphere of spiritual paralysis the boy bears, withblind hopes and romantic dreams, his encounter with first love.

In theface of ugly, drab reality-amid the curses of laborers, jostled bydrunken men and bargaining women-he carries his aunt's parcelsas she shops in the market place, imagining that he bears, not parcels,but a chalice through a throng of foes. The noises converged in asingle sensation of Institute life and in a blending of Romantic and Christiansymbols he transforms in his mind a perfectly ordinary girl into anenchanted princess: untouchable, promising, saintly. Setting in thisscene depicts the harsh, dirty reality of life which the boy blindly ig-nores. The contrast between the critical thinking means Soleil, real and the boy's dreams is ironi-cally drawn and clearly foreshadows the boy's inability to keep thedream, to remain blind. Essay Institute Montreux! The boy's final disappointment occurs as a result of his awaken-ing to the world around him. The tawdry superficiality of the bazaar,which in his mind had been an of scientific paper of Central Oriental enchantment, strips awayhis blindness and leaves him alone with the realization that life andlove differ from the dream. Araby, the symbolic temple of love, isprofane. The bazaar is dark and empty; it thrives on the same profitmotive as the market place (two men were counting money on asalver); love is represented as an empty, passing flirtation.

Araby is essay Hotel Montreux, a story of first love; even more, it is a portrait of aworld that defies the ideal and write a tok University, the dream. Thus setting in this storybecomes the true subject, embodying an essay writings Institute atmosphere of spiritual pa-ralysis against which a young boy's idealistic dreams are no match.Realizing this, the boy takes his first step into adulthood. INSTRUCTIONS. It is possible in an essay to write about an isolated symbol-onewhich seems unusual, or appealing, or particularly apt. More often,though, you will deal with a central or recurrent symbol (like water inThe Great Good Place). If you write about an isolated symbol, your thesis should be a strong statement of the existence of the symbol in the work,and, the body of your essay should be composed of thinking means Soleil statements that actuallyconstitute evidence of the existence of the symbol. As you develop paragraphs in writings Hotel Montreux the body of the essay, make clear your reasons for scholarships for writing Community School, ascribing the symbolic significance you do, show the function of the symbol in the work, and above all, prove that awareness of the symbol enriches understanding or appreciation of the work. The Central Symbol of the excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux, Church in Joyce's Araby Joyce's short story Araby is critical thinking assessments Lakefield College School, filled with symbolic images of a church.

It opens and closes with strong symbols, and in the body ofthe story, the essay Montreux, images are shaped by the young), Irish narrator's impres-sions of the effect the Church of Ireland has upon critical assessments College, the people of Ire-land. The boy is fiercely determined to invest in someone within thisChurch the holiness he feels should be the natural state of all withinit, but a succession of experiences forces him to see that his determi-nation is in writings Institute vain. At the climax of the story, when he realizes that hisdreams of holiness and love are inconsistent with the actual world,his anger and critical paper University Florida, anguish are directed, not toward the Church, but to-ward himself as a creature driven by vanity. Hotel Institute Montreux! In addition to assessments College, the im-ages in Hotel the story that are symbolic of the critical College, Church and excellent writings Hotel Montreux, its effect uponthe people who belong to it, there are descriptive words and phrasesthat add to critical analysis, this representational meaning. The story opens with a description of the Dublin neighborhoodwhere the excellent writings Hotel Institute, boy lives. Strikingly suggestive of a church, the image shows the ineffectuality of the Church as a vital force in the lives ofthe inhabitants of the neighborhood-the faithful within the Church.North Richmond Street is composed of two rows of houses withbrown imperturbable faces (the pews) leading down to the tall un-inhabited house (the empty altar). The boy's own home is set in agarden the natural state of which would be like Paradise, since it contains a central apple tree; however, those who should have caredfor it have allowed it to become desolate, and the central tree stands alone amid a few straggling bushes. At dusk when the boy and hiscompanions play in the street the thinking, lamps of the street lift their feeblelanterns to the sky of ever-changing violet (timid suppliants to thefar-away heavens). Since the boy is the narrator, the excellent writings Institute, inclusion ofthese symbolic images in the description of the setting shows that theboy is sensitive to the lack of spiritual beauty in how to write a tok essay Macquarie his surroundings.Outside the main setting are images symbolic of those who donot belong to the Church. The boy and his companions go there attimes, behind their houses, along the writings Hotel Institute, dark muddy lanes, to where the rough tribes (the infidel) dwell. Here odors arise from the ash pits--those images symbolic to James Joyce of the moral decay of his nation.

Even the house in for writing essays ICS — School which the youthful main character lives addsto the sense of moral decay. The former tenant, a priest (now dead),is shown to have been insensitive to the spiritual needs of his people.His legacy was a collection of books that showed his confusion of excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux thesacred with the secular-and there is evidence that he devoted hislife to gathering money and furniture. He left behind no evidenceof a life of critical means Beau spiritual influence. Despite these discouraging surroundings, the boy is determined to find some evidence of the loveliness his idealistic dreams tell himshould exist within the Church. Essay Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! His first love becomes the focal pointof this determination. In the person of Mangan's sister, obviouslysomewhat older than the boy and his companions, his longings find anobject of worship. The boy's feelings for the girl are a confused mix-ture of sexual desire and of sacred adoration, as examination of theimages of her reveals. He is obsessed at one and the same time withwatching her physical attractions (her white neck, her soft hair, themovement of the brown-clad figure) and with seeing her always sur-rounded by critical thinking assessments Lakefield College School, light, as if by a halo.

He imagines that he can carry herimage as a chalice through a throng of foes-the cursing,brawling infidels at writings Montreux, the market to which he goes with his aunt. Allother sensations of life fade from his consciousness and he is awareonly of his adoration of the blessed image. He spends his days feel-ing her summons to his foolish blood, a summons that is both astrong physical attraction and a strong pull to the holiness missing inhis life and in the lives of the people he knows. In all his watching ofher he is School, thankful that he can see so little, as men of his Churchhave ever been filled with holy dread to look upon the Virgin. When the girl finally speaks to him, her words are of ordinary concerns: she asks if he is going to Araby, a bazaar in another part ofthe city.

But the boy's imagination seizes upon the name Araby andinvests its syllables with an Eastern enchantment in which his soulluxuriates. Araby becomes a place where his soul can find the mysti-cal beauty lacking in his own mundane Church. The girl cannot at-tend the bazaar because of a retreat her convent is having that week.As a consequence the boy feels a summons that has symbolic over-tones of a holy crusade: he is excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, determined to go forth to the en-chanted place and bring back a gift worthy to lay at the feet of his adored one. Write A Formal Essay European! The aunt and uncle with whom he lives are insensitive to hisburning need to excellent essay Institute Montreux, fulfill his crusade. Critical Means College Beau! They are presented as persons living decently within the confines of their Church rules, but lacking avision of concerns higher and holier than mechanical conformity torules. They do, finally, though, provide the essay Institute, florin to allow him to go to Araby. Alone, he makes his way to the place of Eastern enchantment.When he arrives, he is for writing ICS — School, struck by essay writings Montreux, a silence like that of a church.This is followed by another image that calls up the image at the be-ginning of the story, that of the aisle leading to an altar. In this case,it is a hall leading to the booth displaying porcelain vases (chalicesfor the Eucharist), and flowered tea sets (the flowers on how to a tok essay the altar).The great jars guarding the stall can be interpreted as symbols of excellent themysticism standing guard over the Church.

For the boy, the girl attending the scholarships for writing School, stall, like Mangan's sister, be-comes an object of faith. But when she speaks-again like Mangan'ssister-her words are trivial and worldly. In a sudden flash of insightthe boy sees that his faith and his passion have been blind. He sees inthe two men counting money on a salver a symbol of the moneylen-ders in the temple. Excellent! He allows the pennies to scholarships for writing essays ICS — Community School, fall in his pocket. Excellent Writings Hotel Institute! Thelights in the hall go out; his church is in darkness. Tears fill hiseyes as he sees himself a creature driven and derided by vanity,whose foolish blood made him see secular desires as symbols oftrue faith. In this moment of disillusionment he feels that he himselfis at fault for how to write a tok essay Macquarie University, being so bemused by his ideals that he failed completelyto see the world as it is. He has discovered in his Church and in love(both traditional symbols of ineffably sacred loveliness) only a shoddyimitation of true beauty.

Understandably his disillusionment causes him anguish and Hotel Institute, anger. Using Myth and Archetype. How To Essay European! The heart of myth is rooted in religion, in attempts to explain creation, thesoul, and man's place in the world. A discussion of myth, therefore, mustbe preceded by your discovery of its presence in essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux a work; and for your dis-cussion to be meaningful, you must understand the origin or source of theideas you decide to ascribe to myth. (In Araby, we perceive the clearpresence of a reference to Christianity.) Remember that archetype can be generously applied to a num-ber of man's values, dreams, and beliefs, but that myth comprises only apart of archetype. Archetype is a much larger term, and if you perceivesome universal experience in Macquarie University a literary work, it can quite logically form apart of our racial past.

Family, marriage, war, peace, the need to essay Institute, be lovedand to paper University of Central Florida, live forever: these are patterns, emotions, and drives we share withour ancestors. They change little with time, and each generation respondsto them with deep emotions. The presence of archetype in a work givesthat work added importance and an essay defining the archetype, its effectand resultant added meaning will be of value to readers who may have re-sponded but have not discerned why. To write an excellent essay writings Institute essay using myth and archetype, determine how theirpresence influences and reveals the meaning of the work. If myth or arche-type becomes the basis of a work (as they do in how to a formal European University Cyprus Araby), an essay point-ing out their meaning will provide you with a ready-made thesis. Orderingthe development of your essay will become relatively simple, for excellent writings, the stagesof the reenactment of the archetypal pattern will direct your presentation.If, on the other hand, the critical means College Soleil, use of Hotel Institute myth does not form the basis of the entirework, but is work Institute, only an excellent Institute enrichment of another pattern, your order of critical Lakefield College School develop-ment will be somewhat more complex.

In this case you will need to deter-mine the precise function the single use of the mythic element serves andthen center your thesis on this function. The Lonely Quest of James Joyce's Araby Probably no other twentieth century short story has called forthmore attention than Joyce's Araby. Some universality of experiencemakes the story interesting to readers of all ages, for they respond in-stinctively to an experience that could have been their own. It is apart of the instinctual nature of man to long for what he feels is thelost spirituality of essay writings Institute Montreux his world. In all ages man has believed that it ispossible to search for and find a talisman, which, if brought back, willreturn this lost spirituality.

The development of theme in work study courses Hotel Institute Araby re-sembles the excellent essay writings Institute Montreux, archetypal myth of the quest for a holy talisman. In Araby, Joyce works from a visionary mode of artisticcreation-a phrase used by psychiatrist Carl Jung to describe the,'visionary kind of literary creation that derives its material fromthe hinterland of man's mind-that suggests the abyss of College Beau Soleil time sepa-rating us from essay prehuman ages, or evokes a superhuman world of con-trasting light and darkness. It is a primordial experience, which sur-passes man's understanding and to which he is therefore in danger ofsuccumbing. 1 Assuredly this describes Joyce's handling of the mate-rial of Araby. The quest itself and its consequences surpass the un-derstanding of the young protagonist of the story.

He can only feelthat he undergoes the experience of the quest and naturally is assessments Lakefield, con-fused, and at the story's conclusion, when he fails, he is anguishedand angered. His contrasting world of light and darkness containsboth the lost spirituality and the dream of restoring it. Because ourown worlds contain these contrasts we also feel, even though theprimordial experience surpasses our understanding, too. It is true, as a writer reminds us, that no matter the excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, work,Joyce always views the order and disorder of the world in terms ofthe Catholic faith in which he was reared. 2 In Araby, however,there is, in addition, an overlay of Eastern mysticism. This diversity of background materials intensifies the Soleil, universality of the experience.We can turn to the language and the images of the story to see howthe boy's world is shown in terms of these diverse backgounds. There is little that is light in the comer of Dublin that formsthe world of the story, little that retains its capability to evoke spiri-tuality.

North Richmond Street is blind; the houses stare at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. The time is winter, with itsshort days and its early dusk. Only the boy and essay Institute, his laughing, shoutingcompanions glow; they are still too young to have succumbed tothe spiritual decay of the adult inhabitants of Dublin. But the boysmust play in dark muddy lanes, in dark dripping gardens, neardark odorous stables and ashpits. Scholarships International! Joyce had said of Dubliners,the collection of stories from which Araby comes, that he intendedto write a chapter in the moral history of my country and I choseDublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, centre ofparalysis. 3 The images of the story show us that the spiritual envi-ronment of the boy is scholarships essays International, paralyzed; it is musty, dark. Everywhere in his dark surroundings the boy seeks the light. He looks for it in the central apple tree-symbol of religiousenlightenment-in the dark garden behind his home.

The gardenshould be like Eden, but the tree is overshadowed by the desolationof the garden, and thus has become the tree of spiritual death. Helooks for light in the room of his home where the former tenant, apriest, had died, but the only objects left by the priest were books,yellowed and damp. Here, too, the Hotel Montreux, quest has failed. No evidence ofspiritual life remains. Decay and rust have taken over all the treasures the priest had laid up on earth for a formal essay Cyprus, himself. Into this world of darkness appears a girl, Mangan's sister. Be-cause of her the boy feels a surge of hope that now in her love he willfind light. Even though he has never spoken to her, except for a fewcasual words, her name is like a summons to all his foolish blood.His youthful imagination sees her always surrounded with light; sheis the contrast to his dark world. She becomes an image to him of allthat he seeks.

That image accompanies him even in places the mosthostile to romance: the market and the streets, among the drunkenmen and bargaining women, amid the curses of labourers, the shrilllitanies of shop-boys. In this unlikely place occurs what Joyce calls an epiphany, which to him means a sudden spiritual manifesta-tion, when objects or moments of inconsequential vulgarity can betransfigured to something spiritual.4 The boys says, I imagined that Ibore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. Plainly he has feltthe summons to cherish the excellent essay Hotel, holy, the write a formal essay University, light, in this dark world ofthose who are hostile to the sacred. However, what he feels is beyond his understanding. His lovefor the girl is part sexual desire, part sacred adoration. He is, he says,confused. He loses interest in his school and in everything about him; hethinks of excellent essay Hotel Institute Montreux nothing but the girl. He can see her dark house, herbrown-clad figure touched by work study courses, lamp-light. He feels that he has foundone image of holiness in his world of lost spirituality.

If he can gainthe girl, he feels, the light will be restored to his dark existence. In his one conversation with her she reveals that she cannot goto Araby, a bazaar she would like to attend. Institute! She suggests that itwould be well for him to scholarships for writing essays ICS — School, go. He speaks impulsively: If I go I willbring you something. His opportunity has come. He can go toAraby-his soul luxuriates in the very syllables of the mysticallymagic name-and he can bring back a talisman to secure his favorwith her. The lost light of his world will be restored.

Undoubtedly, as a writer suggests, Araby is excellent Hotel Montreux, Arabia, which is a formal essay European University Cyprus, associated with thePhoenix, symbol of the renewal of life. 5. Over half the story is excellent writings Institute, concerned with the delays and frustrationsin his plans for his quest, and with his final journey to the en-chanted place, where the thinking School, talisman will be procured. Significantly, he must go to Araby alone. The train is deserted; when throngs of buy-ers try to press their way onto the train the porters move them back,saying this is a special train for the bazaar. All who go on excellent essay writings Hotel Institute a questfor the high and the holy must go alone. Arriving, he finds the bazaar nearly empty. He recognizes a si-lence like that which pervades a church after a service.

The churchis empty; it is not attended by the faithful. Essays Community! Two men count money ona silver salver. Excellent Essay Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! The young lady who should attend him ignores himto exchange inane vulgarities with two young gentlemen. Suddenly from the trivialities here the boy experiences anotherepiphany, a sudden showing forth in which his mind is floodedwith light, with truth. He can see the parallel that exists between thegirl here and study Hotel Montreux, his girl; he can see his feeling for her for what it is-physical attraction. Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! Her brown-clad figure is one with the drabworld of North Richmond Street. Here, instead of Eastern enchant-ment, are flimsy stalls for buying and selling flimsy wares. His grailhas turned out to be only critical thinking assessments College School, flimsy tea sets covered with artificial flow-ers. As the upper hall becomes completely dark, the boy realizes thathis quest has ended. Gazing upward, he sees the vanity of imagininghe can carry a chalice through a dark throng of foes. 1 Carl G. Writings Hotel! Jung, Modern Man in critical assessments College School Search of a Soid. trans.

W. Excellent Writings Institute! S. Dell and CaryF. Baynes (New York, 1933), pp. 156-157. 2 William Bysshe Stein, Joyce's 'Araby': Paradise Lost, Perspective, X11,No. 4 (Spring 1962), 215. 3 From Letters of James Joyce, Vol. II, ed. Richard Ellmarm (New York,1966), p. 134. 4 James Joyce, Stephen Hero (New York, 1944), pp. 210-211. 5 Marvin Magalaner, Time of Apprenticeship: The Fiction of Young JamesJoyce (London, 1959), p. 87.

USING POINT OF VIEW. If we draw an analogy of a multistoried house withwindows on all sides, we can understand that a person's view of the worldcan vary greatly, depending on which window he views it from; whether heis outside looking in; or whether, distantly, he looks at the house and the surrounding countryside simultaneously. Certainly our view of a characterwill depend upon our position in relation to critical of scientific of Central Florida, the scene, just as his view islimited by the author. Henry James considered the positioning of both characters and narrator crucial to fiction, and in recent years (in fact since his detailed studiesof point of view) critics have considered the Hotel Montreux, artist's use of point of scholarships view the central focus for interpretation. Look at the questions point of view provokes. Does the viewpoint allow for irony? Does it limit sympathy or does it evoke greater sympathy? Does it causeattitudes to be formed? What are they? Does choice of this particular nar-rator or persona influence the reader's view of the excellent writings, situation? How?

Does itcontrol imagery and symbolism? In your conclusion, reaffirm your thesis by analysis of scientific of Central Florida, showing the overall effec-tiveness of the excellent Montreux, point of view on the work. Did the work gain much or littlefrom its use? Study the following essay to better understand how point ofview in scholarships Araby frees language, achieves psychic distance, and intensifiesthe experience portrayed. THE IRONIC NARRATOR OF JAMES JOYCE'S ARABY Although James Joyce's story Araby is told from the first per-son viewpoint of its young protagonist, we do not receive the impres-sion that a boy tells the excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, story. Instead, the narrator seems to be a manmatured well beyond the experience of the story. The mature man re-minisces about essay University Cyprus, his youthful hopes, desires, and frustrations. Morethan if a boy's mind had reconstructed the events of the story for us,this particular way of telling the story enables us to perceive clearlythe torment youth experiences when ideals, concerning both sacredand earthly love, are destroyed by a suddenly unclouded view of theactual world.

Because the man, rather than the boy, recounts the experi-ence, an ironic view can be presented of the institutions and personssurrounding the boy. This ironic view would be impossible for theimmature, emotionally involved mind of the boy himself. Only an adult looking back at the high hopes of foolish blood and its resul-tant destruction could account for the ironic viewpoint. Throughoutthe story, however, the narrator consistently maintains a full sensitiv-ity to his youthful anguish. From first to essay writings Hotel Montreux, last we sense the reality tohim of his earlier idealistic dream of how to a formal essay beauty. The opening paragraph, setting the scene, prepares us for theview we receive of the conflict between the loveliness of the ideal andthe drabness of the actual. Descriptive words show the narrator's con-sciousness of the boy's response to beauty and the response of theneighborhood people, who are blind to beauty: North RichmondStreet is blind; its houses, inhabited by excellent essay Institute, decent people, stare un-seeingly at one another-and all this is under a sky of ever-changingviolet, in a setting of gardens marred by the odours of ash-pitsand dark odorous stables. The boy's own house, which had form-erly been inhabited by a priest, is placed in a garden like that ofEden.

It is for writing essays ICS — Community, a place of potential holiness, shown to us in the irony ofthe garden's barrenness and the priest's worldliness: the garden hasnow only a central apple tree and a few straggling bushes; thepriest had died and left behind him evidence of his preoccupationwith secular literature and excellent writings Hotel Montreux, with collecting money and furniture. Into this setting appears a figure representative of all that isideal, the girl. Essay European University Cyprus! The narrator shows us in a subtly ironic manner thatin his youthful adoration of Mangan's sister she is, confusedly, theembodiment of all his boyish dreams of the beauty of physical desireand, at the same time, the embodiment of his adoration of excellent essay writings Hotel Institute all that isholy. In his dark environment Mangan's sister stands out, a figure al-ways shown outlined by light, with the power to set aflame in him azeal to conquer the uncaring and the unholy. Her image, constantlywith him, makes him feel as though he bears a holy chalice througha throng of foes-the Saturday evening throng of how to essay European University drunken men,bargaining women, cursing laborers, and all the others who have noconception of the mystical beauty his young mind has created in thisworld of material ugliness. Excellent Essay Writings Institute! He is critical thinking assessments School, alone as a boy, the man narrator shows us, with his viewof the possible loveliness of the world. Excellent Institute! Even the aunt and uncle withwhom he lives are callous to his burning need to go to the bazaar,which looms in his imagination as a place of mystical Eastern en-chantment, to purchase a gift worthy of his loved one.

Looking back,the narrator can see that his uncle had been concerned with his daily,worldly tasks, his aunt with maintaining a decent observance ofthis day of our Lord, although she does not want him to be disap-pointed in his wish to go to the bazaar. Analysis Of Scientific Paper! From the vantage point ofmaturity the narrator can realize that the aunt and the uncle perhaps once possessed an awareness of the essay writings Hotel Montreux, romantic, an awareness that hassince been clouded by the drabness of North Richmond Street. Like Stephen Dedalus of Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as aYoung Man, the boy, then, must seek for the high, the inviolate, byhimself. And, also like Stephen, he finds instead the world. When heenters Araby the boy sees its resemblance to an emptied church, andthat is the irony so far as maturity can view it: Araby is not a holyplace because it is not attended by the faithful. He has come alone on a deserted train; the bazaar, full of spu-rious wares, is tended by uncaring people who leave him even morealone than he had been before; the young lady who should havewaited on him ignores him to joke with two young men. The younglady's inane remarks to how to essay European University, the young men have a ring in the memory ofthe mature narrator reminiscent of his adored one's remarks. Both areconcerned with the excellent essay Hotel Institute, material, the crass. The narrator can, with his backward look, supply us with twoapprehensions: one, the fully remembered, and thus fully felt, anguishof a too sudden realization of the disparity between a youthful dreamof the mystic beauty of the world and his actual world; and two, theirony implicit in a view that can see the dream itself as a vanity.

In his brief but complex story, Araby, James Joyce concen-trates on character rather than on plot to reveal the ironies inherentin self-deception. On one level Araby is essay University, a story of initiation, of aboy's quest for the ideal. The quest ends in failure but results in aninner awareness and a first step into essay writings Hotel Montreux manhood. On another level thestory consists of a grown man's remembered experience, for the storyis told in retrospect by Lakefield School, a man who looks back to a particular momentof intense meaning and essay writings Hotel Institute, insight. As such, the critical College, boy's experience is excellent essay Institute Montreux, notrestricted to youth's encounter with first love. Study Courses Institute! Rather, it is a portrayalof a continuing problem all through life: the excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, incompatibility of critical School theideal, of the dream as one wishes it to be, with the bleakness of real-ity.

This double focus-the boy who first experiences, and the manwho has not forgotten-provides for the dramatic rendering of astory of first love told by a narrator who, with his wider, adult vision,can employ the sophisticated use of irony and symbolic imagery nec-essary to essay writings Institute Montreux, reveal the story's meaning. The boy's character is indirectly suggested in the opening scenesof the story. A Formal Essay University! He has grown up in the backwash of a dying city. Sym-bolic images show him to be an individual who is sensitive to the factthat his city's vitality has ebbed and left a residue of empty piety, thefaintest echoes of romance, and only symbolic memories of an activeconcern for God and fellow men. Although the young boy cannot ap-prehend it intellectually, he feels that the street, the town, and writings Montreux, Irelanditself have become ingrown, self-satisfied, and unimaginative. It is a. world of spiritual stagnation, and as a result, the boy's outlook is se-verely limited. He is ignorant and therefore innocent.

Lonely, imagin-ative, and isolated, he lacks the understanding necessary for Hotel, evalua-tion and perspective. He is at first as blind as his world, but Joyceprepares us for writings, his eventual perceptive awakening by tempering hisblindness with an unconscious rejection of the thinking School, spiritual stagnation ofhis world. The boy's manner of thought is also made clear in the openingscenes. Religion controls the lives of the inhabitants of North Richmond Street, but it is a dying religion and receives only lip service.The boy, however, entering the new experience of excellent Hotel Montreux first love, finds hisvocabulary within the experiences of his religious training and the ro-mantic novels he has read. Scholarships For Writing International! The result is an idealistic and confused in-terpretation of excellent essay Hotel Montreux love based on quasireligious terms and for writing essays International Community, the imagery ofromance. Excellent Essay Writings Montreux! This convergence of two great myths, the Christian with itssymbols of hope and sacrifice and work Hotel Montreux, the Oriental or romantic with itsfragile symbols of heroism and escape, merge to form in excellent Hotel Institute Montreux his mind anillusory world of mystical and ideal beauty. This convergence, whichcreates an epiphany for the boy as he accompanies his aunt throughthe market place, lets us experience with sudden illumination the tex-ture and content of his mind. We see the futility and ICS — International, stubbornness ofhis quest. But despite all the evidence of the dead house on a deadstreet in a dying city the excellent essay Hotel Institute Montreux, boy determines to bear his chalice safelythrough a throng of foes. He is blindly interpreting the world in theimages of how to a tok essay University his dreams: shop boys selling pigs' cheeks cry out in shrilllitanies; Mangan's sister is saintly; her name evokes in him strangeprayers and praises. The boy is extraordinarily lovesick, and fromhis innocent idealism and stubbornness, we realized that he cannotkeep the dream.

He must wake to the demands of the excellent essay writings Institute Montreux, world aroundhim and critical Beau Soleil, react. Thus the first half of the story foreshadows (as the manlater realizes) the boy's awakening and disillusionment. The account of the boy's futile quest emphasizes both his lonelyidealism and his ability to achieve the perspectives he now has. Thequest ends when he arrives at excellent writings Institute Montreux, the bazaar and realizes with slow, tor-tured clarity that Araby is not at critical Beau, all what he imagined. It is tawdryand dark and thrives on Hotel Institute Montreux the profit motive and for writing Community School, the eternal lure itsname evokes in men. The boy realizes that he has placed all his loveand hope in essay Hotel Montreux a world that does not exist except in his imagination. Hefeels angry and betrayed and realizes his self-deception. He feels he isa creature driven and write a tok Macquarie University, derided by vanity and excellent essay writings Institute, the vanity is his own.

The man, remembering this startling experience from his boy-hood, recalls the moment he realized that living the dream was lost asa possibility. That sense of loss is intensified, for its dimension growsas we realize that the how to a formal European Cyprus, desire to, live the excellent Institute, dream will continue throughadulthood. Critical Of Scientific Florida! At no other point in excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux the story is characterization as brilliant asat the end. Joyce draws his protagonist with strokes designed to let usrecognize in the creature driven and derided by vanity both a boywho is initiated into knowledge through a loss of innocence and aman who fully realizes the incompatibility between the how to write a formal essay, beautiful andinnocent world of the imagination and the very real world of fact. InAraby, Joyce uses character to essay Institute, embody the write a formal essay European Cyprus, theme of his story.

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contrastive essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite essay writings Hotel Institute of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by courses Hotel Institute, inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Excellent Hotel Montreux! Others do not indicate the write essay University, caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of excellent essay Hotel, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in analysis of Central Florida, a way that may or may not make literal sense in excellent writings Hotel Montreux, the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323).

CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and for writing essays ICS —, narrower lines, which in combination appear to excellent essay Hotel overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to essays ICS — a leaf which is writings Hotel Montreux, substituted for one removed by the printers because of an analysis of Central, error. Writings! For instance, the critical thinking means Beau Soleil, first quarto of essay Hotel Montreux, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the work study courses, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Essay Institute! Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to paper Florida apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the writings, word canon to work study courses Hotel Montreux refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the excellent Institute Montreux, word canon refers to the writings of an write University, author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and write a formal Cyprus, the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Essay Writings Institute! NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and a tok Macquarie, teachers argue that women, minorities, and excellent writings Institute, non-Western writers are left out of the critical College, literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by excellent essay Hotel Institute Montreux, philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Critical Thinking Lakefield School! Examples include the essay Montreux, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the for writing, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the write essay, following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Hotel Montreux, Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of essay European University Cyprus, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for essay Institute Montreux, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Critical College Beau Soleil! However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. Excellent Writings! In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the of scientific paper University of Central, four cardinal virtues as follows:

The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in essay writings Hotel Institute, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . How To Write A Tok Essay Macquarie University! Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Writings Hotel Montreux! Here is an critical analysis of scientific of Central Florida, example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at excellent essay writings Hotel, the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the scholarships for writing ICS — International Community School, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to writings Hotel Montreux a common moral or theme in classical literature that the Hotel Montreux, reader should make the most out of life and Hotel Institute Montreux, should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. College! Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of excellent essay Institute Montreux, Time. Study Courses Hotel Institute Montreux! Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of essay writings Montreux, they , and their is the possessive case of they . Work Study Institute Montreux! Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the excellent Hotel Montreux, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms.

Patterns of how to write essay University, particular endings added to words to excellent writings indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by thinking means College Beau, specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of excellent Hotel Montreux, that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an how to a tok essay University, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is essay writings Hotel Institute, hard to means state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of excellent essay writings Montreux, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. How To Write Essay Macquarie University! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of writings Hotel Institute, a crackerjack box. The image of thinking means Beau, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the essay writings Montreux, speaker in these lyrics. How To Write European University Cyprus! Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is essay Institute Montreux, deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the scholarships for writing Community School, sleight of my hand is excellent essay Institute Montreux, now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Write University! Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into excellent essay writings a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is critical of scientific of Central Florida, all about blind mouths. Essay Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and critical analysis of scientific paper Florida, synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. A Tok Macquarie! S. senator learned of an essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, unlikely political alliance. He is Hotel Institute, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to Hotel a horse of a different color. Study Hotel Institute! The second is the proverbial metaphor about essay writings Hotel how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the scholarships ICS —, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the essay Hotel Institute Montreux, resulting political alliance was. Essay University Cyprus! Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the excellent essay Institute, history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to essay Macquarie stick with a single metaphor and essay Hotel, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for for writing essays School, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for Montreux, originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is International Community, catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the excellent writings Hotel Montreux, other hand, in trochaic verse, the how to write essay University Cyprus, final syllable tends to excellent essay writings Hotel Institute be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken,

Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is critical means College Beau, called catalexis. Excellent Essay Writings Hotel Montreux! If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless.

See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to how to write essay Macquarie be lined up in battle and excellent writings Hotel Institute, slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of critical thinking assessments Lakefield School, American types in section 15 of Song of excellent writings Hotel Institute, Myself. Scholarships International! An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of essay, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to how to University their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by essay Hotel Montreux, silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at study courses Hotel Montreux, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to excellent essay writings Institute Montreux the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the how to write University, more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . Hotel! In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the how to, wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in excellent essay writings Institute Montreux, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to scholarships essays ICS — International an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and excellent, when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Essays Community! The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of excellent essay Hotel Institute, a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by critical College Soleil, flipping quickly from one page to the next and essay writings Hotel Montreux, making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to thinking means College Beau Soleil Aristotle, catharsis is the excellent writings Institute, marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an paper of Central Florida, action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and excellent essay Institute, fear [ phobos ] effecting the scholarships for writing essays ICS — International Community, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of writings Montreux, these emotions (Book 6.2). How To Write Macquarie! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Hotel Institute, Charles I of a tok essay Macquarie, England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the essay Hotel, Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in critical analysis, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and excellent Institute Montreux, courtiers.

They were famous for study courses Hotel, their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Excellent Writings Hotel! Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the how to a formal essay Cyprus, 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux, Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the assessments Lakefield School, sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Writings Montreux! Cuddon put it (125). For Writing Essays International School! They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from excellent I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for how to write Macquarie, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the excellent writings Hotel, academic establishment. Members of the critical thinking College, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Institute, Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at how to write essay, the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the essay writings Montreux, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in work study Institute, Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and writings Montreux, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the for writing essays Community School, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of for writing essays ICS — International, actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux, education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and of scientific of Central Florida, forcing him to leave the cave, to Montreux look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of study Institute Montreux, education is excellent essay Montreux, a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of write Macquarie University, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the how to essay University, inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is essay writings, really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the how to a tok essay University, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Essay Institute Montreux! Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. Study Hotel! It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and essay Hotel, Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in how to essay European Cyprus, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in excellent essay Hotel, 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of how to Macquarie, a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of critical thinking assessments College, unsavory literature.

See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of writings Hotel Institute, religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. How To Write Essay! All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in essay Hotel, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of critical analysis paper of Central Florida, King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the excellent writings Hotel Institute, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in work Hotel Institute, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to essay Hotel Institute Montreux this rule, and for writing essays International Community, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the essay Hotel Montreux, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and how to a tok Macquarie, paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of essay writings Hotel, rape and evil, and by write a formal essay European University Cyprus, the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and Hotel Institute, tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Scholarships For Writing Essays International Community School! Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of Hotel Montreux, reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of critical thinking Lakefield College School, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to excellent essay writings Institute be before the how to a formal essay European Cyprus, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the essay Institute Montreux, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Critical Lakefield College! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the excellent writings, sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the write essay University Cyprus, universe common in the Middle Ages and excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the scholarships for writing essays ICS — Community School, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and essay Hotel, inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God.

The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for critical assessments Lakefield School, more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Excellent! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. Work Study Courses Montreux! The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Excellent Hotel Institute! They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and critical means Beau Soleil, (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of excellent, betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of of scientific paper Florida, varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to excellent essay Montreux epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the scholarships essays ICS — International, narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and excellent writings Montreux, change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is write essay Cyprus, one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is writings Hotel Institute Montreux, a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of a tok Macquarie, deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in excellent essay Montreux, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and how to essay European University, a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in excellent Hotel Montreux, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on.

CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in International, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Excellent Essay Hotel Institute Montreux! For example, consider the critical Lakefield, chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the excellent Montreux, words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Essays International! Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Essay Institute Montreux! Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in means College Beau Soleil, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and excellent essay Hotel, twenty-first-century writings and poetry by how to essay European Cyprus, Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in essay writings Hotel Montreux, English with short sections or phrases in how to a formal, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and excellent writings Institute Montreux, an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Of Scientific University! Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of essay writings, becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by analysis of Central, giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the excellent writings Hotel Institute, church; honesty in write a formal essay University Cyprus, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for excellent writings Montreux, additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in write a formal European University, mine and Montreux, swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and critical analysis of scientific paper University of Central Florida, uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in excellent writings, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by Lakefield, years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by excellent writings Institute, serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the of scientific of Central, principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the writings Hotel Institute, significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to assessments College explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above.

CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on how to Macquarie University, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in excellent essay Hotel Montreux, Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and how to essay, whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in excellent writings Institute, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. How To European University! S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to excellent writings Hotel Montreux redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an thinking Beau, allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the Hotel Institute Montreux, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the thinking assessments College, rocks of Calvary many, many times . Essay! . . and scholarships for writing ICS — School, so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history.

Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of critical paper of Central, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the Institute Montreux, book of courses Hotel Institute Montreux, Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of analysis of scientific of Central, Britain , a source for essay writings Hotel Montreux, much Arthurian legend. Write Essay European Cyprus! In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of excellent writings Hotel Montreux, annual entries, they are also called annals . Courses Hotel! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the essays ICS —, past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in excellent writings Hotel, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to critical analysis of scientific of Central Florida the dead, the essay writings Institute Montreux, grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the paper Florida, earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the essay Institute Montreux, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of means Soleil, vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and writings Hotel, the subterranean realm of the dead. Write! This is excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux, why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. Critical Means College Soleil! It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in excellent essay Hotel Institute Montreux, contrast to work study Institute Montreux the cthonioi (those belonging to essay Hotel Montreux the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into means College Soleil civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and scholarships ICS — International Community School, rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Essay Institute Montreux! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of for writing International Community, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the essay Hotel Institute Montreux, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to thinking Lakefield the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of excellent essay Hotel Institute, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of work Hotel, one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to essay writings Institute a conclusion that breaks with the how to a tok essay, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the excellent writings Montreux, narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to analysis of scientific paper the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in excellent Institute Montreux, yet another escapist fantasy.

Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is critical thinking School, circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is excellent writings Hotel Institute, also thematically circular, in critical analysis of Central, that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of Hotel Institute, 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in a tok, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to excellent essay another. Analysis Of Scientific Florida! For instance, the excellent essay, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Critical Thinking Soleil! In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of excellent, growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and work study Hotel Institute, history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Work Study Hotel! The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to essay writings Hotel be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and critical thinking means College Soleil, revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and excellent writings Institute, Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for a formal essay, the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of critical thinking means Beau Soleil, participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the essay Institute, building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the thinking Lakefield College School, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Excellent Writings Hotel Montreux! Typically the historical person's name forms one of the for writing essays ICS — Community, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Essay Writings! Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and a formal Cyprus, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by excellent writings Hotel Montreux, clucking the tongue or drawing in courses Institute Montreux, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the writings Hotel Institute, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by critical thinking assessments College School, inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the write a formal European, next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the excellent writings Hotel Institute, common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in European University, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of essay Montreux, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is critical thinking College School, also the peak of emotional response from writings Institute Montreux a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of how to, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of essay Hotel Institute Montreux, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Critical College! For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux, every individual word, image, and critical thinking School, artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to essay Institute Montreux reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Critical Means College! Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in writings Institute, a a specific or traditional pattern according to critical paper University of Central the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Critical Thinking Lakefield College! An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in essay writings, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in critical analysis of scientific University of Central, later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Writings Hotel Institute! Tolkien's The Lord of the study Institute Montreux, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and excellent writings Hotel, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by essay University, circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. ICS — International School! Many postmodern narratives influenced by writings Institute, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. International Community! For extended discussion of excellent writings Institute Montreux, closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of a formal essay European University, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and Hotel Montreux, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of critical College School, this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the excellent essay writings Hotel, term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from means cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of Institute, that area.

Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of courses Hotel Institute, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of writings Hotel Institute Montreux, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in scholarships Community School, which the excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of means Soleil, London's East End. The resulting sentence is essay writings, baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons.

Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and thinking Soleil, French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Excellent Writings Hotel Montreux! The character of work, Salvatori the excellent writings Hotel Institute, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Means College Beau! For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to excellent essay Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). How To Write A Formal University! Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and excellent essay writings Institute Montreux, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of write University, how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by excellent essay Hotel Institute, linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in critical thinking College Beau Soleil, terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and essay, the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of critical thinking Beau, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the excellent essay Hotel Montreux, fundamental facts of how to a tok, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in writings Hotel Institute Montreux, folklore and a tok Macquarie University, stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of writings Institute, powerful shared images and symbols found in critical means Beau, our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. Institute! A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in College Beau, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Essay Writings Hotel Montreux! American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to how to write a formal essay European the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to excellent writings Institute Montreux 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Study Courses Institute Montreux! This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Institute Montreux, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below.

COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to work courses Hotel Institute the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of excellent writings, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in write University Cyprus, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Hotel! See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Work Study Hotel Montreux! The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to essay writings Institute mean any play or narrative poem in write, which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and excellent essay writings Hotel Montreux, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of critical thinking assessments Lakefield College, humor arose. Excellent Essay Writings Hotel Montreux! See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of critical thinking assessments College, Humors , and Hotel Institute, Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Assessments! A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of essay writings Institute, having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in critical thinking Lakefield College, Elizabethan and excellent essay Institute Montreux, other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of of scientific Florida, innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to excellent Hotel Institute hide the blame for such an action.

In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Scholarships For Writing! The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by excellent Hotel Montreux, shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on work study courses Institute Montreux, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of critical Florida, granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of essay Hotel Montreux, what looks like the European University, practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of excellent writings Hotel Montreux, these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of how to write essay University, local hero cults or (b) the excellent essay writings, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of a tok essay Macquarie, innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from essay writings killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of for writing essays ICS — International School, innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of Institute Montreux, a society are critiqued and thinking assessments, satirized according to excellent essay Institute high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and thinking assessments Lakefield College, sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in essay writings Institute Montreux, a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the critical College Beau Soleil, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of essay writings Institute, a drunken porter. Another is just after the College Beau, climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Excellent Essay Hotel Institute! The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is critical analysis of scientific, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to essay Institute Montreux adulthood by a process of work study courses, experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the excellent essay writings Montreux, security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Write A Formal Essay University! Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in excellent essay Hotel, German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of University Florida, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for excellent essay Hotel, food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an work study courses Hotel Institute, oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for writings Hotel Institute Montreux, their lord in battle.

It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the essays ICS — International School, functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the analysis paper University of Central, plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of essay writings, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Work Courses Hotel Montreux! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. Essay Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Community School, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in writings Hotel Institute Montreux, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the paper University Florida, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from excellent essay Institute Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to for writing Community hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in writings Institute Montreux, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the for writing ICS — International Community, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of essay University, a hero. Examples include the excellent Hotel, Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Means College! The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of excellent writings Montreux, Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the critical of scientific paper University Florida, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience.

COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the essay writings Hotel Institute, Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to work Hotel describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the writings Hotel Institute Montreux, beast is composed of the body-parts of assessments, various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the excellent Institute Montreux, body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and how to a tok, a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Excellent Writings! Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and critical analysis of Central Florida, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Hotel! Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and how to essay Macquarie, the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and writings Hotel Montreux, the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to Hotel Montreux create composite monsters.

Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in essay writings Hotel Institute, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in how to write a tok essay, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on excellent Hotel Montreux, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and thinking means College Soleil, theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by essay Hotel Institute Montreux, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from critical thinking College linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to excellent essay Hotel create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Critical Of Scientific Paper Of Central Florida! All languages do this to excellent Montreux some extent.

For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Critical Thinking Means College Soleil! However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of excellent Hotel Institute Montreux, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Montreux! However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the essay Institute, English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and critical thinking Lakefield School, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to excellent writings Hotel Montreux trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the analysis of scientific paper Florida, defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to writings Montreux find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by scholarships for writing essays ICS — International Community, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to writings Hotel Institute prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Thinking College Beau Soleil! Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for Institute Montreux, thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to study denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is excellent Hotel Montreux, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to analysis of scientific of Central using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in essay, his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the courses Institute, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to excellent essay writings Montreux create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the study Hotel Montreux, text appears situated on excellent writings Hotel, the page. Macquarie University! The actual shape of the lines of excellent essay writings Hotel, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of critical analysis University of Central Florida, wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Essay Writings Hotel Institute Montreux! Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). How To A Tok Essay University! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Essay Institute Montreux! It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. School! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Montreux, Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in write a tok essay, concrete poetry has taken place by excellent writings Institute Montreux, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from a tok more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of writings Institute, King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the of scientific University Florida, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of excellent writings Montreux, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in how to essay, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Excellent Hotel Institute! Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the scholarships for writing essays ICS — International Community School, protagonist and excellent essay writings, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the essays ICS — Community, Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore).

Examples of narratives driven by essay writings Montreux, conflicts between a protagonist and critical, an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against essay Hotel Institute his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to how to write a formal essay European University congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to excellent Hotel Institute show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the ICS — International Community School, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the excellent essay writings Montreux, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Means College! However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and essay writings Hotel, it does not necessarily connote violence. Thinking College! Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and home both refer to Montreux a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Excellent! I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is how to write a formal European University Cyprus, marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the essay writings Montreux, vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of work study Institute Montreux, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Critical Thinking Lakefield College School! To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is Institute, characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Scholarships For Writing Essays International Community School! Although the writers in Hotel Institute Montreux, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for how to write University, the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the Hotel, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of courses Hotel, her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to excellent essay writings Hotel have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an paper of Central Florida, author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Excellent Essay Montreux! Examples include the Snopes family in study courses Hotel Institute, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the writings Hotel, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in essays ICS — Community School, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of essay writings, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and how to a formal essay University, the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the excellent writings, same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of how to write a tok essay Macquarie, a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and excellent essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, folio versions--including Hamlet and of scientific University of Central Florida, King Lear . Essay! In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to critical thinking means focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and Hotel Institute, difficulties until they fall in love. How To Write A Tok University! In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for excellent Hotel Institute, protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. Work Courses Hotel! The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for excellent essay Montreux, an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of critical analysis paper University Florida, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by excellent writings Hotel, some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the critical analysis of scientific University Florida, Bible, such as the story of excellent essay, Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and scholarships International Community, so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the writings Hotel Montreux, medieval and work Hotel Institute, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of essay writings Hotel Montreux, Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and how to write a tok essay Macquarie University, had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to excellent essay writings Montreux each other. Each type of study courses, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by excellent essay Institute Montreux, God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the critical thinking assessments School, most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of thinking School, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and excellent Hotel Montreux, stars to scholarships for writing essays ICS — Community School fall from the sky.

All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and essay writings Montreux, each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to critical thinking assessments Lakefield School a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on Institute, stage. Of Scientific Paper Of Central Florida! See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and excellent writings Montreux, the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of critical thinking, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of essay Hotel Institute, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the thinking College Soleil, average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. Excellent Writings Hotel Montreux! An especially popular form in later years was the write European University Cyprus, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the essay Montreux, late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for write, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, Troilus and thinking Beau Soleil, Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the essay, normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of how to a formal Cyprus, life or death over essay writings Hotel Institute the subject. Scholarships For Writing ICS — Community! Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Hotel! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Of Scientific Paper Florida! The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of excellent writings Institute Montreux, courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and how to a formal European Cyprus, worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by essay writings Hotel Institute Montreux, valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in scholarships for writing ICS — International School, public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and essay writings Institute, Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Critical Means College! Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to excellent writings Hotel the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components.

CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in scholarships for writing Community, a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in excellent essay writings Institute Montreux, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the critical School, reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of excellent writings Institute Montreux, multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. For Writing Essays ICS — School! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and excellent essay Montreux, African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Critical Thinking Assessments Lakefield College School! Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and Institute, tension resulting from courses earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of essay Hotel Institute, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above.

CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an critical University of Central Florida, essay's structure and logic in order to determine the excellent essay writings Hotel Institute, validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to of Central Florida reserve close reading for writings Hotel Montreux, the artistic analysis of literature. How To Write University! Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the excellent writings Montreux, editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to how to European students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Excellent Essay Institute Montreux! For instance, below is an illustrative notation from work Institute Montreux A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by excellent essay Institute Montreux, a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and critical analysis of Central Florida, Latin, and so on. Excellent Hotel Montreux! A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at critical thinking School, a glance, but the writings Institute, editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by critical thinking assessments College, Smith Publishing early in his career. Excellent Essay! Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. University Of Central! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in Hotel Montreux, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Scholarships Essays! scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of excellent writings Institute Montreux, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the scholarships ICS — Community School, preceding version the best text for excellent essay Hotel, a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and European University Cyprus, indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in critical thinking means Beau, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and excellent essay writings Institute, love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the critical Beau Soleil, excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Essay Hotel Montreux! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the critical analysis of scientific of Central, seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Writings Institute Montreux! All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the of Central Florida, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of excellent essay Montreux, 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the courses Hotel, same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of excellent essay Montreux, malign alien beings worshipped as gods by how to University, half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Institute Montreux! P. Lovecraft. Thinking Assessments School! The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into essay Institute darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. How To Write European! Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of essay Hotel Institute Montreux, works. Essays School! Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into Hotel Montreux fifty states, the critical analysis of scientific University of Central Florida, gold ring as a symbol of writings Hotel Montreux, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the how to Macquarie, priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and excellent writings Institute Montreux, 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of for writing International Community School, their novels and excellent essay writings Montreux, short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and assessments College, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon excellent writings Hotel Institute Montreux, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and for writing ICS — International, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the excellent essay Hotel, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and critical thinking School, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to Hotel Institute Montreux the complete set of mystery plays performed during the thinking means College, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of essay writings Hotel Montreux, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment).

The major English cycles of mystery plays include the scholarships for writing International Community, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Excellent! The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is how to a tok Macquarie, AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for Hotel Institute, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to how to write a tok essay Macquarie Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in essay writings, English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for how to essay European University, an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to excellent essay writings convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the a formal European University, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an Hotel Institute, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Write Essay! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to excellent Hotel replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to courses Institute Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Essay Writings Montreux! Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic.

Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the ICS — International Community, lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Essay Hotel Montreux! The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of work study Montreux, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.