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Beowulf: Beowulf and Epic Hero Essay. How To University! Beowulf As An Epic Hero. Beowulf was an extraordinary epic hero in his time. Epic heroes have many traits that others lack, among these are physical strength, bravery, and write a biography Algonquin wisdom all attributes of Beowulf. It all started out how to write with his family, they were fully christian and of Canberra strong hearted about it.
But also his father on the other hand was a famous soldier, known far and wide as a leader of men (175-176). Edgetho (his father) is where he got his strength from and learned how to how to essay City, battle. Also where Beowulf obtained his bravery and mastery leadership skills. Related Documents: Beowulf: Beowulf and reviews Lakefield College School Epic Hero Essay. How To Write City, University Of London! christen. Beowulf is an how to The University of Canberra (Navitas), epic hero witch reflects the values of an Anglo Saxon warrior. In the beginning of the poem Beowulf leads fourteen of his best men on his quest to slay the terrible monster Grendel. Write College Essay! And in his last battle he leads many men against how to a biography College, the dragon.
His leadership marks him as a respected warrior. Write College Essay University Of London! He shows his honor by saying “Now I am old, but as king of the people I shall pursue this fight for the glory of winning”(2512 ). Online Assignments D'Overbroeck's College! Leadership is but one quality that the Anglo. Words 737 - Pages 3. ? September 10, 2013 Beowulf What embodies the true characteristics of write college City, University of London a hero? Within the epic poem Beowulf, the Anglia (INTO) protagonist portrays countless qualities to help define the true essence of essay a hero. In the ninth century a hero was expected to be courageous, strong, and loyal. How To For College Bodwell High! In order to live up to the expectations of a ninth century hero you must be courageous. In Beowulf’s final battle he was well aware he would be encountering his sudden demise but he didn’t flee.
Beowulf stayed to fight. Write Essay! Words 346 - Pages 2. Write A Journal For College Bodwell School! Every novel has to come from somewhere, the inspiration just does not come out of how to college City, University no where. Write A Journal Bodwell High! The inspiration can come from many of places, including personal life experience. Some other places writers get their inspiration from are how they were raised, time period they lived in, and tragic experiences. Write Essay City, University Of London! Others may just write about what they personally believe in. A good example would be Kate Chopin, author of many short stories, whom gets her inspiration from all the characteristics named.
She. Words 730 - Pages 3. Jonathon Carroll Mrs. Cristy Edwards English Literature and Composition June 6, 2013 What Makes a Hero Epic? What is online assignments, a hero? What does it take to write college University of London become a hero? It can be said that there are as many answers to Bodwell these questions are there are heroes. The dictionary defines a hero as, “A person, typically a man, who is essay University of London, admired for courage or noble qualities”. Hero’s have long been the essay University of East (INTO) subject of many genres in literature. One of the most revered epic poems is Beowulf. But what. Words 433 - Pages 2. taking on the dragon, even in how to college City, of London, his elder years.
Beowulf was almost certain he would perish in the battle. He knew that he would either face the dragon, and most likely die, or let the dragon continue to devastate his kingdom. He always put his people’s needs ahead of himself, and his people respected him for that. Strength, generosity, and courage are some of the characteristics that Beowulf demonstrated to show that he was a prime example of an epic hero. His bravery and strength surpass. Words 646 - Pages 3. ?Beowulf: Epic Hero Final Essay Gillespie British Lit The legendary hero Beowulf had great -- sometimes superhuman -- physical strength, incredible bravery and confidence, and he was protected by special armor and Lakefield College weapons. He was also accompanied by how to write college City, of London a loyal friend, Wiglaf, who assisted him when he needed help defeating the dragon. A hero had to have courage, strength, and the will to overcome obstacles. He had to be a good leader and a father figure to his followers. He would be merciless.
Words 316 - Pages 2. Beowulf: Beowulf and Epic Hero Essay. Beowulf the Epic Hero Carmela Patriz Lagahit Ms.Rowland/5th Period September 24, 2012 “A Hero is a man who is afraid to run away” – English Proverb. Article Writing American University Preparatory School! In the epic poem Beowulf by the Beowulf Poet, the essay University protagonist named Beowulf, illustrates the characteristics of a true epic hero by going on a long journey to slay a supernatural being. He also correctly emulates an epic hero by executing daring and courageous deeds that reflect the value of an era. Lastly, by performing actions that. Words 758 - Pages 4. How To A Journal For College Bodwell High School! Beowulf: Beowulf and Epic Hero Essay.
Beowulf, the Hero Beowulf constantly shows that he is a hero worth remembering. He is more than a hero, he is an epic hero. An epic hero is an extraordinary person that reflects a certain culture’s values while performing heroic deeds for others. Beowulf is an how to write college City,, Anglo-Saxon epic hero that exemplifies heroic characteristics, such as his faithfulness to debts or oaths, reliance on fate, and boastfulness or pride. Beowulf’s faithfulness to his oaths and debts is one of the of East (INTO) many characteristics.
Words 308 - Pages 2. Grendel’s mother. In the fight between Beowulf and Grendel, evil shows in Grendel and Beowulf represents goodness. Darkness shows as a symbol of evil. “A powerful monster, living down in darkness, growled in pain” (1-2). Beowulf sets out to how to write college essay City, of London defend the Danish and emerge as the epic hero. “Beowulf, Higlac’s follower, and the strongest of the Geats—greater and stronger than anyone anywhere in this world—heard how Grendel filled nights with horror and quickly commanded a boat fitted out, proclaiming. Words 804 - Pages 4. ?Kubra Akyuz Dr. Roy Literature 104 Essay 1 Good Triumph over Evil Beowulf is one of the earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon epic poems. It illustrates the story of Beowulf, an epic hero fated to triumph demonic monster in order to save a kingdom from destruction. In Beowulf, the conflict between good and evil is the main theme.
The epic poem portrays Beowulf’s experiences coming from land of the Bodwell School Geats to save Danes. Throughout his. Words 549 - Pages 3. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the write college essay University of London respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website. All content of site and tests copyright 2017 Study Mode, LLC.
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oman essay The Bogus Bones Caper. [This article is being mirrored from http://home.tiac.net/ This is the home page for Piltdown man, a paleontological man who never was. In April of 1996 there was an extended discussion in the talk.origins news group about the how to write essay University of London Piltdown man hoax. During the discussion I checked the web and write Algonquin College discovered that Piltdown man did not have a home page. How To Write College University? I resolved to eliminate this deficiency in online d'Overbroeck's College the scholarly resources of the world wide web; here, for your delectation, is Piltdown man's home page. Corrections and college University suggestions for article guidelines improvement are welcome. This page has been laid out so that it can be read sequentially or so that you can skip around in how to write college City, University it using links. Perswasive Essay University Of East Anglia (INTO)? It is broken up into sections and subsections.
Each section is headed by a list of links to the other sections. College Essay Of London? Each subsection has links back to the list of sub sections. There are brief biographies and a bibliography with internal links to them through out the assignments text. This page is a self contained, text only, document. However there are links to supporting documents and pictures. I am far from being the best qualified person to write college of London, put together a substantive page on Piltdown man -- they are many others who have a better knowledge of the how to a biography College subject and who command more scholarly resources.
However people have been very kind, indeed enthusiastic, in helping to fill in the gaps. Even though I am the original author of the page and its editor-in-chief this page is, in a real sense, a collaborative effort. Special thanks are due to Robert Parson (rparson@spot.Colorado.EDU) and Jim Foley (Jim.Foley@symbios.com) who have made many invaluable suggestions and corrections. City, Of London? I also wish to thank Wesley Elsberry (firstname.lastname@example.org) who found Betrayers of the Truth , David Bagnall (email@example.com) who pointed out the Matthews articles in the New Scientist , and Robert B. Anderson (andersons@InfoHouse.com) who has written articles on the hoax. Special thanks are also due to Tom Turrittin (firstname.lastname@example.org) who has created a comprehensive bibliography of Lakefield College School references since 1953 to Piltdown man. He has made it available as a pair of web pages and has graciously agreed to let me maintain a mirrored copy at this site. The web sites has links both to the mirrored copy and to the original copy. Finally, I wish to write college University of London, thank Gerrell Drawhorn (email@example.com) who has provided a copy of his 1994 paper for inclusion at this site. Piltdown man is one of the most famous frauds in the history of science.
In 1912 Charles Dawson discovered the first of two skulls found in the Piltdown quarry in Sussex, England, skulls of an apparently primitive hominid, an ancestor of man. Piltdown man, or Eoanthropus dawsoni to writing University, use his scientific name, was a sensation. He was the expected missing link a mixture of human and ape with the noble brow of Homo sapiens and a primitive jaw. Best of all, he was British! As the years went by and new finds of how to write essay City, of London ancient hominids were made, Piltdown man became an anomaly that didn't fit in, a creature without a place in the human family tree. Finally, in 1953, the truth came out. Piltdown man was a hoax, the most ancient of people who never were.
This is his story. My principal source for the original version of this page is Ronald Millar's The Piltdown Men . This book is an account of the entire Piltdown affair from beginning to end, including not merely the how to The University (Navitas) circumstances but the general background of the paleontology and evolutionary theory with respect to essay, human ancestry during the period 1850-1950. A number of important books have also been written on the hoax, e.g. works by Spencer, Weiner, Blinderman, and Walsh, and have been valuable resources. In following the history of the hoax it is Bodwell School useful to college essay City,, have a time line showing the how to write essay College principal events. The time line runs as follows:
1856 -- Neanderthal man discovered. 1856 -- Dryopithecus discovered. 1859 -- Origin of Species published. 1863 -- Moulin Quignon forgeries exposed. 1869 -- Cro Magnon man discovered.
1871 -- The Descent of Man published. 1890 -- Java Man discovered. 1898 -- Galley hill man discovered [modern, misinterpreted] 1903 -- First molar of Peking man found. 1907 -- Heidelberg man discovered. 1908 -- Dawson (1908-1911) discovers first Piltdown fragments. 1909 -- Dawson and Teilhard de Chardin meet. 1912 -- February: Dawson contacts Woodward about first skull fragments. 1912 -- June: Dawson, Woodward, and Teilhard form digging team.
1912 -- June: Team finds elephant molar, skull fragment. 1912 -- June: Right parietal skull bones and the jaw bone discovered. 1912 -- Summer: Barlow, Pycraft, G.E. Smith, and Lankester join team. 1912 -- November: News breaks in the popular press. 1912 -- December: Official presentation of Piltdown man. 1913 -- August: the college City, of London canine tooth is found by Teilhard. 1914 -- Tool made from write The University of Canberra, fossil elephant thigh bone found. 1914 -- Talgai (Australia) man found, considered confirming of Piltdown. 1915 -- Piltdown II found by Dawson (according to Woodward)
1916 -- Dawson dies. 1917 -- Woodward announces discovery of Piltdown II. 1921 -- Osborn and Gregory converted by how to college essay City,, Piltdown II. 1921 -- Rhodesian man discovered. 1923 -- Teilhard arrives in reviews College School China. 1924 -- Dart makes first Australopithecus discovery. 1925 -- Edmonds reports Piltdown geology error. Report ignored.
1929 -- First skull of Peking man found. 1934 -- Ramapithecus discovered. 1935 -- Many (38 individuals) Peking man fossils have been found. 1935 -- Swanscombe man [genuine] discovered. 1937 -- Marston attacks Piltdown age estimate, cites Edmonds. 1941 -- Peking man fossils lost in military action. 1943 -- Fluorine content test is college first proposed. 1948 -- Woodward publishes The Earliest Englishman. 1949 -- Fluorine content test establishes Piltdown man as relatively recent. 1951 -- Edmonds report no geological source for article reviews Lakefield College School Piltdown animal fossils. 1953 -- Weiner, Le Gros Clark, and Oakley expose the hoax.
In 1856 the first Neanderthal fossil discovery was made and the hunt was on to find fossil remains of human ancestors. In the next half century finds were made in continental Europe and in Asia but not in Britain. City, University? Finally, in 1912, the sun rose on British paleontology -- fossil remains of an ancient pleistocene hominid were found in the Piltdown quarries in Sussex. In the period 1912 to 1915 the Piltdown quarries yielded two skulls, a canine tooth, and a mandible of Eoanthropus , a tool carved from an Anglia (INTO), elephant tusk, and fossil teeth from a number of pleistocene animals. There is a certain vagueness about some of the critical events. Dawson contacted Woodward about the first two skull fragments which were supposedly found by workman some years prior.
Exactly when is unknown. Similarly, the how to essay City, University of London discovery of Piltdown II is shrouded in mystery. Supposedly Dawson and an anonymous friend make the discovery 1915; however the friend and the location of the find are unknown. The reaction to the finds was mixed. On the whole the British paleontologists were enthusiastic; the French and American paleontologists tended to be skeptical, some objected quite vociferously. The objectors held that the jawbone and the skull were obviously from two different animals and that their discovery together was simply an accident of placement.
In the period 1912-1917 there was a great deal of skepticism. The report in 1917 of the discovery of Piltdown II converted many of the skeptics; one accident of how to essay placement was plausible -- two were not. It should be remembered that, at how to write college City,, the time of Piltdown finds, there were very few early hominid fossils; Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens were clearly fairly late. It was expected that there was a missing link between ape and man. It was an open question as to what that missing link would look like. Piltdown man had the expected mix of features, which lent it plausibility as a human precursor. This plausibility did not hold up. During the next two decades there were a number of finds of ancient hominids and near hominids, e.g.
Dart's discovery of Australopithecus , the Peking man discoveries, and other Homo erectus and australopithecine finds. Piltdown man did not fit in with the new discoveries. None the less, Sir Arthur Keith (a major defender of write a journal High Piltdown man) wrote in 1931: It is therefore possible that Piltdown man does represent the early pleistocene ancestor of the modern type of man, He may well be the how to write college City, of London ancestor we have been in perswasive University (INTO) search of during all these past years. I am therefore inclined to make the write college essay City, University of London Piltdown type spring from the main ancestral stem of essay College modern humanity.
In the write essay City, of London period 1930-1950 Piltdown man was increasingly marginalized and by 1950 was, by and large, simply ignored. It was carried in the books as a fossil hominid. From time to time it was puzzled over article guidelines American Preparatory School, and then dismissed again. The American Museum of Natural History quietly classified it as a mixture of ape and man fossils. Over the years it had become an anomaly; some prominent authors did not even bother to list it. College Of London? In Bones of Contention Roger Lewin quotes Sherwood Washburn as saying. I remember writing a paper on human evolution in 1944, and I simply left Piltdown out. Online? You could make sense of human evolution if you didn't try to put Piltdown into it. Finally, in 1953, the roof fell in. Write City, University? Piltdown man was not an ancestor; it was not a case of erroneous interpretation; it was a case of outright deliberate fraud.
From the chronology and the later reconstruction of events it is fairly clear that there never were any significant fossils at the Piltdown quarry. It was salted from time to time with fossils to be found. Once the hoax was exposed, Sir Kenneth Oakley went on to apply more advanced tests to perswasive University, find where the bones had come from and how old they were. His main findings were: Piltdown I skull: Medieval, human,
Piltdown II skull: Same source as Piltdown I skull. Piltdown I jawbone: Orangutan jaw, 500 years old, probably from Sarawak. Elephant molar: Genuine fossil, probably from write essay of London, Tunisia. Hippopotamus tooth: Genuine fossil, probably from essay Anglia (INTO), Malta or Sicily. Canine tooth: Pleistocene chimpanzee fossil. Originally it had been believed that one skull had been used; later, more precise dating established in 1989 that two different skulls had been used, one for each of the two skull finds. The skulls were unusually thick; a condition that is quite rare in how to college the general population but is common among the Ona indian tribe in Patagonia. How To Bodwell High School? The jawbone was not definitely established as being that of an orangutan until 1982.
Drawhorn's paper summarizes all that is currently known about the provenance of the bones that were used. Not only were the bones gathered from a variety of sources, they were given a thorough going treatment to make them appear to be genuinely ancient. A solution containing iron was used to stain the bones; fossil bones deposited in gravel pick up iron and manganese. [It is essay City, unclear whether the solution also contained manganese: Millar mentions that manganese was present; Hall, who did the tests for perswasive essay Anglia manganese, says that it was not.] Before staining the bones (except for the jawbone) were treated with Chromic acid to convert the bone apatite (mineral component) to gypsum to write college essay City, University, facilitate the intake of the iron and manganese (?) solution used to stain the bones. The skull may have also been boiled in an iron sulphate solution. The canine tooth was painted after staining, probably with Van Dyke brown. The jaw bone molars were filed to how to write a journal Bodwell High, fit. The connection where the jawbone would meet the rest of the skull was carefully broken so that there would be no evidence of lack of fit. The canine tooth was filed to show wear (and was patched with chewing gum). It was filled with sand as it might have been if it had been in the Ouse river bed.
With few exceptions nobody suggested that the finds were a hoax until the very end. The beginning of the end came when a new dating technique, the write essay City, University fluorine absorption test, became available. The Piltdown fossils were dated with this test in d'Overbroeck's 1949; the tests established that the fossils were relatively modern. Even so, they were still accepted as genuine. How To Write College Essay University Of London? For example, in Nature, 1950, p 165, New Evidence on the Antiquity of how to essay of Canberra (Navitas) Piltdown Man Oakley wrote: The results of the fluorine test have considerably increased the probability that the [Piltdown] mandible and cranium represent the same creature.
The relatively late date indicated by college City, University of London, the summary of evidence suggests moreover that Piltdown man, far from being an early primitive type, may have been a late specialized hominid which evolved in comparative isolation. In this case the peculiarities of the mandible and the excessive thickness of the University of East (INTO) cranium might well be interpreted as secondary or gerontic developments. In 1925 Edmonds had pointed out that Dawson was in error in his geological dating of the Piltdown gravels: they were younger than Dawson had assumed. In 1951 he published an write essay City, of London, article pointing out article reviews Lakefield College School, that there was no plausible source for the Piltdown animal fossils. Millar (p203) writes:
The older group of Piltdown animals, he said, were alleged to have been washed from a Pliocene land deposit in the Weald. Edmonds thought there must be some misunderstanding. There was no Pliocene land deposit in write essay University of London the entire Weald which could have produced them. the only local Pliocene beds were marine in origin and lay above the essay Anglia five-hundred foot contour line. In July 1953 an international congress of how to write college City, University paleontologists, under the auspices of the Wenner-Gren Foundation, was held in London. Essay The University Of Canberra? The world's fossil men were put up, admired and set down again. But, according to Dr. J.S. How To Write College City, University? Weiner, Piltdown man got barely a mention. He did not fit in.
He was a piece of the University (INTO) jig-saw puzzle; the right colour but the write college of London wrong shape. It was at the congress that the possibility of fraud dawned on write essay Algonquin, Weiner. Once the possibility had raised it was easy to establish that the college essay finds were a fraud. Millar writes: The original Piltdown teeth were produced and examined by the three scientists. The evidence of fake could seen immediately. The first and second molars were worn to the same degree; the inner margins of the d'Overbroeck's lower teeth were more worn than the outer -- the 'wear' was the wrong way round; the edges of the teeth were sharp and how to write City, unbevelled; the a biography Algonquin College exposed areas of dentine were free of how to essay City, University of London shallow cavities and flush with the article reviews School surrounding enamel; the write essay City, University of London biting surface of the two molars did not form a uniform surface, the planes were out of alignment. That the teeth might have been misplaced after the death of Piltdown man was considered but an X-ray showed the lower contact surfaces of the roots were correctly positioned. How To Write College? This X-ray also revealed that contrary to the 1916 radiograph the how to write essay City, roots were unnaturally similar in perswasive Anglia (INTO) length and disposition. The molar surface were examined under a microscope. They were scarred by criss-cross scratches suggesting the how to college of London use of an abrasive. 'The evidences of artificial abrasion immediately sprang to the eye' wrote Le Gros Clark. 'Indeed so obvious did they [the scratches] seem it may well be asked -- how was it that they had escaped notice before?' He answered his question with a beautiful simplicity. 'They had never been looked for. nobody previously had examined the Piltdown jaw with the idea of a possible forgery in mind, a deliberate fabrication.'
Why then was the fraud so successful? Briefly, (a) the team finding the specimans (Dawson, Woodward, Teilhard) had excellent credentials, (b) incompetence on the part of the British Paleontological community, (c) the American School relatively primitive analytical tools available circa 1920, (d) skill of the forgery, (e) it matched what was expected from theory, and (f) as Millar remarks, the hoax led a charmed life. As a matter of of London practice, a fraud or hoax is much more likely to article reviews Lakefield School, succeed if it appears to be validated by an authority. In general, one does not expect a professional in college City, University a field to article, concoct a hoax. Experience teaches that this expectation is not always met. Although the team had excellent credentials none was truly competent in dealing with hominid fossils; their expertise lay elsewhere. How To College City, University? The British museum people, Woodward and how to write for college Bodwell School Pycraft, made numerous errors of reconstruction and interpretation. The only expert in the expanded team, Grafton Eliot Smith, was strangely silent about some of the errors.
It is hard for us today to fully grasp how primitive the analytical tools available to write essay University, the paleontologists of that time were. Chemical tests and write Algonquin College dating techniques taken for granted today were not available. The analysis of the details of tooth wear was less worked out. The simple knowledge of geology was much less detailed. The importance of careful establishment of the provenance of fossils was not appreciated. In short, the paleontologists of 1915 were an easier lot to write college City, University, fool. At the write essay of Canberra time there were virtually no hominid fossils finds except for some of the early Neanderthal finds.
The reconstruction of human evolution was very much an open question. The Piltdown specimens fit one of the leading speculations. The forger knew what anatomical and paleontological tests the specimens would be given. As Hammond points out, a key reason why the hoax succeeded was because it fit in very well with the theories of the time. Boule had recently (erroneously) discredited Neanderthal man as being close to write college essay City,, the main hominid line (1908-1912). Perswasive Essay University Anglia? Elliot Smith felt that the how to write college essay City, of London large brain case would have developed first. Sollas did not, but did strongly support mosaic evolution, i.e., features appearing in patches rather in a smooth transition. It was his opinion that human dentition developed before the human jaw. Woodward and others believed that eoliths (supposed very early stone tools) indicated the presence of an early, intelligent hominid in England.
Piltdown man, with his large braincase, his simian jaw, and article Lakefield his near human dentition fit the theoretical picture. The hoax had a charmed life. Features that might have exposed the how to college hoax didn't get caught because of small errors in procedure. Guidelines University Preparatory? For example, the hoax would have been exposed immediately had a test of the jaw for essay organic matter been made. Perswasive Essay University Of East Anglia? Tests were made on the cranial fragments, but these were sufficiently well mineralized to pass. The X-rays taken were of poor quality, even for the time. The dentist Lyne pointed out the incongruity between the how to college of London heavy wear on the canine and its large pulp cavity, a sign of article writing guidelines American Preparatory School youth.
This was interpreted as secondary dentine formation, an explanation that worked because of the poor quality of the X-rays. The erroneous wear pattern on the molars, which was obvious when Weiner looked at write college University, the casts, was never noticed. Online? Nor were they carefully examined under a microscope -- the abrasion marks would have been seen. Who did it? Who perpetrated the hoax? When the essay University hoax was exposed nobody knew who the perpetrator was. No one confessed to the deed.
For forty odd years people have speculated about the identity of the culprit; over time an Lakefield School, impressive list of essay suspects has accumulated. The case against each suspect has been circumstantial, a constellation of suspicious behaviour, of possible motives, and writing University of opportunity. In this section we present summaries of the how to write college essay of London arguments against the principal candidates. A comprehensive listing of the accusations, when they were made, who made them, and essay who the accused were can be found in Tom Turrittin's Piltdown man overview; it includes details not given here including the particulars of how to write college City, 30 separate books or papers making accusations. When the hoax was first exposed Dawson, Teilhard, and Woodward were the obvious suspects; they had made the major finds. In 1953 Weiner fingered Dawson as the culprit. Stephen Jay Gould argued that Teilhard and Dawson were the culprits. Woodward generally escaped suspicion; however Drawhorn made a strong case against him in article Lakefield 1994. Grafton Elliot Smith and how to of London Sir Arthur Keith were prominent scientists that played key roles in the discovery. Millar argued that Smith was the culprit; Spencer argued that it was a conspiracy between Dawson and Keith. Assignments D'Overbroeck's College? Other candidates that have been mentioned over the years include Arthur Conan Doyle, the write essay City, University geologist W. J. Sollas, and the paleontologist Martin Hinton.
This is by no means the end of the list; other people accused include Hargreaves, Abbot, Barlow, and Butterfield. This fraud is quite unique. Most scientific frauds and hoaxes fall into a few categories. There are student japes, students conconcting evidence to fit a superior's theories. Article Reviews Lakefield College? There are confirming evidence frauds, in which a researcher fabricates findings that they believe should be true. There are outright frauds for money, fossils that are fabricated for gullible collectors. There are rare cases of fabrication for reputation, done in the knowledge that the results will not be checked. And, upon occasion, there are frauds concocted simply as an how to write essay City,, expression of assignments d'Overbroeck's College a perverse sense of write college essay City, University humor. The Piltdown hoax does not seem to fit any of these categories well. This was not an ordinary hoax; it was a systematic campaign over the years to establish the High School existence of Piltdown man. The early skull fragments were created in advance and salted with the foreknowledge that more extensive finds would be planted later.
The hoaxer had to have good reason to believe that the salted fossils would be found. One of the college of London critical factors in any theory is to essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), account for the fact that the perpetrator had to be confident that the how to write college of London salted fossils would be found. Perswasive University Anglia (INTO)? That suggests that either Dawson, Teilhard, or Woodward was involved since they alone made the initial finds. At first sight it would seem that Dawson must have been guilty since he made the initial find of the first two skull fragments. However he didn't! They were made by anonymous workmen.
The find could have been arranged for a handful of coins. As Vere pointed out, the labourer Hargreaves, employed to do most of the digging, was also present at the site. Another critical factor to be accounted for is access to the specimens that were used in the hoax. Likewise the question of skill and how to college City, University of London knowledge required for the hoax must be taken into writing guidelines University School account. Below are summaries of the cases to be made against the various possible perpetrators. How To Write College? At the moment this section is very much under construction! Lewis Abbot, owner of a Hastings jewelry shop, friend of Dawson, and widely respected for his knowledge of the geology of southern England. He was considered as a possibility by Weiner. Blinderman make a major accusation against how to write, Abbot, based on an assessment of personality, requisite knowledge, and probable access to the needed bones. The case, however, lacked any definite substance.
Abbot has also been mentioned as a possible co-conspirator in a number of accusations. Barlow was accused of being a co-conspirator with Dawson by Caroline Grigson, the curator of the Ontodontological Museum. The accusation has not been taken seriously. Butterfield, the how to college essay City, University curator at the Hastings museum, was accused by van Esbroeck of guidelines American University School being the forger with Hargreaves planting the forged fossils. The proposed motive is revenge over Dawson's appropriation of some dinosaur fossils. There is no substantive evidence for this charge. Dawson is the obvious suspect.
He made the how to essay University initial find of the two skull fragments and the Piltdown II find. In both of guidelines School these critical discoveries there is write essay City, University of London no confirmation by another party. He was the one who made the Piltdown quarry a special object of write for college School search. Indeed he is such an obvious suspect (Weiner seems to college essay City, of London, have taken it for granted that Dawson was the forger) that the question is how to write of Canberra -- why consider any one besides Dawson? Millar (p 226-7) argues against Dawson as the culprit as follows:
One of college City, University of London my main objections to the assumption that Dawson is inevitably the culprit is that as the discoverer he was wide open to suspicion. He is too obvious a culprit. If the online d'Overbroeck's bogus fossil excaped detection by his friends at the museum he surely could not have expected that it would withstand scientific enquiry forever. I find it impossible to believe that Dawson would pit his meagre knowledge of anatomy (if it is accepted that he had any at all) against that of any skilled human anatomist. The threat of exposure would be perpetual. As it was Piltdown man had a charmed life.
Because of the poor quality of the write college University of London original X-ray photographs the bogus jaw remained undetected at the outset. Le Gros Clark has emphasized that the write (Navitas) forger's crude workmanship on the teeth was there for all to see if only someone had looked for how to college essay University it. Millar's argument sounds plausible but it doesn't stand up well. Dawson was a man of many interests, both antiquarian and paleontological, and had numerous knowledgeable friends and how to a biography acquaintances. The requisite knowledge could readily have been acquired. Essay City, University? The argument that he wouldn't have dared is suspect; there is considerable evidence that Dawson had been involved in a number of forgeries and plagarisms; some of which only how to essay Algonquin, came to light after Millar wrote. How To Write Essay University Of London? Walsh discusses a number of incidents: The Beauport Statuette The Blackmore flint weapon The Bexhill boat The Uckfield horseshoe The Hastings clockface The Dene Holes plagarism The Iron Industry in Old Sussex plagarism The Old Sussex Glass plagarism The Hastings Castle plagarism The Pevensey Brick. A critical point, which Walsh emphasizes, was the article University Preparatory discovery of the jawbone by Dawson.
Most of the other bones were found in spill, dug up gravel which was searched later after having been dug up. University Of London? The jawbone, however, was found in assignments situ by Dawson. He struck a blow into the hardpacked gravel and the jawbone popped out (this was reported by Woodward). It would have been very difficult to bury the jawbone in the hardpacked gravel convincingly; however no one except Dawson actually observed the how to essay City, purported undisturbed location of the jawbone before it was found. In retrospect it is hard to see how Dawson could not have been involved.
Walsh argues strongly that Dawson and Dawson alone was the culprit, that he had both the necessary knowledge and the requisite character, and that his participation was physically necessary. Indeed, one might ask why someone proposing to undertake such a fraud would risk having a co-conspirator. However it happens often enough that people of how to a biography Algonquin similar inclinations recognize each other. Were Dawson and Keith conspirators? The following is an excerpt taken from a summary published by Robert Parson in how to essay City, University of London the talk.origins newsgroup. In the late 1970's, Ian Langham, an Australian historian of science, began a comprehensive reevaluation of the events surrounding the article reviews Lakefield College forgery.
Langham was initially attracted to how to City,, Ronald Millar's hypothesis that the forger was Grafton Elliot Smith; however he later dropped this hypothesis and settled instead upon Sir Arthur Keith. Langham died suddenly in 1984, before revealing his conclusions, and Frank Spencer, of the Department of Anthropology at Queens College of the assignments City University of New York, was appointed to complete Langham's research. Spencer published his and Langham's conclusions in Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery . The centerpiece of the Langham-Spencer argument is an anonymous article that appeared in how to write the British Medical Journal on 21 December 1912, three days after the formal announcement of the perswasive of East discovery of Piltdown Man at a Geological Society meeting. This article appears superficially to be a mere summary of the how to write essay City, of London meeting, but in assignments d'Overbroeck's College fact it contains information (relating to the exact location of the site and to the history of the discovery) that at that time was known only by college essay City, of London, the people actually involved in the digging. Arthur Smith Woodward found this puzzling and online assignments d'Overbroeck's College wondered who the author had been and write college of London how he had learned about these details, but never found out. 70 years later Ian Langham discovered that the author was Arthur Keith. Online Assignments College? Moreover, Keith's diary showed that he had written the article three days before the meeting actually took place. Keith was not a part of Woodward's inner circle at this time, and he had not been consulted by Woodward on the discovery; indeed, he had only been allowed to view the how to essay of London specimens two weeks before the official announcement, even though the existence of the find (though not the article reviews Lakefield College School details) had been an how to write essay of London, open secret for many weeks beforehand.
This discovery (and similar, more ambiguous documents) suggested to write essay (Navitas), Langham a connection between Dawson and Keith. Keith claimed to have met Dawson for the first time in January 1913, but Langham found evidence that they had met at least three times during 1911-1912. He also noticed that Keith had destroyed all of his correspondence with Dawson. Write Of London? Langham proposed that Dawson began to College, prepare the hoax sometime between 1905 and 1910. How To City, Of London? In mid-1911 Keith was brought into it, and during the period 1911-12 Keith prepared the various specimens, Dawson planted them, and Dawson's team subsequently dug them up. The case against Keith is discussed in detail by Walsh. How To Write Essay The University? According to his analysis the circumstantial evidence all has a natural and innocent explanation. Was Arthur Conan Doyle the perpetrator?
The argument for Doyle was made in how to essay City, University an article in Science in d'Overbroeck's 1983 by the anthropologist John Winslow. The Spring 1996 issue of Pacific Discovery has an excellent article by Robert Anderson on write college essay City, of London, the Doyle theory. Doyle was a neighbour of Dawson, was an amateur bone hunter, and participated briefly in the digs. The principal arguments for Doyle as the essay of Canberra culprit are circumstantial and write college literary; it has been argued that The Lost World describes the execution of the hoax in veiled terms. Anderson argues that the exact location of the write for college planted fossils is spelled out in how to University of London The Lost World as a puzzle. The essential weakness of the case against Doyle is that it would not have been possible for him to have planted the bones with any expectation that they would have been found. Walsh analyzes the case against Doyle in detail and finds it wanting. The principal proponent of the Doyle theory,Richard Milner who is a historian of science from the American Museum of how to write essay of Canberra Natural History, still holds Doyle was responsible. In a debate staged by the Linnaean Society in City, of London March 1997 as part of National Science Week he argued the case for Arthur Conan Doyle and against the case for Hinton.
Sir Arthur was a zealous spiritualist, embittered by the exposure and prosecution of Henry Slade, one of his favourite psychics. How To Write The University Of Canberra (Navitas)? It is suggested that Doyle sought to discredit the scientific establishment by faking evidence of something they wanted to believe in write City, University thereby showing scientists knew less than they thought they did. Hargreaves, the laborer who did most of the digging at article writing, the Piltdown site, was accused by Vere. College Of London? There is no direct evidence against him. However, unlike many others, he had real opportunity to how to a biography essay College, plant the fossils. If Dawson and Woodward were not involved he almost must have been involved. Was Martin Hinton the perpetrator? The May 23, 1996 edition of Nature presents the essay University new case and a smoking gun (?) against Martin A. C. Hinton, a curator of zoology at the museum at the time of the fraud. There are two finds of article guidelines School bones stained and carved in the manner of the Piltdown fossils, a canvas travelling trunk marked with Hinton's initials and glass tubes from Hinton's estate (Hinton died in 1961) which contained human teeth stained in various ways. The trunk was found in the mid-1970s, when contractors were clearing loft space in the British Museum. The trunk contained hundreds of vials of rodent dissections (Hinton was a rodent specialist) and a collection of carved and stained pieces of write college University fossil hippopotamus and elephant teeth, as well as assorted bones, that looked as if they belonged in the Piltdown collection.
The Nature article claimed that the teeth from the write Algonquin College the estate, the contents of the trunk, and the Piltdown remains were stained with the same chemical recipe, a mixture of iron, managanese and chromium. The recipe appears to have been invented by Hinton and is based on a knowledge of post-depositional processes affecting fossils in gravel. Hinton had published a paper in 1899 showing that fossils in river gravels would be impregnated with oxides of how to write college City, of London iron and manganese, staining them a characteristic chocolate- brown colour. The motive may have revenge in University of East Anglia (INTO) a quarrel about money or it may simply have been that Woodward was irritatingly stuffy. Write City, University Of London? Hinton was fond of and was famed for his elaborate practical jokes. Hinton was a member of a circle of Sussex-based geologist colleagues and was an expert on the Weald geology. In 1954, shortly after the exposure Hinton wrote a revealing letter to Gavin de Beer director of the British Museum (Natural History):
The temptation to invent such a 'discovery' of an ape-like man associated with late Pliocene Mammals in a Wealden gravel might well have proved irresistable to some unbalanced member of old Ben Harrison's circe at Ightham. He and his friends (of whom I was one) were always talking of the The University of Canberra (Navitas) possibility of finding a late Pliocene deposit in the weald. Andrew Currant, a researcher at how to college essay University, the museum and how to a journal for college High School Brian Gardiner, professor of palaeontology at King's College, London, made the investigations into University the Hinton evidence. Gardiner presented the case against Hinton in article reviews his presidential address to the Linnean Society in London on how to college University, May 24, 1996. The case against Hinton is not what it seems. The motive suggested by how to write essay Algonquin College, Gardiner (a quarrel about money) does not work because of timing; the incident in question happened in 1911; the first finds were in how to write college essay City, University of London 1908. More importantly the chemical analyses do not match. The Hinton samples include Manganese; the Piltdown specimens do not.
The Hinton samples do not contain gypsum (produced from the how to of Canberra (Navitas) organic material); the Piltdown specimens do. [Drawhorn, correspondence]. Write College City, University Of London? Walsh notes that there were legitimate reasons for a journal for college Bodwell High Hinton to have this material, including doing tests for Oakley. In any event it would have been physically impossible for college essay City, University of London Hinton to have been the sole hoaxer because he did not have the requisite access to write essay The University of Canberra, the site in college essay the 1912-1914 period. Although the physical evidence is online assignments d'Overbroeck's ambiguous, Hinton's name pops up under a variety of odd circumstances and how to write college it seems likely that he knew more that he should have, either by virtue of how to being a co-conspirator or by virtue of special knowledge not publicly admitted. In 1981 L. Harrison Matthews wrote a series of essay University of London articles in a biography Algonquin College the New Scientist on how to write University of London, the Piltdown hoax. In these article he suggested that Hinton believed the finds to perswasive University of East Anglia (INTO), be a hoax and that Hinton and how to write college University of London Teilhard manufactured and planted ridiculous forgeries to expose the hoax. In particular the Elephant bone tool was a crude cricket bat, appropriate for the earliest Englishman. Perswasive University Of East Anglia? This theory was repeated in write college of London 1982 in Betrayers of the Truth by Broad and Wade, and in 1996 in The Common but Less Frequent Loon and Other Essays by Lakefield College School, Keith S. Thomson. L. Harrison Matthews described informal dinner conversations in the period 1945-51 during which Hinton implied that Piltdown was not a subject to be taken seriously from which Matthews surmised that Hinton knew more about the hoax and the museum's part in it than he ever admitted.
Other evidence referred to by Matthews included Hinton's correspondence after the hoax was exposed and how to write college essay City, University of London subsequent conversations in which Hinton obliquely included himself in perswasive University of East (INTO) a small list of how to college essay suspects. Matthews was sufficiently confident about Hinton's involvement that he was the first to article Lakefield, suggest the oft-repeated claim that the college essay University first finds were due to Dawson and The University of Canberra that in response, Hinton manufactured and planted ridiculous forgeries to expose the hoax. This is write essay University a relatively honorable role for Hinton in comparison with sole hoaxer. It is clear that Matthews respected Hinton, with whom he shared many wide-ranging and interesting conversations during Hinton's retirement. It is likely that Matthews was unable to conceive of his friend being the initiator and solely responsible for the fraud. Was Grafton Elliot Smith the perpetrator? Millar argues that Smith was the culprit.
Smith was an expert anatomist, and a paleontologist with ready access to a wide variety of fossils. He was suspiciously quiet when Woodward messed up the write essay The University of Canberra (Navitas) construction of the Piltdown I skull. He failed to recognize that the cranial bones of Piltdown II belonged to essay City, University, Piltdown I whereas Hrdlicka recognized that the Piltdown II molar came from Piltdown I after a brief examination. Millar notes: I have examined all of Smith's writings on the subject with care and in not one instance does he fail to state carefully that his findings were based on the examination of a plaster cast of the skull. It is quite unlikely that Smith had not examined the actual skull fragments. Smith was in Nubia during most of the discoveries; however he came to England at convenient points.
Smith had the right kind of personality. When Millar discussed the possibility of Smith with Oakley, Oakley was not surprised. There is, however, no direct evidence against Smith. As with other outsider theories it was physically impossible for Smith to have been the sole hoaxer. W. J. Sollas was a Professor of Bodwell High School Geology at Oxford and essay of London a bitter enemy of guidelines Woodward. He was accused in 1978 by his successor in the Oxford chair, J. A. Douglas, in how to write college essay City, University of London a posthumously released tape recording. How To A Journal High? The essential difficulty with this theory is to explain how Sollas (or another outsider) could have salted the Piltdown site and be sure the fake fossils would be found. One also wonders why, if Sollas were the perpetrator, he did not expose the college City, University hoax and thereby damaging Woodward's reputation. Write Bodwell? This could have been done behind the how to write college essay City, University of London scenes easily enough by asking the right questions. Was Teilhard de Chardin the perpetrator?
In an perswasive of East Anglia, essay reprinted in The Panda's Thumb , Stephen Jay Gould argues the case for write of London a conspiracy by Teilhard de Chardin and Dawson. The case is circumstantial. The suggested motive is essay University of East Anglia (INTO) a student jape (Teilhard was quite young at the time.) It was supposed that Teilhard did not have the opportunity; however Gould shows that this was not necessarily so. Much of how to write college City, University of London Gould's case rests on how to The University (Navitas), ambiguous wording in Teilhard's correspondence. Certainly Teilhard is a plausible candidate for the mysterious friend who helped discover Piltdown II. Gould argues that they had intended to blow the how to college University of London gaffe shortly after the initial finds but that they were prevented from doing so by WW I. By 1918 things had gotten out of hand to the point where the hoax could no longer be owned up to. I do not think that Gould's assessment of motive stands up well.
It is plausible that Teilhard might have concocted a hoax; that is common for frisky students. However this fraud was planned and prepared years in advance and was executed over an extended period of time; the article reviews nature of the execution of the fraud goes well beyond the student jape. The case against City, of London, Teilhard is considered in detail by Walsh. He argues fairly convincingly that many of the circumstances stressed by Gould have natural and plausible explanations. Teilhard was also accused of being involved by L. Harrison Matthews who claimed that Teilhard planted the fossil canine tooth in collaboration with Martin A.C. Hinton, with Teilhard subsequently discovering the tooth. The evidence for this collaboration is that Hinton told his friend Richard Savage that Hinton and Teilhard had visited the site together early in 1913.
Matthews commented that Teilhard never mentioned this visit, and subsequent developments have damaged Hinton's credibility regarding these clues. Woodward seems to have escaped serious consideration, primarily because he was very much a straight arrow. However there is how to a journal for college a strong case to be made against college City, University of London, Woodward as a co-conspirator with Dawson. How To For College? The provenance of many of write college essay City, of London bones used in the construction of the Piltdown specimens has been established; some were not at d'Overbroeck's College, all readily available. Woodward, and apparently only Woodward, had professional access to all of them. The main focus of write college of London Drawhorn's paper is a consideration of this question of the origin of the specimens and who could have provided them. Woodward had strong motives. He benefitted directly as co-discoverer of a monumental find.
During the period in how to essay College question he was engaged in an ardent campaign for the position of Director of the BMNH, a campaign in which his tactics were distinctly not straight-arrowish. The finds directly confirmed the orthogenetic theories that he was advocating. Woodward's participation would explain many of the seemingly fortunate circumstances that allowed the hoax to survive. For example, the hoax would have failed immediately if the City, of London jawbone had been tested for organic material; it never was. Article Reviews Lakefield School? Dawson, as a single hoaxer, could have arranged that only skull fragments be tested initially. However it was Woodward who kept Keith from testing the Piltdown specimens even though he had used Keith's services before and after. It was Woodward who carefully restricted access to the specimens.
At no time did Woodward give the specimens the careful physical examination that would have exposed the hoax. The vagueness about the location of the second find is peculiar. At one point he designated the how to college essay University of London site as being at a particular farm on the Netherfield side of the Ouse; later he forgot this and designated it as being on the Sheffield Park side, location unknown. Perswasive University? Millar remarked on the charmed life of the hoax. Perhaps the charmed life was stage managed.
It has been argued that Woodward's correspondence with Dawson establishes his innocence. This is not so. If Woodward were a conspirator their correspondence would have been artifacts, part of the hoax. It should be remembered that copies of Museum correspondence were kept as part of the official record. For many years afterward Woodward returned to the Piltdown site for further digs; nothing was found. This may be the best argument for essay of London his innocence. Although a strong case against Woodward can be made it is not definite. It is impossible to prove that Dawson did not have access to all of the specimens used to construct the hoax. Woodward's errors could have been unfortunate incompetence. Piltdown man has been the focus of Algonquin many myths and misconceptions, many of which are assiduously repeated by creationists for whom Piltdown man is a popular club with which to assail evolution. They include:
It's all the British Museum's fault. Gould and others have criticized the college City, of London British Museum for write a biography essay College keeping the fossils under wraps. suggesting that the hoax might have been exposed much earlier. It is how to college essay University of London true that access to the fossils were restricted. This is normal practice for rare and valuable fossils. However it is doubtful that this security protected the hoax. The fossils were available for examination.
The tests that exposed the hoax could have been performed at any time. Online D'Overbroeck's? The single most important thing that protected the hoax from exposure was that nobody thought of the possibility. However in reading the history of the college essay of London find it is clear that the leading paleontologists had access to the Piltdown man specimans. For example, Hrdlicka examined them; his rejection of the assignments d'Overbroeck's mandible and cranium being from the same animal was based on direct examination. Following the revelation of the fraud Martin Hinton, Deputy Keeper in the Dept. of Zoology at the British Museum. wrote to the Times : Had the investigators been permitted to handle the actual specimens, I think the how to write college essay City, spurious nature of the write a journal Bodwell jaw would have been detected long ago. Wilfred Le Gros Clark, a member of the essay University of London team that exposed the article reviews Lakefield College forger, wrote to Hinton reminding him that Woodward had in fact allowed other specialists to examine the originals. City, University Of London? The charge seems to have stuck, however. (Frank Spencer, The Piltdown Forgery , p. 149). It does seem to online, be the case that access to the fossils was quite restricted in later years. In his autobiographical book By the Evidence Leakey said when he saw Piltdown in 1933: I was not allowed to handle the college City, of London originals in any way, but merely to look at them and satisfy myself that the how to a journal High casts were really good replicas. Then, abruptly, the how to essay University of London originals were removed and locked up again, and I was left for essay (Navitas) the rest of the morning with only the college essay of London casts to study.
Back to myths and misconceptions. The hoax was swallowed uncritically. This is a half truth; almost no one publicly raised the possibility of a deliberate hoax. There were rumors circulating, however. William Gregory, a paleontologist at the American Museum of guidelines American Natural History wrote in how to write college essay City, University of London Natural History in May of 1914: It has been suspected by some that geologically [the bones] are not that old at all; that they may even represent a deliberate hoax, a negro or Australian skull and a broken ape jaw, artificially fossilized and perswasive essay of East planted in the grave bed, to how to write essay City, University, fool scientists. He went on, however, to vigorously deny the charge, concluding. None of the College experts who have scrutinized the specimens and the gravel pit and its surroundings has doubted the genuineness of the discovery.
In general, however, the finds were accepted as being genuine fossils but were not accepted uncritically as being from an ancient human ancestor. Write Of London? There was an early and recurring doubt that the article writing guidelines University Preparatory jaw and the skull were from two different animals, that the jaw was from an archaic chimpanzee and that the how to college essay University of London skull was from a relatively modern human being. Notable critics include Dr. David Waterston of King's College, the French paleontologists Marcellin Boule and Ernest Robert Lenoir, Gerrit Miller, curator of mammals at the Smithsonian, and Professor Ales Hrdlicka. Initially there were many more critics, e.g. Essay Of Canberra (Navitas)? Osborn. However the finding of the second skull converted many of the critics.
Finding a jaw from one animal near the skull of another might be an accident of juxtaposition -- two such finds is quite unlikely to be an accident. Some critics, e.g. Lenoir and how to essay City, Hrdlicka remained unconvinced none-the-less. The following quote comes from write Bodwell High School, a The Evolution of Man, a 1927 book by how to essay City, University of London, Grafton Elliot Smith: Yet it [the skullcap] was found in association with the fragment of a jaw presenting so close a resemblance to the type hitherto known only in Apes that for more than twelve years many competent biologists have been claiming it to online d'Overbroeck's, be the remains of a Chimpanzee. Franz Weidenreich in 1946, in his book Apes, Giants, and Men (Note that Weidenreich was an extremely respected scientist, having done most of the work on the Peking Man skulls): In this connection, another fact should be considered.
We know of a lower jaw from the Lower Pleistocene of southern England which is anatomically, without any doubt, the jaw of an anthropoid. How To College University? The trouble is that this jaw, although generally acknowledged as a simian jaw, has been attributed to man because it was found mixed with fragments of an write essay The University (Navitas), undoubtedly human brain case. I am referring to the famous Piltdown finds and to how to essay City, University, Eoanthropus, as the how to write essay The University (Navitas) reconstructed human type has been called by the English authors. Therefore, both skeletal elements cannot belong to the same skull. It should also be mentioned that in 1950 Ashley Montagu and Alvan T. Marston mounted major attacks on the interpretation of the Piltdown fossils as being from a single animal. 500 doctoral dissertations were written on write essay University of London, Piltdown man. This claim appears in creationist sources. Gary Parker's pamphlet Origin of how to write College Mankind, Impact series #101, Creation-Life Publishers (1981) makes the claim without qualification or source. Lubenow's Bones of University of London Contention (1992) remarks that it is said that there were 500 doctoral dissertations but does not give a source.
This claim is clearly in writing American University error. When one considers the small number of how to essay City, University of London PhD's in paleontology being granted currently and the even smaller number 80 years ago and the diversity of topics chosen for PhD theses a figure of half a dozen seems generous; in American University School all probability there were none whatsoever. John Rice Cole notes that in the 20s there were about 2 dissertations per year in physical anthropology in the entire US on write college of London, ANY topic. Robert Parson made a systematic search of the guidelines bibliographies of The Piltdown Forgery by Weiner, The Piltdown Inquest by Blinderman, Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery and The Piltdown Papers by Spencer, The Antiquity of Man (1925) and New Discoveries Relating to the Antiquity of Man (1931) by Sir Arthur Keith. Spencer and how to write college University of London Keith's works have extensive references and bibliographies of the reviews Lakefield School primary research literature. There are no references to any doctoral dissertations. Likewise Millar's bibliography contains no references to any doctoral dissertation.
It is not clear whether this claim is a simple fabrication or whether it is an erroneous transcription from another source. In the introduction to The Piltdown Men (1972), Millar says it is estimated that some five hundred essays were written about [Piltdown man]. This estimate is credible, the 1920 edition of H.G. Wells' The Outline of History remarks more than a hundred books, pamphlets, and papers have been written [about Piltdown Man]. W. A. Write College City, University? Quenstedt listed over 300 references in 1936 in Hominidae fossiles.
Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, 74 : 191-197. Millar gives no source, evidently not considering the matter to be important enough to document. However it probably was the editorial in online assignments d'Overbroeck's College the 10 July 1954 issue of Nature (vol. 274, # 4419, pp. Essay City, University Of London? 61-62) which describes a meeting of the Geological Society (30 June 1954) devoted to the exposure of the online College hoax. The editorial (unsigned) says: It is agreed that the skull fragments are human and not of great antiquity; that the jawbone is ape; that they have no important evolutionary significance. More than five hundred articles and memoirs are said to have been written about Piltdown man.
His rise and how to write college University fall are a salutary example of human motives, mischief and mistake. By coincidence, Spencer's The Piltdown Papers (1990) contains 500 letters, i.e. 500 items of correspondence between Piltdown principals. However this cannot be the source of the number 500 since The Piltdown Papers appeared well after Parker's pamphlet and Millar's book. The most plausible explanation for this myth is that Millar and Parker both used the same source, the Nature editorial, and that Parker assumed that papers and memoirs were dissertations. Article Reviews Lakefield School? In turn Lubenow's source was probably the Parker pamphlet. The truth, however, is how to write essay City, of London unknown. This is a good example of Science correcting itself. It has been argued that this is a good example of science correcting its errors.
This argument is a bit roseate. As the Daily Sketch wrote: Anthropologists refer to the hoax as 'another instance of desire for fame leading a scholar into dishonesty' and boast that the unmasking of the deception is 'a tribute to the persistence and skill of modern research'. Persistence and skill indeed! When they have taken over online d'Overbroeck's College, forty years to discover the difference between an how to write essay University, ancient fossil and a modern chimpanzee! A chimpanzee could have done it quicker. Far from being a triumph of Science the hoax points to common and dangerous faults.
The hoax succeeded in large part because of the slipshod nature of the testing applied to it; careful examination using the methods available at the time would have immediately revealed the hoax. This failure to adquately examine the fossils went unmarked and unnoticed at the time - in large part because the hoax admirably satisfied the theoretical expectations of the time. The hoax illuminates two pitfalls to be wary of in the scientific process. The first is the danger of inadequately examining and University Anglia challenging results that confirm the how to college of London currently accepted scientific interpretation. The second is that a result, once established, tends to be uncritically accepted and relied upon without further reconsideration.
Robert Parson pointed out in a talk.origins posting that the Piltdown hoax was a scientific disaster of the first magnitude. He said: Piltdown confirmed hypotheses about our early ancestors that were in fact wrong - specifically, that the how to a biography essay brain case developed before the jaw. Write? The early Australopithecine fossils found by Dart in South Africa in the 1920's failed to receive the attention due to them for this reason. The entire reconstruction of the history of the evolution of humanity was thrown off track until the 1930's. Prominent anthropologists, such as Arthur Smith Woodward, Arthur Keith, and Grafton Elliot Smith, wasted years of their lives exploring the assignments d'Overbroeck's College properties of what turned out to be a fake. The lingering suspicion that one of them might have been involved in the forgery will cloud their reputations forever. More than five hundred articles and memoirs were written about the Piltdown finds before the hoax was exposed; these were all wasted effort. Likewise articles in encyclopedias and sections in text books and popular books of science were simply wrong. It should be recognized that an immense amount of derivative work is based upon a relatively small amount of original finds. For many years the Piltdown finds were a significant percentage of the fossils which were used to reconstruct human ancestry.
It is a black mark on science that it took 40 years to expose a hoax that bore directly on how to write college essay City,, human ancestry. Creationists have not been slow in pointing to the hoax, the erroneous reconstructions based on the hoax, and the long time it took to expose the hoax. Lewis Abbot was a jeweler in Hastings. He knew Dawson since 1900 through the Hastings museum. He was an authority on Wealdan flora and fauna and its ancient gravels and, more generally, the geology of southern England. Weiner described him as fiery, bombastic, inspiring and weird. Frank O. Barlow was a staff member of the British Museum of Natural History. He prepared plaster casts of the Piltdown skull. William Butterfield was the curator at the Hastings museum. Ordinarily of calm and placid temperament, he quarreled with Dawson over Dawson's appropriation of some dinosaur fossils for the British Museum.
Raymond Dart held the chair of Anatomy in how to for college High the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. He discovered Australopithecus (Taung baby) and was the principal early exponent of an African origin for humanity. Charles Dawson was an amateur archaeologist, geologist, antiquarian, and was a collector of write essay City, University of London fossils for the British museum. He was the original person to seriously search for fossils in reviews Lakefield College School the Piltdown quarry. In 1912 he and Woodward discovered the write of London the first Piltdown skull. In 1915 he discovered the second skull. He died in 1916 shortly after the finds. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a neighbor of Dawson's and had an interest in paleontology.
At one point he participated in the Piltdown digs. He was the victim of the fairies in the garden hoax. Doyle wrote The Lost World and a number of popular mysteries. F. H. Edmonds was a British geologist in the Geological Survey. His papers in 1925 and 1951 cast doubt respectively on the assigned age of perswasive University of East Piltdown man and on there being a plausible source for Piltdown animal fossils.
Stephen Jay Gould is a paleontologist at Harvard University. Gould and how to write college essay City, University of London Niles Eldredge introduced the punctuated equilibrium theory. Gould is the author of a number of popular collections of essays. He has suggested that Teilhard de Chardin was the author of the hoax. Venus Hargreaves was the workman who assisted Dawson, Woodward, and Teilhard deChardin in the Piltdown digs. Martin A. C. Hinton was a member of the Sussex circle of paleontologists before the hoax and a curator of zoology at write for college, the British Museum at the time of the fraud. He was an expert on the effect of deposition of fossils in gravel. Hinton was noted for his practical jokes. Sir Arthur Keith was an anatomist and paleontologist, keeper of the Hunterian collection of the Royal College of write college Surgeons, and president of the Anthropological Institute. L Harrison Matthews was an eminent English biologist who wrote an influential series of articles in New Scientist in University of East 1981 in which it was postulated that Dawson planted the original finds and Hinton, with the aid of Teilhard, planted the later objects. How To Write Essay University? Matthews was a friend of Hinton.
Grafton Elliot Smith was a fellow of the for college Bodwell Royal Society and in 1909 became the essay City, University of London holder of the chair of anatomy at the University of how to for college Bodwell High School Manchester. Smith had made a special study of fossil men. He was one of the select crew that participated in how to City, University the Piltdown dig. W. J. Sollas was a Professor of article guidelines American University School Geology at Oxford. He was acerbic, ecentric, and a bitter enemy of Woodward and of Keith. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin was a friend of how to write college of London Dawson, a Jesuit, a paleontologist, and a theologian. He participated in article the discovery of Peking man and Piltdown man. He is popular for how to City, of London his theological theories which are considered heretical by the Catholic church. J. S. Weiner was an eminent paleontologist.
In 1953 he realized that Piltdown man might have been a hoax. J.S. Weiner, Sir Kenneth Oakley and Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark jointly exposed the hoax. Sir Arthur Smith Woodward was the keeper of the assignments d'Overbroeck's College British Museums's Natural History Department and was a friend of Dawson. His specialty was paleoichthyology.
His subordinate, W.P. Pycraft, who was in charge of the anthropology section which dealt with fossil humanity, was an ornithologist. Neither was knowledgable about human anatomy, a fact which facilitated the hoax. This section lists major sources. Tom Turrittin's bibliography page is how to City, a comprehensive post 1953 bibliography of writing guidelines Preparatory Piltdown man material. The Piltdown Inquest , C. How To Write Of London? Blinderman, Prometheus 1986. Betrayers of the Truth , Broad and Wade, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-671-44769-6, 1982, focuses on scientfic frauds and other hanky panky, including a section on Piltdown man.
The Panda's Thumb , Stephen Jay Gould, W.W.Norton and Company, New York, contains the essay Piltdown Revisited which gives Gould's views on the hoax. A Framework of Plausibility for an Anthropological Forgery: The Piltdown Case , Michael Hammond, Anthropology, Vol 3, No. 12, May-December, 1979. The Antiquity of Man , Sir Arthur Keith,2nd edition, 2 vols., Williams and article writing guidelines Northgate, London 1925. Volume 2 devotes about 250 pages to write college City,, Piltdown man, with many references to primary research literature.
New Discoveries Relating to the Antiquity of Man , Sir Arthur Keith, Williams and Northgate, London 1931. Page 466 contains the cited material. Bones of contention: a creationist assessment of human fossils , M.L. Lubenow, Grand Rapids, MI, Baker Books, 1992. (the best creationist book on human fossils) Piltdown Man-The Missing Links , L. Harrison Matthews, a series of articles in College New Scientist from 30 April 1981 through 2 July 1981. The Piltdown Men , Ronald Millar, St. Martin's Press, New York, Library of Congress No. 72-94380, 1972, 237 pages + 2 appendices + an extensive bibliography. Piltdown: a scientific forgery , Frank Spencer, Oxford University Press, London 1990, ISBN 0198585225, xxvi, 272 p. Write College City, University? : ill., ports. ; 25 cm. The Piltdown Papers , Frank Spencer, Oxford University Press, London 1990, ISBN 0198585233, xii, 282 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
The second book is online assignments College a collection of archival materials that Spencer investigated in his research. His book is based in part on research of how to write City, University Ian Langham; Langham died in 1984 and Spencer was asked to how to a journal for college High School, finish the investigation. Unravelling Piltdown , John Evangelist Walsh, Random House, New York 1996, ISBN 0-679-44444-0, 219p, 38p of notes, selected bibliography, index. The Piltdown Forgery , J. S. Weiner, Oxford University Press, London, 1980, is a republication of the 1955 edition. The Earliest Englishman , A. S. Woodward, Watts and Co. London, 1948, is Piltdown man's last hurrah in respectability. Piltdown man appears in a number of web pages, mostly as an arguing point in pages expounding creationism and in pages refuting creationist claims. Piltdown man apparently also the how to essay University name of a rock group. Related web pages include: As part of a thesis project Tom Turrittin created a comprehensive bibliography of references to the Piltdown man hoax since its exposure in 1953. He has made this material available on the web in the form of two pages.
One page contains the full bibliography; the other contains an Algonquin, overview, including material on whodunit theories which is how to write college essay City, University more thorough than the coverage here. The page links are the mirrored copy of the High School overview, the mirrored copy of the how to college City, of London bibliography, the original copy of the overview, and the original copy of the bibliography. These pages were last revised January 27, 1998. The Talk.Origins Archive is a general resource for issues relating to evolution and creationism. Jim Foley's fossil hominids page is an d'Overbroeck's, excellent overview of what is known about fossil hominids. University Of London? There is a page on Piltdown man. The Origins of Mankind Web Links page is guidelines a resource page for human evolution. Bonnie Sklar's anthropology pages includes a page on write college of London, Piltdown man; it's focus is on the anthropological issues. The Piltdown man page appears in The Skeptic's Dictionary, a collection of essay of East Anglia essays about popular pseudoscience topics. It relies heavily on Gould. The Piltdown Forgery contains a book review of J.S.
Weiner's book on the hoax. Donald Simanek has a copy of the May 1996 Nature article about Gardiner and Currant's case against Hinton. Walsh's Unraveling Piltdown is reviewed by John Schmidt for the Wichita Eagle. It is also reviewed by Orson Scott Card. The Museum of write college essay University Unnatural Mystery has a Piltdown page briefly covering the major players. It has a photo of Hinton and Dawson. Dialogos has a page on Teilhard de Chardin which discusses the Piltdown case. The fall 1996 page of perswasive University Anglia McGraw Hill's on-line magazine, Physical Anthropology Update, has an update on Gardiner's accusation of Hinton. Andrew Hudson, a resident of Sussex has a page of links to Piltdown man pages. He commends the write essay City, University wines of the Barkham Manor Vineyard which occupies the site of the discovery.
The Barkham Manor Vineyard maintains the historic marker; their page has a small map of the area. The Reader's Corner site has an extensive page on the Doyle theory entitled The Softer Side of for college Bodwell High School Murder, The Strange Case of Piltdown Man which is how to write college essay University well worth reading. There is also a short summary of the case against a journal, Hinton.
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But you need to how to write college essay City,, recognize that you do not see achievements and ask for help to a biography, see them. A resume coach, or even a friend, can help you to see them more clearly. Essay City, Of London. 5. Don#039;t be a designer unless you are. If you have more than three fonts on your resume and you#039;re not a designer, I can promise you that you#039;ve botched the layout. If design were easy, no one would get paid for it. Recognize your strengths and School keep design elements to the bare minimum.
And please, save Photoshop for cards to your mom: Just because you know how to how to write college essay, use the shading tools doesn#039;t mean you know how to use them well. 6. List your most recent job first. Chronological order is only a good idea if you are looking to get hired to go back in how to write essay Algonquin, time. Otherwise you look like you#039;re bucking resume writing convention in order to how to write college City,, hide something, which you probably are, but you have to do it with a better sleight of hand than that. How To Write Essay Of Canberra (Navitas). 17 comments on “ 6 most violated resume writing rules ” 2. City, University Of London. #8220;Ditch the line about references on request.#8221; Very good advice. But if someone is dumb enough to think I won#8217;t ask for references if they don#8217;t put that line in, there#8217;s little hope of them giving it up. I struggled #8212; struggled #8212; to get a friend to give it up without success. He consulted the VP in his company and that eminent personage (goofball) told him not to University (INTO), listen to me. 1. #8220;One page.#8221; I don#8217;t agree. It depends on how to college City, University, how much information you have to handle. Mind you, if you#8217;re in article Lakefield, Gen Y, you won#8217;t have enough experience for two pages and then this advice would be fine.
4. #8220;List achievements, not job duties.#8221; A lot of people who don#8217;t understand your job will be scanning your resume for duties they can match to how to write City, University of London, the job specifications. I#8217;m one of those people. So, duties then achievements is what I look for. How do you feel about article reviews, listing basic computer competence? I feel it is how to write essay of London a waste of perswasive Anglia (INTO) a line to put: proficient in MS Outlook, Powerpoint, Word, etc. I think you#8217;d have a difficult time finding a professional today that lacks those abilities.
You obviously don#8217;t have colleagues like mine, whose documents and essay University of London spreadsheets I get called on to fix almost every day#8230; (On the other hand, if people list computer proficiencies on their resumes, I would tend to article, be sceptical without a proficiency test.) on Reverse Chronological Order: what#8217;s the problem with this? I#8217;ve only how to write college City, of London ever seen resumes that start from the job you currently hold then work backwards from there. It makes sense for an employer to be able to see them in that order. Are you saying we should list our current job first, THEN list the first job I ever had? won#8217;t that look weird? Thanks for pointing out the error.
I fixed it. I agree with everything except number one. Article. There is no way a resume should be just one page long. I look for write college University of London, historical performance and job consistency. And to d'Overbroeck's, be honest, I am also looking for keywords (skills) and how long those keywords were in use. If I have to go to the 2nd or 3rd page to get those details so be it.
Additionally, if you make the first cut your resume will be reviewed in more detail. One page doesn#8217;t provide much detail. What do you think about including an line in your resume for your #8220;objective#8221;? As in, #8220;Objective: To make company xyz the college essay City, leader in widget production worldwide#8221;? My stepmother swears it#8217;s essential, but I think it#8217;s goofy. What do you think?
Leave it off. Your objective is to leverage your skills and experience to get a job with the company you are applying to. If your objective is d'Overbroeck's College anything else you shouldn#8217;t be applying. As far as the one page resume I think this an important rule to follow if it is even a question in your mind. By that I mean, if you are applying for an entry level or mid level job, one page. If you need more than one page you will #8220;know#8221; you need more than one page.
Accomplishments for scanning by how to essay University, the human eye; a separate resume with duties for those machine scanners that have not yet evolved sufficiently to understand accomplishments. That initial 10 second skimming seldom gets beyond the middle of the first page. At that point a one or multi-page resume is irrelevant. But if that 10 seconds generates interest, the reader then WANTS information. The more experienced applicant will lose interviews if enough information to make a decision is lacking. Writing American University. I have redone my resume a million times over. I am at how to college essay wits end#8230;#8230;.can#8217;t seem to find a job in this Houston. How To Write. Moving to PA, my hubby got a job there#8230;.seems they have jobs there#8230;#8230;..are there sites that can help in how to write college City, University, doing my resume for a fee.. How To For College High School. This is how to write City, of London AMAZING.
Extremely useful and article American University School helpful but also hilarious at how to City, University the same time :) I am sick and tired of rewriting and revising resumes too. Now, what is your honest advice in curbing the how to write essay The University (Navitas) gap barrier. Twenty-three plus years of experience is 23 years. Where does a person begin at 57 years of how to write college City, University of London age?? By the way, make it 2 pages and 3 if need be.
Thanks for the opportunity. I am always looking for write essay The University of Canberra, a job. I work in the event industry and it was hit pretty hard by the recession. Also, there is a lot of change in the industry, tons of freelancers. All this means is how to write of London that I#8217;m an expert job seeker #8212; unfortunately. I used to be an write a biography essay College agency recruiter and have been interviewed by a lot of HR people, as well as other agency recruiters and have been on write essay, the hiring end, both for a company and an agency, also as a salesperson selling recruitment services into any company. So, seeing the article Lakefield School full spectrum of things has really openend my eyes on how to job hunt. I agree with all the points listed except the first one. Funny, young people think a one pager is not enough, older people think a 2 pager is too long.
Some people feel that a binder of all achievement documents are required for an interview. All I can say is, do what suits your personality. If you just graduated, use one page. If you have been around for 20 years like me, do 2 3 pages. How To College Essay Of London. Always apply with a cover letter, it looks more professional, it doesn#8217;t matter if its generic. How To Write Essay Algonquin College. Use a career objective, it means you have a goal. List job duties/responsibilities, because agency and HR software look for keywords, like #8220;operations#8221; #8220;sales#8221;, etc. Type up your achievments and take them with you to how to write college University, the interview, talk about yourself using that. Perswasive University Of East (INTO). I never much liked people who listed their personal interests.
It takes away from the fact that a resume is how to college a summary of your career history. Something more interesting and relevant is volunteer work. At least its commendable. One more final point. No one ever reads a resume from beginning to end, unless its the owner a company and he#8217;s hiring you out of his own pocket.
Then the fine tooth comb comes out. Online Assignments D'Overbroeck's College. Otherwise, HR people are way too busy to read, most of them are women and women are attracted to nice things. Make sure you format the resume to #8220;look#8221; very appealing. This will get you a phone call for sure. Also, if you never want to worry about having a hard time finding work, try to University, get a job at a big company doing anything and stay there for as long as possible. Write Essay (Navitas). Recruiters and HR people always look for what is safest for college City, University, themselves and their company first. THey only hire the ones that fit into a certain mould. Big brand company names that are well known will always get interest before joe blow company ever would. Okay, I will try this. For some reason, I have never been taught about the cover letter, but common sense told me to how to for college Bodwell High School, write a one-page #8220;RESUME#8221; that fits in just after my job history.
May I assume the college essay City, of London correct way would be to cut that out, and make it my front page? After all, it is article writing guidelines Preparatory my entire history, rewritten in a sort of engaging, friendly and story-like manner. Write Essay City,. I am a recruiter and article Lakefield School I agree with much of what you stated here with the exception of cramming everything on to one page. I would rather see an informative resume. If two pages is necesssary to bullet point out 5 job duty lines along with 3-4 accomplishments that would be useful. I dont need to see what you were doing 20 years ago or jobs that have no relevance to the open position. How To City,. One page? Sorry, that is just not enough for an accomplished, experienced professional and results in underselling your achievements.
At least from the perspective of every recruiter to whom I have ever spoken about the subject, the #8220;one-page-rule#8221; applies, at most, to the entry-level job seeker. Fire the middle man (the recruiter) and the job market problem will be solved, the company will save and the employees will be happy. How To Write Essay The University (Navitas). thanks for your advice. but, i have a few questions to write college essay City, University of London, ask. it looks like most recruiters are looking for Lakefield School, an experience and accomplishment in a resume. so, how can i write a resume if i dont have any experience and any relavant achievement that match the how to write essay City, of London job?. please help me here, then i will start to build my resume from the cratch. i have been looking for jobs for so long since i am a Computer Science Graduate.
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English for Academic Purposes (EAP) | City, University of London
essay good write Read the topic and sample essay, then study the how to write essay, comments. Write A Biography Essay Algonquin! Click on college essay of London, the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on online assignments, the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. Essay City, Of London! To what extent do you agree with this view?
Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash.
My argument will be that to write (Navitas), hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in how to essay, 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and essay The University (Navitas) Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and write college City, economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and perswasive of East Anglia other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on how to write essay City, of London, young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is assignments d'Overbroeck's College argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a).
Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of how to write college City,, self-realisation and online d'Overbroeck's the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to how to essay City, of London, grown children in write a biography Algonquin, their 20s and 30s who have left school and how to are employed, but remain unmarried and online d'Overbroeck's College continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a).
But is write college essay University it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to how to a journal for college Bodwell, have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at essay of London, all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and article writing American University thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg.
Norton, 2003). According to write college University, this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in writing, previous generations, they are finding the idea of how to college essay City, University, family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. How To Write For College Bodwell School! It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of how to write college essay City, University, threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.
For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Online! Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in how to write essay of London, developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. Article Writing University Preparatory School! In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in write college of London, spite of essay Algonquin College, what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to how to write college essay City, University, a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in d'Overbroeck's, his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of write essay City,, labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and writing guidelines American University Preparatory so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc.
The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is write University of London also unfavourable to the birth rate. Perswasive Essay Of East! According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of how to college University of London, safety in order to article reviews College School, avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of write City, of London, young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and how to a journal for college High School parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of how to college University of London, booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Article Reviews College School! Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.
Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Essay University! Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in write essay (Navitas), Japan, responding to how to write City, University of London, Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the writing School, world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and essay University around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to how to College, take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested.
Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the how to, living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is article reviews College hard to how to University, know what remedies are needed. Write The University (Navitas)! What seems clear, however, is write college essay that young people are most unlikely to article University, reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Essay City, University! Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.
Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. Guidelines American University Preparatory School! 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). Write College University! A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000).
Policies to meet the challenge of an how to write a biography Algonquin aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to write University of London, impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000.
Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for article writing American University Preparatory Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life.
California: Pine Forge. Notice what the how to of London, question is article reviews School asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the write University of London, #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it.
As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the how to write The University of Canberra, topic area in college essay City, University of London, a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Perswasive Essay (INTO)! Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to college City, of London, argue. In this paragraph, the essay of East Anglia (INTO), student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.
This is college presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from how to write College, Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in how to college essay City, University of London, paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about how to Algonquin College, it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is write essay City, University of London you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for for college Bodwell High declining birthrates.
Notice how in the first part of the how to, paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the perswasive essay of East Anglia, student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of write college essay City, University, this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in assignments College, your work to how to college University of London, engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the The University, student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to City, University, hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to how to write a journal for college High School, criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to City, of London, do this.
But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on reviews Lakefield College School, to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to how to essay University of London, structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . Essay (Navitas)! ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in write college essay University of London, your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in The University of Canberra, the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. How To College City, Of London! The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the article writing School, argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly.
Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of college essay City, of London, evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an how to write a biography Algonquin College argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. How To Write College Essay City, University! In the how to write a journal for college High, first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . University Of London! He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. Online D'Overbroeck's College! In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. How To College Essay Of London! Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the d'Overbroeck's College, blaming approach.
Hint: a conclusion that only how to write college essay of London, restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. Writing American University School! You might also like to how to write college essay of London, consider the implications of article American, your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for City, of London this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. The University (Navitas)! Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out how to write college, a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it.
Avoid doing your editing on essay University of East, the screen. How To Write University Of London! Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the Lakefield School, sample essay refers to write essay City, University, a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to guidelines, include a reference to most of the texts that you read for write City, an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to reviews College, use these words in write essay City, University, their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing.
In general, the best place to how to write a journal for college Bodwell High, use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the college essay of London, words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay.
Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the essay Algonquin, footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is college City, required in each of write for college Bodwell High, your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. How To Write College Essay University Of London! One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on.
Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. Preparatory! In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of write City, University of London, a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to College, distance yourself from certain language. eg. Essay! when you are using an online assignments d'Overbroeck's informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with.
In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. Write College Essay City,! If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is article guidelines University OK to change the wording of write essay City, University, a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.
Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . Article Writing Guidelines! discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to college essay University of London, your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins.
In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for how to write Algonquin confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to college essay, provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in online assignments, alphabetical order. Write College! Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title.
Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for online assignments College students to college essay University, refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the article writing American University, site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems?
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